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                                    “鳖谋猴肝”故事及其流传特点分析

                                    时间:2018-12-21 来源:牡丹江大学学报 作者:焦茜茜 本文字数:7896字

                                      摘    要: “鳖谋猴肝”这个词语收录于佛学大词典,其源头可追溯到公元前三世纪印度的佛教寓言故事集《本生经》。《六度集经》中亦有“猕猴与鳖”的故事;最早记录朝鲜半岛历史的《三国史记》中有与之类似的“龟取兔肝”的叙述;在北欧,世界经典《安徒生童话》中也出现了“猴子与鳄鱼”的故事,在中国,《中国动物故事集》中收录的《猴子和青蛙》明显是这个故事的改编版。本文将梳理此故事流传中的变形故事并以其中的三个故事为主体,分析“鳖谋猴肝”故事流传中的变与不变,小的方面可见故事发生地的气候、物候、故事作者的性情,大的方面可窥见故事发生国家的文化背景及东西方文化的差异。

                                      关键词: 鳖谋猴肝; 猕猴与鳖; 龟取兔肝; 故事流传中的变与不变;

                                      Abstract: The term "turtle seek monkey's liver" is included in the Buddhist dictionary. Its origin can be traced back to the Buddhist fable collection Bensheng Sutra in India in the third century BC. There are also stories of "macaque and turtle" in the Six Degrees Collection; similar stories of "turtle seek rabbit's liver" in the Records of the History of the Three Kingdoms, which first recorded the history of the Korean Peninsula; and in Nordic Europe, the story of "monkey and crocodile" appeared in the world classic Andersen Fairy Tales. In China, the story of "monkey and frog" included in the Chinese Animal Tales Collection is obviously the story adapted version. This article will sort out the deformation stories in this story and take three stories as the main body to analyze the change and invariance in the spreading story. In a small way, we can see the climate, phenology and the character of the story author. In a big way, we can see the cultural background of the country where the story happened and the differences between the eastern and Western cultures.

                                      Keyword: turtle seek monkey's liver; macaque and turtle; turtle seek rabbit's liver; the change and invariance in the spreading story;

                                      “鳖谋猴肝”这个词语收录于佛学大词典,是佛教经典文化中的重要语汇和故事,其源头可追溯到公元前三世纪印度的佛教寓言故事集《本生经》。佛教另一瑰宝《六度集经》中亦有“猕猴与鳖”的故事,其故事情节与前者如出一辙;最早记录朝鲜半岛历史的《三国史记》中有与之类似的“龟取兔肝”的叙述,此外韩国还出现了《兔公传》《兔子传》《海龟和兔子肝》等故事;在日本,出现了《水母为什么没有骨头》《水母没有骨头》等变形故事;1在北欧,世界经典《安徒生童话》中也出现了“猴子与鳄鱼”的故事,在中国,上海文艺出版社1978年出版的《中国动物故事集》中收录的《猴子和青蛙》明显是这个故事的改编版;1992年广西人民出版社出版的《十二生肖文化丛书猴》中也收录了“猴子和青蛙”的故事。此外,1987年Houghton出版的图书《猴子和鳄鱼的故事》也是此故事的延长,讲述了小猴子和小鳄鱼斗智斗勇的故事。2000年,吉林美术出版社出版了《世界童话名着经典猴子和鳄鱼》,更是直接用收录的篇目《猴子和鳄鱼》作为封面书名。此外,各国民间故事和儿童读物中也或多或少流传着这个故事,故事情节基本不变,无非是换了人物,如将主人公鳄鱼换成青蛙,鳄鱼妈妈换成鳄鱼爸爸,将鳄鱼儿子换成鳄鱼丈夫等等;或者是加入细致细节以丰富故事情节,如鳖妻妒忌丈夫跟猕猴要好而佯卧病索求猕猴肝,又如日本同源故事中的结局是水母因泄密被拔掉了骨头,乌龟壳则被摔出了很多裂缝。2下面笔者将摘录两个故事的原文,再简要概述五个同类型故事,并以其中三个故事为主体着重分析流传中故事的变化及其原因。
                                     

                                    “鳖谋猴肝”故事及其流传特点分析
                                     

                                      一、几个“鳖谋猴肝”类型的故事

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                                      ——DAZHENGZANGDI03[No.0152

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                                      "My mother wants to eat your heart."The little monkey was clever."Why didn't you tell me earlier?"He asked."My heart isn't here with me.I left it in that tree over there."

                                      The crocodile waited for the monkey to come down again.As he was waiting,he suddenly heard a voice from above:"Hey,Crocodile!"The crocodile looked up.The monkey was hanging from the tree by his tail and laughing."Here's my heart.Come up and get it.Don't keep your mother waiting…You can't come up?Well,catch!"

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   With these words,he threw the big stone at the crocodile.

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                                      二、“鳖谋猴肝”故事流传中的“变”

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                                    星云棋牌官网下载   XIAMIANBIZHECONGYIXIASIFANGMIANCHANSHUBIAOGENEIRONG:

                                      (一)从施害者和潜在受害者看文化背景

                                      SANGEGUSHIDESHIHAIZHEHEQIANZAISHOUHAIZHEFENBIESHIBIE——GUI——EYU、MIHOU——TUZI——HOUZI,《BENSHENGJING》LITIDAOGUO“EYU”HE“BIE”,ZHIYU“GUI”SHILIUCHUANZHONGFASHENGLEBIANYI。CHAOXIANBANDAOJINGNEIDUOSHAN,SHANDIHEGAOYUANZHANQUANJINGZONGMIANJIDE80%,DABUSHUWENDAIJIFENGQIHOU,QIWENNIANJIAOCHADA,HANSHUBIANHUAJULIE,DONGJIHANLENGGANZAO,DUOANTIAN,XIAJIYANRE,DUOYINYUTIAN。EREYUDUOQIXIZAIDANSHUIZHONG(WANEZEKESHENGHUOYUHAISHUIZHONG)。EYUCHUSHAOSHUSHENGHUOZAIWENDAIDIQUWAI,DADUOSHENGHUOZAIREDAI、YAREDAIDIQUDEHELIU,HUBOHEDUOSHUIDEZHAOZE,YEYOUDESHENGHUOZAIKAOJINHAIANDEQIANTANZHONG。LINGWAI,BIEYEXISHENGHUOZAIJIANGHE、HUBO、CHITANGZHONG。CHAOXIANBANDAOZHEIYANGDEQIHOUTEDIANYUEYUHUOBIEDESHENGZHANGHUANJINGBUFU,GU《SANGUOSHIJI》DEZUOZHEJIANGYUANLAIGUSHIZHONGDE“EYU”“BIE”HUANCHENGCHANGJIANDE“GUI”,SHUXIDESHIWUSHIDERENMENGENGYIQINJIN,QIANZAISHOUHAIZHEYOUHOUHUANCHENGTUZIYINGGAIYEYOUZHEIFANGMIANDEYUANYIN。GUANYUZHEIYIDIAN,HANGUOXUEZHECHENGQISHUOYIJINGZUOLEHENJUSHUOFULIDEFENXI。TARENWEI:“YINWEIZAIHANGUOHOUZIBUNENGSHENGCUN,DUIYIBANMINZHONGERYAN,HOUZISHIFEICHANGMOSHENGDEDONGWU。BEIDAIDAOLONGGONGBINGNENGANQUANTAOTUODECONGMINGDEDONGWU,RENMENSHOUXIANXIANGDAODESHIDAGAIZHIYOUTUZINENGGOUZUODAO。RIBENMINJIANGUSHIZHONGDEDENGCHANGDONGWUHOUZIYEXIANGHANGUODETUZIYIYANGBEIMIAOXIEWEIJIZHIERMINJIEDEDONGWU。”4ZHEIYEFANYINGCHUZUOZHEJINFUSHIDEXIEZUOTEDIANZHIYI,GENGYUANYIMIAOXIEZIJIJIANGUODEDONGXI,TONGSHIYETIXIANLEWENXUECHUANGZUOZHEKEWANGDUIYUANSUCAIJINXINGJIAGONG、GAIBIANJINERCHENGWEIZIJILAODONGCHENGGUODEYIZHONGNEIZAICHUANGZUOXINLI。CIWAI,BIZHEXIANGBUCHONGYIDIAN:TUGAN,KERUYAO,ZHUYAOZUOYONGSHIBUGAN,MINGMU,ZHIGANXUXUANYUN、MUANHUNHU,MUYI,MUTONG;TUXIN,YESHIZHONGYAOCAIZHIYI,YOUZHENJING、ZHITONGDEGONGXIAO,YONGYUQICHUAN,XINCITONG、XINMEN、XINSHENBUAN、SHIMIANDENG。《SANGUOSHIJI》ZHONGXIE:“DONGHAILONGWANGBINGXIN,DETUGANDEYAOKELIAO。”,JIRANSHI“BINGXIN”,CONGSHANGMIANJIESHAODEGONGXIAOLAIKAN,BURUGAI“DETUGAN”WEI“DETUXIN”GENGFUHE“TUXINYIBINGXIN”DEGONGXIAO。XIANGBIJINFUSHISHIZHIJIEGAIBIANLIUCHUANXIALAIDEGUSHIZHONGDE“QUGAN”,BINGWEIKAOLVTAIDUO。《ANTUSHENGTONGHUA》ZHONG《HOUZIYUEYU》DEGUSHIJIHUYU《BENSHENGJING》ZHONG《EYUBENSHENG》DEGUSHIYIMOYIYANG,BUJINGUSHIQINGJIEXIANGYIGEMOZILIKECHULAIDE,JIULIANGUSHIDELIANGGEZHURENGONGYESIHAOMEIYOUGAIBIAN。DANMAISHUWENDAIHAIYANGXINGQIHOU,YUCHAOXIANBANDAOYIYANG,BINGBUFUHEEYUSHENGZHANGDEHUANJINGTIAOJIAN,YEJIUSHISHUOANTUSHENGZAIBENGUOJIBENSHIJIANBUDAOEYUDE,EYUHEHOUZIDEGUSHICONGGONGYUANQIANSANSHIJIYIZHILIUCHUANDAO19SHIJIDEOUZHOU,QIJIANGEZHONGYUZHILEISIDEGUSHIBANBENCENGCHUBUQIONG,DAOANTUSHENGZHEILIRENGNENGXIECHENGYU《EYUBENSHENG》JIHUYIYANGDEGUSHI,KEYITUIDUAN,ANTUSHENGYINGGAISHIDUGUO《EYUBENSHENG》YUANWEN,ZHISHAOSHIANYUANFOJINGGUSHILIUCHUANXIALAIDEMEIYOUJINGGUODABIANHUADEGUSHI。YEKEYIKANCHUANTUSHENGBINGBUTAIKANZHONGGUSHIDEZHURENGONGSHIFOUSHIZIJISHUZHIDESHIWU,TAFANGFOYOUZHEQIANGLIEDEHAOQIXINQULEJIESHIJIESHANGDEYIQIESHENGWU,TAYONGDANCHUNDETONGXINBAXINQI、YOUQUDEDONGXIXIECHENGTONGHUAGUSHIDAIJITIANZHENWUXIEDEHAITONGHEDAREN。GUANYUQIANZAISHOUHAIZHE“HOU”,GENGXIZHIDISHUO,JINGGUOLEYUANHOU——MIHOU——HOUZIDEYANBIAN,JUTIKECONGSHANGWENZHAILUCHUDE《MIHOUYUBIE》GUSHIYUANWENYIJI《EYUBENSHENG》《HOUZIHEEYU》DEGUSHIJIANJIEZHONGCHAKAN。BULUNSHIYUANHOU、MIHOUHAISHIHOUZI,CONGSHANGWENYINSHUDEGUSHIYUANWENZHONG,WOMENKEYIKANCHU“HOU”ZAIFOJIAOWENHUAZHONGDEZHONGYAODIWEI。“JIZHIZHIHOUWANGZEWEIFOZHIGUOQUSHEN”“YUANJIUSHIWO”GENGZHIJIESHUOCHUHOUZIBIANSHIFOZUDEHUASHEN。WOGUOGUDIANMINGZHE《XIYOUJI》ZHONGJIZAIYOU“SIDALINGHOU”,FENBIEWEILINGMINGSHIHOU、CHIKAOMAHOU、TONGBEIYUANHOUHELIUERMIHOU,TAMENGEYOUGEDEBENLINGYUSHENTONG。DIYISHILINGMINGSHIHOU,TONGBIANHUA,SHITIANSHI,ZHIDILI,YIXINGHUANDOU。DIERSHICHIKAOMAHOU,XIAOYINYANG,HUIRENSHI,SHANCHURU,BISIYANSHENG。DISANSHITONGBEIYUANHOU,NARIYUE,SUOQIANSHAN,BIANXIUJIU,QIANKUNMONONG。DISISHILIUERMIHOU,SHANLINGYIN,NENGCHALI,ZHIQIANHOU,WANWUJIEMING。ZHEISHUOMING,“HOU”ZAIYOUFOJIAOBEIJINGDEDIANJIZHONGSHIYIZHONGLINGWUDEDAIBIAO,JUYOUZHONGYAODEWENHUAHANYI。

                                      (二)中印文化相似性及影响关系浅探

                                      “BIEMOUHOUGAN”SHIFOJING《LIUDUJIJING》ZHONGDEGUSHI,SANGUOSHIDAIWUKANGSENGHUIFANYILECIJING。XUSHIYIZHEYIBIYUANGU,YIJU“BIEQIYOUJI”SHIBIZHEXIANGDAOLE《SHISHUOXINYU》ZHONGDEGUSHI:“XUNFENGQIANYUFUZHIDU,DONGYUEFUBINGRE,NAICHUZHONGTINGZIQULENG,HAIYISHENYUNZHI。FUWANG,FENGQIANHOUSHAOSHIYIZU。”CONGZHONGKEJIANZHONGGUOWENHUAHEYINDUWENHUAYOUXIANGSIDEWENHUACHUANTONG。YINDUWENHUAYINGXIANGZHONGGUOWENHUASHIYOUQIYIJUDE,LAOSHAOJIEZHIDEJIUYOUTANGCHAOXUANZHUANGFASHIYILUXIXING,BUCIXINLAODAOYINDUQUDEJINGWENDESHIJI。CIWAI,YINDUYUYANGUSHIDUIZHONGGUODEYINGXIANGBIJIAOMINGXIAN,ZHEISHIYINWEIDALIANGDEYINDUYUYANGUSHICENGJINGSUITONGFOJIAOWENHUAYIQICHUANRUZHONGGUO。GEZHONGZHONGGUOYUYANGUSHIJILIMIANDOUHUODUOHUOSHAO、ZIJUEBUZIJUEDISHOUJINLEYIXIEHANYIFOJINGGUSHI。BALIWEN《BENSHENGJING》SUIRANWEICENGYOUGUDAIHESHANGYICHENGHANYU,DANTONGGUOKOUCHUANHEQITASHAOSHUMINZUWENZIDEQUDAOYECHUANRULEZHONGGUO。LIRU,SHANGHAIWENYICHUBANSHE1978NIANCHUBANDE《ZHONGGUODONGWUGUSHIJI》ZHONGDE《PANGXIEHELUSI》(DAIZU)、《HOUZIHEQINGWA》(ZANGZU)、《GUDONG》(ZANGZU)、《LVDOUQUEHEXIANG》(DAIZU),JIUSHI《BENSHENGJING》ZHONGDE《CANGLUBENSHENG》《EYUBENSHENG》《DADABENSHENG》《ANCHUNBENSHENG》。QIZHONG,《HOUZIHEQINGWA》《EYUBENSHENG》BIZHEZAIQIANWENYIZHAILUXIANGXIWENBEN,KEZUOCANKAO。

                                      (三)从取肝/心原因及行骗诱饵看东西方文化差异

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIKANQUGAN/XINDEYUANYIN,FOJINGHE《SANGUOSHIJI》ZHONGDEJIEWEIMOURENYOUBING,XUYAOGAN/XIN,ERANTUSHENGTONGHUAZHONGZEZHIYANMOURENXIANGYAOMEICANYIDUN,CONGZHEILIBIANKEYIKANCHUDONGXIFANGWENHUADECHAYI。JINFUSHISHENGHUODECHAOXIANBANDAOZAIDANGSHISHISHOUZHONGGUOWENHUAYINGXIANGHENDADE,《SANGUOSHIJI》ZHEIYIGUANFANGZHENGSHIBIANSHIYONGHANWENBIANZHUANDE。MOURENSHENGBINGXUYAOSHENQICAOYAO、DONGWUNEIZANG、LINGDANMIAOYAOJINGCHANGCHUXIANZAIWOGUONEISHIDEWENXUEZUOPINZHONG,“DONGHAILONGWANGBINGXIN,DETUGANDEYAOKELIAO”MINGXIANSHISHOUWOGUOWENXUECHUANTONGDEYINGXIANG,CONGZHONGWOMENYOUKEFAXIANZHONGYINLIANGDAWENMINGGUGUOWENHUADEXIANGSIXING。CIWAI,CONG“XINGPIANSHISUOYONGYOUER”YEKEKANCHUDONGXIFANGZHICHAYI。CONGBIAOGEZHONGWOMENKEYIKANDAOZHEISANGEGUSHIZHONG“XINGPIANSHISUOYONGYOUER”FENBIEWEI:MIAOLE——JIADAO——XIANGJIAO。MIAOLEJIMEIMIAODEYINLE,ZHIYUJIADAO,YUANWENSHIZHEIYANGSHUODE:HAIZHONGYOUYIDAO,QINGQUANBAISHI,MAOLINJIAGUO,HANSHUBUNENGDAO,YINGSUNBUNENGQIN。ERRUODEZHI,KEYIANJUWUHUAN。DONGXIFANGXUEZHE、ZUOJIADANGRANDOUZHUZHONGQITAYISHUXINGSHIRUMEISHU、YINLEDUIGERENDEXUNTAO,DANDONGFANGXUEZHEGENGQINGXIANGYUJIANGCIZHONGSHENGHUOFANGSHIRONGRUYUWENXUEZUOPINZHIZHONG,SHENZHIJITUOYUDONGWUSHENSHANG,FANYINGLEYIZHONGQINGXINGUAYU、DANBOTIANJINGDEFOJIAOSIXIANG。TONGSHI,YEYINGXIANGCHUDONGFANGXUEZHEXIANGWANGDEJUZHUHUANJINGHESHENGHUOFANGSHI,ZHENGRULIUYUXI《LOUSHIMING》ZHONGSUOYAN:“TAIHENSHANGJIELV,CAOSERULIANQING。TANXIAOYOUHONGRU,WANGLAIWUBAIDING。KEYIDIAOSUQIN,YUEJINJING。WUSIZHUZHILUANER,WUANDUZHILAOXING”。

                                      (四)从真相公开及逃脱后言语、行为看东西方文化差异

                                      CONGQIANZAISHOUHAIZHEZHIDAOZHENXIANGHOUSUOYANJIQITAOTUOKUNJINGHOUYANYUHEXINGWEIZHONGYEKEKANCHUDONGXIFANGWENHUADECHAYI。《LIUDUJIJING》HE《SANGUOSHIJI》ZHONGDEHOUZIHETUZIZHIDAOZHENXIANGHOUSIYOUYIZHONGDAYILINRAN、JINANTIANXIADEQIPO,YAN“FUJIESHOUSHANZHICHANGYE,QUANJINANZHIDAYI。”“WUSHENMINGZHIHOU……WUSUIWUGANSHANGHUO,QIBULIANGXIANGYIZAI!”WEISHANQUE、QINGYUANXISHENGZISHENLIYIERQUFUJITARENDEFOJIAO、RUJIAOSIXIANGYUERANZHISHANG。YINYUEHAIYOUYIZHONGXUNJIE、YUJIAOYULEDECHENGFENZAILIMIAN,KANLAIYINDUDEYUYANGUSHIZHONGYOUSHIYEHUIYONGZHEIZHONGFANGFA。WOGUOXIANG《LIAOZHAIZHIYI》《SANYANERPAI》DENGZUOPINZHONGJINGCHANGHUIZAIWENMOSHAOJIABIMOYIGUIQUANSHIREN。ERYUCIDUIZHAO,《ANTUSHENGTONGHUA》ZHONGZEJIANDANMINGLEDUOLE,QITADUOYUDEHUADOUMEIYOUSHUO,ZHISHIGAOSUEYU“XINMEIYOUDAI”。CIWAI,HOUZIHETUZITAOTUOZHIHOUDEZUOFAYESHIBUYIYANGDE,DONGFANGDEHOUZISHANGANHOUMALEJU“SIBIECHONG”,CHAOXIANDETUZITUORUCAOZHONGSHUOLEJU“YUZAI!RUYE”,YEMEIYOUDUOSHUOSHENMELE,ZHEISHIHOUDAOSHIZHIJIEGANCUI;ERBEIOUDEHOUZIZEJINXIANDIAOPIDAODANZHINENGSHI,YUQIRENDESHENTAI、YUYAN、DONGZUOZHONGZHANXIANJICESHENGLIHOUDEXIYUEHEDEYI。DAOGUAZAISHUSHANGXIAO,HAICHAOEYURENGDASHITOU。DONGXIWENFENGZHICHAYIZAICIXIJIEZHONGKEJIANYIBAN,DANGRANZHEILIKENENGGENWENTILEIXINGJIZHEILIDEYUANWENSHITONGHUAGUSHIYOUYIDINGGUANXI,DANCONGZHONGWOMENHAISHINENGFAXIANYIXIEYOUYISIDEDONGXI。

                                      结语

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   YISHANGBIZHEZHISHIDUI“BIEMOUHOUGAN”ZHEIYIFOCHUANGUSHIMUTIJIQIBIANYIGUSHIZUOLEJIANDANFENXI,XUANQUDEZHISHIQIZHONGDESANGEGELI,ZHINENGTIGONGJIGESHIJIAO,CONGERFAXIANGUSHILIUCHUANZHONGDEYIXIEWENTI,SUISHUOXIAODEFANGMIANKEJIANGUSHIFASHENGDIDEQIHOU、WUHOU、GUSHIZUOZHEDEXINGQING,DADEFANGMIANKEKUIJIANGUSHIFASHENGGUOJIADEWENHUABEIJINGJIDONGXIFANGWENHUADECHAYI,DANQISHIYEZHISHIFANFANERTAN,SHIJISHANGXUYAOZUOGENGJIAZIXIHEDALIANGDEFENXIGONGZUO。XUEZHEZUOJIANGZAIQILUNWEN《DUIZHONGHANRISANGUOGUIHOUTICAIMINJIANGUSHIDEZAIKAOCHA》ZHONGDUIYUCIYOUYUANYUANGUANXIDESHIERGEGUSHIZUOLEXIANGXIKAOZHENGHEFENXI,KEGONGDAJIACANKAOJIEJIAN。

                                      参考文献

                                      [1](三国)康僧会,译撰.六度集经[M].陈引驰,编.广州:花城出版社,1998.
                                      [2](西晋)三藏竺法护,译.佛说本生经[M].吕有祥,译注.北京:宗教文化出版社,2005.
                                      [3] 金富轼.三国史记[M].汉城:景仁文化社,1977.
                                      [4] 左江.对中韩日三国龟猴题材民间故事的再考察[J].民族文学研究,2005(2).
                                      [5] 关敬吾.日本昔话大成[M].东京:东京角川书店,1979.
                                      [6]李伟昉.简明比较文学教程[M].北京:高等教育出版社,2014.
                                      [7]曾大兴.文学地理学概论[M].北京:商务印书馆,2017.
                                    星云棋牌官网下载   [8]曾大兴.气候、物候与文学--以文学家生命意识为路径[M].北京:商务印书馆,2016.

                                      注释

                                      1左江:《对中韩日三国龟猴题材民间故事的再考察》,载《民族文学研究》2005年第2期,第70页。
                                      2左江:《对中韩日三国龟猴题材民间故事的再考察》,第70页。
                                      3李伟昉:《简明比较文学教程》,北京.高等教育出版社,2014年版,第50页。
                                    星云棋牌官网下载   4左江:《对中韩日三国龟猴题材民间故事的再考察》,第74页。

                                      焦茜茜.“鳖谋猴肝”故事流传中的变与不变[J].牡丹江大学学报,2019,28(11):99-103+136.
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