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                            学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 毕业论文 > 本科毕业论文 > 法律毕业论文

                            大数据“杀熟”的法律规制困境与路径

                            时间:2019-03-18 来源:湖南农业大学学报(社会科学版) 作者:刘佳明 本文字数:11134字

                              摘    要: 大数据“杀熟”有违诚实信用原则,是侵害消费者知情权和公平交易权的一种新型价格欺诈行为。在理论层面,我国解释论者将大数据“杀熟”视为价格歧视行为,将经济学上的“价格歧视”概念套用于法学研究中;在实践层面,规制大数据“杀熟”行为的法律规范体系因对价格欺诈行为界定不明确而外延过宽、法条过度竞合而难以适用。明确大数据“杀熟”行为的价格欺诈属性,并对价格欺诈行为的内涵及其构成要件予以立法明确,以消除法条竞合之乱象,是有效规制大数据“杀熟”行为、促进我国数据信息产业健康发展的必由之路。

                              关键词: 大数据“杀熟”; 价格歧视; 价格欺诈;

                              Abstract: Big data "affinity" violates the principle of honesty and credit. It is a new type of price fraud that infringes consumers' right to know and fair trade. On the theoretical level, our country interpreters regard big data "affinity" as a price discrimination behavior, apply the concept of “price discrimination” in economic theory to legal subject and increase academic controversy and problems in practice. On the practical level, the price legal norm system that regulates the "affinity" behavior of big data is too broadly extended because of the unclear definition of price fraud, and it is difficult to apply due to excessive competition. Clarify the price fraud attribute of big data "affinity" behavior, and legislate the connotation of price fraud and its constituent elements to eliminate the chaos of law and competition, which is to effectively regulate big data "affinity" behavior and promote the healthy development of China's data and information industry.

                              Keyword: big data "affinity"; price discrimination; price fraud;

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DASHUJUJISHUDEFAZHANHEZIDONGHUACHENGDUDETIGAOZHENGZAIBINGYIJINGGAIBIANCHUANTONGDEJIAOLIU、JIAOWANGYIJIJIAOYIDEFANGSHI,SHUZIJINGJISHICHANGYIJINGZHUJIANCONGCHUANTONGDEGUPIAOJIAOYITUOZHANDAOZAIXIANSHANGPINHEFUWUDEGOUXIAODENGSHANGYEHUODONG、FUWU,ZHEIXIERIYIZIDONGHUADEJIAOYIKEYICHUANGJIANYIGEGENGWEIYOUXIAOHETOUMINGDESHICHANGHUANJING,CONGERSHIXIANZIYUANDEZUIYOUHUAPEIZHI[1]。

                              DANSHI,ZAIYISHUZISUANFAWEIJICHUDESHICHANGZHONG,JINGYINGZHENENGGOUTONGGUOSHOUJIYONGHUXINXI,PINGJIEDASHUJUSUANFAJISHUDUIXIAOFEIZHEXINGWEIJINXING“ZHUIZONG”HEDINGDIAN“TUPO”,CONGERKAIZHANGEXINGHUACUXIAOHEYOUZHENDUIXINGDISHISHICHABIEDINGJIA。YUCHUANTONGDINGJIAFANGSHIXIANGBI,DASHUJU“SHASHU”ZAIXINGWEIFANGSHISHANGQUYUJISHUHUA、PINGTAIHUA、SHUJUHUAHEKESHIHUA,YINERZAIJIAGEQIZHASHANGBIAOXIANDEGENGJUCHEDIXING、YINMIXINGHEFUZAXING。QIYIPINGTAIWEIZHUYAOSHISHILUJING,TONGGUODUIYONGHUXIAOFEISHUJUGUIJIJINXINGDINGXIANGGENZONG,LIYONGSUANFAJISHUDUIXIAOFEIZHEJINXINGZIDONGHUAFENXIBINGZUOCHUJUECE。WOGUO《DIANZISHANGWUFA》SUIYIMINGLINGJINZHILEISILIYONGSOUSUOJIEGUOZHENDUIXIAOFEIZHEJINXINGQUBIEDINGJIA、SUNHAIXIAOFEIZHEHEFAQUANYIDEXINGWEI,DANSHI,GAITIAOBINGWEIZHIJIEQUFEN“SOUSUO”DINGJIAHE“SHASHU”ERZHEZHIJIANCUNZAIDECHABIE,YEWEIDUITAMENDEXIANGGUANXINGYUYIMINGQUESHUOMING,YOUCIDAOZHIDEJIEGUOSHI,SHIJIANZHONGDE“SHASHU”XIANXIANGNANYIYU《DIANZISHANGWUFA》JINXINGYOUXIAODUIJIE,FALVDESHIXIAOXINGBUQIANG,NANYIEZHIDASHUJU“SHASHU”XINGWEIDECHANSHENG。MUQIAN,JIESHILUNSUOCAIYONGDETONGSHUORENWEI,DASHUJU“SHASHU”SHIYIZHONGJIAGEQISHIXINGWEI,QICHILUNYIJUZHUYAOCONGWOGUO《FANLONGDUANFA》DI17TIAOZHIGUIDINGTUIYANERLAI1,RANER,JIAGEQISHILILUNZAIFAZHIYUJINGXIADERENSHIPIANCHA,SHIDAOZHIDASHUJU“SHASHU”FALVJIANGUANQUESHIDEZHUYAOZHANGAI。

                              SUIZHEDASHUJUJISHUYUNYONGDEPUJI,LIYONGDASHUJUSUANFASUOTUIXINGDE“QIANRENQIANMIAN”DEDINGJIACELVERUHEDINGXING,YOUGUANJIAGEGUIDINGDELIFATIXISHIFOUGUIFAN,WEILAILIFAXIUGAIYINGDANGRUHEGAIJINDENGWENTI,YIRANCHENGWEIDANGXIAWOGUOLILUNJIEHESHIWUJIEBIXUMIANDUIDEZHONGYAOYITI,JIDAIXUEJIEYUYISHENRUYANJIU。

                              一、大数据“杀熟”的定性之争

                              YI“DASHUJUSHASHU”WEIGUANJIANCIJIANSUOZHONGGUOXUESHUQIKANKEYIFAXIAN,XUEJIEPUBIANJIANGDASHUJUSHASHUDINGXINGWEIYIZHONG(YIJI)JIAGEQISHIXINGWEI,ERZHIJIEJIANGQIDINGXINGWEIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDETAOLUNSHAOZHIYOUSHAO2。

                              1.价格歧视理论说

                              价格歧视是指经营者在提供同一产品和服务之时,针对交易条件相同的消费者采取不同的定价模式,从而实现销售利润的最大化。其基本原理在于,经营者通过提供无差别的商品或者服务,并采取区别定价模式,以此达到消费者剩余最小化3的交易效果。在经济学中,价格歧视通常分为三种:一级价格歧视,即经营者对消费者收取的价格恰好处于消费者的最高支付意愿临界点,这一模式将导致消费者剩余最小化,而经营者将实现销售利润的最大化;二级价格歧视,即针对消费者购买产品的数量进行区别定价,在实践中主要表现为,经营者根据消费者购买商品的数量来给予其相应的优惠,以此达到薄利多销的目的,其典型的销售模式为“第二杯半价”;三级价格歧视,即针对不同的消费群体而实施的有区别的定价行为,这种经营模式主要根据年龄、身体状况、社会身份等外在特征对消费群体进行类型化区分,比如老人免费、学生半价等。一级价格歧视和二、三级价格歧视的差别在于,经营者能否完全并清晰地区分消费者群体,从而实现精准化的用户画像。在一级价格歧视理论的情况下,经营者能够对消费者的外在行为表现和内在心理特征达到全方位的了解,消费者在经营者面前丝毫没有“讨价还价”的能力。显然,随着算法技术的发展,一级价格歧视正在慢慢变得可能且逐渐可以实现。经营者通过收集消费者的数据信息并借助于算法能够精确地区分消费者的经济地位、支付意愿等特征,从而为经营者在产品推销和定价上提供便利。
                             

                            大数据“杀熟”的法律规制困境与路径
                             

                              ZUNCONGSHANGSHUYOUGUANJIAGEQISHILILUNDEFENXILUJING,JIEHEDASHUJUGEXINGHUADINGJIAMOSHIDEJISHUTEZHENG,CHUANTONGJIESHILUNRENWEI:DASHUJU“SHASHU”SHIYIZHONGJIAGEQISHIXINGWEI,BINGQIESHIYIZHONGDIANXINGDEYIJIJIAGEQISHIXINGWEI[2]。JIUCIGUANDIANJIQILIYOU,XUEJIERENGYOUYIYI。YIFANGMIAN,CONGJINGJIXUEJIAODUFENXI,YIJIJIAGEQISHIDESHIXIANBIXUJUBEIYIXIAJIBENTIAOJIAN:(1)SHISHIJIAGEQISHIDEZHUTIBIXUJUYOUYIDINGDESHICHANGLILIANG,JIJUBEINENGGOUJIANGJIAGETIGAODAOBIANJICHENGBENZHISHANGDENENGLI,HUOZHENENGGOUZAITONGYICHANPINXIANGGUANSHICHANGZHONGTIGONGJUYOUJINGZHENGXINGDEJIAGESHUIPING;(2)SHISHIJIAGEQISHIDEZHUTINENGGOUDUIXIANGTONGCHANPINDEBUTONGXUQIUQIANGDUJINXINGYOUXIAOQUFEN,CONGERDUIQIANZAIDEGOUMAIZHEHEGOUMAIQUNTIJINXINGFENMENBIELEI;(3)SHISHIJIAGEQISHIDELIRUNZENGLIANGGAOYUYONGXUQIUCHABIELAIQUFENGOUMAIZHESUOXUDEJIAOYICHENGBEN,BINGQIENENGGOUDUIBUTONGLEIBIEXUQIUDEXIAOFEIQUNTIJINXINGYOUXIAOSHIBIEHEQUFEN,JINERGENJUBICIBUTONGDEZHIFUYIYUANZHIDINGBUTONGDEJIAGE;(4)GOUMAIZHEXIANGHUZHIJIANBEIYOUXIAO“QUGE”,BUCUNZAIZHUANSHOUTAOLIXIANXIANG[3]。TONGCHANGQINGKUANGXIA,WEIXIJIAGEQISHIDEHEXINYAOJIAN,YOUQIZHENDUIYIJIJIAGEQISHIERYAN,ZHUYAOSHINENGGOULEJIEXIAOFEIZHEDEZUIDAZHIFUYIYUANYICILAIHUOQUZUIDALIRUN,YIJINENGGOUDUIXIAOFEIZHESHIXIANYOUXIAO“QUGE”CONGERXIANZHIXIANGHUZHIJIANZHUANSHOUTAOLIDEXINGWEI。DANSHI,ZAIDASHUJUBEIJINGXIA,NENGFOUJIANGXIAOFEIZHEZHENZHENGSHIXIANYOUXIAO“QUGE”HAIWEIQUEDING。YINWEI,JINGUANSHUZICHANPINDESHUXINGRANGJINGYINGZHEKEYIDUICHANPINZAISHIYONGJINXINGXIANZHI,SHIXIAOFEIZHEZHIJIANDETAOLI4XINGWEIGENGWEIKUNNAN,DANSHI,SHUZIPINGTAIDEFAZHANYECHUANGZAOLERANGZHUANSHOUCHANPINGENGWEIYOUXIAODESHICHANG。HUANYANZHI,SHUZIPINGTAIDEDUOYANGXINGWEIXIAOFEIZHEZHUANSHOUCHANPINTIGONGLEGENGDUODEQUDAO,XIAOFEIZHENENGGOUSUISHISUIDIJIANGCHANPINDEXINXIJINXINGFENXIANG,CONGERSHITAOLIGENGWEIRONGYI。BINGQIESUIZHEJISHUGENGXINHUANDAIDESUDUBUDUANJIAKUAI,SHUZICHANPINZAIDUANQINEIBEIPOYIDEKENENGXINGYEZAIBUDUANJIADA,DANCHUNYIKAOJISHUBILEIDUICHANPINSHISHILONGDUANDENANDUXISHUYEZAIBUDUANJIADA[4]。QICI,ZAICHUANTONGLINGYUZHONG,YIZHAO《FANLONGDUANFA》DEGUIDING,SHISHIJIAGEQISHIDEZHUTIBIXUJUYOUSHICHANGJINGZHENGYOUSHI,NENGGOUJUBEIPAICHUTONGLEICHANPINJINGYINGZHEDEJINGZHENGXIAOGUO[5]。RANER,YILAIDASHUJUJISHUSUOSHISHIDEJIAGE“SHASHU”XINGWEIZAOYITUPOGAIXIANGTIAOJIANDEXIANZHI,PUTONGJINGYINGZHEKEYIZHIJIETONGGUOGOUMAISUANFAJISHUDEFANGSHILAISHISHIJIAGE“SHASHU”。ZHENDUIPUTONGXIAOFEIZHEERYAN,JIYUXIAOFEIZHEGERENPIANHAOERCAIQUDECHAYIHUADINGJIAMOSHI,JISHIBEI“SHASHU”YENANYICHAJUE。

                              LINGYIFANGMIAN,JINGJIXUELILUNSHANGDEJIAGEQISHIZHISHIJINGYINGZHESHIXINGDEYIZHONGCHAYIHUADINGJIACELVE,MUDEZAIYUSHIXIAOFEIZHESHENGYUZUIXIAOHUA,ZIJIHUOQULIRUNZUIDAHUA。GENJUSHANGRENDEBENXINGHESHICHANGJINGJIDEYIBANGUIZE,ZHUIQIULIRUNZUIDAHUADEXINGWEIBENSHENBINGBUSHOUDAOPAICHI。JIYUBUTONGXUEKEZHIJIANDEDUIXIANGRENSHIPIANCHA,YOUGUANJIAGEQISHIDEPANDUANYEHUIBUJINYIZHI。JIZAIJINGJIXUEYUJINGXIA,“JIAGEQISHI”YICIQISHIBENBUHANRENHEJIAZHIBAOBIANNEIHANZHIPANDUAN,TASHIJINGYINGZHEYINGXIAODEYIZHONGZHENGCHANGCELVE。ERZAIFAZHIYUJINGXIA,“JIAGEQISHI”QUESHOUZHIYU“QISHI”ERZIDEYINGXIANG,JIANG“JIAGEQISHI”SHIWEIYIZHONGYU“JIAGEPINGDENG”GUANNIANXIANGDUILIDEGAINIAN,RENWEIDIZAOCHENGJINGJIXUEYUFAXUEZHIJIANDEGEMO,YOUCIDAOZHIJIAGEQISHIGAINIANZAIBUTONGXUEKEZHIJIANDERENSHIYOUSUOBUTONG,SHENZHICHUXIANPIANCHA。ZHUYAOZAIYU,ZAIFAZHIYUJINGXIA,DASHUJU“SHASHU”SHIZAIWEIBEIXIAOFEIZHENEIXINZHENSHIYIYUANDEJICHUXIASUOZUODEDINGJIACELVE,TASHOUXIANQINHAIDESHIXIAOFEIZHEDEZHIQINGQUAN,SHIXIAOFEIZHEJIYUCUOWUDERENSHIERZUOCHUDEYUNEIXINZHENZHENGYIYUANBUYIZHIDEXUANZEJIEGUO。RUGUOJIANGJINGJIXUELILUNSHANGDE“JIAGEQISHI”GAINIANSHIYONGYU《FANLONGDUANFA》DANGZHONG,WULUNZAIGUIFANDEKETISHANG,HAISHIGUIFANDEFENGXIANSHIBIESHANG,JUNNANMIANGUAYILOUWAN,LOUDONGBAICHU,TUZENGXUESHUSHANGDEZHENGYIHESHIWUZHONGDEKUNRAO。

                              2.价格欺诈理论说

                              GENJUSHANGSHUSUOYAN,“JIAGEQISHI”SHIJINGYINGZHESHISHIDEYINGXIAOCELVE,QIBENSHENBINGMEIYOURENHEDAODEBAOBIANZHIBENYI,YEBUBAOHANFALVJIAZHIPANDUANZHINEIHAN,ER《FANLONGDUANFA》SUOGUIZHIDEJIAGEQISHIZHUYAOSHILONGDUANDINGJIAXINGWEI,RUGUOJIANGDASHUJU“SHASHU”JIEDINGWEIJIAGEQISHIXINGWEI,QUEYOUBUJINRENYIZHICHU。YUZHIBUTONGDESHI,DASHUJU“SHASHU”SHIZHISHANGSHIYOUYUJINGYINGZHEWEIFAN《DIANZISHANGWUFA》《JIAGEFA》《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》DENGFALVFAGUIXIANGGUANGUIDINGDE“MINGMABIAOJIA”YIWUERSHISHIDEBUZHENGDANGJIAGEXINGWEI,SHIJINGYINGZHEZHUGUANSHANGSUOGUYISHISHIDE,WEIBEIXIAOFEIZHENEIXINZHENSHIYIYUANDEJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEI[6]。JUTIBIAOXIANWEI:

                              QIYI,DASHUJU“SHASHU”WEIBEIXIAOFEIZHENEIXINDEZHENSHIYIYUAN,YOUWEIGONGPINGJIAOYIYUANZE。ZAIJIAOYIGUOCHENGZHONG,JIAOYISHUANGFANGZHUTIBIXUCHENGSHIHUXIN,BUDETONGGUOQIZHAHUOZHEQITABUHELIDESHOUDUANDAOZHILINGYIFANGLIYISHOUDAOSUNHAI。RANER,DASHUJU“SHASHU”QUESHIDUIZHEIYIYUANZEDEMINGXIANWEIBEI。YIFANGMIAN,TONGGUODASHUJUSUANFAJISHUDUIXIAOFEIZHEJINXINGQUBIEDINGJIADEXINGWEIBUFUHEXIAOFEIZHENEIXINDEZHENSHIYIYUAN。ZAIDASHUJUBEIJINGXIA,XIAOFEIZHEDEZHENSHIYIYUANZAOYUDAOSUANFAJISHUDETIAOZHAN,BEI“SHASHU”ZHEZAIGOUMAITONGYICHANPINZHISHIYAOFUCHUGENGGAODECHENGBEN,“LAOYONGHU”ZAIGOUMAITONGYICHANPINSUOZHIFUDEJIAGEYAOGAOYU“XINYONGHU”。LINGYIFANGMIAN,DASHUJU“SHASHU”DEJINGYINGFANGSHIYEDIANFULERENMENDECHUANTONGRENZHI,BUFUHEZHENGCHANGDEJIAOYIXIGUAN。YINWEILIYONGDASHUJUJISHUSUO“SHASHU”DEDUIXIANGTONGCHANGSHIPINFANGOUMAIDEYONGHU(LAOYONGHU),LAOYONGHUGOUMAITONGYICHANPINDEJIAGEYAOGAOYUXINYONGHU。DASHUJU“SHASHU”SUOCAIQUDEDUI“SHUKE”GAOSHOUJIADEDINGJIACELVEYURENMENDECHUANTONGRENZHIXIANGWEIBEI。CIWAI,DASHUJUSUO“SHA”ZHI“SHU”YUWOMENXIGUANYIYISHANGDERENSHIYEYOUSUOPIANCHA,QIANZHEDUIXIAOFEIZHEERYANCHUYUYIZHONG“SHUERBUSHI”DECHUJING。GAIYANZHI,DASHUJU“SHASHU”BIAOXIANGSHANGSHIJINGYINGZHEZHENDUIBUTONGYONGHUSUOSHISHIDEQUBIEDINGJIAXINGWEI,QISHIZHISHIXIAOFEIZHEZAIBUZHIQINGDEQINGKUANGXIASUODACHENGDEJIAOYIWEIBEIQIZHENSHIYIYUAN,BUFUHEJIAOYIGONGPINGYUANZE。ZAIXIANSHISHENGHUOZHONG,JIYUSHANGPINCUXIAO、TAOJIAHAIJIADENGYINSUSUOXINGCHENGDECHABIEDINGJIAXINGWEIYEKEGUANCUNZAI,RANER,DASHUJU“SHASHU”YIYONGHUDESHENFENCHABIEZUOWEIQUBIEDINGJIADEYIJU,YURENMENDECHUANTONGRENZHIXIANGWEIBEI,QIJIAOYIQUEFAGONGPINGXING。

                              QIER,DASHUJU“SHASHU”QINFANXIAOFEIZHEDEZHIQINGQUAN。JINGYINGZHEJIYUDASHUJUERZAIYINGXIAODINGJIAZHONGDE“QIANRENQIANMIAN”XINGWEI,JINGUANDUIMEIGEXIAOFEIZHEERYAN,ZAIXINGSHISHANGFUHE“MINGMABIAOJIA”DEYAOQIU,DANZHEIYUCHUANTONGJINGJIMOSHIXIAXIAOFEIZHEDUI“MINGMABIAOJIA”DECHANGSHIXINGRENZHICUNZAIZHIDECHAYI,SHIDUI“MINGMABIAOJIA”YAOQIUDESHIZHIWEIBEI,SHIZESHIDUIXIAOFEIZHE“ZHIQINGQUAN”DEQINHAI。ZAIYIBANDEJIAOYIHUODONGZHONG,JINGYINGZHEDUISHANGPINHEFUWUDE“MINGMABIAOJIA”KEYISHIWEIDUISUOYOUXIAOFEIZHEDEYAOJIABIAOSHI,QIEJIYUNEIXINDEQUEXIN,RUGUOBUCUNZAIYIJIADEQINGKUANG,ZHENDUITONGYISHANGPINHEFUWU,SUOYOUXIAOFEIZHESUOZHIFUDEJIAKUANYINGGAISHIWUCHABIEDE。MINGMABIAOJIAZHUYAOZHIZHENDUISHANGPINHUOZHEFUWUDEJIAGESHUIPINGHESHOUFEIBIAOZHUNBIXUYIMINGQUEDEFANGSHIYUYIBIAOSHI[1,7],KEYICONGYIXIAJIFANGMIANJINXINGLIJIE:QIYI,SUOBIAOSHIDEDUIXIANGBIXUSHISUOTIGONGDESHANGPINHUOZHEFUWU,QIESHANGPINYUZHIBIAOSHIZHIJIANSHIYIYIDUIYINGGUANXI,JUTIBIAOXIANWEIYIMAYIJIA;QIER,BIAOSHISUOBIAOSHIDEFANGSHIBIXUSHIDAIBIAOYUJIAGEYOUGUANDEZHIBIAO、SHUJUHUOZHESHUZI;QISAN,ZAIBIAOSHIJIAGEZHISHIBIXUCAIQUMINGSHIDEFANGSHI,JIAGEBIXUXIANGSUOYOUDEXIAOFEIZHEGONGKAI,ERBUNENGYINZANGJIAGEXINXIHUOZHEZHIXIANGTEDINGXIAOFEIQUNTIGONGKAI;QISI,JINGYINGZHEZAIMINGMABIAOJIAZHISHI,BIXUSHIYONGDESHI“SHIJIA”ERBUSHI“XUJIA”,JIJINGYINGZHESUOBIAOSHIDEJIAGEBIXUSHIZHENSHIDE,FOUZENANTAOJIAGEQIZHAZHIXIAN。MINGMABIAOJIADEYIYIZAIYUNENGGOUKEFUJINGYINGZHEHEXIAOFEIZHEZHIJIANXINXIBUDUICHENGZHIJIBI,TIGAOSHICHANGTOUMINGDUCUSHIXIAOFEIZHEZHUNQUEGUJIAHEBIJIA,JINERLIXING、ZIYUANDIZUOCHUJIAOYIXUANZE[2,7]。ZONGSHANG,DASHUJU“SHASHU”SHIYIZHONGJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEI,SHIDUIXIAOFEIZHEJIAOYIYIYUANDESHIZHIWEIBEI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   QISAN,DASHUJU“SHASHU”SHITONGGUOLANYONGXINXIYOUSHIERSHISHIDEJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEI。DASHUJU“SHASHU”DEBENZHIZAIYU,JINGYINGZHEJIYUZISHENYUYONGHUZHIJIANDEXINXIBUDUICHENGJIBUTOUMING,TONGGUODUIYONGHUGERENZILIAO、LIULIANGGUIJI、GOUMAIXIGUANDENGSHUJUDESHOUJIHEFENXIERSHIXIANDEZAIJIAOYIDINGJIASHANGDE“QIANRENQIANMIAN”[8]。XINXIBUDUICHENG5SHIJINGYINGZHENENGGOUSHIXIAN“SHASHU”DEGUANJIANYINSU,JIYIYOUFAJIHUIZHUYIFENGXIAN,HUICUSHIJINGYINGZHEBUDUANTIGAOXINXIYOUSHILAIXIYINXIAOFEIDUIXIANG,YOUCIDAOZHIMEIYIGEXIAOFEIZHEDOUJIANGCHENGWEIJIHUIZHUYIDEQIANZAISHOUHAIZHE。XINXIBUDUICHENGHAIHUIDAOZHISHICHANGYANZHONGSHILING,DAOZHIYIZHONGNIXIANGXUANZEFENGXIAN,HUOZHEYOUFADAODEFENGXIAN。ERGENJUWOGUO《JIAGEFA》DI14TIAODI1KUANDI4XIANGHE《JINZHIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEGUIDING》DI3TIAOZHIGUIDING,JINGYINGZHEZAICONGSHIJIAOYIHUODONGZHONGCAIYONGXUJIAHUOZHESHIRENWUJIEDEJIAGEXINGWEI,CONGERYOUSHITARENYUZHIJIAOYIDE,WEIJIAGEQIZHA。ANZHAOJIAGEQIZHADEFANGSHISHIFOUDANCHUNYIJIAGEWEISHOUDUANJINXINGHUAFEN,JIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIKEYIFENWEIGUANGYIDEJIAGEQIZHAHEXIAYIDEJIAGEQIZHA,QIANZHESHEJIFANWEIJIAOGUANG,HANGAIDUISUOYOUJIAGEYINSUDEQIZHASHOUDUAN,LIRUSHULIANGSHANGDE“QUEJINSHAOLIANG”“YICICHONGHAO”DENG,CONGERHUOQUEWAILIRUN。HOUZHESHIZHIYICHUNJIAGEXINGSHICHUXIANDEQIZHAXINGWEI,ZHUYAOBAOKUOJINGYINGZHETIGONGXUJIAHUOZHEYINRENWUJIEDEJIAGE,YOUDAOXIAOFEIZHEYUZHIJINXINGJIAOYIDEXINGWEI。YINCI,DASHUJU“SHASHU”SHIYIZHONGLIYONGXINXIYOUSHI,ZAIWEIBEIXIAOFEIZHENEIXINZHENSHIYIYUANXIASHISHIDEYIZHONGBUZHENGDANGJIAOYIXINGWEI,SHIYIZHONG“JIAGEQIZHA”XINGWEI[2,6]。

                              二、大数据“杀熟”的法律规制困境

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DASHUJU“SHASHU”SHIYIZHONGWEIBEISHANGYELUNLIDEJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEI,BIXUSHOUDAOFALVDEYANGEGUIZHI。ERMUQIANWOGUO《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》YIJIJIAGEFALVTIXIGUANYU“QIZHA”NEIHANZHIJIEDING,WULUNSHIZAIGOUCHENGYAOJIANSHANGHAISHIZAIPANDUANBIAOZHUNSHANG,JUNYOUSUOBUTONG,JIUFALVSHISHIERYAN,ZHEIZHONGYOUMINSHIQIZHA——XIAOFEIQIZHA——JIAGEQIZHADEJIANYUENEIHANDEXIUZHENGLUJING,BIRANDAOZHIWAIYANWUXIANKUODA,JINERJIADADUIDASHUJU“SHASHU”GUIZHILUJINGDENANDU。ERQIEWOGUO《JIAGEFA》《JINZHIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEGUIDING》YIJIQITAFALVFAGUI、BUMENGUIZHANGDUI“QIZHA”DEJIEDINGZAISHISHICENGMIANYECUNZAIMINGXIANLOUDONG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   QIYI,JIAGEQIZHANEIHANGUOYUJIANYUE。CONGYUYISHANGJINXINGFENXI,JIAGEQIZHASHUYUQIZHAXINGWEIDEYIZHONG,ZAIXINGSHISHANGZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEICAIYONGJIAGEDEFANGSHI。YOUGUANQIZHAXINGWEIDEGUIDINGZUIZAOLAIYUANYUZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYU《GUANCHEZHIXING<ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOMINFATONGZHI>RUOGANWENTIDEYIJIAN(SHIXING)》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《MINTONGYIJIAN》)DI68TIAOZHIGUIDING,DANGSHIRENZAICONGSHIJIAOYIHUODONGZHISHI,GUYIYINMANZHENSHIQINGKUANGHUOZHEGAOZHIDUIFANGXUJIAXINXI,CONGERSHITARENJIYUCUOWURENSHIERZUOCHUYISIBIAOSHIDE,WEIQIZHA。CONGGAIGUIDINGLAIKAN,GOUCHENGQIZHADEXINGSHIYAOJIANZHUYAOBAOKUO:(1)YIFANGGAOZHIXUJIAQINGKUANGHUOZHEYINMANZHENSHIQINGKUANG;(2)XINGWEIRENJIYUQIZHAERXIANRUCUOWURENSHI;(3)XINGWEIRENZUOCHUDEXINGWEIWEIBEIQIZHENSHIYIYUAN[9]。XIANRAN,ZAIMINFASHANGGOUCHENGQIZHAXINGWEIBIXUYAOQIUYIFANGZHUGUANSHANGCUNZAIGUYI,JIGUYIGAOZHIXUJIAQINGKUANGHUOZHEYINMANZHENSHIQINGKUANG,LINGYIFANGJIYUWUXINSUOZUOCHUDEYISIBIAOSHIBINGFEICHUYUZHENSHIYIYUAN,ERZHEGONGTONGGOUCHENGLEMINFASHANGGUANYUQIZHAXINGWEIRENDINGDEHEXINYAOJIAN。SUIZHEQIZHAXINGWEIZHONGLEIDEBUDUANTUOZHAN,YOUGUANQIZHAXINGWEIDEGUIDINGBUDUANYANSHENDAOQITABUMENFADANGZHONG,BIJIAODIANXINGDEZHUYAOSHI《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《XIAOFA》)《JIAGEFA》。DANSHI,ZHEILIANGBUFABINGWEIWANQUANYINRUMINFASHANGGUANYUQIZHADEGAINIAN,QINEIHANHE《MINTONGYIJIAN》ZHONGGUANYUQIZHAGAINIANDEGUIDINGBUJINYIZHI。LIRUGENJU《XIAOFA》DI55TIAOZHIGUIDING,JINGYINGZHEDUIXIAOFEIZHECUNZAIQIZHAXINGWEIDE,YINGDANGANZHAOXIAOFEIZHEDEYAOQIUJINXINGPEICHANG,SHUEWEIXIAOFEIZHEFEIYONGDESANBEI,BUZU500YUANDE,AN500YUANJISUAN。JUCIFENXI,JINGUAN《XIAOFA》DUIQIZHAXINGWEIOUYOUSHEJI,QUEBINGWEIMINGQUE“QIZHA”DEJUTINEIHAN,JINGUANJINGYINGZHEQIZHAYAOQIUQIZHUGUANSHANGCUNZAIYINMANZHENXIANGHETIGONGXUJIAXINXIDEGUYI,DANSHIXIAOFEIZHEZHUGUANSHANGSHIFOUJIYUCUOWURENSHIZUOCHUXIAOFEIJUEDINGBINGBUYINGXIANGDUIQIZHAXINGWEIDERENDING,DUIJINGYINGZHEERYAN,ZHEIJIWEIBUGONGPING[9]。

                              SHISHISHANG,WOGUOLIFAZHONGDUIQIZHAXINGWEIZHINEIHANDEJIANYUEHUAZAIJIAGEFALVTIXIZHONGBIAOXIANDEYOUWEIMINGXIAN。《JIAGEFA》DI14TIAOHE《JINZHIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEGUIDING》DI3TIAOJINYIBURUOHUALEDUIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIZHUGUANGOUCHENGYAOJIANDESHIYONG。GENJUGAILIANGTIAOWEN,JIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEGOUCHENGYAOJIANBAOKUO:(1)SHISHIZHUTIWEISHICHANGJINGYINGZHE;(2)JINGYINGZHESHIYONGXUJIAHUOZHEYINRENWUJIEDEJIAGESHOUDUAN。YINCI,ZAI《JIAGEFA》JIQIXIANGGUANGUIDINGZHONG,JINGYINGZHEZHUGUANSHANGSHIFOUCUNZAIGUYIZAISUOBULUN,JIJINGYINGZHEZUOCHUXUJIAHUOZHEYINRENWUJIEDEJIAGESHOUDUANSHIFOUSHIGUYIHAISHIGUOSHIBINGBUZHONGYAO,ZHIYAOZAIBIAOSHUSHANGYUSHIZHICUNZAICHABIEHUOZHENENGGOUYINQIYIBANSHEHUIGONGZHONGDERENSHIPIANCHA,JIKERENDINGWEIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEI,ZHEIWUYIDADATUOZHANLEQIZHANEIHANDEWAIYAN。《JIAGEFA》SHANGDEQIZHAXINGWEIYUYIBANDEQIZHAGAINIANCUNZAIMINGXIANCHABIE,ZHEIBUJINJINJUXIANYUYIJIAGEWEISHOUDUANDEWAIGUANBIAOXIANXINGSHI,QISHIZHINEIHANZAOYIJIERANBUTONG,YANRANCHENGWEIPIZHE“QIZHA”WAIYIDELINGYIGEGAINIAN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   QIER,JIAGEFALVTIXIDEGUODUJINGHE。DASHUJU“SHASHU”DEGUIZHIWENTI,YUJIAGEQIZHANEIHANZHIJIEDINGJIQILIFAJIAGOUXIXIXIANGGUAN。SHANGWENYIJINGFENXILEWOGUOLIFAZHONGGUANYU“QIZHA”NEIHANDEJIANYUEHUAJIEDINGJIQIQIANZAIWEIHAI,XIAMIANJIANGZHEZHONGTAOLUNJIAGEFALVGUIFANDEJINGHEWENTI。ZAIJIAGEFALVTIXIZHONG,CHU《JIAGEFA》ZHIWAI,HAIBAOKUO《JIAGEWEIFAXINGWEIXINGZHENGCHUFAGUIDING》《JINZHIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEGUIDING》DENGFAGUI、GUIZHANG,TAMENDUIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDOUOUYOUSHEJI。YOUYUJIAGEZAISHICHANGJINGJIHUODONGZHONGDETUCHUDIWEI,DUIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEGUIDINGGUANGFANFENBUYUGELEISHICHANGJIANGUANFAHEPUTONGSHANGSHIFAZHIZHONG。CHULE《HETONGFA》《MINTONGYIJIAN》DENGYIXIEDIAOZHENGMINSHANGSHIGUANXIDEJIBENFALV、SIFAJIESHIDUIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIYOUYIXIEYUANZEXINGDEGUIDINGZHIWAI,QITASHICHANGGUIZHIFAYEDUICIZUOLEZHUANMENGUIDING。《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》YIJIPEITAOSHISHIDE《QINHAIXIAOFEIZHEQUANYICHUFABANFA》DOUMINGQUEGUIDINGLEJINGYINGZHEYINGDANGZUNSHOUMINGMABIAOJIA,BUDEYICICHONGHAO,ZUOXUJIA、YINRENWUJIEDEXUANCHUANDENGYIWU,BINGGUIDINGLEXIANGYINGDECHUFABANFA。ER《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》《GUANGGAOFA》YEZHENDUIXUJIAJIAGEXUANCHUAN、XUJIAJIAGEGUANGGAODENGXINGWEIZUOLEMINGQUEDEGUIDING。CIWAI,2006NIANSHANGWUBULIANHEGUOJIAGONGSHANGZONGJU、FAGAIWEIDENGWUGEBUMENGONGTONGBANBUDE《LINGSHOUSHANGCUXIAOGUANLIBANFA》DUILINGSHOUSHANGDECUXIAOJIANGJIAHUODONGJINXINGLEZHUANMENGUIFAN,JINZHIQIYICUXIAOWEIMINGSHISHIJIAGEQIZHA。ZUIXINGONGBUSHISHIDE《DIANZISHANGWUFA》YOUZHUANMENZHENDUIDASHUJU“SHASHU”XINGWEIDEFALVGUIDING,GENJUGAIFADI18TIAOZHIGUIDING,JINGYINGZHETONGGUOGENJUXIAOFEIZHEDEXINGQUAIHAO、XIAOFEIXIGUANDENGTEZHENGLAITIGONGSHANGPINHUOZHEFUWUDE,YINGDANGTIGONGBUZHENDUITEDINGXIAOFEIZHETEZHENGDEXUANXIANG,ZUNZHONGHEPINGDENGBAOHUXIAOFEIZHEDEHEFALIYI。DANSHIGAIFABINGWEIMINGQUEJIEDINGDASHUJU“SHASHU”DEXINGWEIXINGZHI,ZHENDUIDASHUJU“SHASHU”YUPUTONGDEJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIYOUHEQUBIEYEWEIYUYIMINGQUEQUFEN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CIWAI,YOUYUSHEJIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDELIFAJIGUIFANXINGFALVWENJIANGUODUO,ZHIFAZHONGDUIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEGAINIANHEGOUCHENGYAOJIANYOUBUTONGDELIJIE,QIZHENGYIZHUYAOTIXIANZAI:YISHISHISHIJIAGEQIZHASHIFOUYAOQIUJINGYINGZHEBIXUZHUGUANSHANGCUNZAIGUYI;ERSHIQITAJINGYINGZHESHIFOUNENGGOUCHENGWEIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDESUNHAIDUIXIANG;SANSHIGOUCHENGJIAGEQIZHASHIFOUYIZAOSHOUDAOZHIJIESUNHAIWEIQIANTI。JIUDIYIDIANERYAN,《MINTONGYIJIAN》GUANYUQIZHAXINGWEIDEJIEDINGYAOQIUYIFANGDANGSHIRENBIXUCUNZAIZHUGUANGUYI,ER《XIAOFA》《JIAGEFA》ZEMEIYOUTIXIANZHEIYIYAOQIU;DANSHI,GUOJIAFAGAIWEIYU2014NIAN《GUANYUDUIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDINGXINGYOUGUANWENTIDEFUHAN》YOUGUIDING,GEBIESHANGPINJIAGEGAOYUBENCIHUODONGQIAN7RIZAIGAIJIAOYICHANGSUODEZUIDIJIAOYIJIAGE,BINGQIEBUCUNZAIQIZHAXIAOFEIZHEZHUGUANGUYIDE,KEYIDUIJINGYINGZHEDECUXIAOXINGWEIBURENDINGWEIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEI。ZHEIGEGUIDINGBIAOMINGGOUCHENGJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEYAOJIANBAOKUOJINGYINGZHEDEZHUGUANDONGJI。JIUDIERDIANERYAN,SHANGSHUFALV、FAGUIJIQITAGUIFANXINGFALVWENJIANDEGUIDINGYEBUJINXIANGTONG。GENJU《JINZHIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEGUIDING》DI3TIAO,JIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEZHIJIEKETIMINGQUEBAOHANLEJINGYINGZHE,《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》《GUANGGAOFA》DENGYEZUOLELEISIGUIDING。DANSHI,《XIAOFA》QUEWEIJIANGJINGYINGZHENARUDAOQIBAOHUZHINEI,YIXIEDIFANGXINGLIFAWENJIANYEZHIJIANGJIAGEQIZHADEDUIXIANGXIANYUXIAOFEIZHE,RUNANJING、SHAMENDENGDI。ZHENDUIDISANDIANZHENGYI,GENJUGUOJIAFAGAIWEI2006NIANBANBUDE《GUANYU<JINZHIJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDEGUIDING>YOUGUANTIAOKUANJIESHIYIJIANDETONGZHI》ZHIGUIDING,JIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIBUYIJUYOUJIAOYIJIEGUOWEIGOUCHENGYAOJIAN,ZHEIYIWEIZHEZAIMOUXIEQINGKUANGXIA,JISHIBUCUNZAIJUTISHOUDAOSUNHAIDEJINGYINGZHEHUOZHEXIAOFEIZHE,ZHIYAOFUHEJIAGEQIZHADEGOUCHENGYAOJIAN,ZAIKEGUANSHANGYEGOUCHENGWEIFA。ER《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》《HETONGFA》DENGZEMINGQUELEYINGGAIYOUZHIJIEDESUNHAIZUOWEIRENDINGQIZHADEGOUCHENGYAOJIANZHIYI[10]。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   QISAN,ZHINENGCHONGTUJIAJUZHIFAKUNNAN。FATIAOJINGHEYEJIXINGZHENGZHIFAZHONGDEDUOTOUGUANLIMAIXIALEZHONGZHONGWEIJI,JIAJULEGUIZHI“SHASHU”XINGWEIDENANDU。GENJUWOGUOMUQIANDEXINGZHENGBUMENDEZHINENGHUAFEN,《JIAGEFA》DEZHUYAOZHIFABUMENSHIGEJIJIAGEGUANLIBUMEN,《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》《GUANGGAOFA》《XIAOFA》DENGDEZHUYAOXINGZHENGZHIFAJIGUANSHIGEJIGONGSHANGGUANLIBUMEN,ER《LINGSHOUSHANGCUXIAOXINGWEIGUANLIBANFA》DEZHIFAJIGUANZESHIGEDISHANGWUBUMEN,ZUIXINCHUTAIDE《DIANZISHANGWUFA》GUIDINGDEZHIFAJIGUANZESHISHICHANGJIANDUGUANLIBUMEN。ZHEIYOUKENENGZAOCHENGZHENDUITONGYIGEJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIGEBUMENDUOTOUZHIFAHUOJINGXIANGHUIBIDEGANGA。LIRU,《JIAGEFA》DI40TIAOGUIDING,QITAFALVDUIBENFADI14TIAOSUOLIEXINGWEIDECHUFAJICHUFAJIGUANLINGYOUGUIDINGDE,YIZHAOYOUGUANFALVDEGUIDINGZHIXING;ER《QINHAIXIAOFEIZHEQUANYIXINGWEICHUFABANFA》YOUGUIDING,JINGYINGZHEYOUBENBANFADI5TIAOZHIDI11TIAOGUIDINGDEQINGXINGZHIYI,QITAFALV、FAGUIYOUZHUANMENGUIDINGDE,YIZHAOQIGUIDINGZHIXING;WEIZUOGUIDINGDE,YOUGONGSHANGXINGZHENGGUANLIBUMENYIZHAO《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》DI56TIAOYUYICHUFA。ERGENJU《DIANZISHANGWUFA》DI77TIAODEGUIDING,DIANZISHANGWUJINGYINGZHEWEIFABENFADI18TIAOGUANYUTIGONGSOUSUOJIEGUODE,YOUSHICHANGJIANDUGUANLIBUMENZELINGXIANQIGAIZHENG,MEISHOUWEIFASUODE,KEYIBINGCHUFAKUAN。YOUYUGEBUMENZHIFAYIJUBUTONG,KENENGDAOZHIZHENDUITONGYIZHONGJIAGEQIZHAXINGWEIDECHUFASHOUDUANHELIDUQIANCHAWANBIE。ZHEIYESHIDAOZHIDANGQIANMIANDUIDASHUJU“SHASHU”XINGWEIDAILAIDEWEIHAIZHISHI,XIAOFEIZHESHUSHOUWUCE,ZHIFABUMENXIAOJIXIEDAIDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。

                              三、大数据“杀熟”的规制路径

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                              注释

                              1有关“价格歧视”这一概念的规定主要体现在《反垄断法》以及《价格法》当中,而根据我国《价格法》第14条之规定,经营者提供相同商品或者服务,不得针对同等交易条件的其它经营者实施价格歧视。通过分析可以发现,《价格法》虽也有关于关于“价格歧视”概念的规定,但是其针对的对象是经营者,而大数据“杀熟”在实践中主要针对的是单个的普通消费者,基于此,本文认为目前学界目前关于“价格歧视说”的主要持论依据是《反垄断法》中第17条之相关规定。
                              2关于大数据杀熟的定性,通说认为是一种价格歧视行为,其中,以高福平、王苑为代表的学者认为,大数据杀熟是一种价格歧视行为,但不宜纳入现行法律体系进行规制:《大数据何以“杀熟”?关于差异化定价的法律思考》载《上海法治报》。在此基础上,郑智航、徐昭曦认为它是一种一级价格歧视行为。另外,以王雪婷、孙晓雅为代表的学者通过对顾客忠诚度的分析而将其定性为价格欺骗行为:《大数据“杀熟”对顾客忠诚度的影响实证研究》,载《电子商务》。而通过检索可以发现,目前直接将大数据“杀熟”定性为一种价格欺诈行为的讨论少之又少。
                              3在经济学中,消费者剩余是指消费者为了得到产品愿意所支付的最高价格与实际支付价格之差。在信息对称的情况下,消费者购买产品支付的价格与其最高支付价格之差较少,则意味着消费者剩余越大,而在算法技术条件下,经营者能够识破消费者的最高支付意愿价格,导致消费者剩余逐渐变小甚至为零。
                              4“套利”是指在一个市场上利用低价买进商品,再在另一个市场将买进的商品高价卖出的行为。
                              5信息不对称是指经营者对自己出售的商品以及潜在消费对象的了解程度远远高于消费者自身。

                              本文引用格式:刘佳明.大数据“杀熟”的定性及其法律规制[J].湖南农业大学学报(社会科学版),2020,21(01):56-61+68.
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