星云棋牌官网下载

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                    学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 安全法论文

                    《食品安全法》惩罚性赔偿制度滥用问题与对策

                    时间:2018-12-25 来源:西南民族大学学报(人文社科版) 作者:辜明安,梁田 本文字数:11932字

                      摘    要: 在有关食品药品纠纷案件的审理中,法院往往基于当事人非“消费者”而作出不适用惩罚性赔偿的判决。法院回避适用相关司法解释的原因或出于对职业打假负面影响的考虑,抑或是对最高人民法院有关文件的误读。《食品安全法》的惩罚性赔偿制度有其存在的必要性。惩罚性赔偿制度的适用既要坚持其本身的制度价值,又要限制职业打假人的商业化牟利行为。可以通过修订《食品安全法》补强“损害”规范要素或对《食品安全法》第148条进行解释以回应社会关切。

                      关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 食品安全法; 惩罚性赔偿; 职业打假人; 损害;

                    星云棋牌官网下载   YOUYUZHIYEDAJIARENLIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGMOULIER“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”,FAYUANZAISHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUSHIPOWEIJIUJIE。YOURENRENWEI,《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHENLISHIPINYAOPINJIUFENANJIANSHIYONGFALVRUOGANWENTIDEGUIDING》(FASHI[2013]28HAO)(JIANCHENG《SHENLISHIPINYAOPINANJIANSIFAJIESHI》)SHOUCIZAIGUOJIASIFACENGMIANMINGQUERENKELEZHIJIAMAIJIAZHEZAISHIPIN、YAOPINLINGYUNEIDECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGQINGQIUQUAN,1SHIZHIYEDAJIARENZAISHIPIN、YAOPINLINGYUDEHUODONGJIANQUHUOYUE,YOUGUANCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGSUSONGANJIANCHUXIAN“JINGPENSHIZENGZHANG”。[1]2017NIAN5YUE19RIZUIGAORENMINFAYUANBANGONGTING《DUISHIERJIEQUANGUORENDAWUCIHUIYIDI5990HAOJIANYIDEDAFUYIJIAN》(FABANHAN[2017]181HAO),MINGQUE“CHUGOUMAISHIPIN、YAOPINZHIWAIDEQINGXING,ZHUBUXIANZHIZHIYEDAJIARENDEMOULIXINGDAJIAXINGWEI”,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUXIANZHILEZHIYEDAJIARENDE“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”XINGWEI。YOUXUEZHERENWEIGAIYIJIANDUIXIANZHIZHIYEDAJIAREN“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”CHANSHENGLELIGANJIANYINGDEXIAOGUO,[2]DANSHI,YOUYUGAIWENJIANBINGFEIGUIFANXINGFALVWENJIAN,QIFALVXIAOLIZHIDESIKAO。GENGZHONGYAOWENTIHUOXUZAIYUZHENGQUELIJIEGAIYIJIANDEZHIDAOSIXIANGHEXIANZHIFANWEI,ZAISIFASHIJIANZHONGZHENGQUESHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDU。JIYUCI,BENWENCONGSHIPIN、YAOPINDEDIANXINGXIANGGUANXINGSHIJIAOCHUFA,TONGGUODUI2018NIANSHIPIN、YAOPINLINGYUYOUGUAN“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”ANJIANDEXIANGGUANPANJUEJINXINGFENXI,TANTAOCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUZAISHIPIN、YAOPINANJIANZHONGDELANYONGWENTIJIXIANGGUANDEWANSHANLUJING,YIQIDUIWOGUO《SHIPINANQUANFA》CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUWANSHANYOUSUOBIYI。

                      一、法办函[2017]181号文件产生的实际效果

                      FABANHAN[2017]181HAOWENJIANBINGBUPAICHUZAISHIPINYAOPINLINGYUSHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDU,DANSHI,GAIYIJIANSUOCHANSHENGDESHIJIXIAOGUOKENENGCHUHURENMENDEYILIAO。WOMENFENXIZHONGGUOCAIPANWENSHUWANGSHOULUDECAIPANWENSHU,ZAIJIANSUOGUANJIANCIDEXUANZESHANG,YIZHAO“ANGUANJIANCISHAIXUAN”LANSUOTIGONGDEGUANJIANCIZHONGZHUYAOXUANQULE“CHENGFAXINGPEICHANG”HE“XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHU”LIANGGEGUANJIANCI。YOUYU“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”ZHEZAISIFASHIJIANZHONGJINGCHANGJIEXIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUZHIMINGTIQIMINSHISUSONGYIHUODECHENGFAXINGPEICHANG,JISUOWEIDE“YIWEIQUANZHIMINGXINGMOULIZHISHI”,ZHEILIANGGEGUANJIANCIJUYOUJIAOQIANGDEDAIBIAOXING,YOUZHUYUJIANSUOXIANGGUANDEANLI。CIWAI,JIANYUFABANHAN[2017]181HAOWENJIANYINFADESHIJIANWEI5YUEZHONGXUN,QIEXIANGGUANDESUSONGYINGSHIMINSHISUSONG,WOMENZAIJIANSUODEGUOCHENGZHONGYEZENGJIALELIANGGEFUZHUGUANJIANCI,JI“2018”HE“MINSHIANYOU”。TONGGUOJIANSUOSHANGSHUGUANJIANCI,JIEZHIDAO2019NIAN1YUE25RI,WOMENGONGSHOUJIDAOYOUGUANDECAIPANWENSHU370JIAN;JINGTICHUZHONGFUWENSHU,ZUIHOUDEDAOYOUXIAODEFENXIYANGBEN335JIAN。QIZHONG,YISHENCAIPANWENSHUWEI205JIAN;ERSHENCAIPANWENSHUWEI115JIAN;ZAISHENCAIPANWENSHUWEI8JIAN;ZAISHENSHENCHAYUSHENPANJIANDUCAIPANWENSHUWEI7JIAN。

                      (一)对案件审理产生的总体效果

                      根据整理的数据,2018年335个案件中,我国适用惩罚性赔偿的案件为123件,占总数的36.72%;没有适用惩罚性赔偿的案件212个。由此可见,2018年我国惩罚性赔偿的适用率总体上不高,职业打假人获得惩罚性赔偿的可能性也自然随之降低。依此来看,“法办函[2017]181号”文件确实有可能对职业打假人“知假买假”产生了限制作用。
                     

                    《食品安全法》惩罚性赔偿制度滥用问题与对策
                     

                      WEIJINYIBUYINZHENGZHEIYIJIELUN,WOMENDUI212JIANBUSHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGANJIANDEPANJUESHUJINXINGLEKAOCHA。QIZHONG64JIANANJIAN,FAGUANZHIJIEYIJU“FALVDEWENYIJIESHI”RENWEI“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”ZHEFEI“XIAOFEIZHE”,BOHUILEQIGUANYUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDESUSONGQINGQIU。QIZHONG53JIANANJIAN,YINANSHEXINGWEIBUMANZU“QIZHAXINGWEI”YAOJIAN,FAGUANDUIYOUGUANCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDESUSONGQINGQIUBUYUZHICHI;QIZHONG18JIANANJIAN,FAGUANYIJU“HETONGCHENGLI、XIAOLIHEMIANZESHIYOU”RENWEI“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”ZHEBINGWEIYINQIZHAER“ZUOCHUCUOWUYISIBIAOSHI”,ZUOCHULEBUZHICHICHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEPANJUE。CIWAI,70JIANANJIANFAGUANZONGHEXIANGGUANXUESHUOHEFANGFABUZHICHICHENGFAXINGPEICHANG。ZAIZHEIXIEANJIANZHONG,FAGUANPANJUEBUSHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEZHUYAOYIJUZHIYISHI“FALVDEWENYIJIESHI”。GENJUXUEZHEDEYANJIU,FAGUANZHUYAOYIJU“FALVDEWENYIJIESHI”HE“HETONGCHENGLI、XIAOLIHEMIANZESHIYOU”FOUDINGZHIJIAMAIJIAZHEGUANYUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDESUSONGQINGQIU。[1]YOUCIFANTUI,BUSHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGANJIANDE212JIANANJIANZHONGYOU152JIANYU“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”YOUGUAN,SHEXIAN“ZHIYEDAJIA”RENLIYONGSUSONGMOULI。JIANYUZHEIXIEANJIANZHANSUOYOUBUSHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGANJIANDE71.70%,ZHEIQUESHIBIAOMING:WOGUOFAYUANZAISIFASHIJIANGUANCHELUOSHILEFABANHAN[2017]181HAOWENJIANDEJINGSHEN,JIADALEDUI“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”DEXIANZHI。

                      (二)对食品药品类案件产生的直接影响

                    星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIYU“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”YOUGUANDE152JIANANJIANZHONG,SHEJISHIPIN、YAOPINDEANJIANGAODA130JIAN,ZHANYU“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”YOUGUANANJIANDE85.53%。CONGFOUDINGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDESHIYONGDEYUANYINLAIKAN,“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”FEI“XIAOFEIZHE”ANJIANSHULIANGWEI61JIAN;BUMANZU“QIZHAXINGWEI”YAOJIANANJIANSHULIANGWEI7JIAN;ZONGHEXINGYUANYINANJIANSHULIANGWEI62JIAN。

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                      RANER,GENJU《SHENLISHIPINYAOPINANJIANSIFAJIESHI》DI3TIAOHEZUIGAORENMINFAYUANDI23HAOZHIDAOXINGANLI,ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANZAOYIMINGQUEBIAOTAI,ZAISHIPIN、YAOPINLINGYU,DUIGOUMAIZHEFEI“XIAOFEIZHE”DEKANGBIANBUYUZHICHI,SHIJISHANG“ZHICHIZHIJIAMAIJIADEXIAOFEIZHEJINXINGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDESUOPEI”。[3]ZAIYOUMINGQUESIFAJIESHIHEZHIDAOXINGANLIKEGONGCANKAODEQINGKUANGXIA,WOGUOXUDUODIFANGFAYUANQUEYIRANZHIZHEYUFEI“XIAOFEIZHE”DERENDING,QIEDADUOSHUSHIYAOLEIANJIANPANJUEJINGRANYINZHIJIAMAIJIAZHEFEI“XIAOFEIZHE”ERBUSHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANG。

                      二、法官回避司法解释的主要原因

                      TONGDUI“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”YOUGUANDE152JIANANJIANZHONGDESHEJISHIPIN、YAOPINDE130JIANANJIANDEFENXI,WOMENRENWEIDIFANGFAYUANHUIBISIFAJIESHIDEYUANYINKENENGSHI:

                      (一)对法办函[2017]181号文件的不同理解甚至误读

                    星云棋牌官网下载   YOUYUWOGUOFALVDUI“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”MEIYOUZUOCHUMINGQUEDEGUIDING,“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”WENTIZAIWOGUOZHANGQICUNZAIZHEZHENGYI。ZAISHIERJIEQUANGUORENDAWUCIHUIYISHANG,YANGGUOXIUDENGDAIBIAOTICHULEGUANYUYINDAOHEGUIFANZHIYEDAJIARENDEDI5990HAOJIANYI。FABANHAN[2017]181HAOWENJIANSHIZUIGAORENMINFAYUANDUIZHEIYIJIANYIDEDAFUYIJIAN。SUIRANGAIWENJIANBINGFEIGUIFANXINGFALVWENJIAN,DANSHI,JIANYUWOGUOZUIGAORENMINFAYUANDETESHUDIWEI,QIJIBENTAIDUDUIDIFANGFAYUANDESHENPANHUODONGJUYOUZHONGYAODEYINGXIANG。

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                      (二)职业打假人的负面影响

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                    星云棋牌官网下载   DIYI,ZHIYEDAJIALUANXIANGCONGSHENG,SHENZHISHEXIANFANZUI。SUIRANWANGHAIMENZAOQIDE“YINGXIONG”GUANGHUANYISHIZHEYANZHURENMENDUIZHIYEDAJIARENDEZHIYI,DANSHI,YOUYUZHIYEDAJIA“DONGJIBUCHUN”,CHUXIANGEZHONGLUANXIANGSIHUBINGBUCHURENYILIAO,RU“HEICHIHEI”、QIAOZHALESUODENGWENTIRIJIANTUXIAN。LIRU,2000NIANCHUWANGHAICENGXIAN“JINCHENGSHIJIAN”,BEIRENJIEFA“HEICHIHEI”———SHOUQIANBANGYIJIAZAOJIAZHEDAJILINGYIJIAZAOJIAZHE[4];YOU“CHENGDOUDAJIADIYIREN”ZHICHENGDE“LIUJIANG”BEIFAYUANYIQIAOZHALESUOZUIPANCHUYOUQITUXING7NIAN[5];CENGYOU“SHIPINANQUANWEISHI”MEIYUDEDONGJINSHIYINQIAOZHALESUOZUIBEIFAYUANPANCHUYOUQITUXING14NIAN。[6]

                      DIER,YOUYUZHIYEDAJIADUOSHI“XIAOTIDAZUO”,BUDANWUZHUYUWOGUOSHIPINANQUANDESHEHUIGONGZHI,FANERYANZHONGYINGXIANGLESHOUFASHANGJIADEZHENGCHANGJINGYING。LIRU:YOURENJINYINSHIPINZHONGCUNZAIBUYINGXIANGSHIPINANQUANDEWEILIANGYIWUERQINGQIUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANG。WANGZHICAISUWOERMA(LIAONING)BAIHUOYOUXIANGONGSICHANPINZERENJIUFENANJIWEIDIANXINGANLI。ZAIGAIANZHONG,WANGZHICAIJINYINGOUMAIDEBAISHATANGZHONGCUNZAITOUFAJIANGSHANGJIASUZHIFAYUAN,ZHUZHANGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANG。5JIEHETACIQIANDUOCIYISHIPIN“YOUYIWU”WEIYOUZHUZHANGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDELISHI,NANMIANYOUQIAOZHALESUOZHIXIAN。JIBIANTADEZUOFABINGFEIQIAOZHALESUO,TADEZHEIZHONGMOULIFANGSHIYEJIANGJIANDANWENTIFUZAHUA,HAOFEISIFAZIYUAN。YOURENYINSHIPINBIAOQIAN、SHUOMINGSHUDEXIACIERQINGQIUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANG。XUWENQIANGYUYIWUSHIWEIDANSHIPINDIANCHANPINXIAOSHOUZHEZERENJIUFENANZHONG,XUWENQIANGYINSUOGOUSHANGZHENYUEZIHONGTANGBIAOQIANCUNZAIXIACIJIANGSHANGJIASUZHIFAYUAN。GENJUTADESUSONGQINGQIU,YOUYUANSHEHONGTANGBIAOQIAN、SHUOMINGSHUMEIYOUBIAOZHUCHISHATANG,SHANGJIAFEIFAJINGYINGMINGZHIBUFUHESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDESHIPIN。DANSHI,JINGFAYUANCHAMING,HONGTANGYUCHISHATANGSHISHUTONGYIZHONGSHIPIN。ERQIE,SHANGZHENYUEZIHONGTANGSHIANZHAOQB/T2343.1BIAOZHUNSHENGCHANDECHISHATANG,JIBUCUNZAISHIPINANQUANWENTI,YEBUHUIDUIXIAOFEIZHEZAOCHENGWUDAO。62015NIANXIUDING《SHIPINANQUANFA》,WEIBIMIANZHEIYANGDEWENTI,ZHUANMENGUIDINGLE“SHIPINDEBIAOQIAN、SHUOMINGSHUCUNZAIBUYINGXIANGSHIPINANQUANQIEBUHUIDUIXIAOFEIZHEZAOCHENGWUDAODEXIACIDECHUWAI”DEDANSHU。ZHURUCILEIANJIANSHIJISHANGWUZHUYUSHICHANGDEJINGHUA,FANERYINGXIANGLEZHENGCHANGDESHICHANGJINGJIZHIXU。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   DISAN,MOULIZUIDAHUASUOCUISHENGDEJIHUIZHUYISHENGXING。ZHIYEDAJIARENWANGJIANJUNZAIJIEZHANGSHIJIANGGOUMAIDEMEIYIJIANSHANGPINFENKAIJIEZHANG,DANDUKAIPIAO。ZHEIYANGZUODESHIWEILELIYONG《SHIPINANQUANFA》DI148TIAODI2KUANDEGUIDINGMOULI。ZAI2015NIANXIUGAI《SHIPINANQUANFA》DI96TIAODI2KUAN,ZENGJIALEZUIDIPEICHANGJINEYIQIANYUANDEGUIDINGZHIHOU。GENJUXIUZHENGHOUDE《SHIPINANQUANFA》DI148TIAODI2KUAN,WULUNSHIANZHAOJIAKUAN10BEIDESUANFAJISUAN,HAISHIANZHAOSUNSHI3BEIDESUANFAJISUAN,RUOJISUANCHUDECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGJINEBUZU1000YUAN,XIAOFEIZHEZUIZHONGSUOHUODECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGWEI1000YUAN。ZHEIYANGDEXIUGAIYUANBENSHIWEILEGAISHANSHIPINLINGYUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGSHUEPIANDIDEWENTI,JINYIBUGULIXIAOFEIZHEWEIQUAN。ZHEIYIGUIDINGBEIZHIYEDAJIARENSUOLIYONG,TONGGUOZENGJIAPIAOJUZHANGSHUDEFANGSHISHIXIANLEMOULIDEZUIDAHUA,JIYUANBENZHINENGYIJUYIZHANGPIAOJU(GOUMAIYIPISHANGPINDEZHENGMING)ZHUZHANG1000YUANDECHENGFAXINGPEICHANG。DANSHI,TONGGUOZHEIYANGDEFANGSHI,QUEKEYIYIJUSHUZHANGPIAOJU(GOUMAIMEIYIJIANSHANGPINDEZHENGMING)FENBIEZHUZHANGSHUGE1000YUANDECHENGFAXINGPEICHANG。ZHEIYANGDEXINGWEIBUJINLANGFEISIFAZIYUAN,GENGSHICHILUOLUODIJIANGSIFAZIYUANZUOWEIQIMOULIZUIDAHUADEGONGJU。7

                      DISI,ZHIYEDAJIARENZAISHIPIN、YAOPINLINGYUDEDAJIABEILILECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDECHUZHONG。YOUYUWOGUO《SHIPINANQUANFA》CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDESHIYONGMENJIANJIAODI,QIE《SHENLISHIPINYAOPINANJIANSIFAJIESHI》DI3TIAOMINGQUERENKELESHIPIN、YAOPINLINGYUDEZHIJIAMAIJIAXINGWEI,ZHIYEDAJIARENZAISHIPIN、YAOPINLINGYUDEDAJIAHUODONGYUYANYULIE。WOMENJIANSUO2018NIANDE152JIANBUSHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEANJIANZHONG,SHIPIN、YAOPINLINGYUDE“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”ANJIANGAODA130JIAN,ZHANANJIANZONGSHUDE85.53%。ZHEIYISHUJUYEYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGBIAOMINGWOGUOSHIPIN、YAOPINLINGYUYICHENGWEILE“ZHONGZAIQU”,SHUOZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGZHIYEDAJIARENDE“FANLAN”SIHUBINGBUGUOFEN。ERZHEIZHONGGUOFENDEMOULIZHIJU,YIJINGPIANLILECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUDELIFAMUDE。

                      JIANYUZHIYEDAJIARENDEFUMIANYINGXIANGYUELAIYUEDA,YIXIEFAGUANNANMIANYANEZHIYEDAJIAZHE,BUYUANCHENGWEIZHIYEDAJIARENMOULIDE“BANGSHOU”。YINCI,ZAI“FABANHAN[2017]181HAO”WENJIANKENENGCUNZAIBUTONGLIJIEDEQINGKUANGXIA,YIXIEFAGUANGENGQINGLAIDIERZHONGLIJIE,BINGZAIYOUGUANCAIPANWENSHUZHONGBUYANQIFANDIQIANGDIAOZHIYEDAJIAREN“FEIXIAOFEIZHE”,JINYIBUQIANGHUABUSHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGJUEDINGDEZHENGDANGXING。

                      三、《食品安全法》惩罚性赔偿制度的检讨

                      CONGWOMENJIANSUODEANLIKAN,XUDUOFAGUANSHIJISHANGHUIBILE《SHIPINANQUANFA》CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDESHIYONG。ZHEISHIFOUYIWEIZHEWOGUOMEIYOUBIYAOZAISHIPINANQUANLINGYUSHEZHICHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDU?WEICI,WOMENYOUBIYAODUI《SHIPINANQUANFA》DECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUJINXINGJIANTAO,YIMINGBIANQICUNFEIHUOWANSHANZHIDAO。

                      (一)社会冲突与《食品安全法》惩罚性赔偿的必要性

                      SHEHUICHONGTULILUNSHIZHAOSHIYU20SHIJICHUYISHEHUICHONGTUXIANXIANGWEIYANJIUDUIXIANGDEZHONGYAOSHEHUISICHAO。GENJUGAILILUNZHUYAODAIBIAORENWULIUYISI·KESAIDEGUANDIAN,SHEHUICHONGTUSHIBUKEBIMIANDE,DANTABINGFEISHIYIZHONGPOHUAIXINGDEXIANXIANG。ZAI“SHEHUIANQUANFA”JIZHIXIA,CHONGTUZAISHEHUIZHONGJUYOUZHENGHE、WENDING、CUJIN、JIFA、PINGHENGDENGGONGNENG。“SHEHUIANQUANFA”SHIZHISHUDAOSHEHUIBUMANQINGXUDEHEFACHONGTUJIZHI,QIARUGUOLUSHANGDE“ANQUANFA”,“TONGGUOTAKEYISHIMENGLIEDEZHENGQIBUDUANPAIXIECHUQU,ERBUHUIPOHUAIZHENGGEJIEGOU。”[7]ERQIE,CHONGTUKEFENWEIXIANSHIXINGCHONGTUYUFEIXIANSHIXINGXINGCHONGTU。[8](P.34)CHONGTUYUESHIWEIRAOZHEXIANSHIWENTIFASHENG,ZEQIJILIEXINGYUEXIAO;YUESHIWEIRAOFEIXIANSHIWENTIFASHENG,QINGGANJIERUYUEDUO,CHONGTUJIUYUEWEIJILIE。[9]

                      JIUWOGUOSHIPINANQUANWENTISUODAOZHIDECHONGTUERYAN,SHUYUZHIJIEDEXIANSHICHONGTU,BUSHEJICHOUXIANGDEJIAZHI、XINYANG、YISHIXINGTAIDENGFEIXIANSHIWENTI,ZHUYAOSHIJINGJILIYIHUOYIQUNTIYUJINGJILIYISHOUSUNQUNTIZHIJIANJINGJILIYISHANGDEMAODUN。YINCI,ZHEILEICHONGTUDEJILIECHENGDUXIANGDUIJIAODI。ZHIYAOSHOUHAIQUNTIDEJINGJILIYISHOUSUNWENTIDEDAOTUOSHANDEJIEJUE,ZHEILEICHONGTUWANQUANKEYIBEIHUAJIE。FANZHI,RUGUOBUNENGTUOSHANDIHUAJIEZHEILEIWENTI,DANGSHEHUIBUMANJILEIDAOYIDINGCHENGDU,ZHEILEICHONGTUYEHUIZHUANBIANWEIJILIECHENGDUGENGGAODEJIANJIECHONGTU,CHONGJISHEHUIHEXINJIAZHILINIAN,DUISHEHUICHANSHENGYANZHONGDEPOHUAIXINGXIAOGUO。YINCI,WOMENYOUBIYAOZHENDUIWOGUOSHIPINANQUANWENTISUODAOZHIDECHONGTUSHEZHI“SHEHUIANQUANFA”,ZAICHONGTUJIHUAQIANYOUXIAOSHUDAOYINSHIPINANQUANWENTISUOYINFADESHEHUIBUMANQINGXU,CONGERBIMIANCHONGTUZHUBUSHENGJIWEIFEIZHIJIEDEJIANJIECHONGTU。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   JIUSHIPINANQUANDEMAODUNCHONGTUHUAJIEDEYIYIERYAN,《SHIPINANQUANFA》DECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUJIUSHINENGGOUYOUXIAOSHUDAOBUMANQINGXUDE“SHEHUIANQUANFA”。CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEGONGNENGGUIZAICHENGFAHEWEISHE。TONGGUOYAOQIUSHENGCHANSHANGHUOXIAOSHOUSHANGZHIFUBEIXIAOFEIZHECHAOGUOSHIJISUNSHIDEPEICHANGJINXINGLECHENGFA。YIFANGMIANSHIXIAOFEIZHEHUODELETIANPINGSUNSHIDEBUCHANGXINGPEICHANG,SHENZHIHUODELECHAOGUOSHIJISUNSHIGENGDUODELIYI,YOUXIAOPINGFUBEIXIAOFEIZHEDEBUMANQINGXU,BIMIANLESHEHUIBUMANQINGXUDELEIJIHESHENGJI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,TONGGUODUISHENGCHANSHANGHUOXIAOSHOUSHANGDEBUFAXINGWEIJINXINGYANLIDEZHICAI,SHIQIMIANDUIGAOANGDEWEIFACHENGBENBUGANQINGYUELEICHIBANBU。ZHEIYANG,BUJINKEYISHIXIAOFEIZHEDEDAOYOUXIAOBAOHU,ERQIEKEYIYUFANGLEISIQINHAIXIAOFEIZHEXINGWEIDEZAICIFASHENG,JISHISHUDAOHEXIAOJIESHEHUIDEBUMANQINGXU。YINCI,ZAIWOGUOYANJUNDESHIPINANQUANXINGSHIXIA,ZAISHIPINANQUANLINGYUSHEZHICHENGFAXINGPEICHANGSHISHUBIYAO。

                      (二)《食品安全法》惩罚性赔偿的完善路径

                    星云棋牌官网下载   YOUYUWOGUOZAISIFASHIJIANZHONGYOUZHE“SHIYANZHUYI”DECHUANTONG,JINGCHANGJIANGYINANWENTI“JIAOJIDIFANGSIFAJIGUANQUSHIYANBINGZONGJIEJINGYAN”[1],FAGUANGENJUZHENGCE“ZAOFA”ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUCHENGWEIWOGUOSIFADE“TESE”。CHUYUDUIZUIGAOFAYUANWENJIANLIJIESHANGDECHAYIHEDUIZHIYEDAJIARENDEFANGAN,YIXIEDIFANGFAYUANZAIYOUGUANSHIPIN、YAOPINFANGMIANDEANJIANZHONGHUIBISHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANG,SHIZHEIYIBENSHENJUYOUZHONGYAOJIAZHIDEZHIDUCHENGWEIJUWEN。WOGUOZAISIFASHIJIANZHONGZHUJIANXINGCHENGLE“XIAOFEIZHE”PANDUANDEJINGYANFAZE,JI:YIZHIJIAMAIJIAZHEBUSHUYU《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》DI2TIAOGUIDINGDE“XIAOFEIZHE”ERFOUDINGXIAOFEIZHECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDESUSONGQINGQIU。“WULUNCAIYONGHEZHONGJIESHIFANGFA,QIJIESHIJIEGUODOUBUDEWEIBEIFALVTIAOWENKENENGDEWENYI。”[10]ZHEIYIGUANDIANSIHUYOUJIESHIXUEDEZHICHENG,DEDAOLEBUSHAOXUEZHEDERENTONG。[11]RANER,ZHEIYANGDEJINGYANFAZEBINGBUZUQU。

                      1.这样的经验法则不足

                      SHOUXIAN,ZHEIYANGDEJINGYANFAZEBEILILECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUDELIFAMUDE。

                      WOGUOSHELICHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUDEZHUYAOMUDEZHIYIJIUSHIJILIXIAOFEIZHEWEIQUAN,XIWANGFADONGGUANGDAXIAOFEIZHEDELILIANG,JIANGBUFAJINGYINGZHEYANMEIZAIRENMINQUNZHONGDEWANGYANGDAHAIDANGZHONG。YINCI,《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》ZHONGDE“XIAOFEIZHE”YINGCONGGENGGUANGDEJIAODUQULIJIE,KEYIJIESHIWEI“WEIGERENDEMUDEGOUMAI、SHIYONGSHANGPINHUOJIESHOUFUWUDEREN”。RUGUOJINSHISIKOUZIYAN,JIANGXIAOFEIZHEJUXIANYUWEI“SHENGHUOXIAOFEI”GOUMAI、SHIYONGSHANGPINHUOJIESHOUFUWUDEREN,NEIME,NENGGOUZHUZHANGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEZHUTISHULIANGZIRANBIANSHAO。QITAREN,JISHIKANDAOJIAMAOWEILIECHANPIN,YOUYU“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”BUNENGZHUZHANGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANG,YEZHINENG“SHIBUGUANJI,GAOGAOGUAQI”。HENXIANRAN,ZHEISHIWUFADADAO“RENMINZHANZHENG”DEXIAOGUODE。

                      CHENGRAN,XIAOFEIZHEGAINIANSHANGDEMUDEJIESHIHUIDUIWOGUOYANZHONGDE“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”XIANXIANGCHANSHENGTUIBOZHULANDEXIAOGUO。DANBIXUKANDAO,“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”XIANXIANGBINGBUWANQUANSHIWENTI。GENJUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUDELIFAMUDE,SHISHISHANG,WOGUOLEJIANLIANGXINGDE“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”,XIWANGGENGDUODERENFAXIANJIAMAOWEILIESHANGPINHOUNENGGOUYUNYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGYUBUFAXIANXIANGZUODOUZHENG,YIJIEJUEZHENGFUJIANGUANSUOMIANLINDEXINXIBUDUICHENG、RENLIBUZUDENGWENTI。SUOWEIDE“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”WENTIZHUYAOSHIZHIEXINGDE“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”,JIZHIYEDAJIARENLANYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGMOULIDEWENTI。YINCI,WOMENYOUBIYAODUI“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”XIANXIANGJINXINGQUFEN。LIANGXINGDE“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”SHIJISHANGYUE“YANZHONG”YUEHAO。

                      ZHIYUEXINGDE“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”,HAOWUYIWEN,ZHEISHIYINWOGUOCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUSHANGDEQUEXIANERCHANSHENGDEFUCHANPIN。WOGUOYINGTONGGUOLIFADEFANGSHIDUICHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUJINXINGWANSHAN,JINKENENGBIMIANZHIYEDAJIARENQUZUANZHIDUDE“KONGZI”。DANSHI,JINYINWEIZHIYEDAJIARENDEWENTIJIUFOUDINGSUOYOU“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”ZHEDE“XIAOFEIZHE”SHENFEN,ZHEIYANGDEZUOFAWUYIHULVELE“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”LIANGXING/EXINGDEERYUANQUFEN,RANGLIANGXING“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”SANGSHILEYUBUFAFENZIDOUZHENGDELIQI。ZHEIMINGXIANYUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDELIFAMUDE“NANYUANBEIZHE”,WEIMIANDEBUCHANGSHI。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   QICI,ZHEIYANGDEJINGYANFAZEZAISHIJIANZHONGJINGBUQITUIQIAO。

                      ZAISIFASHIJIANZHONG,CHUFEIGOUMAIZHEZIREN,FAGUANSHIJISHANGHENNANPANDUANCHUGOUMAIZHESHIFOUSHICHUYU“SHENGHUOXIAOFEI”ERGOUMAISHANGPINHUOJIESHOUFUWU。CHENGRAN,YOUXUEZHERENWEIZHEIYIWENTIWANQUANKEYIGENJUYIBANRENDESHEHUISHENGHUOJINGYANLAIJIEJUE。GENJUQILIZHENG,“ANZHAOYIBANRENDESHEHUISHENGHUOJINGYAN,YICIGOUMAI、SHIYONGYIBUSHOUJIZUYI,RUGUOYICIGOUMAILIU、QIBUSHOUJI,YINGSHUOSHI‘WEISHENGHUOXIAOFEIDEXUYAO’,JIUBUFUHEYIBANRENDESHEHUISHENGHUOJINGYAN。”[12]RANER,ZHEISHIJISHANGFOURENLE“SHENGHUOXIAOFEI”DEDUOYANGXINGHEFUZAXING。SUOZUODEPANDUANRENGXIANDESHIFENQIANQIANG。WOMENYISHOUJIWEILI,ZAISHIJISHENGHUOZHONG,YOURENQINQIHEPENGYOUDUO,GOUMAISHIJIBUSHOUJISONGREN;YOURENSHISHOUJI“FASHAOYOU”,GOUMAISHIJIBUSHOUJISHOUZANG;YOURENSHI“TUHAO”,GOUMAISHIJIBUSHOUJIXUANFU……ZHEIYANGDELIZIBUSHENGMEIJU。YINCI,ZHEIZHONGFANGFABINGBUWANQUANKEKAO。

                      CIWAI,ZAISIFASHIJIANZHONG,YIXIEFAGUANGENJUGOUMAIZHETOUSUDECISHUHUOSUSONGDECISHUPANDUANGOUMAIZHESHIFOUSHI《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》DI2TIAOGUIDINGDE“XIAOFEIZHE”。ZAIFOUDINGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGSHIYONGDECAIPANWENSHUZHONG,WOMENJINGCHANGKANDAOZHEIYANGDEBIAOSHU,RU“ZHANGYANZI2015NIANZHI2018NIAN1YUE9RIQIJIANYICHANPINZERENJIUFENWEIANYOUXIANGHANGZHOUSHIYUHANGQURENMINFAYUANTIQI104JIANSUSONG、XIANGHANGZHOUTIELUYUNSHUFAYUANTIQI35JIANSUSONG、XIANGHANGZHOUHULIANWANGFAYUANTIQI45JIANSUSONG”;8“WANGJIANJUNYICHANPINXIAOSHOUZHEZERENJIUFENWEIYOUZAIFAYUANTIQIDALIANGSUSONGYAOQIUPEICHANG,ANJIANBEIGAOSHEJIDUOJIABUTONGSHANGCHANG、CHAOSHI,FENBUYUXUZHOU、SUQIANDUOGEQUXIAN”;9“ZAIJINQINEI,WANGSHENGJUNDUOCIYIZIJIHUOZHETARENDEMINGYI,ZHUANMENGOUMAIBIAOQIANYOUXIACIDESHIYONGYOU、HETAONAIDENGCHANPIN……RANHOUYAOQIUSHIBEIPEICHANG”10。RANER,ZHEIYANGDEPANDUANYEJINGBUQITUIQIAO。WOGUOZHISUOYISHELICHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUDEZHUYAOYUANYINZHIYIJIUSHIGULIXIAOFEIZHEWEIQUAN。DANSHI,GENJUZHEIYIZUOFADELUOJI,XIAOFEIZHEWEIQUANCISHUYUEDUO,XIAOFEIZHEZEYUEBUKENENGHUODEFAYUANDEZHICHI。ZHEIXIANRANYEYUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDELIFAMUDEBEIDAOERCHI。

                      YINCI,SIKOU“XIAOFEIZHE”ZIYANDEWENYIJIESHIBINGFEIWANSHANCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUDEYOUXIAOTUJING。WEIGENGHAODIWANSHANCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDU,WOMENYINGGAITIAOCHU“XIAOFEIZHE”JIESHIDEKEJIU,BAJIEJUEWENTIDEZHONGXINFANGZAI“SUNHAI”SHANG。

                      2.“损害”要素的必要性

                      SHOUXIAN,ZAILIFACENGMIANJIANG“SUNHAI”SHEZHIWEIGUIFANYAOSUDEBIYAOXING。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   LANSHANGYUYINGMEIFAXIDECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUZHISUOYIZAIWOGUOWEI“ZHI”,YANSHENGCHUZHIYEDAJIARENZHEIYANGDEFUCHANPIN,ZHUYAOSHIYINWEIWOGUODECHENGFAXINGZHIDUQUEFA“SUNHAI”ZHEIYIGUIFANXINGYAOSU。

                      YIJU“WUSUNHAIDESUNHAIPEICHANG”DEFALI,DIANXINGDECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGYINGYI“SUNHAI”WEIGUIFANYAOSU。[13](P.16)ZAIBAINIANDELISHIYANJINZHONG,CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGYIZHIYU“SUNHAI”BAOCHIZHEJINMIDELIANXI。ZAILISHISHANG,YOUGUANCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEZUIZAOANLISHIWEIERKESISUWUDEAN(Wilkes V.Wood)HEHEKEERSUMONIAN(Huckle V.Money)。ZAIZHEILIANGGEANJIANZHONG,“SUNHAI”SHIWEIERKESIHEHEKEERDERENSHENZIYOU。[14]ZAIDANGXIACHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZUIWEIFADADEMEIGUO,MEIGUOZUIGAOFAYUANBUJINYIZAIQIANGDIAOCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGYINGYU“SUNHAI”XIANGGUANLIAN,GENGZAIZHOULINONGYEBAOXIANGONGSISUKANBEIERAN(State Farm Mut.Automobile Ins.Co.v.Campbell)ZHICHUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZUIHAOBUYAOCHAOGUOBUCHANGXINGPEICHANG(SHIJISUNSHI,BAOHANWUXINGSUNHAI)DE10BEI。11YINCI,CONGGUZHIJIN,“SUNHAI”YIZHISHIYINGMEICHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEZHONGYAOGUIFANYAOSUZHIYI。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   RANER,WOGUOFALVDECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUQUEBINGBUZAIYI“SUNHAI”ZHEIYIGUANJIANDEGUIFANYAOSU。DIANXINGDELIZHENGJISHI《SHIPINANQUANFA》DECHENGFAXINGPEICHANG。GENJU《SHIPINANQUANFA》DI148TIAO,《SHIPINANQUANFA》CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEGUIFANYAOSUSHI“BUFUHESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDESHIPIN”。ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANYETONGGUO《SHENLISHIPINYAOPINANJIANSIFAJIESHI》DI15TIAODUICIJINXINGLEQIANGHUA,MINGQUEYAOQIU《SHIPINANQUANFA》DECHENGFAXINGPEICHANG“BUYIRENSHENQUANYIZAOSHOUSUNHAIWEIQIANTI”。[15]ZAIWOGUOSHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNTIXIBUWANSHANDEQINGKUANGXIA,QIYESHAOYOUBUSHENJIKENENGSHENGCHANHUOJINGYINGBUFUHESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDECHANPIN。ZHEIWUYIZAILILUNSHANGZENGJIALE《SHIPINANQUANFA》CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUSHIYONGDEKENENGXING。CHENGRAN,MIANDUIYANJUNDESHIPINANQUANXINGSHI,WOGUO“ZHONGDIAN”SHIPINANQUAN,ZAI《SHIPINANQUANFA》CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUSHANGSHEZHIDI“MENJIAN”YOUQIYIDINGDEHELIXING。DANSHI,“MENJIAN”TAIDIQUESHIYIYINFADAODEFENGXIAN,YOUSHIRENMENLANYONGQUANLI,YIDAJIAZHIMINGXINGMOULIZHISHI。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   FASHIZHONGDAODEQUANHENG,QIGONGZHENGXINGZAIYUGEFANGLIYIPINGHENG。YINCI,“KEXUELIFA”YAOQIUWOMENSUOZHIDINGDEFALVJINKENENGXIEDIAOGEFANGLIYI,SHIGEFANGLIYIZAIGONGCUNXIANGRONGDEJICHUSHANGDADAOHELIDEYOUHUAZHUANGTAI。YINCI,ZAIWANSHANWOGUO《SHIPINANQUANFA》DECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHIDUSHI,WOGUODAKEBUBIQUJIUJIEZHIYEDAJIARENDEXIAOFEIZHEDIWEIWENTI,YINGXUNZHECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDECHUANTONGLUJING,MINGQUEYAOQIUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGYI“SUNHAI”WEIGUIFANYAOSU。ZHEIBUJINSHIXIANGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDE“CHUANTONG”HUIGUI,SHIWOGUODECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGBUCHUXIAN“NANJUBEIZHI”DEWENTI,YENENGHUAJIESIFASHIJIANDENANTI,JIANSHAOZHIYEDAJIARENDEFUMIANYINGXIANG。YINCI,WOGUOZUIGAORENMINFAYUANYIJINKUAIFEIZHI《SHENLISHIPINYAOPINANJIANSIFAJIESHI》DI3TIAOHEDI15TIAO。TONGSHI,WOGUOQUANGUORENDAYIJISHIXIUDING《SHIPINANQUANFA》DI148TIAO,JIANGYOUGUANCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEBUFENXIUZHENGWEI:“SHENGCHANBUFUHESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDESHIPINHUOZHEJINGYINGMINGZHISHIBUFUHESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDESHIPIN,ZAOCHENGYANZHONGSUNHAIDE,XIAOFEIZHECHUYAOQIUPEICHANGSUNSHIWAI,HAIKEYIXIANGSHENGCHANZHEHUOZHEJINGYINGZHEYAOQIUZHIFUJIAKUANSHIBEIHUOZHESUNSHISANBEIDEPEICHANGJIN”。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   QICI,ZAISIFACENGMIANJIANG“YANZHONGSUNHAI”JIESHIJIN《SHIPINANQUANFA》DI148TIAODEBIYAOXING。

                      CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGSHIZHIFATINGZUOCHUDEPEICHANGSHUECHAOCHUSHIJISUNHAISHUEDEPEICHANG。[16]YUCHUANTONGDEBUCHANGXINGPEICHANGBUTONG,TADEZHUYAOGONGNENGBINGFEI“TIANPING”,ERSHICHENGFAHEWEISHE。JIANYUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANG“ZHUNXINGSHIFA”DETESHUXING,YINGMEIFAXIGUOJIAZAISHIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGSHIJIWEISHENZHONG,JIANGQISHIYONGFANWEIYANGEXIANDINGYULINGRENFAZHIDEHUOEMINGZHAOZHANGDEQINQUANXINGWEI。ZHEIYANGDEXINGWEIZHUYAOYOULIANGGETEDIAN:YISHIQINQUANXINGWEIRENZAIZHUGUANSHANGSHIGUYIHUOEYI;ERSHIQINQUANXINGWEIZAOCHENGLEYANZHONGDESUNHAI。[17](P.218-228)YOUCIKEJIAN,CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZHUYAOZHENDUIDESHIJUYOUYANZHONGBUFAXINGDEQINQUANXINGWEI。“YANZHONGSUNHAI”SHIQISHIYONGDEZHONGYAOKEGUANBIAOZHUN。

                      BUDEBUCHENGREN,ZHIYEDAJIARENFANLANDEWENTIZHISHIWOGUOTEYOUDEWENTI。ZAIYINGMEIFAXIGUOJIA,ZHEIYANGDEWENTIBINGMEIYOUCHUXIAN。ZHEIZHENGSHIYINWEIYINGMEIFAXIGUOJIAZAICHENGFAXINGPEICHANGSHIYONGSHIQIANGDIAO“YANZHONGSUNHAI”ZHIGU。YEZHENGSHIYOUYUWOGUOZAILIFASHIWEIZHONGSHI“SUNHAI”ZHEIYIGUIFANYAOSU,ZHIYEDAJIARENCAIHUI“XIAOTIDAZUO”DILANYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANG,RANGZHEIYIZHIDULUNWEIQILIANCAIDEGONGJU。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   FAWUJIESHIBUDESHIYONG。ZAIBENWENLIFAJIANYISHANGWEICHENGWEI“ZHISHANGDEFA”SHI,WOGUOFAYUANKEYIZAISIFASHIJIANZHONGTONGGUODUIXIANXINGFALVJINXINGJIESHIYIEZHIZHIYEDAJIARENFANLANDEWENTI。JUTIJIU《SHIPINANQUANFA》DI148TIAOERYAN,FAYUANKEYIDUIZHEIYIFATIAODEZHENGTIJINXINGWENYIJIESHI。12《SHIPINANQUANFA》DI148TIAOGONGFENWEILIANGKUAN。DI1KUANSHIYOUGUANYIBANPEICHANG(BUCHANGXINGPEICHANG)DEGUIDING。GENJUZHEIYIKUANGUIDING,RUGUOXIAOFEIZHEYINBUFUHESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDESHIPINSHOUDAO“SUNHAI”DE,XIAOFEIZHEKEYIXIANGJINGYINGZHEHUOZHESHENGCHANZHEZHUZHANGPEICHANG。DI2KUANSHIYOUGUANCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEGUIDING。SUIRANGAIGUIDINGZHONGMEIYOU“YANZHONGSUNHAI”ZHEIYANGDEWENZI,DANSHI,JIANYUCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZAIMINFAZHONGDETESHUXING,WOMENKEYIJIANG《SHIPINANQUANFA》DI148TIAODI1KUANHEDI2KUANZHIJIANDEGUANXILIJIEWEIYIZHONG“DIJINGUANXI”,JI:DI2KUANGUIDINGDECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGSUOZHENDUIDEBUFAXINGWEIYAOBIDI1KUANGUIDINGDEBUCHANGXINGPEICHANGSUOZHENDUIDEBUFAXINGWEIZAIXINGZHISHANGGENGWEIYANZHONG。JIRANDI1KUANDUI“SUNHAI”ZUOCHULEYAOQIU,NEIME,DI2KUANYEYINGDUI“SUNHAI”ZUOCHUYAOQIU。ERQIE,DI2KUANSUOYAOQIUDE“SUNHAI”KENDINGZAIXINGZHISHANGGENGYANZHONG。YINCI,TONGGUOZHEIYANGDEJIESHI,FAYUANKEYIJIANG“YANZHONGSUNHAI”JIESHIJIN《SHIPINANQUANFA》DECHENGFAXINGPEICHANG,ZAIWOGUOWEIWANSHANXIANGGUANLIFAQIANHEFADIDUIZHIYEDAJIARENLIYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEMOULIXINGWEIJINXINGEZHI。

                      结论

                      CHENGFAXINGPEICHANGZAIWOGUOBINGWEIDEDAOLIANGHAODEGUANCHE。YOUYU“FABANHAN[2017]181HAO”WENJIANDEYINGXIANG,FAYUANZAISIFASHIJIANZHONGJIADALEDUI“ZHIJIAMAIJIA”DEXIANZHI。ZHEIZAIYOUGUANSHIPIN、YAOPINDEANJIANZHONGTIXIANDEYOUWEITUCHU。RANER,ZHEIYUWOGUODANGQIANXINGSHIBINGBUXIEDIAO。ANZHAO“KEXUELIFA”DEYAOQIUXIUDING《SHIPINANQUANFA》,ZAI《SHIPINANQUANFA》DECHENGFAXINGPEICHANGSHANGBUQIANG“SUNHAI”ZHEIYIGUIFANYAOJIAN。HUOYOUFAYUANZAISIFASHIWUZHONGTONGGUOFALVJIESHIDEFANGFAJIANG“YANZHONGSUNHAI”JIESHIJIN《SHIPINANQUANFA》DI148TIAO。ZHEIYEXUNENGGOUGENGHAODIJIEJUEZHIYEDAJIARENLANYONGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGDEWENTI。

                      参考文献

                      [1]熊丙万.法律的形式与功能———以“知假买假”案为分析范例[J].中外法学,2017(2).
                      [2]王承堂.职业打假人起诉资格的规制逻辑[J].法学,2018(11).
                      [3]杨立新.最高人民法院《关于审理食品药品纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的规定》释评[J].法律适用,2014(3).
                      [4]季则.“打假英雄”王海“假打”起风波[J].当代经济,2000(2).
                      [5]宿希强.游走在灰色地带的监督者———“职业打假人”的现实与未来角色[J].中国质量万里行,2012(2).
                      [6]王羽.真正的“打假人”路在何方?“食品安全卫士”董金狮犯敲诈勒索罪一审被判14年[J].上海企业,2016(9).
                      [7]张卫.当代西方社会冲突理论的形成及发展[J].世界经济与政治论坛,2007(5).
                      [8][美]L·科塞.社会冲突的功能.[M]孙立平等译.北京:华夏出版社,1989.
                      [9]程新英.西方社会冲突理论评析[J].河北师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版),2000(3).
                      [10] 梁慧星.知假买假打假者不受保护[N].南方周末,2001-07-25(A07).
                      [11]李仁玉,陈超.知假买假惩罚性赔偿法律适用探析———对《最高人民法院关于审理食品药品纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的规定》[J].法学杂志,2015(10).
                      [12]梁慧星.消费者权益保护法第49条的解释与适用[N].人民法院报,2000-03-29(3).
                      [13]曾世雄.损害赔偿法原理[M].北京:中国政法大学出版社,2001.
                      [14]David G. Owen,“A Punitive Damages Over view:Functions,Problems and Reform”,Villanova Law Review,Vol. 39,(1994),p. 363-413.
                      [15]张先明.“不给制售有毒有害食品和假冒伪劣药品的人以可乘之机”———最高人民法院民一庭负责人答记者问[N].人民法院报,2013-01-10(4).
                      [16]王利明.美国惩罚性赔偿制度研究[J].比较法研究,2003(5).
                      [17]陈聪富.侵权归责原则与损害赔偿[M].北京:北京大学出版社,2005.

                      注释

                      1《最高人民法院关于审理食品药品纠纷案件适用法律若干问题的规定》第3条。
                      2浙江省高级人民法院民事裁定书,(2018)浙民申2951号。
                      3白山市华泰生物科技有限公司与李清辰产品责任纠纷案为典型案例。在该案中,二审法院依据《审理食品药品案件司法解释》第3条,强调“消费者是相对于生产经营者即生产者和销售者的概念,法律并未对消费者的主观购买动机作出限制性规定,未规定‘职业打假人’不受其保护,亦未规定‘职业打假人’并非消费者,只要不是为了生产经营需要购买的,就应当认定为消费者。华泰公司主张李清辰曾因多起类似案件在人民法院起诉,但前述情况不能否定李清辰的消费者身份,李清辰的合法权益应当受《消费者权益保护法》《食品安全法》的保护”。参见白山市华泰生物科技有限公司与李清辰产品责任纠纷案,吉林省吉林市中级人民法院二审民事判决书,(2018)吉02民终1604号。
                      4刘光荣与揭阳市榕城区尚汇岛食品商行产品责任纠纷案为典型案例。在该案中,一审法院认为,“国家制定《消费者权益保护法》和《食品安全法》,目的是为了保证食品安全,保障公众身体健康和生命安全,当消费者购买了不符合安全标准的食品时,造成了危害后果,才设立了十倍价款的赔偿制度。”由于刘光荣故意购买的商品并无危害结果,且刘光荣这种牟利的行为不符合立法的精神,一审法院驳回了刘光荣的诉讼请求。二审法院认为一审法院的判决并无不当,维持原判。
                      5沈阳市沈河区人民法院一审民事判决书,(2017)辽0103民初10791号。
                      6浙江省义乌市人民法院一审民事判决书,(2018)浙0782民初10606号。
                      7江苏省徐州市中级人民法院二审民事判决书,(2018)苏03民终483号;江苏省徐州市中级人民法院二审民事判决书,(2018)苏03民终484号;江苏省徐州市中级人民法院二审民事判决书,(2018)苏03民终485号。
                      8浙江省杭州市杭州互联网法院一审民事判决书,(2017)浙0192民初1562号。
                      9江苏省徐州市中级人民法院二审民事判决书,(2018)苏03民终484号。
                      10湖南省常德市中级人民法院再审民事判决书,(2018)湘07民再1号。
                      11See State Farm Mut.Automobile Ins.Co.v.Campbell,538U.S.408(2003)。
                    星云棋牌官网下载   12文义解释是解释的首要方法,是法律解释的起点。因此,本文在此建议对《食品安全法》第148条进行文义解释。但是,这不意味着法院只用这一种方式进行解释。事实上,法院也可综合运用文义解释和目的解释对《食品安全法》第148条进行更为充分的解释。鉴于本文已多次谈及设立惩罚性赔偿的目的,这里不再赘述。

                      辜明安,梁田.《食品安全法》惩罚性赔偿制度的适用与完善[J].西南民族大学学报(人文社科版),2019,40(12):87-93.
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