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                                我国村镇规划发展的四阶段探析

                                时间:2018-12-30 来源:工程建设与设计 作者:舒美荣 本文字数:4011字

                                  摘    要: 村庄规划是进行乡村治理与管理的重要手段,也是开展国土空间开发保护活动、实施乡村国土空间用途管制、核发乡村建设项目规划许可、进行各项乡村建设等的法定依据。回顾村镇规划发展历程,与国家政策密不可分,并呈动态性、时效性发展特征。论文通过梳理村镇规划的发展历程,剖析其各阶段发展背景、特点、问题,为新时期村镇规划编制提供基础与思路。

                                  关键词: 村镇规划; 发展历程; 浅议;

                                  Abstract: Village planning is an important means of rural governance and management, as well as the legal basis for carrying out land space development and protection activities, implementing the control of rural land space use, issuing the planning permission of rural construction projects, and carrying out various rural construction. Reviewing the development process of village and town planning is closely related to the national policy, and has the characteristics of dynamic and timely development. By combing the development process of village and town planning, this paper analyzes the development background, characteristics and problems of each stage, so as to provide the basis and ideas for the preparation of village and town planning in the new era.

                                  Keyword: village and town planning; development process; discussion;
                                 

                                我国村镇规划发展的四阶段探析
                                 

                                  1、 引言

                                星云棋牌官网下载   CUNZHENGUIHUAMENGYAYURENMINGONGSHEGUIHUA,TADEFAZHANYUGUOJIAZHENGCEMIBUKEFEN。ZHAOHU(2011)ANZHAOCUNZHENFAZHANBEIJING、CUNZHENGUIHUAFAGUIZHENGCEDECHUTAISHUNXUJIGUIHUADUIXIANGDEBIANHUAJIANG1979-2011DECUNZHENGUIHUAFENWEIQIBU(1978-1986)、CHUBUWANSHAN(1987-1997)、JINYIBUTANSUO(1998-2007)、CHENGXIANGTONGCHOU(2008-)DENG4GEJIEDUAN。HEXINGHUA(2018)CONGZHENGFUBUMENGONGZUO、GUIHUABIANZHIWEIZHUXIANJIANGCUNZHENGUIHUAFENWEI1958-1977(GONGSHEGUIHUA)、1978-1997(CUNZHENZONGTIGUIHUAYUCUNZHENJIANSHEGUIHUA)、1998-2017(XIAOCHENGZHENGUIHUA、XIANGCUNJIANSHEGUIHUA)DENG3GEJIEDUAN(CANJIANHEXINGHUA:《GUIHUAXIAXIANGLIUSHINIAN·KOUSHULISHI》,2018NIAN)。SUNYING、ZHANGSHANGWU(2017)ANZHAOCUNZHENJIANSHEHUODONGTEZHENGFENWEIMINGUOXIANGCUNJIANSHEHUODONG(1920-1940)、NONGCUNSHEHUIZHUYIGAIZAOHERENMINGONGSHEYUNDONG(1950NIANDAI)、NONGCUNGAIGEHECUNZHENJIANSHE(1980-1990)、XINNONGCUNJIANSHE(2000-)DENG4GEJIEDUAN[1]。SUIRANJIEDUANHUAFENLVEYOUCHAYI,DANCUNZHENGUIHUADEMENGYAYUFAZHAN、ZHUANXINGYUZHENXINGBANSUIZHEGUOJIAZHENGCEDEGENGTI、FAGUIBIAOZHUNDEWANSHAN、GUANLIJIGOUDEZHONGZU。YINCI,BENWENYIZHONGDASHIJIANYUSHIJIANJIEDIANWEIBIAOZHUN,JIANGQIHUAFENWEI4GEJIEDUAN,ZONGJIEGEJIEDUANDEBEIJING、TEDIAN、WENTI(JIANBIAO1)。

                                  表1 村镇规划4个发展阶段一览表
                                表1 村镇规划4个发展阶段一览表

                                星云棋牌官网下载   ZILIAOLAIYUAN:ZUOZHEZHENGLI。

                                  2 、村镇规划萌芽探索阶段(1949-1978)

                                星云棋牌官网下载   GAIJIEDUANYI“RENMINGONGSHE”WEIJICENGZUZHIDANWEI,DUIXIANGCUNDEGONGYE、NONGYE、SHANGYE、WENHUAJIAOYUDENGJINXINGYINDAOYUZUZHI,TIXIANZHONGYANGDUIXIANGCUNZISHANGERXIADEGUANLIYUJINGJIKONGZHI。1958NIANHOUZAIGUOJIANONGYEBU、JIANZHUGONGCHENGBUZHUDAOXIAQUANGUOKAIQIRENMINGONGSHEGUIHUAYUNDONG,GUIHUADENEIRONGCHUNONG、LIN、MU、YUWAI,HAIBAOKUOPINGZHENGTUDI、ZHENGXIUDAOLU、JIANSHEXINCUNDENG。QUANGUONONGCUNYI“NONGYEXUEDAZHAI”MUBIAO,KAIZHANNONGTIANSHUILIJIBENJIANSHEHUODONG,NONGCUNSHITANG、TUOERSUO、NONGCUNZHONGXUEDENGSHESHIDALIANGPUJI,DIANDINGXIANGCUNJICHUGEJU。

                                星云棋牌官网下载   YUNDONGSHI、KOUHAOSHIDECUNZHENGUIHUAYUJIANSHE,YINTUOLISHIJI、QUEFAXIANGYINGDEGUIHUALILUNZHIDAO、QUESHAOGUIHUAZHUANYEJISHURENYUANZHICHENG,DAOZHICUNZHENGUIHUAYUJIANSHEXIAOGUOBUJIA。

                                  3 、村镇规划奠基成长阶段(1979-1997)

                                  1978NIAN,XIANGCUNTUDIGAIGE,TICHUJIATINGLIANCHANCHENGBAOZERENZHI,BINGYU1984NIANXIANGCUNQUANMIANSHISHIJIATINGLIANCHANCHENGBAOZERENZHI,CIJUXUNSUTUIJINLEXIANGCUNSHEHUIYUJINGJIFAZHAN。NONGFANGJIANSHEXUQIUGAOZHANG,JIHUSHI“JIAJIABEILIAO,CUNCUNDONGTU”,YINQUEFACUNZHENGUIHUA、JIANSHEFAGUIJIZHUGUANJIGOUYINDAO,NONGCUNJIANFANGLUANZHANLANYONGGENGDIWENTITUCHU。WEIEZHICIXIANXIANG,GUOJIANONGWEI、GUOJIAJIANWEIDENG5BUMENYU1981NIAN12YUELIANHEZHAOKAILEDIERCIQUANGUONONGCUNFANGWUJIANSHEGONGZUOHUIYI,ZHICHU“ZHUAJINZHIDINGCUNZHENJIANSHEFAGUI、ZHUAHAOCUNZHENGUIHUA、ZHUANGDACUNZHENJIANSHEJISHULILIANG”DENGNEIRONG,GUOWUYUANPIZHUANBINGTICHU“BACUNZHENGUIHUAHEJIANSHEBAISHANGYISHIRICHENG……QIESHIGAOHAOGUIHUA”,ZHEIBIAOZHIZHECUNZHENGUIHUAJINRUGUOJIAJINGJI、SHEHUIFAZHANJIHUA(HEXINGHUA,2017)。1982NIANBANBUDE《CUNZHENGUIHUAYUANZE》MINGQUELECUNZHENGUIHUADERENWU,WEICUNZHENGUIHUABIANZHITIGONGLEJISHUBIAOZHUN(ZHAOHU,2011),TONGNIANZHIDINGDE《CUNZHENJIANFANGYONGDIGUANLITIAOLI》WEICUNZHUANGGUIHUAGUANLITIGONGLEFAGUIYIJU。ZAICIQIJIANQUANGUOBIANZHILESHUWANGEZHENJISHUBAIWANGECUNDEGUIHUA,ZHI1989NIANDIQUANGUONONGCUNGONGXINJIANZHUFANG67×108m2,XIANGDANGYUQIAN30NIANJIANFANGZONGLIANGDE2BEIDUO,8600WANHUNONGMINQIANRUXINJU,ZHANQUANGUOZONGNONGHUDE43%;XINJIANSHENGCHANXINGJIANZHU7.2×108m2,GONGGONGJIANZHU6.8×108m2。YI“BAOHUGENGDI、KONGZHIYONGDI、GUIFANNONGFANGJIANSHE、ANPAIYINGJIJIANSHE”WEIZHONGDIANDECUNZHEN(CHUBU)GUIHUA,CUNZAISHANGXIACENGCIGUIHUATUOJIE、JINYUANQIGUIHUATUOJIE、XINJIANYUBAOLIUQUYUTUOJIEDENGWENTI,QUESHAODUICUNZHENTIXI、CHENGXIANGBUJUDETONGCHOUANPAI[2]。TONGSHIXIANGZHENQIYEDEFAZHAN(1984)DAIDONGXIANGCUNGONGYEHUA、CHENGZHENHUA、XIANDAIHUAFAZHAN,XIYINXIANGCUNRENKOUWAILIU,GAIBIANXIANGCUNJIUYEYUCHANYEJIEGOU,CUJINXIAOCHENGZHENDEKUAISUFAZHAN。

                                  JIYUCI,“QIWU”JIHUAYIHOU,CHENGXIANGJIANSHEHUANJINGBUYINFA《YIJIZHENJIANSHEWEIZHONGDIANDIAOZHENGHEWANSHANCUNZHENGUIHUAGONGZUODEYAOQIU》DETONGZHI((87)CHENGZI271HAO),TICHUDUICUNZHENGUIHUAJINXINGDIAOZHENGYUWANSHAN,YIJIZHENWEIZHONGDIANJIAQIANGCUNZHENJIANSHEGONGZUO,BINGBANBULE《CUNZHUANGHEJIZHENGUIHUAJIANSHEGUANLITIAOLI》、(GB50188—93)《CUNZHENGUIHUABIAOZHUN》、《JIANZHIZHENGUIHUAGUANLIBANFA》DENGFAGUI(ZHAOHU,2011)。

                                星云棋牌官网下载   GAIJIEDUANCUNZHENGUIHUADEDAOLEZHANGYUANFAZHAN,CONGGUANLIJIGOU、FAGUIBIAOZHUN、JISHURENYUANDENGXIANGBIRENMINGONGSHESHIQIYOUHENDADETISHENG,DANCHENGXIANGERYUANJIEGOUXIADEGUIHUAGUANLIZHIDUSHI“JIUCHENGSHILUNCHENGSHI、JIUXIANGCUNLUNXIANGCUN”。1989NIANBANBUDE《CHENGSHIGUIHUAFA》SHIWEIHELIZHIDINGCHENGSHIGUIHUAHEJINXINGCHENGSHIJIANSHEERZHIDINGDEFALV,CUNZHENGUIHUAZHIYOUGUIHUABIAOZHUN、BIANZHIBANFA、GUANLITIAOLI,DANWUFAKEZUN。ZAICIJIEDUAN,CUNZHENGUIHUAZUOWEIYIGEDULIDEZHENGTI,YOUGAIGEKAIFANGCHUDANYIDENONGFANGJIANSHEGUIHUAXIANGYIJIZHENWEIZHONGXINDEZONGHEGUIHUAZHUANBIAN。

                                  4、 村镇规划城乡统筹阶段(1998-2016)

                                  XIANGZHENQIYEDEFAZHAN、XIANGCUNRENKOUDEWAILIU、XIAOCHENGZHENDEKUAISUFAZHANDAOZHIXIANGCUNRIYIBEIBIANYUANHUA。“CHENGXIANGFENZHI”,ZHONGCHENGSHIQINGNONGCUNDAOZHICHENGXIANGCHAJU、SANNONGWENTIYUELAIYUETUCHU。WEIPOCHUKUNJING,GUOJIAXIANGJITICHU“XIAOCHENGZHENDAZHANLVE”(1998NIANSHIWUJIESANZHONGQUANHUI)、CHENGXIANGTONGCHOUFAZHAN(2002NIANSHILIUDA)、SHEHUIZHUYIXINNONGCUNJIANSHE(2005NIANSHILIUJIEWUZHONGQUANHUI)、“CHENGXIANGYITIHUA”(SHIQIJIESANZHONGQUANHUI)、XINXINGCHENGZHENHUA(2014)DENG,YIQISHIXIANYIGONGCUNONG、YICHENGCUXIANGFAZHAN,SUOXIAOCHENGXIANGFAZHANCHAJU,GAISHANCHENGXIANGERYUANJINGJIJIEGOU。

                                  ZAICIBEIJINGXIA,WEILUOSHI“TONGCHOUCHENGXIANGXIEDIAOFAZHAN”JIANLITONGYIDECHENGXIANGGUIHUATIXI,2008NIANQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIDUIYUAN《CHENGSHIGUIHUAFA》JINXINGXIUDING,QUELICUNZHENGUIHUADEFALVXING,BINGMINGQUECUNZHENGUIHUADEZHIDING、SHISHI、XIUGAI、JIANDUJIANCHA、FALVZERENDENGNEIRONG。CUNYUZHENGUIHUAFENKAIBIANZHI,QIZHONGXIANGZHENGUIHUABAOKUOZHEN(XIANG)YUGUIHUAHEZHENQU(JIZHEN)JIANSHEGUIHUALIANGBUFEN,CUNZHUANGGUIHUABAOKUOCUNYUGUIHUAHECUNZHUANGJIANSHEGUIHUALIANGBUFEN。CUNZHENGUIHUAZHUZHONGXIANGCUNYUCHENGSHIDEQUYUTONGCHOUYULIANDONG,GEDIKAIZHANSHIXIANXIANGCUNJIANSHEGUIHUA、CUNZHUANGBUDIANGUIHUADENGCUNZHENTIXIGUIHUA。

                                星云棋牌官网下载   SUIZHESHIBADATICHUSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHE、MEILIZHONGGUOJIANSHEDENG,MEILIXIANGCUNGUIHUA、MEILIYIJUGUIHUA、WEIFANGZHENGZHI、NONGCUNGAICEDENGCEZHONGRENJUHUANJINGDEZHUANXIANGGUIHUASHENGXING,TONGSHIZAIXIANGCUNCHANYEFAZHANSHANGYEJINXINGLEYIXILIETANSUO,GEDIXIANGJIKAIZHANTESEXIAOZHEN、TIANYUANZONGHETI、NONGYEGONGYUAN、XIANGCUNLVYOUDENGZHUANXIANGGUIHUA。

                                  GAIJIEDUANGUIHUAYANJIUYUDIFANGJIANSHEYI“CHENGXIANGTONGCHOU”WEIZHUTIJINXINGSHIJIANYUTANSUO。BIRU,CHENGDOUZUOWEIQUANGUOTONGCHOUCHENGXIANGZONGHEPEITAOGAIGESHIYANQUYI“QUANYUCHENGDOU”WEILINIAN,GOUJIANTONGCHOUCHENGXIANGDEGUIHUATIXI。CUNZHENGUIHUACONGZUICHUDENONGFANGJIANSHEGUIHUAHECHENGXIANGTONGCHOUGUIHUA,ZHUANYIDAOZHUZHONGCUNZHUANGSHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHU、CUNRONGCUNMAOZHENGZHI、CHANYEFAZHANDENGFANGMIAN,RUTU1SUOSHI。

                                  图1 城乡统筹相关论着发文量趋势图(知网)
                                图1 城乡统筹相关论着发文量趋势图(知网)

                                  5、 村镇规划振兴转型阶段(2017—)

                                星云棋牌官网下载   LIJINGTONGCHOUCHENGXIANGFAZHANJIEDUAN,BINGWEISHIXIANYICHENGZHENDAIDONGNONGCUNFAZHAN,CHENGXIANGERYUANJIEGOUJICHENGXIANGCHAJUYIRANCUNZAI,“SANNONG”WENTIYIRANSHIZUAIWOGUOXINXINGCHENGZHENHUA、XIANDAIHUADEZHONGYAOYINSU。ZAICIBEIJINGXIA,19DATICHUXIANGCUNZHENXINGZHANLVE,BINGJIANGQIXIERUDANGZHANG。SUIZHIGUOJIA“JINLUOMIGU”XIANGJICHUTAILEYIXILIEDEXINGDONGFANGAN、ZHANLVEGUIHUA、SHISHIYIJIAN。2018NIAN1HAOWENJIAN《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUOWUYUANGUANYUSHISHIXIANGCUNZHENXINGZHANLVEDEYIJIAN》TICHUXIANGCUNZHENXINGDEJUTIRENWUYUYAOQIU,BINGTICHU“CHANYEXINGWANG、SHENGTAIYIJU、XIANGFENGWENMING、ZHILIYOUXIAO、SHENGHUOFUYU”DEZONGYAOQIU。

                                  ZAICIJIEDUAN,CUNZHENGUIHUASHEHUIXINGYUZONGHEXINGJIAQIANG,DASHUJU、GISDENGXINJISHUDUICUNZHENGUIHUACHANSHENGYIDINGDEYINGXIANG。XIANGMINZIFAXINGJIAQIANG,YIGONGZHONGCANYU、XIANGCUNZHILIDENGWEIHEXINDECUNZHENGUIHUAGENGJUSHISHIXING。CUNZHENGUIHUAGENGQIANGDIAOSHIYONGXING,CHANSHENGYILIEXIANGZHENZHENGZHIGUIHUA、XINGDONGGUIHUA、WENLVGUIHUADENGZHUANXIANGGUIHUA。

                                  6 、结论

                                  CUNZHENGUIHUAJINGLISIJIEDUANFAZHANZHIJIN,QIGUIHUANEIRONG、JIANSHEZHONGDIAN、GONGZUOJIZHI、GUANLIJIGOUSHIZHONGCHUYUDONGTAIDIAOZHENGBIANHUAZHONG,YUZHONGYANGDUI“SANNONG”DEZHENGCEYANBIAN、CHENGXIANGZIYUANPEIZHIQUXIANG、GONGNONGFAZHANHUDONGGUANXIDENGYINGXIANGYINSUJINMIXIANGGUAN。CUNZHENGUIHUAYECONGCHENGXIANGFENGEDAOGUANZHUCHENGXIANGTONGCHOU、CONGGUANZHUCUNRONGCUNMAOZHENGZHIDAOGUANZHUXIANGCUNQUANMIANZHENXING、CONGZHIGUANZHUNONGFANGJIANSHEDAOXIANSHIYUTONGCHOUGUIHUA、GUIHUALILUNCONGJINGYANGANXINGDAOLIXINGJISHUZHUANBIANDENG。TONGSHICUNZHENGUIHUAYEYIZHICUNZAIJICHUZILIAOQUESHI、GUIHUARENCAIYUJIANGUANJINGFEIBUZU、GUIHUABIANZHISHIYONGXINGBUGOUDENGWENTI。

                                  CUNZHENZUOWEIWOGUOZUIJIBENDEXINGZHENGHEJINGJIDANYUAN,CUNZHENKONGJIANSHIGUOTUKONGJIANDE“MOSHAOSHENJING”ZUZHIDANWEI,QIKONGJIANZHUTISHIXIANGMIN,CUNZHENGUIHUAJIYOUYUZISHANGERXIADEGUOJIAZHENGCEGUANKONGYAOQIU,YEYOUZIXIAERSHANGDEXIANGMINDUI“LAOYOUSUOYANG、YOUYOUSUOYU、BINGYOUSUOYI、PINYOUSUOYI、NANYOUSUOZHU”(KONGZI《LIJI·LIYUNPIAN》)DEXUQIU。YINCI,BIZHERENWEI,XINSHIQIDECUNZHENGUIHUAYINGSHI“SIDAOXIANG”XIADEGUIHUA。SHOUXIAN,CUNZHENGUIHUACHONGFENTIXIANGUOTUKONGJIANTIXIGAIGEDEJINGSUI,YI“8TONGCHOU1MINGQUE”WEIHEXINYINDAOCUNZHENSANSHENGKONGJIANYOUXUBAOHUYUFAZHAN。QICI,CUNZHENGUIHUAYINGYIXIANGMINXUQIUWEIDAOXIANG,YOUQIYINGGUANZHULIUSHOURENQUN(LAOREN、ERTONG、FUNV)DEJIANKANG、ANQUAN、JIAOYU、XINLIXUQIU,TONGGUOSHEZHILAONIANSHITANG、AIXINGUANZHUZHAN、LAONIANGONGYUAN、JINGLAOHUODONGDENGSHIXIAN“LAOYOUSUOYANG”;TONGGUOSHEZHINONGCUNSISHU,ZHENGJIXIANGXIAN、DAXUESHENGXIAXIANGWEILIUSHOUERTONGTIGONGJIAOYUFUDAOSHIXIANYOUYOUSUOYU;TONGGUOSHEZHIYILIAOJIUZHUZHAN、YISHENGXIAXIANG、YUANCHENGYILIAODENGJIUYIXINGSHISHIXIAN“BINGYOUSUOYI”。DISAN,CUNZHENGUIHUAYINGPEIYUCUNZHENNEISHENGFAZHANDONGLI,CUJINYICHANXIANGERSANCHANRONGHEDAIDONGCUNZHENJINGJIFAZHANSHIXIAN“PINYOUSUOYI、NANYOUSUOZHU”。DISI,CUNZHENGUIHUAZUOWEIZHIDAOCUNZHENJIANSHEDEXIANGXIGUIHUA,YINGGUIBICHUANTONGCUNZHENGUIHUASHISHIXINGRUO、LUODINANDEWENTI,TONGGUOXIANGTUCAILIAOYINGYONG、JIUDIGAIZAODENGFANGSHIJIANGDIJIANSHECHENGBENTIGAOSHISHIXING。

                                  参考文献

                                  [1]孙莹,张尚武.我国乡村规划研究评述与展望[J].城市规划学刊,2017(4):74-80.
                                  [2]何兴华.中国村镇规划:1979~1998[J].城市与区域规划研究,2017,9(3):176-196.

                                  舒美荣.村镇规划发展历程回顾及浅议[J].工程建设与设计,2019(23):4-6.
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