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                          学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 土木建筑论文 > 城市规划论文

                          交通对特大城市景观格局的影响与对策

                          时间:2014-09-06 来源:未知 作者:学术堂 本文字数:5203字
                          摘要

                          星云棋牌官网下载   SUIZHEWOGUOCHENGSHIHUADEJINCHENG,CHENGSHIBUDUANKUOZHANG,DAILAILECHENGSHIGUIMODEBUDUANZENGDA。JIEZHIDAO 2011 NIAN,ZHONGGUOCHENGSHIJIANCHENG QU ZONG MIAN JI YOU 1990 NIAN DE 12856km²SHENG ZHI43603. 23km²[1].GUANYUTEDACHENGSHIDEJIEDINGCUNZAIZHENGYI,2014 NIAN《ZHONGGUOCHENGSHIFAZHANBAOGAO》ZHONGJIANGTEDACHENGSHIJIEDINGWEICHENGQURENKOUZAI 100 WANRENYISHANGDECHENGSHI。BAOGAOHAIZHICHU,2012 NIANCHENGQUZONGRENKOUZAI 100 WANRENYISHANGDETEDACHENGSHI,ZHONGGUOYOU 66 ZUO,ERBEIJINGZUOWEICHENGQURENKOUZAI 1000 WANRENYISHANGDECHENGSHI,BEIFENJIWEITEDACHENGSHIZHONGDEJUXINGCHENGSHI[2].TEDACHENGSHIYINFALEGEZHONGGEYANGDEWENTI,BAOKUOJIAOTONGYALI、HUANJINGWURAN、ZIYUANFENPEIBUJUNDENG[3].

                            1 交通对城市发展的主导作用

                          星云棋牌官网下载   1. 1 CHENGSHIJIAOTONGNENGLIDEFAZHANSHITEDACHENGSHIGUIMOXINGCHENGDEZHONGYAOJICHU

                          星云棋牌官网下载   MANGFUDETICHUWEILAICHENGSHIFAZHANDESANGEZHONGYAOYINSUSHITONGQINSHIJIANYUFANGSHI、TUDILIYONGHESHUIZIYUANGONGYING。QIZHONG,TONGQINSHIJIANYUTUDILIYONGDOUYITUOYUCHENGSHIJIAOTONGWANGLUO[4].LIANGCISHIJIEDAZHANQIJIAN,JIAOTONGYUNSHUJISHUDEJINZHANTIGONGHEBAOZHENGLEYOUXIAODETONGQINSHIJIAN,LUNDUNDEDIANQIHUOCHE,SHICHENGSHIDEYOUXIAOMIANJINENGBIGUOQUDEXIANDUKUODA4 ~5 BEI[5].YINCI,CHENGSHIJIAOTONGSHITEDACHENGSHIXINGCHENGDEZHUYAOQIANTIZHIYI。

                            1. 2 CHENGSHIJIAOTONGJUEDINGLECHENGSHIDEKONGJIANJIEGOU

                            GUDAIYIBUXINGWEIZHUDEJIAOTONGXINGSHIXIANZHILECHENGSHIDEGUIMOHEJIEQUDECHIDU。1819 NIANZAIBALICHUXIANLEDUORENTONGCHENGDEMACHE,CHENGWEIJINDAICHENGSHIGONGGONGJIAOTONGDEKAIDUAN[7].NIUYUEMANHADUNXIACHENG80 ×110m DELUWANGJIEGOUZHENGSHIMACHEJIAOTONGSHIDAIDECHANWU。SUIZHEJIAOTONGFANGSHIDEBUDUANFAZHAN,CHENGSHIKONGJIANCHIDUZAIGAIBIAN,KONGJIANJIEGOUBUDUANBIANHUA。YOUYUQICHEDENGJIAOTONGGONGJUDESHIYONG,CHENGSHIYOULEQIANSUOWEIYOUDEKUOZHANGLI,CHUXIANLECHENGSHIMANYAN。ERGUIDAOJIAOTONGDECHUXIANYESHIDEWEIXINGCHENGCHENGWEIKENENG,RUBALIMAENLAWALAIXINCHENGYITUO RER QINGGUIJIANSHEFAZHAN( TU1) .BEIJINGDECHENGSHIGEJUSUIZHEERHUANZHILIUHUANCHENGSHIDAOLUDEJIANSHEERZHUJIANCHENGXIANTANDABINGDEMANYANQUSHI,ZAIDITIE、QINGGUI、GAOTIEDENGJIAOTONGWANGLUODEJIANSHEGUOCHENGZHONG,WEILAIDEJINGJINJIDIQUDADOUSHIQUANJIANGZHONGDIANYILAICHENGSHIJIAOTONGZHEIYIZHUDAOYINSU( TU2) .

                            1. 3 JIAOTONGFANGSHITUIDONGZHECHENGSHIGUIHUALILUNDEFAZHAN

                          星云棋牌官网下载   CONGHUOHUADEDEHUAYUANCHENGSHIDAOLAITEDEGUANGMUCHENGSHIGOUXIANG,DAOKEBUXIYEDEMINGRICHENGSHI,MATADEDAIXINGCHENGSHI,JIAOTONGDOUJUEDINGZHECHENGSHIDEMOSHI。QICHECHENGWEIGONGYESHIDAICHENGSHIDEJIBENJIAOTONGFANGSHI,CONGERYINGXIANGCHENGSHIKONGJIANJIEGOU。TANGMUXUNZAI 20SHIJI 70 NIANDAIZONGJIELEWUZHONGJIAOTONGYUCHENGSHIBUJUJIEGOUDEGUANXIMOXING: WANQUANQICHEHUAMOXING、RUOSHIZHONGXINMOXING、QIANGSHIZHONGXINMOXING、DICHENGBENMOXING、QICHEJIAOTONGXIANZHIMOXING[6].20 SHIJIWANQI,KAERSUOPU( Peter Calthorp) TICHU“YIGONGGONGJIAOTONGWEIDAOXIANGDECHENGSHIFAZHANMOSHI”,JI TOD ( Transit-OrientedDevelopment) ,SHIYIZHONGTONGGUODUIJIAOTONGZHANDIANFUJINDETUDIGAOQIANGDUZONGHEKAIFALIYONGERSHIXIANJIAOTONGZHUDAODECHENGSHIFAZHANKAIFAMOSHI[10].

                            YUZHONGXIAOCHENGSHIXIANGBI,CHENGSHIJIAOTONGDUITEDACHENGSHIDEYINGXIANGGENGJIATUCHU。TEDACHENGSHIYICHENGQUMANYANWEIJICHU,JIANSHEYONGDIBUDUANQINSHIJIAOQU、NONGTIANHELINDI。ZAIZHEIYIGUOCHENGZHONG,GAOSUGONGLUSHICHENGSHIMANYANCHENGWEIKENENG,ERMANYANYAOQIUGENGDUODEGAOSUGONGLU,ZHOUERFUSHI,JIHUMEIYOUZHIJING[11].

                            2 交通对特大城市景观格局的影响

                            ZAITEDACHENGSHIDEFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONG,JIAOTONGWANGLUODEMANYANYUJIANSHEYONGDIBUDUANKUODA,YIGEJUDADEDAIJIAJIUSHICHENGSHIBIANYUANYIJIJIAOQUSHENGWUDUOYANGXINGDEPOHUAI,RUQIXIDIDESANGSHIHETUIHUA、SHENGJINGBANKUAIPOSUIHUA、DAXINGGONGCHENGSHESHIDEJIANSHEQIEDUANLESHENGWUQIANXIDELANGDAO、ZIRANBAOHUQUDENGZHUYAOSHENGWUQIXIDIZHIJIANQUEFAYOUXIAOLIANJIEDENG[12].JIAOTONGWANGLUODUIJINGGUANGEJUDEYINGXIANGZHUYAOZAISANGEFANGMIAN。

                            2. 1 LVDIMIANJISUOJIAN

                            BAOKUOLINDI、NONGTIAN、SHUITIZAINEIDELVDIMIANJISUOXIAO,DAOZHICHENGSHILVLIANGBUZU,YINGXIANGSHENGTAIHUANJING,RUDUIKONGQIWURANWUDEXIFUHECHENJI,DUIREDAOXIAOYINGDEXIAOJIAN,DUIWUZHONGQIXIDIDEPOHUAI,LVDIDEXIAOSHIZENGJIALEZIRANZAIHAIDEKENENGXING[13].

                            JIAOTONGDEKAIFACUJINLECHENGSHIMANYANDESUDU,JINERDAILAIDALIANGJIANSHEYONGDIDEZENGJIA。TONGSHI,WEILEMANZUCHELIANGDECHANGTONGWUZU,MUSUYESHIDELIJIAOQIAO、GEZHONGLEIXINGDEDAOLUHETINGCHECHANGDOUZHANYONGLEDALIANGDETUDI。JIANSHEYONGDIKUOZHANSHIYINGXIANGBEIJINGTUDILIYONGBIANHUADESHOUYAOYUANYIN。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   CONG 1985 NIANDAO 2007 NIAN,BEIJINGSHIJIANSHEYONGDIDEGUIMOCONG 1410km²ZENGJIADAO 3038km²,PINGJUNMEINIANZENGJIA 74km²,ZHIJIEZAOCHENGFEIJIANSHEYONGDISHULIANGDEJIANSHAO。QIZHONGGENGDI、YUANDI、SHUIYUSHIZHUANHUACHENGJIANSHEYONGDIDEZHUYAOLEIXING,ZHIJIEDAOZHICHENGSHIQUYUNEILVDIMIANJIDEJIANSHAO[12]( TU 3) .

                          星云棋牌官网下载   2. 2 JINGGUANPOSUIDUZENGJIA

                            JIAOTONGXITONGDEKUOZHANZAOCHENGLEJINGGUANPOSUIHUA,POSUIDUBANKUAIYUEXIAO,ZHONGQUNMIDUJIANGDIDECHENGDUYUEDA,MIEJUEDESUDUYEYUEKUAI[15].JINGGUANBANKUAISUOXIAO,DAOZHIBUNENGWEISHENGWUTIGONGZUGOUDESHENGCUNKONGJIAN,YEYINGXIANGSHENGTAIGONGNENGDEFAHUI,RUXIAOCHUREDAO、BAOHUSHENGWUDUOYANGXING、HANYANGSHUIYUANDOUXUYAOBANKUAIJUYOUYIDINGDEGUIMO。BANKUAIYUEDA( JICHUZIYUANJIUYUEHAO) ,QIEJULIYUEJIN,DUIYUWUZHONGDEXIYINLIYUEDA[16].

                            ZAIJIAOQU,DAOLUDEJIANSHECHANGCHANGSHENRUJINGGUANBANKUAIDENEIBU,FENGEBANKUAI,SHIDEJINGGUANZHUJIANPOSUIHUA。XIANGGUANYANJIUBIAOMING,BEIJINGCHENGSHIFAZHANXINQUDEBANKUAISHULIANGYIJIMIDUZAIZHUBUZENGJIA,JINGGUANPOSUIHUACHENGDUJIASHEN,JIANCHENGQUBANKUAIMIANJIZENGDAQIECHENGMANYANTAISHIFAZHAN。ZHEIZHONGZIRANJINGGUANGEJUDEBIANHUAHEPOSUIJIANRUOLEJINGGUANKANGGANRAOHEDIYUZIRANZAIHAIDENENGLI,SHENGTAIHUANJINGCHENGZAILIYOUSUOXIAJIANG[17].

                          星云棋牌官网下载   2. 3 JINGGUANLIANTONGDUXIAJIANG

                            JINGGUANDEPOSUIHUAYEYIWEIZHEDILIXUESHANGDEGELI[14],ZAOCHENGLEJINGGUANLIANTONGDUDEXIAJIANG。LIRU,GAOSUGONGLUYIJIJIANSHAOCHELIANGYUYESHENGDONGWUJIAOTONGSHIGUDEZHALANDENG,ZUDUANHEFENGELEYESHENGDONGWUQIANXIDELUXIAN,DUIDONGWUZHONGQUNDEJIANKANGSHIFENBULI[13].

                            北京在 1998 年 11 月,八达岭高速建成通车;2000 年京沈高速公路通车; 2001 年 6 月京开高速公路通车; 2002 年底京承高速路通车。北京四环于2000 年 11 月建成通车; 北京五环 2003 年 10 月全线建成通车; 北京六环2009 年9 月实现全线贯通; 北京七环将于2015 年全线建成。交通网络带来了城市的飞速发展,一个重要的代价就是对北京地区景观格局的影响。城市路网附近的耕地和林地迅速转化为城市建设用地,自然廊道不断受到排挤而发生变形、破损、断裂甚至完全消失[18].同时,景观廊道被阻隔,影响物种的流动,导致生物多样性急速下降。

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