星云棋牌官网下载

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                              学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 毕业论文 > 本科毕业论文 > 法律毕业论文

                              运动员形象权法律保护主要内容与制度完善

                              时间:2019-03-18 来源:邵阳学院学报(社会科学版) 作者:姚鹤徽,潘力源 本文字数:15875字

                                摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 从人格权中独立出来的运动员形象权属于无形财产权,在民法中属于民事利益,具体内容包括形象利用权和形象禁用权。运动员形象权除了受当事人许可或转让合同的限制外,还受附带使用原则、权利穷竭原则、言论自由和新闻自由的限制。我国形象权制度尚付阙如,现有立法也受限于调整范围无法为之提供妥善的保护,导致运动员形象权归属不明、收益分配不合理。我国应在《民法总则》中规定形象权,再由国家体育总局制定统一的《运动员形象权保护规定》,明确运动员形象权概念、归属、内容和侵权救济措施。同时,确定运动员形象权收益的分配比例。非举国制培养的运动员,利益分配由运动员与俱乐部协商确定;举国制培养的运动员,则通过集体合同与体育主管部门约定最低的利益分配比例。

                                关键词: 运动员形象权; 权利归属; 利益分配;

                                Abstract: Athletes' right of publicity,which is independent from the right of personality,is an intangible property right and is a civil interest in civil law. Its specific contents include the utilization right of publicity and the forbidden right of publicity. Athletes' right of publicity is not only restricted by licensing agreement or agreement of transfer among the parties,but also restricted by the principle of collateral use,the principle of right exhaustion,freedom of speech and freedom of the press. In China's legal system,the right of publicity is not embedded,and the existing legislation is limited by the scope of adjustment,so it cannot provide proper protection,which results in the unclear ownership of athletes' right of publicity and unreasonable income distribution.China should stipulate the right of publicity in the general provisions of civil law,and then the General Administration of Sport of China should formulate uniform regulations on the protection of athletes' right of publicity,which will clarify the concept,ownership,content and tort relief measures of athletes' right of publicity. And through the department regulations,it is possible to determine the proportion of income distribution of athletes' right of publicity. Meanwhile,for athletes who are not trained by state,the distribution of benefits is determined by their negotiation with the club. As to athletes who are trained by state,the minimum benefits can be decided based on their collective contracts with government departments in sports.

                                Keyword: athletes' right of publicity; right of ownership; benefits distribution;

                              星云棋牌官网下载   YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUAN,SHIZHIYUNDONGYUANDUIBIAOMINGQISHENFENDETEZHENGJINXINGSHANGYEXINGKAIFAHELIYONGDEQUANLI。SUIZHESHEHUIJINGJIDEFAZHAN,YUNDONGYUANDEJIAZHIYIJINGBUJINTIXIANWEIZAIYUNDONGCHANGSHANGJINXINGBISAI,HUOQUMINGCI。YUNDONGYUANBENSHENSUOJUYOUDEBIAOMINGQISHENFENDEWUXINGZICHAN,RUXINGMING、XIAOXIANG、XINGTI、QIANMINGDENG,KAISHIJUBEIJUDADESHANGYEJIAZHI,WEIRENMENSUOGUANZHU。XUDUOYUNDONGYUANYEKAISHIYUELAIYUEDUODILIYONGQIZISHENTEZHENGJINXINGSHANGYEYUNZUO,HUODEJINGJISHOUYI。NEIXIEZAISHIJIESHANGXIANGYOUSHENGYUDEZHEMINGYUNDONGYUAN,QIZISHENTEZHENGSUOJUYOUDESHANGYEJIAZHIGENGSHIYUANYUANCHAOCHUQIGERENXINZISHOURUHUOBISAIJIANGJINSHOURU。LIRU,ZHONGGUOZHEMINGWANGQIUYUNDONGYUANLINAHUODEAODALIYAWANGQIUGONGKAISAIGUANJUNDEJIANGJINSHOURUWEI119WANMEIYUAN,FAGUOWANGQIUGONGKAISAIGUANJUNSHOURUWEI165WANMEIYUAN。RANER,LINATONGGUOLIYONGQIXINGXIANGQUANHUODELE13GEZHEMINGPINPAIDEDAIYAN,QIPINPAIDAIYANGUANGGAOSHOURUGAODA1700WANMEIYUAN[1]。ZHONGGUOZHEMINGLANQIUYUNDONGYUANYAOMINGDAIYANBAISHIKELE、MAIDANGLAODENGPINPAIDEGUANGGAOSHOURUGENGSHIDADAO1.1YIMEIYUAN[2]。SUIZHEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANSHANGYEJIAZHIDEXUNMENGZENGZHANG,DUIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEQINHAIXIANXIANGYERIYIZENGDUO,ZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEIDUIYUNDONGYUANXIAOXIANGHUOXINGMINGDEQINQUAN。2004NIAN,MOUBAOSHEDE《JINGPINGOUWUZHINAN》JIUSHIYONGLELIUXIANGZAIYADIANAOYUNHUISHANGKUALANSHIDEXIAOXIANGZUOWEIBEIJING,LIUXIANGYIGAIZHINANQINFANQIXIAOXIANGQUANWEIYOUSUZHIFAYUAN。2003NIAN,YAOMINGYUKEKOUKELEGONGSIFASHENGJIUFEN,KEKOUKELEGONGSIDANGSHIXIZHONGGUONANZILANQIUDUIDEZANZHUSHANG,ZAIQISHENGCHANDEJINIANYINLIAOSHANGSHIYONGLEYAOMINGDEXINGXIANG,YAOMINGRENWEIQINFANLEQIXIAOXIANGQUAN,XIANGFAYUANTIQISUSONG。2012NIAN,MEIGUOZHEMINGLANQIUYUNDONGYUANMAIKEER·QIAODANRENWEIZHONGGUOQIYEFUJIANQIAODANTIYUGUFENGONGSIDE“QIAODAN”ZHUCESHANGBIAOQINFANQIXINGMINGQUAN,SHUANGFANGZHANKAILEKUANGRICHIJIUDESUSONG。CHULEZHENDUIYUNDONGYUANDEQINQUANPINFAZHIWAI,YOUYUWOGUOFALVDUIXINGXIANGQUANDEGUISHUHELIYONGQUEFAHELIGUIDING,TIYUGUANLIZHIDUYEXIANGDUILUOHOU,ZAOCHENGYUNDONGYUANZAILIYONGZISHENXINGXIANGJINXINGSHANGYEKAIFADEGUOCHENGZHONGYUTIYUZHUGUANBUMENFASHENGYANZHONGDECHONGTU,LUXUFASHENGLE“TIANLIANGBEIKAICHUCHUTIAOSHUIDUI”“LUOXUEJUANBEIYOUYONGDUIXIAFANGERDUI”“SUNYANGYUGUOJIAYOUYONGZHONGXINBAOFACHONGTU”DENGSHIJIAN(1)。ZAIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANSHANGYEJIAZHIYUELAIYUEZHONGYAODEBEIJINGXIA,WOGUOYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANFALVBAOHUJIZHIQUESHIFENZHIHOU,BUJINWEINENGMINGQUEXINGXIANGQUANZAIFALVSHANGDENEIHAN、XINGZHIYUQUANLINEIRONG,YEWEINENGJIANLIXINGXIANGQUANSHANGYEKAIFADEQUANLIGUISHUYULIYIFENPEIJIZHI,ZHEIBUJINYINGXIANGYUNDONGYUANZAITIYUSAICHANGSHANGDEBIAOXIAN,YEZUAILEZHONGGUOTIYUCHANYEHUADEFAZHAN。YOUJIANYUCI,BENWENNIXITONGCHANSHIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANFALVBAOHUDELILUNYIJU,SHUOMINGWANSHANYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUFALVZHIDUDEBIYAOXING,ZHIMINGMUQIANWOGUOYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANFALVBAOHUJIZHICUNZAIDELOUDONGHEKENENGDAOZHIDEWENTI,BINGTICHULIFAWANSHANDEJIANYI,YICUJINWOGUOYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANSHANGYEHUALIYONGDEYOUXUJINXING。

                                一、运动员形象权的内涵与法律性质

                                (一)运动员形象权的内涵

                                无论是英美法系还是大陆法系,传统民法中都并不存在“形象权”这一权利类型。形象权是随着商品经济的发展从其他类别的民事权利中逐步衍生出来而为司法所确认。学界通说认为,形象权最早来源于人格权中的隐私权。这主要是因为,对他人隐私权的侵犯往往表现为盗用他人的姓名、形象从事商业性活动。早期法院也是通过保护当事人的隐私权来达到保护其形象的目的。1905年,美国佐治亚州最高法院在Pavesich案中就认定,被告在广告上使用原告肖像的行为侵犯了原告的隐私权[3]。随着社会经济的发展,实践中出现了多种形态的对他人形象、姓名、声音、签名等特定人格特征的利用,民法中的隐私权已经无法涵盖这些内容,因此逐渐出现了对民事主体表明其身份的各项特征予以统一保护的需要。例如,1979年在美国的一个案件中,法院就利用形象权保护了一个绰号为“疯狂之腿”的橄榄球运动员,认为被告化妆品公司使用“疯狂之腿”这一名称侵害了该运动员的形象权。在英国的一个案件中,法院对知名运动员参加比赛的号码也予以了保护,认为被告电话公司所确定的用于服务宣传的电话号码与原告着名运动员参赛的比赛号码相一致,构成对原告形象权的侵权[4]。随着司法实践的发展和学术研究的深入,逐步形成了现今所谓的“形象权”概念。
                               

                              运动员形象权法律保护主要内容与制度完善
                               

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                                (二)运动员形象权的法律性质

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                                MUQIANYOUXUEZHETICHU,XINGXIANGQUANSHIYIZHONGSHANGSHIRENGEQUAN,ZIRANRENDEXINGMING、XIAOXIANG、SHENGYINDENGRENGEBIAOSHIYONGYUSHANGYEMUDESHICHANSHENGDERENGELIYISHISHANGSHIRENGELIYI[11]。XIANRAN,ZHEIZHONGGUANDIANSHITUYIRANZAIRENGEQUANDEKUANGJIANEIDUIXINGXIANGQUANYUYIBAOHU。GUANJIANYIWEI,SHANGSHIRENGEQUANLIZUYUDUIMINSHIZHUTIRENGEQUANDEBAOHU,BENZHISHANGYIRANSHIYIZHONGRENGEQUAN,QIZHUYAODELIFAMUDEZAIYUFANGZHIMINSHIZHUTIDERENGEYAOSUBEITARENQINHAI,SHIXIAOJIBAOHUDEQUANLILEIXING,BINGMEIYOUFUYUMINSHIZHUTIJIJI、QUANMIANDIDUIZISHENRENGEYAOSUJINXINGSHANGYEXINGLIYONGDEQUANLI。BINGQIE,RENGEQUANDUIRENGEYAOSUDEBAOHUFANWEIJIWEIYOUXIAN,ZHIYOUXIAOXIANG、XINGMING、YINSISHUYURENGEQUANDEBAOHUDUIXIANG。ERXINGXIANGQUANDEBAOHUFANWEIYUANYUANCHAOCHURENGEQUANDEFANCHOU,BAOKUOLENENGGOUTIXIANTEDINGZHUTISHENFENDE、NENGGOUJINXINGSHANGYEXINGSHIYONGDEYIQIETEZHENG。YINCI,XINGXIANGQUANYEBINGFEISHANGSHIRENGEQUAN,BUSHUYURENGEQUANDEFANCHOU。

                                YOUXUEZHEZHICHU,XINGXIANGQUANYINGDANGGUISHUYUZHISHICHANQUAN,LIYOUSHIZHISHICHANQUANSHIYIZHONGWUXINGCAICHANQUAN,QIBAOHUDEKETIRUFAMINGCHUANGZAO、SHANGBIAO、ZUOPINDENGJUYOUFEIWUZHIXING,ERYUNDONGYUANDEXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUDETEDINGSHENFENTEZHENGYEJUYOUWUXINGXING。CIWAI,XINGXIANGQUANZHONGDEXINGMINGQUAN、XIAOXIANGQUANDENG,LEISIYUSHANGBIAOQUAN,SHIDUISHANGYEZHONGSHIYONGDEBIAOSHIJINXINGBAOHUDEQUANLI。JUCI,XINGXIANGQUANYINGDANGSHUYUZHISHICHANQUAN,SHIDULIYUSHANGBIAOQUAN、ZHUANLIQUANHEZHEZUOQUANDEYIZHONGXINXINGZHISHICHANQUAN。SHIJISHANG,XINGXIANGQUANSUOBAOHUDEKETIYUZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUDEKETIYOUHENDADEQUBIE。ZHISHICHANQUANZHUYAOBAOHUDESHIRENLEIDEZHILICHUANGZAOCHENGGUOYIJIGONGSHANGYEZHONGSUOSHIYONGDESHANGYEBIAOSHI,ERXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUDEKETINAISHIBIAOMINGZHUTISHENFENDETEZHENG,BINGFEIRENSUOCHUANGZAOCHUDEZHILICHENGGUO,YEBINGFEIGONGSHANGYEZHIZHONGDESHANGYEBIAOSHI。YINCI,XINGXIANGQUANBAOHUDEKETIJUYOUTESHUXING,TAYUZHUTIDERENSHENYAOSUJUYOUYIDINGDEGUANLIAN,BINGFEIZHILICHENGGUOHUOGONGSHANGYEBIAOJI,GUERXINGXIANGQUANBINGFEIZHISHICHANQUAN。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   DANSHI,XINGXIANGQUANYUZHISHICHANQUANQUEJUYOUMOUXIEGONGXINGTEZHENG:LIANGLEIQUANLIDEBAOHUKETIJIEJUYOUFEIWUZHIXING。YUWUQUANZHUYAOBAOHUDESHIYOUTIWUBUTONG,XINGXIANGQUANHEZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUDEKETIDOUJUYOUFEIWUZHIXING,JIMEIYOUWAIZAIDEWUZHIXINGTAI,ERSHIYIZHONGCHOUXIANGDE、WUXINGDECAICHAN。ZHEIZHUYAOSHISUIZHEXIANDAISHANGPINJINGJIHEKEJIDEFAZHAN,WUXINGCAICHANKAISHIZAISHEHUISHENGHUOZHONGZHANJUZHONGYAODEDIWEI,QIJIAZHIYIJINGCHAOYUEXUDUOYOUXINGCAICHAN。FALVTIXIZHONGYEKAISHICHUXIANYUELAIYUEDUODEWUXINGCAICHANQUAN。XINGXIANGQUANBAOHUDEZHENGSHIJUYOUCHOUXIANGXING、BUTIXIANWEIYOUTICAICHANDANSHIYOUYUNHANZHEJUDASHANGYEJIAZHIDEXINGXIANG、XINGMING、XIAOXIANG、ZISHI、SHENGYINDENGWUXINGCAICHAN。KEJIAN,YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANZAIFALVSHANGYINGYUZHISHICHANQUANYIYANG,TONGSHUYUWUXINGCAICHANQUAN。BUJINRUCI,GENJU《MINFAZONGZE》DI126TIAODEGUIDING:MINSHIZHUTIXIANGYOUFALVGUIDINGDEQITAMINSHIQUANLIHELIYI。YOUYUXINGXIANGQUANSHANGWEIBEIFADINGHUA,HAIBUSHIWOGUOLIFAZHONGMINGWENGUIDINGDEFADINGQUANLILEIXING,YINERZHEIZHONGWUXINGCAICHANQUANSHIYIZHONGKESHOUFALVBAOHUDEMINSHILIYI,SHANGWEISHANGSHENGZHIMINSHIQUANLIDEGAODU。ZAIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANLIFASHANG,YAOMINGQUEXINGXIANGQUANDECAICHANQUANSHUXING,TONGSHIYINGMINGQUEQIWUXINGCAICHANQUANHEMINSHILIYIDEBENZHITEZHENG。

                                二、运动员形象权法律保护的基本内容

                                (一)运动员形象权的权能

                                YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANYUTONGYANGSHIZUOWEIWUXINGCAICHANQUANDESHANGBIAOQUANJUYOUYIXIEGONGTONGDIAN,JIDOUBAOHANJIJIQUANNENGHEXIAOJIQUANNENG。YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEJIJIQUANNENGSHIZHIQUANLIRENKEYICAIYONGGEZHONGHEFADEFANGSHILIYONGQIXINGXIANGDEQUANLI,WUHANDONGJIAOSHOUCHENGZHIWEIXINGXIANGLIYONGQUAN[6]。YINQUANLIRENLIYONGFANGSHIDEBUTONG,XINGXIANGLIYONGQUANKEFENWEILIANGLEI。DIYILEISHIXINGXIANGQUANRENDUIQIZISHENXINGXIANGDESHANGYEXINGLIYONG。BAOKUOJIANGZISHENXINGXIANGYONGYUSHANGPINDEWAIGUANHUOBAOZHUANG,YIJILIYONGZISHENXINGXIANGDEYINGXIANGLICUJINSHANGPINDEJIAOYI。WOGUOZHEMINGTICAOYUNDONGYUANLININGCHUANGLIDE“LINING”TIYUYONGPINGONGSIJISHIXINGXIANGQUANRENDUIZISHENXINGXIANGJINXINGSHANGYEXINGLIYONGDEDIANXING。DIERZHONGLIYONGXINGXIANGQUANDEFANGSHISHIZHIXINGXIANGQUANRENJIANGQIXINGXIANGQUANXUKEHUOZHUANRANGJITARENSHIYONG,YISHOUQUXUKEFEIHUOLI,ZHEISHIMUQIANYUNDONGYUANLIYONGQIZISHENXINGXIANGQUANDEZHUYAOFANGSHI。XINGXIANGQUANDEXIAOJIQUANNENGZHIDESHIXINGXIANGJINZHIQUAN[12]HUOXINGXIANGJINYONGQUAN。YUZHISHICHANQUANZHONGDESHANGBIAOQUANYIYANG,YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANYEBAOHANJINYONGQUAN,JIJINZHITARENWEIJINGXUKESHANZISHIYONGYUNDONGYUANDEXINGXIANGTEZHENG,DANZAIXIAOLIFANWEISHANGXINGXIANGQUANYUSHANGBIAOQUANYOUSUOBUTONG。SHANGBIAOJINYONGQUANFANWEISHEJIXIANGTONGHUOLEISISHANGPINSHANGDEXIANGTONGHUOJINSIDESHANGBIAO,SHANGBIAOZHUANYOUSHIYONGQUANJINXIANYUHEDINGSHIYONGDESHANGPINHEHEZHUNZHUCEDESHANGBIAO,QIZHUANYOUSHIYONGQUANDEFANWEIXIAOYUJINYONGQUANDEFANWEI。ERXINGXIANGQUANJIJIQUANNENGDEXIAOLIFANWEIYUXIAOJIQUANNENGXIAOLIFANWEISHIYIZHIDE。XINGXIANGLIYONGQUANZHONGGEZHONGSHANGYEXINGSHIYONGXINGXIANGDEFANGSHI,RUOSHIWEIJINGXINGXIANGQUANRENXUKE,SHUYUXINGXIANGJINYONGQUANDEGUIZHIFANWEI。

                                (二)运动员形象权的限制

                                WOGUOCHUYUDUIGONGZHONGZHIQINGQUANDEBAOHU,DUIZIRANRENDERENGEQUANJINXINGLEYIDINGDEXIANZHI。LIRUZAI《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHANGHAIKEJIBAOSHEHECHENGUANYIYUZHUHONGQINHAIXIAOXIANGQUANSHANGSUANDEHAN》ZHONG,ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANRENWEI,WEIXUANCHUANYILIAOJINGYANERSHIYONGDANGSHIRENDEXIAOXIANGYUSHEHUIYOULI,GAIXINGWEIWEIZAOCHENGBULIANGHOUGUO,DANGSHIRENYINGRONGRENHELIJIE[13]。TONGYANG,DUIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANJINXINGXIANZHIYESHIJIYUSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDEKAOLV。WEIPINGHENGXINGXIANGQUANYUGONGGONGLIYIDEGUANXI,MEIGUOTONGGUOYIXILIEPANLIQUELILEXINGXIANGQUANDEXIANZHIZHIDU,ZHEIXIEXIANZHIBAOHANFUDAISHIYONGYUANZE、QUANLIQIONGJIEYUANZE、YANLUNZIYOUHEXINWENZIYOU[14]DENG。FUDAISHIYONGBAOHANXUSHUXINGSHIYONGHEZHISHIXINGSHIYONG。MINGQUECAIYONGFUDAISHIYONGYUANZEDEANLISHI1994NIANDEAligoAN。GAIANZHONGFAYUANRENWEIBEIGAOGUNSHIZAZHISHESUIRANZAITUIGUANGQICHANGPIANDEGUANGGAOXUANCHUANPIANZHONGSHIYONGLE《1969NIANMEIGUOGEMING》YISHUZHONGHANYOUYUANGAOZHAOPIANDENEIRONG,DANBEIGAOBINGWEIQINFANYUANGAODEXINGXIANGQUAN。LIYOUSHIBEIGAOSHIYONGYUANGAODEZHAOPIANSHIWEIBIAOMINGQISUODAIBIAODEZHENGZHIBEIJING,ERFEIWEIHUOQUSHANGYELIYI;QIEZAI29FENZHONGDEXUANCHUANPIANZHONGYUANGAODEZHAOPIANJINCHUXIAN6MIAO,GAIZHAOPIANDUIBEIGAOSHANGYEHUOLIDEYIYIBUDA;JIAZHIYUANGAODEZHAOPIANYUZUOPINZHUTIDEBIAODALIANXIMIQIE,YUXUANCHUANPIANDEQITABUFENBUKEFENLI,YINCIBEIGAOGOUCHENGDUIYUANGAOXINGXIANGDEXUSHUXINGSHIYONG,SHUYUFUDAISHIYONG,BUGOUCHENGQINQUAN[15]。ZAIMEIGUO,QUANLIQIONGJIEYUANZEZUIXIANSHIYONGYUDUIZHUANLIQUANDEXIANZHI,KAISHIYUNYONGGAIYUANZEDUIXINGXIANGQUANJINXINGXIANZHIDESHIMEIGUOZUIGAOFAYUAN1992NIANPANJUEDEMajor League Baseball Player AssAN。GAIANZHONGFAYUANRENWEIYUANGAOMEIGUOBANGQIUDALIANMENGXIEHUIYIJIANGQIXIANGYOUDEXINGXIANGQUANXUKEJISHUGEGONGSISHIYONG,BEIGAOTONGGUOHEFABEISHOUQUANRENHUODELESHIYONGBANGQIUMINGXINGZHAOPIANHEXINGMINGDEXUKE。GENJUQUANLIQIONGJIEYUANZE,YUANGAODUIHANYOUYISHANGZHAOPIANHEXINGMINGDEKAPIANDELIUTONG,BUZAIYONGYOUQUANLI[15]。CHUSHANGSHUXIANZHIWAI,《MEIGUOFANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFADISANCIZHONGSHU》DI47TIAOHAIGUIDING,SHANGYEXINGSHIYONGZIRANRENXINGXIANGBUBAOKUOXINWENBAODAO、PINGLUNDENG[16]。CONGWOGUOQINGKUANGKAN,DUIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEXIANZHIZAILIUXIANGSU《JINGPINGOUWUZHINAN》BAOSHE、JINGPINZHUOYUEGONGSIQINFANXIAOXIANGQUANANZHONGYOUSUOTIXIAN。YISHENFAYUANRENWEILIUXIANGZUOWEIWOGUODIYIGEDUANPAOXIANGMUDEAOYUNHUIGUANJUN,QIBISAIXINGXIANGYUGAITEDINGYIYIGONGGONGSHIJIANJIEHE,JUYOUXINWENBAODAODEJIAZHI。BAOSHESHIYONGQISAICHANGXINGXIANGZUOBAOZHIFENGMIANDEXINGWEIBUQINFANLIUXIANGDEXIAOXIANGQUAN(1)。ERSHENFAYUANRENWEI,BAOSHESHIYONGLIUXIANGDEXIAOXIANGBINGBUGOUCHENGDANCHUNDEXINWENBAODAO,YICICHEXIAOLEYISHENPANJUE。DANQISHUOLIBUFENYIJIUCHENGRENXINWENBAODAOWEIZAIXIANZHENSHIQINGKUANG,BUMIANYAOJINGCHANGSHIYONGGERENDEXIAOXIANG,YUCIQINGXINGBUGOUCHENGXIAOXIANGQUANQINQUAN(2)。YOUCIKEJIAN,QUANLIRENJIUQIXINGXIANGXIANGYOUDEQUANLISHOUXINWENBAODAOZIYOUDEXIANZHI。

                                ZONGHEERYAN,WOGUODUIXINGXIANGQUANDEXIANZHIYINGZAISIFASHIJIANDEJICHUSHANGJIEJIANGUOWAICHENGSHUJINGYAN,JIANGXIANZHIDENEIRONGGUIDINGWEIYIXIALIANGFANGMIAN:(1)YIDINGXIANZHI,JIZAIXUKEHUOZHUANRANGHETONGZHONG,DANGSHIRENJIUJUTISHIYONGXINGXIANGDEFANGSHIHUOFANWEIDACHENGDEXIANZHI。(2)FADINGXIANZHI,YOUYUXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUDEKETIFANWEIJIAOGUANG,WEIFANGZHIQUANLIDELANYONG,KEJIEJIANMEIGUODEFUDAISHIYONGYUANZE、QUANLIQIONGJIEYUANZE、YANLUNZIYOUHEXINWENZIYOUDUIXINGXIANGQUANJINYIBUJINXINGXIANZHI。CIWAI,YUNDONGYUANZUOWEITESHUZHUTI,QIDUIXINGXIANGQUANDEXINGSHIHAISHOUZHENGFUXINGZHENGGUANLIDEZHIYUE。RU2006NIAN《GUOJIATIYUZONGJUGUANYUDUIGUOJIADUIYUNDONGYUANSHANGYEHUODONGSHIXINGHETONGGUANLIDETONGZHI》ZHONGGUIDING,YUNDONGYUANSHANGYEHUODONGYAORENZHENZUNSHOUGUOJIATIYUZONGJUYOUGUANGUIZHANGHEWENJIANDEGUIDING。GUOJIADUIYUNDONGYUANBUDECONGSHIYUYUNDONGYUANSHENFENBUFU、POHUAIYUNDONGYUANGONGZHONGXINGXIANG、YOUSUNTIYUJINGSHENHEWEIBEITIYUDAODEDESHANGYEHUODONG,TEBIESHIYINGDANGYANGEJINZHIYUNDONGYUANWEIYANCAO、JIULEICHANPINHEQIYEJINXINGXUANCHUANHETUIGUANGDENGHUODONG(3)。

                                三、运动员形象权法律保护制度存在的问题

                                (一)运动员形象权法律保护的缺失

                                WOGUOBINGMEIYOUJIANLIXINGXIANGQUANDEFALVBAOHUZHIDU,YOUYUYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANZONGSHIYUZIRANRENDEXINGMING、XIAOXIANGDENGRENGETEZHENGXIANGGUANLIAN,WOGUOWANGWANGSHITONGGUOMINFAZHONGDERENGEQUANDUIYOUGUANYUNDONGYUANDEXINGXIANGQUANJINXINGGUIZHI。LIRULIUXIANGSU《JINGPINGOUWUZHINAN》BAOSHE、JINGPINZHUOYUEGONGSIQINFANXIAOXIANGQUANANJIYAOMINGSUKEKOUKELEGONGSIANZHONG,QUANLIRENDOUSHITONGGUOZHUZHANGXIAOXIANGQUANQINQUANLAIBAOHUZISHENDEXINGXIANGLIYI。RANER,RENGEQUANBAOHUDESHIRENGELIYI,TONGGUORENGEQUANBAOHUXINGXIANGJUYOUHENDADEJUXIANXING。SHOUXIAN,BAOHUYUANZEPANRANYOUBIE。RENGEQUANBAOHUZHENDUIDESHISUOYOUZIRANREN,SHIXINGDESHIPINGDENGBAOHU、YISHITONGRENDEYUANZE,GUANZHUYUQUANTIZIRANRENRENGEZUNYANDEWEIHU。ERXINGXIANGQUANJINBAOHUNEIXIEJUYOUYIDINGZHIMINGDUDEZIRANREN,ZHUZHONGDUIZIRANRENJUYOUSHANGYEJIAZHIDEXINGXIANGYAOSUDEBAOHU。RUGUOLIFABUDANDUSHELIXINGXIANGQUAN,ERSHIJIANGXINGXIANGNARURENGEQUANBAOHUZHIZHONG,JIUWEIBEILERENGEQUANPINGDENGBAOHUSUOYOUZIRANRENDEYUANZE,NANYIJIESHIWEIHEZAIXINGXIANGDEBAOHUSHANGZHIBAOHUNEIXIEJUYOUYIDINGZHIMINGDUDEZIRANREN。QICI,BAOHUKETIFANWEIYOUXIAN。RENGEQUANZHONGDEXINGMINGQUANHEXIAOXIANGQUANJINBAOHUZIRANRENDEXINGMINGYUXIAOXIANG。XINGXIANGQUANSHEJIDEKETIFANWEIZEGUANGFANDEDUO。TABAOHUDESHINENGGOUBIAOMINGZIRANRENSHENFENDEGEZHONGTEZHENG,BAOHUDUIXIANGCHULECHUANTONGDEXINGMINGHEXIAOXIANGWAI,HAIBAOKUONENGGOUZHIXIANGTEDINGZIRANRENDEQIANMING、BEIYING、DONGZUOZISHIDENG。DISAN,SUNHAIPEICHANGFANWEIYOUXIAN。DUIRENGEQUANDEQINQUAN,SUNHAIDESHIZIRANRENDERENGELIYI,DUIZIRANRENZAOCHENGJINGSHENSUNHAIDEHOUGUO,ZIRANRENYAOQIUPEICHANGDEFANWEIZHUYAOSHIJINGSHENSUNHAIPEICHANG,PEICHANGFANWEIJIWEIYOUXIAN。SHENZHIRUGUOZIRANRENWUFAZHENGMINGZIJIZAIJINGSHENSHANGZAOSHOULESUNHAI,ZEQIJINGSHENSUNHAIPEICHANGWANGWANGDEBUDAOFAYUANDEZHICHI。ERDUIXINGXIANGQUANDEQINQUANSHIDUIZIRANRENCAICHANLIYIDESUNHAI,SUNHAIPEICHANGDEJISUANZHUYAOYIJUZIRANRENDESHIJICAICHANSUNSHI、ZIRANRENXINGXIANGDESHICHANGJIAZHIHEXUKEFEIYONGLAIQUEDING,QUANLIRENNENGGOUZHUZHANGGENGDUODEJINGJISUNHAIPEICHANG。ZAIPEICHANGFANWEISHANG,RENGEQUANPEICHANGFANWEIYOUHENDADEJUXIANXING。KEJIAN,JINJINTONGGUORENGEQUANWUFAWANCHENGDUIXINGXIANGQUANDETUOSHANBAOHU。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   CONGQITABUMENFAKAN,WULUNSHI《SHANGBIAOFA》《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》HAISHI《GUANGGAOFA》,DOUWUFASHENGRENDUIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEBAOHU。JIU《SHANGBIAOFA》ERYAN,ZIRANRENYIJU《SHANGBIAOFA》DI8TIAOHEDI9TIAODEGUIDINGJIANGQIXINGMING、XIAOXIANGDENGZHUCECHENGWEIZHUCESHANGBIAODE,KEYIJU《SHANGBIAOFA》DI57TIAODI1、2XIANGGUANYUJINZHIQINFANZHUCESHANGBIAOZHUANYONGQUANDEGUIDING,DUIQIXINGMINGJIXIAOXIANGJINXINGBAOHU(1)。RANER,《SHANGBIAOFA》BUNENGCONGGENBENSHANGJIEJUEXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUDEWENTI。QIYI,NISHENQINGZHUCEWEISHANGBIAODEBIAOSHIXUYAOMANZU《SHANGBIAOFA》DI11TIAOYOUGUANXIANZHEXINGDEYAOQIU(2),DUIYUZHIXIANGTEDINGYUNDONGYUANDEXINGTI、ZISHI、SHENGYINDENG,YUNDONGYUANZAISHENQINGSHANGBIAOZHUCESHIKENENGMIANLINXIANZHEXINGDEJUZHENGNANTI,WUFATONGGUOSHANGBIAOJUDEZHUCE。QIER,YIJU《SHANGBIAOFA》DI49TIAODI2KUANDEGUIDING,ZHUCESHANGBIAOWUZHENGDANGLIYOULIANXUSANNIANBUSHIYONGDE,RENHEDANWEIHUOGERENJUNKESHENQINGCHEXIAOGAIZHUCESHANGBIAO。YOUYUZHIYETEDIAN,YUNDONGYUANXUTOURUDALIANGSHIJIANYUJINGLIJINXINGXUNLIANYUBISAI,SHAOYOUSHIJIANGUJIQITA,JIBIANYUNDONGYUANJIANGQIXINGMINGHUOXIAOXIANGZHUCEWEIZHUCESHANGBIAO,YEJIYOUKENENGYINLIANXUSANNIANWEIJIANGSHANGBIAOTIEFUYUSHANGPINHUOFUWUBINGTOURUSHANGYESHIYONGERMIANLINBEICHEXIAODEFENGXIAN,DAOZHIYUNDONGYUANBAOHUQIXINGMINGYUXIAOXIANGDEMUDELUOKONG。JIU《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》ERYAN,YUNDONGYUANJIANGQIXINGMINGYUXIAOXIANGYONGZUOSHANGPINMINGCHENG、BAOZHUANG、ZHUANGHUANGDE,KEYIJU《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》DI6TIAODUIYOUYIDINGYINGXIANGDESHANGPINMINGCHENG、BAOZHUANG、ZHUANGHUANGDEGUIDINGHUODEDUIQIXINGMINGJIXIAOXIANGDEBAOHU。DAN《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》ZHONGNENGYUXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUXIANGGUANLIANDE,YEJINXIANYU“YOUYIDINGYINGXIANGDE”DEGUIDING(3),DIAOZHENGFANWEIJIWEIYOUXIAN。BUJINRUCI,《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》DIAOZHENGDESHISHICHANGZHUTIZHIJIANDEJINGZHENGGUANXI。TANGRUOZHUTIZHIJIANBUCUNZAIJINGZHENGGUANXI,HUOZHESHISHIQINFANXINGXIANGQUANXINGWEIDEZHUTIBINGFEISHICHANGZHONGDEJINGZHENGZHUTI,NEIME《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》HUIYUDAOSHIYONGSHANGDENANTI。TONGYANG,《GUANGGAOFA》DI33TIAOSUIRANGUIDINGZAIGUANGGAOZHONGSHIYONGTARENMINGYIHUOZHEXINGXIANGYINGSHIXIANQUDESHUMIANTONGYI,DI69TIAOYEGUIDINGZAIGUANGGAOZHONGWEIJINGTONGYISHIYONGTARENMINGYIHUOZHEXINGXIANGDEYINGCHENGDANMINSHIZEREN,DAN《GUANGGAOFA》ZHISHIQUEDINGLEGUANGGAOZHUHUOZHEGUANGGAOJINGYINGZHEDEGUANGGAOXINGWEIGUIFAN,DUIXINGXIANGQUANDEGUISHU、XINGXIANGQUANDEBAOHUFANWEI、QINFANXINGXIANGQUANDEZERENCHENGDANFANGSHIDENGWENTIBINGWEISHEJI。YOUCIKANLAI,WOGUOXIANCUNDEXIANGGUANFALVWUFAWEIXINGXIANGQUANTIGONGTUOSHANDEBAOHU,ERFALVDEZHANGQIQUEWEIHUIZAOCHENGLEISIANJIANPINFA,QUANLIRENWUFAYOUXIAODIWEIHUZISHENQUANYI。

                                (二)运动员形象权归属与利益分配机制的不合理

                                ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,WOGUODUITIYUYUNDONGYUANCAIYONGDEPEIYANGJIZHISHIYUNDONGYUANJINFUZEJINXINGXUNLIANHEBISAI,QITASUOYOUFEIYONGDEZHICHUYOUGUOJIACHENGDANDEJUGUOZHI。YINCI1996NIANYUANGUOJIATIYUWEIYUANHUICHUTAIDI505HAOWENJIANGUIDINGZAIYIYUNDONGYUANDEWUXINGZICHANGUIGUOJIASUOYOU(1)。SUIRANDI505HAOWENJIANBEI2006NIANCHUTAIDE《GUOJIATIYUZONGJUGUANYUDUIGUOJIADUIYUNDONGYUANSHANGYEHUODONGSHIXINGHETONGGUANLIDETONGZHI》SUOQUDAI,DANZAISHIJIANZHONG,DI505HAOWENJIANDEZUOFARENGZAIYANXU。RUSHANGWENTIDAODEYAOMINGYUKEKOUKELEGONGSIDEJIUFEN,ZHONGGUONANZILANQIUDUIDAITIYAOMINGYUKEKOUKELEGONGSIQIANSHULESHANGYEZANZHUHETONGHOU,JIANGYAOMINGDEXIAOXIANGYONGYUCHANPINBAOZHUANGDEXIANZHEWEIZHI。SUIRANYAOMINGJINQISUKEKOUKELEGONGSIQINFANLEQIXIAOXIANGQUAN,DANSHIJISHANGZHONGGUOLANQIUGUANLIZHONGXINZAIWEIJINGGUOYAOMINGXUKEDEQINGKUANGXIAJIUJIANGQIXIAOXIANGQUANJINXINGSHANGYELIYONG,NANCIQIJIU。TIANLIANG、LUOXUEJUAN、SUNYANGSHOUDAOYOUYONGZHONGXINCHUFADEANLI,ZHUYAOYESHIYOUYUZHEIXIEYUNDONGYUANSIZIDUIZISHENXINGXIANGJINXINGSHANGYEXUKE,BUFUCONGYOUGUANXINGXIANGLIYONGDEGUANLIGUIDING,YINQIYOUYONGZHONGXINDEBUMAN。ERYOUYONGZHONGXINDUIWAIJIANGZHEIXIEYUNDONGYUANDEXINGXIANGJINXINGDEMOUXIESHANGYELIYONG,YEWEIZHENGDEYUNDONGYUANBENRENDETONGYI,YINFAYUNDONGYUANYUZHUGUANBUMENDEJINZHANGGUANXI。ZHEIXIEANJIANBAOLUCHUYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANGUISHUDEWENTI,SHUOMINGTIYUZHUGUANBUMENZAIDUIYUNDONGYUANJINXINGXINGZHENGGUANLIDETONGSHI,SHIJISHANGYEZHUDAOZHEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGDESHANGYEXINGLIYONGQUANLI。GENJUWOGUO《MINFAZONGZE》DI110TIAODEGUIDING,ZIRANRENXIANGYOUSHENGMINGQUAN、SHENTIQUAN、JIANKANGQUAN、XINGMINGQUAN、XIAOXIANGQUAN、MINGYUQUAN、RONGYUQUAN、YINSIQUAN、HUNYINZIZHUQUANDENGQUANLI。ZHEIZHISHAOSHUOMINGXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUDUIXIANGZHONGDEXIAOXIANG、XINGMINGYINGDANGSHISHUYUXIAOXIANGQUAN、XINGMINGQUANRENBENRENSUOYOU。YINCI,1996NIANYUANGUOJIATIYUWEIYUANHUIDI505HAOWENJIANZHONG“ZAIYIYUNDONGYUANDEWUXINGZICHANGUIGUOJIASUOYOU”DEGUIDINGWEIFANLE《MINFAZONGZE》DEGUIDING。BUJINRUCI,GENJU2002NIANGUOWUYUANFABUDE《GUANYUJINYIBUJIAQIANGHEGAIJINXINSHIQITIYUGONGZUODEYIJIAN》DEGUIDING,GEYUNDONGXIANGMUDEGUANLIZHONGXINSHIGUOJIATIYUZONGJUDETIYUXINGZHENGBUMENJIZHISHUDANWEI,ZHINENGSHIZHIDINGTIYUXINGYEZHENGCEHEFAZHANGUIHUA,JIAQIANGXINGYEGUANLIHEFUWU,QIZHONGBINGMEIYOUMINGQUEGUIDINGQIXIANGYOUYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGDESHANGYEXINGLIYONGQUANLI。YINERSHIJIANZHONGTIYUZHUGUANBUMENJIANGYUNDONGYUANDEWUXINGCAICHANZUOWEIGUOJIAZICHANDEZUOFAYEWEIBEILEGUOWUYUANDEYOUGUANGUIDING,YUQIZHINENGXIANGWEIBEI。

                                BUJINRUCI,YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDESHOUYIFENPEIJIZHIYESHIFENBUHELI。GUOJIATIYUZONGJUYU2001NIANFABU《GUANYUYUNDONGXIANGMUGUANLIZHONGXINGONGZUOGUIFANHUAYOUGUANWENTIDETONGZHI》,GAI《TONGZHI》ZHONGGUIDINGYUNDONGYUANSHANGYEXINGGUANGGAOSHOURUDEFENPEIYINGJIANGUGEFANGMIANDELIYI,ANZHAOYUNDONGYUANGEREN50%、JIAOLIANYUANHEQITAYOUGONGRENYUAN15%、QUANGUOXINGDANXIANGTIYUXIEHUIDEXIANGMUFAZHANJIJIN15%、YUNDONGYUANSHUSONGDANWEI20%DEBILIJINXINGFENPEI(2)。GENJUGAIGUIDING,YUNDONGYUANSHIJISHANGZHINENGXIANGYOUQIXINGXIANGSHOUYIDE50%。ZHEIZHONGSHOUYIFENPEIJIZHIWANQUANMEIYOUZHENGQIUYUNDONGYUANBENRENDEYIYUAN,BINGFEIYISIZIZHIDECHANWU,SHIJISHANGSHIYOUTIYUZHUGUANBUMENDANFANGMIANTONGGUOXINGZHENGQUANLIDUIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANSHOUYIJINXINGDEQIANGZHIXINGFENPEI。ZAOCHENGTIYUZHUGUANBUMENLIYONGXINGZHENGQUANGANSHEYUNDONGYUANDUIZISHENXINGXIANGTEZHENGZIYOUZHIPEIDEGENYUANZAIYUWOGUOFALV、XINGZHENGFAGUIHEZHENGFUGUIZHANGDOUWEINENGTUOSHANCHULIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEGUISHUJISHOUYIFENPEIDEWENTI,ZHANGCIYIWANGBIRANYINFAYUNDONGYUANHEXINGZHENGGUANLIBUMENZHIJIANDEJINZHANGGUANXI,KENENGDAOZHIYUNDONGYUANQINGXUBUMANHEYUNDONGCHENGJIDEXIAJIANG。

                                四、运动员形象权法律保护制度的完善

                                (一)明确运动员形象权的法律地位与保护内容

                              星云棋牌官网下载   YAOCONGGENBENSHANGJIEJUEWOGUOYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEBAOHUWENTI,SHOUXIANYAOCONGLIFASHANGQUELIXINGXIANGQUAN。JIANYUXINGXIANGQUANYUTONGSHUYUWUXINGCAICHANQUANDEZHISHICHANQUANJUYOUGONGXING,KEZAI《MINFAZONGZE》DIWUZHANGMINSHIQUANLIBUFENDEDI123TIAOYOUGUANZHISHICHANQUANDEGUIDINGZHIHOU,XINZENGDI124TIAOGUANYUXINGXIANGQUANDEGUIDING。JUTITIAOKUANKESHEJIWEI:XINGXIANGQUANSHIZIRANRENYIFADUIBIAOMINGQISHENFENDETEZHENGJINXINGSHANGYEXINGLIYONGDEQUANLI,JUYOUYIDINGZHIMINGDUDEZIRANRENYIFAXIANGYOUXINGXIANGQUAN。

                                QICI,GUOJIATIYUZONGJUYINGZHIDINGTONGYIDE《YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUGUIDING》。《GUIDING》XUYAOZAI《MINFAZONGZE》DEJICHUSHANGJINYIBUMINGQUEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEGAINIAN、BAOHUDUIXIANG、BAOHUNEIRONG、QINQUANJIUJIJIBAOHUQIXIAN。JIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANSHIJUYOUYIDINGZHIMINGDUDEYUNDONGYUANDUIBIAOMINGQISHENFENDETEZHENGJINXINGSHANGYEXINGLIYONGDEQUANLI,BAOKUOYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGLIYONGQUANHEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGJINYONGQUAN。BIAOMINGSHENFENDETEZHENGSHIZHIYUNDONGYUANDEXINGMING、XIAOXIANG、SHENGYIN、BEIYING、DONGZUOZISHIJIQIANMINGDENGYIQIENENGXINGCHENGTEDINGSHENFENZHIXIANGDEFUHAO。QINFANYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANSHUYUYIBANQINQUANXINGWEI,YINGSHIYONG《QINQUANZERENFA》ZHONGDEGUOCUOZERENGUIZEYUANZE,GUOCUODEXINGTAIBAOKUOGUYIHEGUOSHI[17]99。XINGXIANGQUANDEFEIWUZHIXINGJUEDINGLEQIBUSHIYONGFANHAIYUANWUHUOHUIFUYUANZHUANGDEJIUJIFANGSHI。YOUYINXINGXIANGQUANZAIBENZHISHANGSHUYUCAICHANQUAN,YEBUSHIYONGYONGYUJIUJIRENSHENQUANDEPEILIDAOQIANDENGZERENCHENGDANFANGSHI。YINCIDUIXINGXIANGQUANJIUJIDEFANGSHIZHUYAOSHITINGZHIQINHAIHEPEICHANGSUNSHI,MEIGUOFASHANGCHENGWEIJINLINGHESUNHAIPEICHANG[14]。ZHIYUSUNHAIPEICHANGDEBIAOZHUN,YINGZUNXUNMINSHIPEICHANGDETIANBUYUANZE。SHOUXIANGENJUYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGDESHICHANGJIAZHIDENGHELIQUEDINGYUNDONGYUANDESUNSHI,ANYUNDONGYUANDESHIJISUNSHIPEICHANG。YUNDONGYUANSHIJISUNSHINANYIQUEDINGDE,ANQINQUANRENYINQINQUANHUODEDELIYIQUEDING;NANYIQUEDINGSHIJISUNSHIHUOQINQUANHUOLIDE,KEJIEJIAN《SHANGBIAOFA》DI63TIAODEGUIDING,ANXINGXIANGXUKEFEIDEHELIBEISHUJINXINGPEICHANG;ZUIHOU,HAIYINGSHEZHIFADINGPEICHANGTIAOKUAN,YOURENMINFAYUANGENJUJUTIANQING,CAIQUFADINGPEICHANGDEFANGSHIDUIQUANLIRENYUYIJIUJI。

                                ZONGSHANG,KEZAI《GUIDING》QINQUANZERENTIAOKUANZHONGGUIDING:XINGWEIRENMINGZHIHUOYINGZHIXINGXIANGTEZHENGWEITEDINGYUNDONGYUANSUOYOU,WEIJINGXUKEJINXINGSHANGYEXINGSHIYONGDE,GOUCHENGYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANQINQUAN,CHENGDANTINGZHIQINHAI、PEICHANGSUNSHIDEMINSHIZEREN。QINFANYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEPEICHANGSHUE,ANZHAOYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGDESHICHANGJIAZHI,YIYUNDONGYUANYINQINQUANZAOSHOUDESHIJISUNSHIQUEDING;YUNDONGYUANDESHIJISUNSHINANYIQUEDINGDE,ANQINQUANRENYINQINQUANHUODEDELIYIQUEDING;NANYIQUEDINGSHIJISUNSHIHUOQINQUANHUOLIDE,ANYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGXUKEFEIDEHELIBEISHUJINXINGPEICHANG;YUNDONGYUANSHIJISUNSHI、QINQUANRENQINQUANHUOLI、YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGXUKEFEIJUNNANYIQUELIDE,YOURENMINFAYUANGENJUJUTIQINGJIEJIYUSANBAIWANYIXIADEPEICHANG。

                                RENHEQUANLIDOUYOUQIXIAN。MUQIANXUEJIEDUIXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUJIYUZAISHIDEQUANLIRENBINGWUYIYI,ZHENGYIBUFENZAIYUQUANLIRENSIHOUQIXINGXIANGQUANDEBAOHUQIXIAN。YANGLIXINJIAOSHOUZHUZHANG,RUGUOQUANLIRENYOUZAISHIDEJINQINSHU,ZEKEYIQUEDINGYIGEDUIXINGXIANGQUANDEBAOHUQI,RUOWUJINQINSHUZEBUZAIBAOHU[18]。WUHANDONGJIAOSHOUZHUZHANGQUANLIRENSIHOUXINGXIANGQUANDEBAOHUQIWEI50NIAN[6]。BENWENRENWEI,XINGXIANGQUANSUISHUWUXINGCAICHANQUAN,DANQIYUTONGSHUCAICHANQUANDEWUQUANJUYOUXIANGTONGDEQUANLISHUXING。WUQUANYINZUOWEIQIKETIDEYOUTIWUDEXIAOMIEERZHONGZHI,TONGYANG,SHENFENTEZHENGSUOYIFUDEQUANLIRENYIDANSIWANG,XINGXIANGQUANYEYINGSUIZHIZHONGZHI。ZHIYUQUANLIRENSIHOU,QISHENFENTEZHENGSHEJIDEJINQINSHUDEJINGSHENLIYI,SHUYUSIZHERENGELIYIYANSHENBAOHU[19]203-204DEFANWEI,YINGYIJU2001NIANZUIGAORENMINFAYUAN《GUANYUQUEDINGMINSHIQINQUANJINGSHENSUNHAIPEICHANGZERENRUOGANWENTIDEJIESHI》DI3TIAO(1)DEGUIDINGYUYIBAOHU。YINCI,XINGXIANGQUANDEBAOHUQIXIANJINXIANYUQUANLIRENZAISHIQIJIAN。

                                (二)完善运动员形象权的归属与收益分配机制

                              星云棋牌官网下载   YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGXINGCHENGGUOCHENGZHONGSHEJIDEZHUTIJIAODUO,BAOKUOYUNDONGYUAN、JULEBU、TIYUXIEHUI、SHANGJIXINGZHENGZHUGUANBUMENDENG。KEXUEDIQUEDINGWOGUOYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEGUISHU,YIJITUOSHANJIEJUEXINGXIANGSHOUYIZAIDUOGEZHUTIZHIJIANDEFENPEIWENTI,SHIXIEDIAOYUNDONGYUANYUTIYUZHUGUANBUMENZHIJIANGUANXI,CUJINWOGUOTIYUSHIYEFAZHANDEZHONGYAOHUANJIE。SHOUXIAN,LIFAXUYAOMINGQUEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEQUANLIGUISHU。DUIYUYIJINGTUIYIDEYUNDONGYUAN,QIYITUOLITIYUZHUGUANBUMENHUOSUOSHUJULEBU,DUIQIXINGXIANGQUANDELIYONGBUZAISHEJIFUZADEGUANLIGUANXI,GAIXINGXIANGQUANSHUYUTUIYIYUNDONGYUANWUYONGZHIYI。XUYAOTAOLUNDESHIZAIYIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEGUISHUWENTI。WOGUOZAIYIYUNDONGYUANZHUYAOYOUYOUJUGUOZHIPEIYANGDEZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANHEFEIYOUJUGUOZHIPEIYANGDEZHIYEYUNDONGYUAN。WULUNSHIJUGUOZHIPEIYANGMOSHIHAISHIFEIJUGUOZHIPEIYANGMOSHI,ZHENGFUHUOJULEBUDETOURUSHUYUWEIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGJIAZHIDEXINGCHENGTIGONGRENLI、WUZHISHANGDEBANGZHU。YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGJIAZHIDEXINGCHENGHEZENGZHI,ZHUYAOSHIYOUYUNDONGYUANBENSHENDETIANFU、SHENTISUZHI、KEKUXUNLIANSUOJUEDING。DUIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGJIAZHIDESHANGYEKAIFA,YEYILAIYUYUNDONGYUANXINGMING、XIAOXIANG、DONGZUOZISHIDENGSHENFENTEZHENG,ZHEIXIESHENFENTEZHENGSHUYUYUNDONGYUAN。YINCI,XINGXIANGQUANYINGGUISHUYUGAIYUNDONGYUAN。“XINGXIANGQUANDESUOYOUZHEZHINENGSHIYUNDONGYUANZISHEN,ZAIKAIFAGUOCHENGZHONGYINGDUIYUNDONGYUANDEZHUTIDIWEIJIYUCHONGFENDEKENDING”[20]。ZUOWEIDUIGUOJIAHUOJULEBUTOURUDEHUIKUI,KEZAIZHIDUSHEJISHANGYUNXUQIFENDEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANSHOUYIDEYIBUFEN。YOUYUXINGXIANGQUANSHUYUYUNDONGYUANSUOYOU,TIYUZHUGUANBUMENHUOJULEBURUGUOXUYAODUIYUNDONGYUANDEXINGXIANGJINXINGSHANGYEXINGSHIYONG,XUYAOJINGGUOYUNDONGYUANDESHOUQUAN。YINCI,ZAIYAOMINGYUKEKOUKELEGONGSIDEJIUFENZHONG,ZHONGGUONANZILANQIUDUIZAISHIXIANWEIHUODESHOUQUANDEQINGKUANGXIA,WUQUANTIDAIYAOMINGJIANGQIXIAOXIANGXUKEJIKEKOUKELEGONGSISHIYONG,FOUZEJIGOUCHENGXINGXIANGQUANQINQUAN。

                                QICI,KAOLVDAOYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDENEIRONGYIJIZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANYUTIYUZHUGUANBUMENDEGUANXI,RUOBUDUIYUNDONGYUANDEXINGXIANGQUANJIAQIANGGUANLI,GUODUHUOBULIANGDELIYONGBUJINHUIYINGXIANGYUNDONGYUANDETIYUCHENGJI,HAIKENENGYINCISUNHAIGUOJIATIYUSHIYEDESHENGYU[21]。YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANSUIRANYINGDANGGUIYUNDONGYUANBENRENSUOYOU,DANQIXINGSHIYINGFUHETIYUZHUGUANBUMENDEGUANLIGUIDING。LIRU,YUNDONGYUANYINGZUNSHOU2001NIAN《GUANYUYUNDONGXIANGMUGUANLIZHONGXINGONGZUOGUIFANHUAYOUGUANWENTIDETONGZHI》ZHONGDEGUIDING,BUDECONGSHIYOUSUNYUNDONGYUANSHENFEN、YUXINGYETEDIANBUXIANGCHENGDEGUANGGAOXUANCHUANHUODONG,BUDEWEIYANCAO、JIULEICHANPINZUOGUANGGAO。TONGSHIYEYINGFUHE2006NIAN《GUOJIATIYUZONGJUGUANYUDUIGUOJIADUIYUNDONGYUANSHANGYEHUODONGSHIXINGHETONGGUANLIDETONGZHI》ZHONGDEGUIDING,BUDECONGSHIYUYUNDONGYUANSHENFENBUFU、POHUAIYUNDONGYUANGONGZHONGXINGXIANG、YOUSUNTIYUJINGSHENHEWEIBEITIYUDAODEDESHANGYEHUODONG,JINZHIYUNDONGYUANWEIYANCAO、JIULEICHANPINHEQIYEJINXINGXUANCHUANHETUIGUANGDENGHUODONG。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   DISAN,LIFAXUYAOJIEJUEZAIYIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANKAIFAHOUDESHOUYIRUHEZAIDUOGEZHUTIZHIJIANFENPEIDEWENTI。YOUXUEZHEZHUZHANGGAIBIANYIWANGJUGUOZHIDEYUNDONGYUANPEIYANGMOSHI,CAIYONGGUOWAIRUJIANADA、ELUOSIYIJIFAGUODENGGUOJIADEFENQUANGUANLIMOSHI。ZHENGFUJINFUZEZHIDINGTIYUFAGUIHEFAZHANZHANLVE,JINXINGHONGGUANZHIDAO,JUTISHIWUZEYOUMINJIANTIYUSHETUANFUZE,LIYIFENPEIDENGSUOYOUSHANGYEZHENGYIJUNTONGGUOQIYUEJIEJUE[22]。ZHEIXIEGAIGEDEQIANTISHIZHIYEJULEBUZHIDUYIBIJIAOCHENGSHUHEPUBIAN。ERWOGUOTIYUZHIYEHUACHENGDUHAIYOUDAITIGAO,DANGQIANWOMENXUYAOJIEJUEDEWENTISHIZAIZHIYEJULEBUZHIDUBINGWEIPUBIANCHENGSHU、JUGUOZHIYIJIUWEIZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANPEIYANGDEJIBENMOSHIDEQINGKUANGXIA,RUHEKEXUEDIFENPEIYUNDONGYUANDEXINGXIANGQUANSHOUYI。DUIZHIYEYUNDONGYUANERYAN,QIYUJULEBUDELIYIFENPEIKEJIEJIANOUZHOUGUOJIADEZUOFA[23]。YINZHIYEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGDEXINGCHENGGUOCHENGBUSHEJIZHENGFU,QIYUJULEBUJIANYOUGUANXINGXIANGQUANSHOURUDEFENPEIYIQIEYIHETONGWEIZHUN。JUTISHOUYIFENXIANGDEFANWEI、BILIJUNYOUZHIYEYUNDONGYUANGERENHUOQIJINGJIRENYUJULEBUXIESHANGQUEDING。ERCAIYONGJUGUOZHIPEIYANGDEZHUANYEYUNDONGYUAN,YOUYUQIYIQIEYISHIZHUXINGYIJIXUNLIANBISAIDEFEIYONGJUNYOUZHENGFUZHIFU,YICIXINGCHENGDEXINGXIANGSHIZHENGFUHEYUNDONGYUANGONGTONGTOURUDEJIEGUO,CIZHONGQINGXINGXIADUIYUNDONGYUANDESHANGYESHOUYIDEFENPEIJIUBIRANSHEJITIYUZHUGUANBUMENHUOTIYUXIEHUI。YAOQUEDINGJUGUOZHIPEIYANGMOSHIXIAXIANGGUANZHUTIDESHOURUFENPEIBILI,XIANYAOMINGQUEZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANYUZHENGFUDEGUANXI。YOURENRENWEILIANGZHEGUANXIJUYOU“GUYONG”DESECAI[24]。SHIJISHANG,ZHENGFUSHIWEIGUOMINTIYUWENHUAXUQIUHEZHENGZHIXUYAO,LIYONGGUOYOUZICHANZUZHIYUNDONGYUANDAIBIAOGUOJIACANSAI,WEISHEHUITIGONGTIYUGONGGONGCHANPIN,BINGFEIZHENZHENGGUYONGLAODONGLIJINXINGSHENGCHAN,YIQICHANSHENGSHENGYUJIAZHIYINGLI。ZHENGFUZHAOYONGZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANBINGWEIQISHEYOUBIANZHI,ZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANZAITIYUBUMENDEGUANLIXIAXUNLIANHEBISAI,YOUCIXINGCHENGDEGUANXIJUYOUNONGHOUDEXINGZHENGGUANLISECAI,ZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANSHENZHILEISIYUSHIYEDANWEIDEGONGZUORENYUAN。SUIRANCONGBENZHISHANGKAN,ZHENGFUHEZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANDEGUANXIYUZHENZHENGDEGUYONGGUANXIRENGYOUYIDINGQUBIE,DAN《LAODONGHETONGFA》DIWUZHANGDIYIJIEGUIDINGDEYOUGUANBAOZHANGZHIGONGQUANYIDEJITIHETONGMOSHI,RENGKEYUYIJIEJIAN,YONGYUSHEJITIYUBUMENYUYUNDONGYUANDESHOUYIFENPEIJIZHI。JUTIKETONGGUO《YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUGUIDING》,ZHIDINGFUZEYUNDONGYUANSHANGYEKAIFADEZHUGUANBUMEN,YOUGAIBUMENYUZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANYIFANGDAIBIAOTONGGUOPINGDENGXIESHANG,JIUTIYUZHUGUANBUMENDUIZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGSHANGYEXINGSHIYONGHUODEDESHOUYIDEZUIDIFENPEIBILIQIANDINGJITIHETONG,ZUOWEISUOYOUZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANBIXUZUNSHOUDEZUIDIFENPEIBIAOZHUN。ZAIBUDIYUZUIDIFENPEIBILIDEJICHUSHANG,YUNXUTIYUZHUGUANBUMENYUZHUANYEYUNDONGYUANJIUFENPEIBILIDACHENGJINYIBUDEXIEYI。DUIFENPEIBILIWUQITAYUEDINGHUOYUEDINGCUNZAIZHENGYIDE,ZHIXINGJITIHETONGZHONGQUEDINGDEFENPEIBIAOZHUN。RUCIGUIDING,JIQUEDINGYOULINGHUO,JIJIANGULEZHENGFULIYI,YOUNENGFANGZHITIYUBUMENDANFANGMIANQUEDINGXINGXIANGSHOUYIFENPEIDEBILIDAOZHIYUNDONGYUANBUMAN。

                                五、结语

                              星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUOMEIYOUJIANLIXINGXIANGQUANDEFALVBAOHUZHIDU,XIANYOUDEYUXINGXIANGQUANYOUGUANDEBUMENFAYESHOUXIANYUBAOHUFANWEI,WUFASHENGRENDUIXINGXIANGQUANDEBAOHU,DAOZHIYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANBEIQINFANHOUDEBUDAOTUOSHANDEJIUJI。XIANXINGDEXINGZHENGFAGUIHEBUMENGUIZHANGYEWEIMINGQUEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEGUISHU。JINYOUDETIYUZONGJUGUANYUXINGXIANGSHOUYIFENPEIDEGUIDING,YEYINQILIYIFENPEIFANGANDEBUHELIDAOZHIYUNDONGYUANDEBUMAN。YAOJIEJUEYISHANGWENTI,SHOUXIANYAOZAI《MINFAZONGZE》ZHONGGUIDINGXINGXIANGQUAN,TONGSHIZHIDINGTONGYIDE《YUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANBAOHUGUIDING》,XIHUAYOUGUANYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANGAINIAN、QUANLINEIRONGJIQINQUANJIUJIDENGGUIDING。ZUIHOUHAIXUYAOMINGQUEGUIDINGYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANGUIGAIYUNDONGYUANSUOYOU,RENHEZUZHIHUOGERENXUSHIXIANJINGGUOTONGYIFANGKEJINXINGSHIYONG。SHANGYEXINGSHIYONGXINGXIANGHUODEDELIYIDEFENPEI,GENJUBUTONGDEYUNDONGYUANPEIYANGFANGSHIJUTIQUEDING。FEIJUGUOZHIPEIYANGDEYUNDONGYUAN,JUTILIYIFENPEIYOUQIYUJULEBUXIESHANGQUEDING;JUGUOZHIPEIYANGDEYUNDONGYUAN,YOUQIYUZHIDINGDEZHUGUANBUMENTONGGUOJITIHETONGTONGYIYUEDINGZUIDIDELIYIFENPEIBILI,ZAIBUDIYUZUIDIBILIDETIAOJIANXIASHUANGFANGKEZAIJINYIBUXIESHANGJUTIDEFENPEIBILI。ZHIYOUZAILIFASHANGJIANLIWANSHANDEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANZHIDU,ZAIJUTIGUIDINGZHONGMINGQUEYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGQUANDEGUISHU、HELIQUEDINGYUNDONGYUANXINGXIANGSHANGYEXINGSHIYONGSUODELIYIDEFENPEI,CAINENGSHIYUNDONGYUANQUANSHENXINTOURUDAOXUNLIANHEBISAIZHONG,CUJINWOGUOTIYUSHIYEDEFAZHAN。

                                参考文献

                                [1]姚颉靖,彭辉.后奥运时期的运动员形象权法律保护研究[J].河北科技大学学报,2013,13(4):37-44.
                                [2]刘苏,王涌涛.论运动员形象权法律保护[J].体育文化导刊,2009(2):1-3.
                                [3]陈锋.论美国法下对运动员形象权的保护[J].北京体育大学学报,2007(5):586-588.
                                [4]许科.中美运动员形象权典型案例的比较与我国的保护对策[J].泉州师范学院学报,2008(4):111-115.
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                                [20]邹月辉,丁金娜,孝飞燕.我国运动员形象权商业价值开发研究[J].体育文化导刊,2018(6):99-103.
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                                注释

                                12005年,当时的奥运冠军田亮因为不满广告代言收入分配比例而受到了国家游泳中心的处罚。2006年,另一位泳池着名运动员罗雪娟也因为商业代言受到游泳中心处罚。2013年,同样因为广告代言、无证驾驶等行为,孙杨被国家游泳队开除。运动员追求个人价值最大化,但与现行的管理体制产生了不可调和的矛盾。参见:明星运动员财权之争博弈,孙杨游泳中心矛盾何解? . sina. com. cn/o/2011-10-11/. shtml,2018年5月22访问;孙杨被国家队开除,盘点被处理的奥运冠军,. yesky. com/news/332/35642332. shtml,2018年5月22日访问。
                                2参见北京市海淀区人民法院(2005)海民初字第2938号民事判决书。
                                3参见北京市第一中级人民法院(2005)一中民终字第8144号判决书。
                                4参见国家体育总局2016年发布的《国家体育总局关于对国家队运动员商业活动试行合同管理的通知》。
                                5参见《商标法》第57条第1、2项:有下列行为之一的,均属侵犯注册商标专用权:(一)未经商标注册人的许可,在同一种商品上使用与其注册商标相同的商标的;(二)未经商标注册人的许可,在同一种商品上使用与其注册商标近似的商标,或者在类似商品上使用与其注册商标相同或者近似的商标,容易导致混淆的;……。
                                6参见《商标法》第11条:下列标志不得作为商标注册:(一)仅有本商品的通用名称、图形、型号的;(二)仅直接表示商品的质量、主要原料、功能、用途、重量、数量及其他特点的;(三)其他缺乏显着特征的。前款所列标志经过使用取得显着特征,并便于识别的,可以作为商标注册。
                                7参见2017年《反不正当竞争法》第6条:经营者不得实施下列混淆行为,引人误认为是他人商品或者与他人存在特定联系:(一)擅自使用与他人有一定影响的商品名称、包装、装潢等相同或者近似的标识;(二)擅自使用他人有一定影响的企业名称(包括简称、字号等)、社会组织名称(包括简称等)、姓名(包括笔名、艺名、译名等);(三)擅自使用他人有一定影响的域名主体部分、网站名称、网页等;(四)其他足以引人误认为是他人商品或者与他人存在特定联系的混淆行为。
                                8参见原国家体育委员会1996年发布的《关于加强在役运动员从事广告等经营活动管理的通知》第1条:在役运动员的无形资产属国家所有。因此,在役运动员必须经组织批准,方可进行广告等经营活动。各有关单位要切实加强管理,坚持对运动员进行爱国主义教育,树立祖国培养意识,自觉抵制拜金主义的影响。本《通知》所指广告等经营活动包括:(一)运动员以其名义、形象,包括以其名字、图像、服装、讲话、演出等形式,通过书刊、报纸、杂志、广播、电视、商标、橱窗等从事广告或其他商业推广活动;(二)参加各类有门票、广告赞助收益的营业性表演;(三)以名誉肖像权作为无形资产投资入股参与经营;(四)国家体委认定的其他经营形式。
                                9参见国家体育总局2001年发布的《关于运动项目管理中心工作规范化有关问题的通知》。
                                10参见最高人民法院2001年颁布的《最高人民法院关于确定民事侵权精神损害赔偿责任若干问题的解释》第3条:自然人死亡后,其近亲属因下列侵权行为遭受精神痛苦,向人民法院起诉请求赔偿精神损害的,人民法院应当依法予以受理:(一)以侮辱、诽谤、贬损、丑化或者违反社会公共利益、社会公德的其他方式,侵害死者姓名、肖像、名誉、荣誉;(二)非法披露、利用死者隐私,或者以违反社会公共利益、社会公德的其他方式侵害死者隐私;(三)非法利用、损害遗体、遗骨,或者以违反社会公共利益、社会公德的其他方式侵害遗体、遗骨。

                                本文引用格式:姚鹤徽,潘力源.运动员形象权法律保护制度反思与完善[J].邵阳学院学报(社会科学版),2020,19(01):32-41.
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