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                                  基于法哲学探讨基因编辑相关问题

                                  时间:2018-12-30 来源:比较法研究 本文字数:22900字
                                  作者:孙海波 单位:中国政法大学比较法学研究院

                                    摘    要: 当今时代基因科技正对人类产生深刻影响,基因编辑所引发的问题复杂多元,其中既有科技的又有法律的,还有哲学的和道德伦理的,因此,有必要从法哲学的视角研究和思考基因科技将会给人类带来何种影响和根本性的威胁。基因造人工程的背后预设了一套优生学思想,而无论是旧式的以国家为主导的优生学,还是自由主义的新优生学,都面临着一些内在的局限和批评。基因编辑通过人为地干预人的自然生殖的过程,打破了人类自出生就本应享有的平等和自由前提。在深刻影响人类生存命运的方面,它会破坏人的自然本性、侵犯人之尊严和干涉未来人的自主性。基因工程的可能界限在于,既要允许一定限度内的科研自由活动,同时又要将基因编辑严格限制在以治疗为目的的范围之内。充分尊重和保障潜在者可主张的“开放性未来之权利”,让其自主地规划和主宰自己的可能生活。

                                    关键词: 基因编辑; 生命伦理; 优生学; 人之性质; 开放性未来;

                                    Abstract: In the current era of artificial intelligence, genetic technology is changing the nature of human beings at a deeper level. The problems caused by genome editing are complex and diverse, including both technological and legal, in addition to philosophical and ethical ones. Discussion from perspective of legal philosophy will integrate law, philosophy and morality, and it will lead us to reflect on the fundamental threats that genetic technology will bring to humanity. The gene-making-men project presupposes a set of eugenics ideas, however, both the old state-dominated eugenics and the new liberal eugenics will inevitably face some inherent limitations and criticisms. By artificially interfering with the natural reproductive process, genome editing breaks the premise that humanity should have enjoyed equality and freedom from birth. As far as its profound influence on the destiny of human life is concerned, it will destroy human nature, violate human dignity and interfere with the autonomy of potential subjects. The possible limits of genetic engineering lie in allowing scientific research activities within a certain limit, while at the same time strictly limiting genome editing to therapeutic purposes. Given full respect and protection of the "right to have an open future," the potentials can better independently plan and dominate their possible life.

                                    Keyword: genome editing; bioethics; eugenics; human nature; open future;

                                    人们之前对克隆人或编辑婴儿的讨论更多地是在一种想象的空间中进行的,而2018年11月26日南方科技大学贺建奎副教授的做法彻底打破了这一现实。他公然宣布一对经过生殖编辑的双胞胎“露露”和“娜娜”诞生,经过基因的修改这对婴儿可以天然地抵抗艾滋病。贺建奎的这一疯狂举动,不仅严重违背医学伦理原则,而且也触犯了我国关于人类辅助生殖方面的相关立法。编辑婴儿由于从根本上刺痛了人们本来就已紧绷的道德神经,所以遭到了国内外社会各界的强烈反对,来自多所着名大学和研究机构的一百多名科学家发表联合声明,谴责此举违背生物医学领域所应坚守的根本道德底线,基因编辑技术自身存在的风险将会威胁到被编辑出生的婴儿的未来健康,以及生殖性编辑的可遗传性会潜在地改变人类的基因库。人们一致认为,目前无论从何种角度来看,这种做法都是难以接受的。
                                   

                                  基于法哲学探讨基因编辑相关问题
                                   

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                                    一、导言:基因编辑引发的伦理危机

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                                  星云棋牌官网下载   MUQIANDUIYUZHEISIZHONGJIYINGANYUDEJIBENTAIDUSHI:DUITIXIBAOJIYINZHILIAOJIBENSHANGHUODELECHENGRENHEXUKE,DUISHENGZHIXIBAOZHILIAOCHIJIAOWEIBAOSHOUDETAIDU(WOGUO《RENDETIXIBAOZHILIAOSHENBAOLINCHUANGSHIYANZHIDAOYUANZE》FANDUIJIANGJIYINZHILIAOKUODAWEIRENHEXINGSHIDESHENGZHIXIBAOZHILIAO);DUITIXIBAOJIYINZENGQIANGZECUNZAIJIAODAZHENGYI,DUISHENGZHIXIBAOZENGQIANGCHIPUBIANFANDUITAIDU。LIANHEGUOKEJIAOWENZUZHI1994NIAN9YUEZAIJIYINZHILIAOBAOGAOZHONGTICHULESIDIANYIJIAN:DIYI,TIXIBAOJIYINZHILIAOSHIZHUNXUDE,BINGZUOWEISHIYANXINGZHILIAOJIAYIGUIFAN;DIER,YIZENGQIANGWEIMUDEDEJIYINBIANJIKEYUYIGUANGFANDEJINZHI;DISAN,SHENGZHIXIBAOJIYINZHILIAOMUQIANBUJUYOUKEXINGXING,DANBUYINGYUYIJUEDUIFOUDING;DISI,JIYUZENGQIANGWEIMUDEDESHENGZHIXIBAOGANYUYINGYUYIJUEDUIXINGDEJINZHI。10JIANYUTIXIBAOJIYINZHILIAOJIHUBUJUYOUZHENGYIXING,XIAWENRUWUTEBIESHUOMING,ZHUYAOSHIZAILINGWAISANZHONGYIYI(LEIXING)SHANGSHIYONGJIYINBIANJIZHEIGESHUYU,YOUQISHIJIZHONGZHISHEDUISHENGZHIXIBAOSUOZUODERENHEBIANJIHUOGANYU。

                                    “JIYINZAOREN”SUOYINFADEZHONGZHONGWENTIHUOFENGXIAN,GUIJIEYUYIDIANJIUSHI:RENLEIJIANGRUHEKANDAIZIJIDEWEILAI,BINGQIESHIBUQUEDINGDEWEILAI。MIANDUIQIANGDADEJIYINKEJI,SHIJIANCHIZIRANZHUYIDELICHANG,JIANGSHENGMINGDANGCHENGYIZHONGZIRANDEENCI(given by nature),JIESHOUSHENGMINGSHIYIZHONGOURANXINGDECUNZAI,JINGWEISHENGMINGBENSHENDEOURANXINGHEQUEDINGXING;HAISHIJIANCHIJISHUZHISHANGNAIZHIJISHUWANNENGLICHANG,YI“RENDINGSHENGTIAN”DEXIANDAIXINGLINIANJIJIYUNYONGJIYINKEJIQUGAIBIANRENHECHUANGZAOREN,CONGCISHENGMINGDECHANSHENGHECUNZAIBUZAIJUYOUSHENMIXINGHEBUQUEDINGXING,YINWEIWEILAIDEYIQIEDOUZAIRENLEIZIJIDEZHANGKONGZHIZHONG。WOMENBUJINYAOWEN,ZHEIZHONGBEISHEJIDERENSHENGSHIFOUHAIYOUYIYI,BEITARENTIQIANANPAIHUOGUIHUAHAODESHENGHUOSHIFOUHAIZHIDEGUO。YOUCIGUANZHI,JIYINKEJIJIANGPOSHIRENMENSIKAODEGENBENWENTISHI,RENZHIWEIRENDAODIYIWEIZHESHENME?WOMENYINSHENMEERSHENGHUOZAIZHEIGESHIJIESHANG?SHENMECAISHIYOUJIAZHIHUOZHIDEGUODESHENGHUO?

                                    DUIYUZHEIGEWENTIDEHUIDABIXUYAOHUIDAOFALUNLIXUESHANGLAI,FALUNLIXUEJIANCHIZHUIWENSHENMESHIZHENGQUEZHIFA,YIJIZHENGQUEZHIFAYAOQIURENMENZUOSHENMEHUOBUZUOSHENME。11ZAIZHEIYANGYIZHONGJUYOUGAODUZHEXUEYIWEIDETAOLUNBEIJINGZHIXIA,DUIYUFANDUIJIYINBIANJIZHEIJIANSHIQINGDATISHANGKEYIKAIPICHULIANGTIAOBUTONGDANYOUBICIYOULIANXIDEJINLU,HOUGUOLUNDELUNLILUNZHENGFANGSHIHEDAOYILUNDELUNLILUNZHENGFANGSHI。QIANZHEZHUYAOZHEYANYUJIYINBIANJISUOKENENGDAILAIDEGEZHONGXIAOJIXINGHOUGUO,QIZHONGKENENGJIBAOKUOJISHUHOUGUO,YEBAOKUOQIANZAIDELUNLIFENGXIAN;ERDAOYILUNBUYIHOUGUOPANDUANZUOWEILUNBIANJICHU,JIYINBIANJISHIBIQUXIAORENZHIWEIRENDEJICHUXINGDIWEI,YINCIBIXUCONGGENBENSHANGDUIQIJIAYIJINGTI。FUSHAN(Francis Fukuyama)SHUYUDIANXINGDEDAOYILUN,TASHUOWOMENHUIDANYOUSHENGWUKEJIKENENGDAILAIDEZHONGZHONGYANJUNHOUGUO,DANSHIWOMENNEIXINZUISHENCENGCIDEYOULVYIDIANERYEBUSHIHOUGUOZHUYIDE,“ZHONGJIYIYISHANG,WUNINGSHUORENMENDANXINDESHI,SHENGWUJISHUHUIRANGRENLEISANGSHIRENXING——ZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGGENBENDETEZHIBUYINSHISHIDOUZHUANXINGYI,ZHICHENGWOMENCHENGWEIWOMEN、JUEDINGWOMENWEILAIZOUXIANGHECHU。GENGZAOGAODESHI,SHENGWUJISHUGAIBIANLERENXING,DANWOMENQUESIHAOMEIYOUYISHIDAOWOMENSHIQULEDUOMEYOUJIAZHIDEDONGXI。YEXU,WOMENJIANGZHANZAIRENLEIYUHOURENLEILISHIZHEIYIJUDAFENSHUILINGDELINGYIBIAN,DANWOMENQUESIHAOMEIYOUYISHIDAOFENSHUILINGYEYIXINGCHENG,YINWEIWOMENZAIYEKANBUDAORENXINGZHONGZUIWEIGENBENDEBUFEN”12。

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   DAOYILUNDEJINLUZHANXIANCHULEYIZHONGGENGWEICHEDIDEPIPANXINGLILIANG,QIDAJILIDUXIANRANYAOYUANYUANQIANGYUHOUGUOLUN,TANENGGOUCONGGENBENSHANGZHANXIANCHURENLEIDUIYUJIYINBIANJIDEFUZAXINGTAIDU。ZAIZHEIGECHONGMANFENGXIANHEBUQUEDINGDESHIJIELI,MIANDUIXIANDAIJIYINBIANJIDEFUZALIANKONG,BENWENNICONGSHITILUNYURENDEZIRANXINGZHI、SHENSHENGLUNYURENZHIZUNYAN、ZIZHUXINGYURENDEZIYOUYIZHIZHEIJIGEFANGMIANYICIZHANKAI,SHENSHIXIANDAIJIYINKEJIKENENGJIRENLEIDAILAIDEGENBENXINGWEIXIE。ZAICIJICHUSHANG,BIZHEZHUZHANGDUIYUSHENGZHIXIBAODEJIYINBIANJI(ZHUYAOSHIZENGQIANGXING)ZAILINCHUANGSHIJIANZHONGYINGCHIYOUFOUDINGXINGTAIDU,ERDUIYITIXIBAOWEIJICHUDEJIYINZHILIAOYINGBAOYOUKAIFANGXINGDELICHANG,TONGSHIHAIYINGSHEFAZAIJIYINKEJIYANJIUZIYOUYUJIYINKEJIGONGCHENGXIANZHIZHIJIANMOUQIUYIZHONGSHIDANGDEPINGHENG。

                                    二、新旧优生学和人的再造

                                    SHENGZHIBENLAISHIYIGEZIRANDE、BUSHOURENLEIKONGZHIDEGUOCHENG,DANSHICHUYUGEZHONGYUANYINRENLEIGANYUSHENGZHIDENULICONGWEIZHIXIEGUO。RENLEISHEHUIZAOQIJIUKAISHITONGGUOXIGUAN、FENGSUHUOHUNYINJIATINGZHIDULAIKONGZHISHENGZHIXINGWEI,BIRUJINZHIXUEQINXIANGJIAN、SHIXINGZUWAIHUN,YOUBIRURENLEIYOUMUDESUOSHISHIDEJIEYU、DUOTAIHESHAYING(YOUCANZHANGJIBINGDEYINGER),SUOYOUZHEIXIEGANYUDOUWEIRAOZHETONGYIGEZHUTI,JI“SHEJIYIGELIXIANGDESHENGZHIGUOCHENG,SHITASUOCHANSHENGDEHOUDAI,YINGDANGSHIYIZHONGWANMEIDE、MEIYOURENHEQUEXIANDE、WUSUOBUNENGDEREN”。13BANSUIZHEJIYINJISHUDEKUAISUFAZHANHEGUANGFANYINGYONG,DUISHENGZHIGUOCHENGDERENWEICAOZONGYANXIAYIDADAOLEYIZHONGQIANSUOWEIYOUDESHENDU,TAWEIWOMENBIANZHILEYIGEMEILIDEXINSHIJIE。RANER,YINGDANGZHUYIDESHI,QIANZANGYUZHEIZHONGGANYUHUODONGBEIHOUMOMOQIZUOYONGDESHIYOUSHENGXUEDESIXIANG。YOUSHENGXUEDEMUDESHITONGGUOSHAIXUANHEPEIYANGYOULIANGYICHUANYINSU,RANGYICHUANJIYINHAODERENDUOSHENGYUHOUDAI,JINZHIHUOXIANZHIYOUYICHUANQUEXIANHUOJIBINGDERENFANZHIHOUDAI,CONGERTIDAOHOUDAIDESHENGCUNZHILIANG。

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   “YOUSHENGXUE”(eugenics)YICIYUANZIYUXILAWEN“eugenes”,YISISHI“SHENGYUHAODE”HUO“SHENGLAIGAOGUIDE”,ZUIZAOSHIYOUDAERWEN(Charles Robert Darwin)DEBIAODIGAOERDUN(Francis Galton)TICHULAIDE,MIANDUIRENLEIZAIWENMINGJINCHENGZHONGBUDUANZOUXIANGTUIHUADESHISHI,TAZHIWENDAO:WOMENBUNENGXIANGNONGMINHUOHUAJIANGXUANZEYOULIANGPINZHONGJINXINGGENGZHONGNEIYANGLAITIAOXUANRENZHONGMA?WOMENBUNENGXIAOMIENEIXIELIEDENGRENZHONGERDASIFANZHIYOULIANGRENZHONGMA?RENLEISHISHISHANGNENGGOUZHANGKONGZIJIDEFANZHIHEYANHUAMA?14YOUSHENGXUEDUIZHEIXIEWENTIDOUJICHULEKENDINGXINGDEDAAN,YINWEIZHENGRUGAOERDUNBENRENSUOZHICHUDENEIYANG,YOUSHENGXUEDEMUDEJIUSHIYAO“SHENGYUGAOZHILIANGHOUDAI”。15GUOJIAHEZHENGFUZAITUIJINZHEIZHONGYOUSHENGXUEJIHUAZHONGQIDAOLEZHUDAOXINGDEZUOYONG,ZAOQIDEYOUSHENGXUE(HUOJIUYOUSHENGXUE)ZAIMOUZHONGYIYISHANGZHUYAOSHIYONGYIJIEJUESHEHUIWENTIDE,ZHEIBAOKUOXIDU、XUJIU、QIANGJIAN、BAOLIFANZUI、JINGSHENBINGDENG,TONGGUOYANGEKONGZHIZHEIXIEDINENGQUNTIHUOTESHUJIECENGDEZIRANFANZHI,SHIXIANQUANSHEHUIYOUSHENGYOUYUDEMUDE。GAOERDUNDESIXIANGXIJUANMEIGUOHEOUZHOU,BINGXIANQILEYIGUJIUYOUSHENGXUEDELANGCHAO。YOUQIZAIDEGUO,XITELE(Adolf Hitler)DAZHEYOUSHENGDEQIHAOGONGKAITUIXINGLECANWURENDAODEZHONGZUMIEJUEJIHUA。

                                    RUGUOSHUOYOUSHENGXUEZONGSHIHUIRANGRENMENBUKEBIMIANDILIANXIANGDAONACUI、ZHONGZUQINGXIHUODATUSHAZHURUCILEIDEDONGXI,NEIMETONGGUO“ZAI‘YOUSHENGXUE’QIANMIANZENGJIA‘ZIYOUZHUYIDE’YICI,BIANHUISHIDEYIGEDAIYOUXIEEYIWEIDEXINTIAOBIANDEZAIDAODESHANGKEYIBEIJIESHOU”16。ZHEIBUTONGYUYIGUOJIAZHUDAOHEKAOQIANGZHILITUIXINGWEIZHUYAOYUNZUOXINGSHIDEJIUYOUSHENGXUE,“ZIYOUZHUYI”YIWEIZHEYAOXIAOJIE“GUOJIAQIANGZHI”,TAJIANGSHIFOUDUIHAIZIJINXINGJIYINGANYUDEJUEDINGLIUJISIZHUTI(FUMUYIJIQITAJIANGUANRENDENG)LAIJUEDING。FEIQIANGZHIXINGYEYIWEIZHE“GUOJIAZHONGLI”(state neutral),YIJI,TASHIYIZHONG“BUXIANZHIHAIZIZIZHUQUANDEFEIQIANGPOJIYINGAILIANG”17。YIRUNIGULASI·AJIAER(Nicholas Agar)SUOZHICHUDE,“JIUSHIZHUANZHIXINGDEYOUSHENGXUEJIAXIANGYAOANZHAOYIGESHIXIANSHEJIHAODEDANYIMOBANLAISHENGCHANGONGMIN,ERXIANGBIZHIXIAZIYOUZHUYIYOUSHENGXUEDEDUTEBIAOZHIJIUZAIYUTASHIGUOJIAZHONGLIDE。”18YUCITONGSHI,YEYINGZHUYIDESHI,RUGUOSHUOYIJINZHIHUOXIANZHISHENGYUWEIZHUYAOSHOUDUANDEJIUYOUSHENGXUESHIXIAOJIYIYISHANGDEYOUSHENGXUEDEHUA,NEIMEXINDEZIYOUZHUYIYOUSHENGXUEGENGDUODITICHANGCAIQUJIJIDEJISHUSHOUDUANLAIXIUGAIHEWANSHANYICHUANJIYIN,CONGERSHENGYUGENGQIANG、GENGWANMEIDEHOUDAI,CONGZHEIYIDIANLAIKANTAJUYOUGENGDUOJIJIYOUSHENGXUEDESECAI。

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   JIUDUIZIYOUZHUYIYOUSHENGXUEDEBIANHUERYAN,ZHENGLUNZHEDELUNBIANJIAODIANJIZHONGYU:SHIFOUYOUYIWUWEIHOUDAIZHILIAOJIBING、SHIFOUYUNXUDUIHOUDAIJINXINGZENGQIANG、SHIFOUYUNXUTONGGUOJIYINGANYUYISHIYINGBUGONGZHENGDESHEHUIHUANJING、JIYINGANYUYOUWUKENENGDAILAILIANGJIFENHUAHEZHIZAOBUPINGDENG、JIYINBIANJISHIFOUHUICUIHUIRENXINGDEBENZHINEIRONGDENG。19XIANYUPIANFU,CICHUZANBUDUIZHEIXIEGUANDIANJINXINGZHANKAI。NUOQIKE(Robert Nozick)TICHULE“JIYINCHAOSHI”(genetic supermarket)DEDADANXIANGFA,“ZHEIGECHAOSHIDEJUDAYOUDIANZAIYUBINGBUBAOHANRENHEQUEDINGWEILAILEIXINGDEZHENGFUQIANGZHIJUECE”20,ZAIZHEIYANGYIGECHAOSHIZHONGFUMUKEYIGENJUZIJIDEYIYUANHEXIANGFAZIXINGDINGGOUTAMENXIANGYAODERENHELEIXINGDEHAIZI。LUOERSI(John Rawls)DEZHENGYILILUNYEWEIZIYOUZHUYIYOUSHENGXUETIGONGLEBIANHU,TARENWEIRENLEIDEZIRANBINGFU(natural assets)DEFENLEIHUISHOUOURANYINSUHEZIRANYUNQIDEYINGXIANG,ERYONGYOUGENGHAODEZIRANBINGFUFUHEMEIYIGERENDELIYI,TANENGRANGRENMENZHUIQIUYIGEGENGHAODERENSHENGGUIHUA。SUOYI,ZAIYIGERONGXUJIYINDUOYANGHUADESHEHUIZHONG,SHEHUIQIYUEGEFANGXIWANGZIJIYIJIZISUNHOUDAINENGGOUYONGYOUZUIJIADEYICHUANTIANFU,YIBIANZOUCHUWUZHIZHIMUHOUBUZHIYUSHENGHUODEGENGZAO。21SUOYI,JIBIANSHIZAIYIGESHOUJIYINYICHUANLETOUCAIZHIPEIDESHEHUIZHONG,SHEHUIRENGRANYOUYIWUCAIQUCUOSHIQUTISHENGZIRANBINGFUDEYIBANSHUIPING,BINGJINKENENGFANGZHIYANZHONGSHENGLIQUEXIANDEKUOSAN。

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   CHULENUOQIKEHELUOERSIZHIWAI,DEWOJIN(Ronald Dworkin)YEZANTONGYOUSHENGXUEDEZIYOUZHUYIBANBEN。TASHOUXIANZHICHU,MUQIANZHENDUIJIYINGONGCHENGSUOZUODEZHULIUXINGPIPING,ZHURUANQUAN(JISHUFENGXIANHUOYINHUAN)、GONGZHENG(JIYINJISHUANGGUIZAOCHENGDEBUPINGDENG)、MEIXUE(ZHUIQIUWANMEI,WENHUADUOYANGXINGBIRANXIAOSHI)ZHEISANZHEWULUNDANDUHAISHIXIANGJIAZAIYIQI,DOUBUZUYIBODAOJIYINJISHU。22YAOYIGENGKAIFANG、KEGUANDETAIDUMIANDUIJIYINGONGCHENG,SHOUXIANJIUYAORENSHIDAOSHENGMINGZHIYURENLEIDEZHONGYAOYIYI,ZUNZHONGRENLEIDESHENGMINGYANXUYUFANRONGSHIZUIZHONGYAOZHISHI。23YOUCI,RENDESHENGMINGYIDANKAISHI,FEIDANBUNENGLANGFEIERQIEYINGJINKENENGZUIDAXIANDUDIFAJUEQIANNENG,ZHEISHIDEWOJINSUOTICHUDEDIYITIAOLUNLIGERENZHUYIYUANZE,TARENTONGRENLEIWEIWANSHANSHENGMINGSUOYOUYISHIDIZUOCHUDEGEZHONGNULI。JINJIEZHETAYOUPAOCHULEDIERTIAOYUANZE,JIZHENGFUYAOJIYUMEIYIGESHENGMINGYIPINGDENGDEGUANHUAIHEBAOHU,TONGSHIYAOZUNZHONGGETIDEZIZHUXING,RANGGERENZIJIQUEDINGTAMENCHENGGONGSHENGHUODEBIAOZHUN。24DEWOJINDUIZIZHUXINGYIJIMEIHAOSHENGHUODESUZHU,TIAOZHANLE“YICHUANRUMOCAI”DELIUXINGGUANDIAN,RANGSHENGMINGGENGDUODICHENGWEIYIGE“XUANZE”ERFEI“JIYU”DEWENTI,WANMEIDIYINGHELEZIYOUZHUYIYOUSHENGXUEDEHEXINGUANNIAN。

                                    TONGGUOYISHANGJIANDUANDEJIESHAO,WOMENKEYIKANDAO,XIANGBIYUJIANDANCUBAODEJIUYOUSHENGXUE,XINDEYOUSHENGXUELILUNYOUGENGDADEDAODEGANZHAOLI。DANSHIZHEIZHONGXINXINGDEYOUSHENGXUELILUNRENGYOUYIXIENEIZAIDEJUXIAN,XUEZHEMENDUIQISUOTICHUDEPIPINGZHUYAOJIZHONGYULIANGDIAN:

                                    QIYI,ZIYOUZHUYIDEYOUSHENGXUEBIAOBANGZHE“ZIYOUZHUYI”,QIANGDIAOJIYINGANYUDEGETIXINGHEFEIQIANGZHIXING,KANSHANGQUQUESHISHIFUHEZIYOUZHUYIDEJIBENJINGSHENDE,RANER,ZHENSHIDEQINGKUANGWEIBIRUCI。ZIYOUZHUYIDEYOUSHENGXUEZONGSHIBUKEBIMIANDIJUYOUGUOJIAQIANGZHIXING,ZHEIDAOZHIQIZUIZHONGHUIYUZIYOUZHUYIBEIDAOERCHI。ZHEISHIYINWEI,ZAIZIYOUZHUYIYOUSHENGXUEDEBIANHUZHEKANLAI,TAMENCHANGDAODEJIYINBIANJISUOZENGQIANGDESHIWEILAIQIANZAIZHEDE“TONGYONGTEXING”(all-purpose traits),YOUYUBINGBUZHIYINHAIZIWANGTEDINGDEZHIYEFANGXIANGFAZHAN,YINERZAIDAODESHANGSHIKEJIESHOUDE。25YIXIEXUEZHEYONG“ZIRANJIBENSHAN”(natural primary goods)LAIZHIDAIZHEIYANGYIZHONGTONGYONGGONGNENG,TADUIYUGERENDESHENGHUOHEFAZHANKEYIKANZUOSHIYIZHONGBIXUPIN。ZAIZIYOUZHUYIDEKUANGJIAZHIXIA,ZHENGRUGUOJIAYOUYIWUWEIHAIZIKAIZHANYILIAOWEISHENGHEJIAOYUYIYANG,TATONGYANGYEFUYOUYIWUTONGGUOJIYINGAILIANGLAIZENGJINHAIZIDE“ZIRANJIBENSHAN”,SHIQIHUODEJINXINGRENSHENGGUIHUADETONGYONGDEJICHUNENGLI。26YOUCI,GUOJIATONGGUOQIANGZHIXINGMINGLINGLAINULITUIJINJIYINGONGCHENG,RANERZHEICONGGENBENSHANGCUIHUILEZIYOUZHUYIYOUSHENGXUEDE“ZIYOUZHUYI”QIANTI。RUCIYILAI,ZAIYI“FEIQIANGZHIXING”HUO“GUOJIAZHONGLI”ZUOWEIQUFENXINJIUYOUSHENGXUEDEBIAOZHUNSIHUYEJIUNANYICHENGLILE。

                                    QIER,ZIYOUZHUYIYIWEIZHEYAOPINGDENGDIZUNZHONGHEGUANHUAIMEIYIGEGETI,RANGMEIGEGETIDOUNENGGOUANZHAOZIJIDEYIYUANLAIGUIHUAZIJIDESHENGHUO,ERBUSHOUQITARENDERENHEXIANZHIHUOGANYU。DEWOJINZAIBIANHUYOUSHENGXUESHISUOTICHUDELUNLIGERENZHUYIYUANZE,JIUSHIBUFENJIANLIZAIZIZHUXINGDEJICHUZHISHANG。RANER,ZIYOUZHUYIDEYOUSHENGXUEZAISUZHUZIZHUXINGDETONGSHI,QUEYOUKENENGHUIQINFANQIANZAIZHEDEZIZHUXING。ZHEISHIYINWEI,“HOUDAIRENJUYOUQIANZAIDERENGE,ZENGQIANGXINGJIYINJISHUYUNYONGYUDUIZIZHUXINGDELIJIEFANGUOLAIHUICUIHUIZIZHUXINGBENSHEN,YINWEITAXIAOJIELEDUIRENSHENGYIYIDEZIWOLIJIE……WUXIANZHIDEJIYINXIUSHIHUIDAOZHIRENDEYIZHIZISHIJIUBUZAISHIZIYOUDE,ERZHENGSHIZIYOUYIZHIGOUCHENGLEZIZHUXINGBENSHENYIJIFALVZERENDEZUIZHONGYAODEJICHU”27。JIYINBIANJIDAZHEZIZHUXINGDEQIHAOFANZIZHUXING,HABEIMASIYEZHUYIDAOLEZHEIYIDIAN,TAZHICHUJIYINZAORENBUDANHUIDAPOQINZIZHIJIANDEPINGDENGGUANXI,TONGSHITONGGUOBODUOQIANZAIZHEDEZIZHUXINGLAICUANGAITAMENSHENGHUODELISHI。28YINCI,YOUSHENGXUEDELILUNYEJIANGHUICONGGENBENSHANGDIANFUZIYOUZHUYIDEPINGDENGHEZIYOUDEQIANTI。

                                    KEYISHUO,JIYINGONGCHENGDEFAZHANXUYAOYITAOYOUSHENGXUELILUNZUOWEIZHIDAOSIXIANG。WULUNSHIJIUSHIDEYOUSHENGXUEHAISHIXINXINGDEYOUSHENGXUE,TAMENZAISHIJIANZHONGZHICHIJISHUZAORENCENGFAHUIGUOBUTONGCHENGDUDEZUOYONG。YOUQISHIZAIJIYINKEJIPENGBOFAZHANDEJINTIAN,YEYOUXUEZHEDADANDIYUYANWOMENHUIYINGLAIYIGEXINDEGENGJUYOUTIAOZHANXINGDEYOUSHENGSHIDAI,“RENLEIXUNQIUWANMEIJIYINZHILIANGDENULI,JIANGZUIZHONGZAOJIUYIPIJUYOUQUANLIDEREN,YOUTAMENZHIZHANGRENLEIZHONGXINSHEJIDESHENGSHADAQUAN”29。ZHEIZHONGDANYOUBINGFEIQIRENYOUTIAN,HEJIANKUIBIANJIYINGERDESHIJIANYIJINGWEIWOMENJINGTIJIYINKEJIDELANYONGNAIZHIYIHUAQIAOXIANGLEJINGZHONG。TONGYANGYAOZHICHUDESHI,XINJIUYOUSHENGXUEMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGDOUJIANLIZAIYIZHONGSHIYONGZHUYIZHEXUEDEJICHUSHANG,TONGGUOJISHUDEYINGYONGQULIECUNYOU,SHENZHIXIANGGEBIEJIDUANLUNZHESUOZHUZHANGDEFUMUZAIDAOYISHANGYOUYIWU“TONGGUOJIYINCAOZONGGAILIANGHAIZIDEZHILI、JIANKANGDENGSHUIPING,RANGTAJUYOUCHAOYUEZHENGCHANGSHUIPINGDENENGLI,CONGERZAIRENSHENGDEDAOLUSHANGZHANGWOGENGJIADEFAZHANQIJI”。30ZAIGEZHONGXIANJINBANBENDEYOUSHENGXUELILUNZHICHIXIADEJIYINGONGCHENG,SHIFOUHUISHENKEDIGAIBIANRENDETUXIANG,JINERYINGXIANGDAORENZHIWEIRENSUOJUYOUDEGENBENDUTEXINGDIWEI,ZHEIJIANGGOUCHENGBENWENTAOLUNDEZHUTI。

                                    三、基因科技对人之性质的挑战

                                    ZHENDUIJIYINBIANJIDEPIPINGSHENGYIZHIBUJUEYUER。BIRUJIBIANSHIMUQIANZUIXIANJINDEJIYINBIANJIJISHUCRISPR/Cas9,ZAICAOZUODEGUOCHENGZHONGYERONGYICHUXIANTUOBADEWENTI,BUQUEDINGDIJIANQIEDAOXINGNENGZHENGCHANGDEJIYIN。31ZAIRENTISHANGJINXINGJIYINCAOKONG,BIJINGBUTONGYUZAIDONGWUSHENSHANG,YIDANJIRENTIZAOCHENGSHANGHAIBIANSHIBUKENIDE,YEHUIMIANLINZHEYANZHONGDELUNLIZHIKONG。ZHEIRENGRANYESHIYIZHONGHOUGUOLUNDESIWEI,HUOXUYOURENWENJIARUJIYINBIANJIJISHUFAZHANDAOYIZHONGWANMEI、BUCUNZAIRENHECAOZUOFENGXIANDEDIBU,NEIMERENMENSHIFOUKEYICONGGENBENSHANGJIESHOUTA?CONGDAOYILUNDEJIAODULAIKAN,JIBIANSHIZAIWANMEIDEJIYINKEJI,RENGRANHUINEIZAIDIQINSHIRENZHIWEIRENDEZIRANSHITI、RENXINGZUNYANYIJIRENDEZIZHUXING。YOUYUDUIZHEISANZHEDERENHEYIFANGMIANDEPOHUAI,DOUJIANGHUIGAIBIANHUOBOSHIRENDEGENBENXINGDIWEI,ZHEIGENGSHIZHIJIEDITUXIANLEJIYINGONGCHENGDENEIZAIXIANDU。

                                    (一)实体论与人的自然性质

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   JIYINGONGCHENGZHISUOYIZHAOZHIRUCIZHONGDUODEFEIYI,HENGUANJIANDEYIDIANSHITAYUNYONGJISHUQINRUDAORENDEZIRANQUTIZHINEI,SHITUGAIZAOHUOKONGZHIRENDEZIRANSHITI,ZAIRENMENKANLAIZHEISHIQINFANLEZHANGJIUYILAIBEIRENWEIJUYOUSHENSHENGYIYIDEZIRANXING。ZIRANXINGSHIRENZHIBENXINGDEYIGEZHONGYAOMIANXIANG,XUEZHEMENDUIYUHEWEIRENDEBENZHISULAIYOUZHONGDUOLUNDIAN,ZONGDELAISHUO,TAJIUSHISHIRENCHENGWEIRENSUOBIXUJUBEIDEDUTETEZHENG。BAIERCI(Kurt Bayertz)RENWEI,ZUOWEI“BENZHI”YINGJUBEISIGETEDIAN:QIYI,JUYOUPUBIANXING,WEIMEIYIGEGETIHEQUANRENLEISUOGONGYOU;QIER,TABINGFEIBENRENHUOTARENZHIZAOCHULAIDE,ERSHIYUSHENGJULAIDE;QISAN,TASHIGETICUNZAIHEFAZHANDEZIRANJICHU;QISI,TASHIRENDEXIANGJIE,JIBUSHOUTARENZHIPEIYEBUNENGBEITARENGAIBIAN。32SHITILUNDUIJIYINGONGCHENGDEWEILAIQIANJINGCHIYOUYIZHONGPUBIANXINGDEJINGTIHEYOULV,TABARENDEZIRANTISHIWEIMOUZHONGJUYOUDAODEYUESHULIDE“SHITI”HUO“CUNZAI”。HUANYANZHI,RENDEZIRANTIBINGFEIYIFUGUJIAHEXUEROUDEJIANDANPINCOU,TABEIHOUCHENGZAIZHEGENGGAODEYIZHIHELINGHUN,YINERJIUQIZISHENERYANTABINGFEISHIGONGJUXINGDE,ERSHIJUYOUZHEMOUZHONGNEIZAIDEJIAZHI。

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   RENSHIZIRANDEZAOWU,RENDEZIRANTIYEGOUCHENGLEZHENGGEZIRANJIEDEYIBUFEN。RENLEICONGBEICHUANGZAOZHISHIJIUYIZHIZAIHUAIYIZIJI,ZONGSHIYAONULIWEIZIJIXUNZHAOYIGEGENGGAODEYITUO。ZUICHUZHAODAODESHISHANGDIHUOSHEN,YIZHAOJIDUJIAODESHUOFA,RENSHISHANGDIANZHAOZIJIDEYANGZIZHIZAOCHULAIDE。RENDEXINGXIANGYITUOYUSHANGDIDEXINGXIANG,RENBUNENGSUIBIANGAIBIANZIJIDEYANGZI,FOUZEJIUSHIYOUWEISHANGDIYIYUANDE,JIUHUIQINFANZIRANTIDESHENSHENGXING。BANSUIZHEJINDAIQIMENGYUNDONGSUOJINXINGDE“QUMEI”DEGUOCHENGZHONG,DAZIRANBUZAISHIYIGESHENMIDE、MUDEDESHITI,ERBUGUOSHIYIGEYOUWUSHUSHISHIYUGUOCHENGGOUCHENGDEWUXIANDE、MEIYOUNEIZAIYIYIDEJIHETI。ZAICIBEIJINGXIA,RENDEDIWEIZHONGXINDEDAOFAXIANHEHANWEI,RENYIFEIZIRANDEYIBUFEN,TABUSHIXIANDINGDEERSHIZIYOUDE,TAYONGYOUZHEZIJIDULIDEDAODEDIWEI。XIANGYINGDI,ZHEIHUIDAOZHIXIANQIANSUOCHIYOUDE“RENDEZIRANXINGSHENSHENGBUKEQINFAN”ZHEIYIXINTIAOZAODAOZHIYI,RENMENKAISHICHANGSHIJIYUGEZHONGLIYOULAIGAIBIANRENDEZIRANSHITI。RUZHAOTINGYANGSUOYAN,SHANGDISILEZHISHIGAOBIEZONGJIAOERBINGWEITUOLIZONGJIAOXING,ZHIBUGUOZHEIZHONGZONGJIAOXINGBIANCHENGLE“RENDINGSHENGTIAN”DELINIANHUOJINGSHEN。ZHEITIXIANWEIYIZHONGRENDESHENQUAN,YIWEIZHERENJUEXINBAZIJIBIANCHENGSHEN。33HUARENWEISHEN,BUJINSHIZAIWANNONGSHANGDI,QIESHIRENLEIYAOCONGGENBENSHANGGAOBIEHEQUDAISHANGDI。

                                    JIYINGONGCHENGSUOYITUODEZHENGSHIZHEIYANGYIZHONGZHEXUEXINTIAO,SHENZHIYIXIEXINFENGJISHUWANNENGHUOJISHUZHISHANGDEJIDUANLUNZHEHUIJIANGRENDEZIRANTIJINJINDANGZUOSHIYIZHONGGONGJUXINGDECUNZAI,WANQUANWUSHIRENZHIZIRANXINGZHIDENEIZAIJIAZHI。JISHUBENSHENJIUSHIRENLEICHUANGZAODE,RENLEIJUEYITONGGUOZIJISUOCHUANGZAODEJISHULAIGAIZAOZIJI。RANER,JIYINJISHUDESHENRUHUIPOHUAIRENDEZIRANXINGZHI,ZHEIJUTISHITONGGUOPOHUAIRENDEZIRANSHITIERZUODAODE。CHUSHENGHUOSHENGMINGDEZIRANXING,TIXIANZAICHUSHENGSHIYIGESUIJIXING、OURANXINGDESHISHI,YONGSHANGWENDEHUALAISHUOTASHIYIGE“JIHUI”(chance),SHIYIGEBUNENGBEIXUANZEDEWENTI。34WOMENJINGCHANGSHUODE“SHENGXINGYUBEN”、“SHENGLAICANJI”、“TIANSHENGLIZHI”YESHIZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANGERYANDE。ZHEIZHONGOURANXINGYOUHUIZAOJIUDUOYANGXING、BUQUEDINGXING,QIANRENQIANMIAN、GEBUXIANGTONG,SHENGMINGZHISUOYICHONGMANJINGQI、YOUYIYIZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGYAOGUIYINYUZHEIZHONGOURANXING。SHEXIANGYIZHONGBEITARENKEYITIQIANSHEJIHECAOZONGDEYISHENG,SHENGHUOZHONGHAOWUBOLANHEJIANNAN,SHENZHIJIBIANSHIKANCHENGWANMEI,ZHEIYOUYOUHEYIYINI?JIYINKEJISUOYAOCUIHUIDEQIAQIAJIUSHIZHEIZHONGOURANXING、DUOYUANXINGHEBUQUEDINGXING。

                                    KEJIZAORENSHIDESUOZAOZHIRENKEYIANZHAOSHEJIZHEYUXIANGDEMOSHIHUOXINGXIANGLAISHENGCHAN,BEIZAOZHIRENBICIMIANMUJINSISHENZHIBICIYIYANG,SANGSHILEYUANBENZIRANXUANZEZHIXIADEZIRANXING,“TONGGUODUIRENDESHENGWUTIDEGENBENGAIZAO,SHI‘ZIRANREN’HUO‘ZIRANSHENGMING’CHENGWEI‘JISHUREN’HUO‘RENGONGSHENGMING’,CHEDIGAIBIANRENDEZIRANBENXINGJIQIJIEGOU,CONGERGENBENDIANFUZUOWEIDAODEQIDIANDERENXINGJICHU”35。HABEIMASIZHUAZHUZHEIYIDIANDUIJIYINGONGCHENGJINXINGLEMENGLIEDEPENGJI,TARENWEICHUSHENGSHISHANGTIANHUOZIRANDEENCI,ZHEIGEZIRANQIDIANHUOSHIDIANWUFABEIGAIBIANHEKONGZHI,TADECUNZAIYIWEIZHEYIGEXINSHENGMINGDEKAISHI。JIYINJISHUDUISHENGZHIDEJIERU,JIANGHUIPOHUAIRENDEZIRANZHANGCHENG(nature-grown),ERSHIQILUNWEIYIZHONG“RENZAOZHIWU”(man-made),“DANGXIAOHAIZHANGDAYIHOUZHIDAOZIJISHIFUMUWEILEGAIBIANZIJIDEMOUXIETEXINGERTONGGUOJIYINJISHUDUIJIYINTEZHENGJINXINGSHEJIDE,NEIMEQIZIRANZHANGCHENGDESHITIYEJIANGHUIBEIYIZHONGRENZAOTISUOQUDAI”。36JIYINGANYUDAPOLEZIRANCHUSHENGDESHISHI,TONGSHIYEGANYULEZIRANSHENGZHANGDEZUICHUQIDIAN,YIJIHUIPOHUAINEIZHONGSHOUZIRANCHUSHENGOURANXINGSUOBAOZHENGDEPINGDENGQIEZIYOUDEXUANZEQIDIAN。37RENDEZIRANBINGFUZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGYILAIYUSUIJIYICHUAN,ZHEIZHONGRENSHENGJIUSHIYICHANGJIYINCAILETOUYOUXIDESHENHUAYEHUISUIZHIPOMIE。

                                    FANDUIZHEJIANGPIPINGJIAODIANJIZHONGYUJIYINBIANJIHUIGAIBIAN(BINGBUYIWEIZHEYIDINGSHIPOHUAI)RENDEZIRANTI,JINERCUIHUIRENDEZIRANXING。QUESHI,ZIRANTIDEZHEIZHONGSHENSHENGXINGYEGOUCHENGXIANDAIFALVZHIDUDEZHENGDANGJICHU,ZAIXUDUOGUOJIADEXINGFA、MINFANAIZHIXIANFAZHONGDOUYOUBAOHURENDEZIRANTIZHIWANZHENGXINGHUOBUSHOUQINFANXINGDEDALIANGGUIDING。DANJINGUANRUCI,YEYINGZHUYIDAODESHI,YOUXIESHIHOUZIRANTIDEGAIBIANBUJINKEGUANCUNZAI,ERQIEHAIJUYOUKEXINGXING,ZHURU:GERENWEIZHENGJIUTARENSHENGMINGZHUDONGJUANXIANQIGUAN,HUOWEIZHILIAOJIBINGERJIESHOUSHOUSHU。DANZIRANTIDEGAIBIANJUEBUSHIRENYIDE,GAIBIANRENLEIBINGXINGDEXINGWEI“ZHIYAOBUSHICHUYUWAIZAIQIANGZHI,ZHIYAOSHICHUZIDANGSHIRENDEZIZHUYIZHI,ZHIYAOHEHUDANGSHIRENZHUIQIUXINGFUSHENGHUODEYIYUAN,ZHIYAODUITARENBUZAOCHENGSHANGHAIYUFANGAI,NEIMEZAIDAODESHANGBIANSHIWUKEZHIZEDE”38。GUINAYIXIA,DUIZIRANTIDEGAIBIANRUGUOXIANGYAOBIMIANSHANGHAIZIRANXING,XUJUBEIZHEIYANGJIGETIAOJIAN:QIYI,GAIBIANXINGWEIYINGGAISHIJUEDINGZHEZIZHUZUOCHUDE,ERQIEJUEDINGZHEYOUWANQUANDEXINGWEINENGLI;QIER,GAIBIANXINGWEIBINGBUHUIDUIQITARENDAILAISHANGHAI;QISAN,GAIBIANXINGWEIXUJUBEINEIZAIDAODEXING,JIBIXUSHIWEILESHIXIANBENRENHUOTARENDEJIANKANG;QISI,GAIBIANXINGWEIBUWEIFANJIBENFALVDETONGSHIYEBUWEIBEIGONGXULIANGSU。JIYINBIANJI(YOUQISHIDUISHENGZHIXIBAODEGANYU)JUEDINGXIANRANBINGBU(WANQUAN)FUHEYISHANGTIAOJIAN,CONGERHUIZAIGENBENSHANGPOHUAIRENDEZIRANBENXING。

                                    (二)神圣论与人之尊严

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   YURENDEZIRANXINGJINMIXIANGLIAN,SHENGMINGSHISHENSHENGDE(sanctity)。ZAIBUTONGDEWENHUAHECHUANTONGDEYUJINGXIA,RENMENDUISHENSHENGYOUZHEBUTONGDELIJIE。YOUDEKENENGCONGZONGJIAOHEXINYANGDEJIAODUCHUFA,RENWEISHENGMINGNAISHANGDIHUOSHENSUOZAO,LIYINGSHIZHIGAODEHESHENSHENGDE;LINGWAIYIXIERENKENENGYONGSHISUDEYANGUANGLAIKAN,ZHUZHANGSHENGMINGBENSHENSHIZHENGUIDE,YINWEITAYONGYOUZHEBUKEZHIYIDENEIZAIJIAZHI。SHENGMING(HUOCHUSHENG)DESHENSHENGXING,TIXIANZAISHENGMINGJIANGLINYUSHIBENSHENJIUSHIYIJIANJINGQI、JINGMIAOZHISHI,WULUNHEZHONGSHENGMINGXINGSHIDOUZHIDERENMENJINGXI、YONGBAO、ZHENSHIHEZUNZHONG。CONGSHENGMINGDESHENSHENGXINGZHONG,WOMENTONGCHANGYOUKEYITUIDAOCHUSHENGMINGDEBUKEQINFANXING。ZAIDEWOJINKANLAI,ZHEIZHONGBUKEQINFANXINGDESHENSHENGJICHUYUANZIYUZIRANDEYURENLEIDECHUANGZAO,“RENHERENLEISHENGMING,JISHISHIZUIBUCHENGSHUDEPEITAI,DOUSHISHENXINGCHUANGZAOHUOYANHUACHUANGZAODESHENGLI,CONGWUZHONGSHENGYOU,CHUANGZAOCHUFUZADELIXINGSHENGMING;RENLEISHENGMINGYESHIRENLEIFANYANDECHENGGUO,WOMENTONGCHANGHUISHUOZHEISHI‘QIJI’,MEIYIGEXINDANSHENGDERENLEIDOUHECHUANGZAOTADERENJIERANBUTONG,DANQUEYOUSHIZHEIGERENDEYANXU”39。JIYINGANYUWUYIHUIPOHUAIZHEIZHONGSHENSHENGXINGDEJICHU,YIFANGMIANTONGGUO“WANNONGSHANGDI”DAPO“SHANGDIZAOREN”SHENHUA,JUEYIZIJICHUANGZAOZIJI;ERLINGYIFANGMIAN,LIYONGJIYINKEJIQUANMIANCAOZONGHEKONGZHISHENGZHIDEGUOCHENG,JINGGUOSHENGZHIXIBAOBIANJIDEKELONGRENYUBENTIJIHUSHIYIMOYIYANGDE。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGXINGXIA,SHENGMINGDESHENSHENGXINGSECAIJIANGHUIZHUJIANDANQU。

                                    DANGSHENSHENGXINGZAODAOPOHUAISHITONGCHANGHUIQIANLIANDAORENDEZUNYAN,YIRUDEWOJINSUOSHUO,“DANGMOUJIANSHENSHENGDE、BUKEQINFANDESHIWUZAOSHOUDAOKEYICUIHUISHI,JIANGSHIYUANBENYINGGAISHOUDAOZUNJINGDESHIWUZAOSHOUCHIRU”40。YICIGUANZHI,ZAOSHOUXIURUHUOMENGSHOUCHIRUCHENGWEIPANDUANQINFANRENZHIZUNYANDEZHONGYAOBIAOZHUN。ZUNYANSHINEIZAIYURENZHIBENXINGDEYIGEZHONGYAOGAINIAN,MEIYIGEANZHAOLIXINGXINGDONGDERENDOUBIXUZAIZUNYANZHONGQUZUNJINGSUOYOUZIJIXINGWEISUOGUANSHEDAODETAREN,TONGYANGDIZIJIYEXIWANGBEITARENRUCIDUIDAI,ZAIZHEIYANGYIZHONGDUICHENGDEZHUANGTAIZHONGCAIKEYISHUORENZAIBENXINGSHANGSHIYOUZUNYANDE,HUOZHEZUNYANDEDAOLEBAOHU。41RENXINGZUNYANDEGAINIAN,ZAISHENGMINGLUNLIXUEZHONGYIDUSHIYIGEYOUZHENGYIDEGAINIAN,YOUYUZHICHIZHEHUOFANDUIZHEDOUHUIJIANGQITAICHULAIWEIZIJIZHANTAI(ZUOWEILUNBIANYIJU),YIZHIYUYOUXUEZHEJIANGQIJIFENGWEIYIGE“WUYONGDE”HUO“YUCHUNDE”GAINIAN,42CONGERSHITUQUXIAOZUNYANZAISHENGMINGLUNLIXUEZHONGDEZHONGYAODIWEI。DANGRAN,ZAIZHEICHANGGUANYUZUNYANDIWEIDEDALUNBIANZHONG,YEYOUXUEZHERENGRANZAINULIHANWEIZUNYANDEZHONGYAODIWEI。43ZAIFALVLINGYUZHONG,ZUNYANDEGAINIANBUJINTINGLIUZAILINIANHUOJIAZHIDECENGMIAN,ERSHIYIJINGTONGGUOLIFABEIJIAYISHIDINGHUA,44CONGERHUODELEZHIDUDEXINGSHI。

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   CONGZHIGUANDEYIYISHANGKAN,JIYINGONGCHENGJIANGRENKANZUOSHIJISHUCAOZONGHUOTONGZHIDEDUIXIANG,JUYOUCHUXIANDEQINFANRENZHIZUNYANDETEZHENG。RANER,YIXIEJIDUANLUNZHEQUESHIKOUFOURENZHEIYIDIAN,ZHUZHANGYOUYUNINGJIEZHEGENGDUODERENLEIQINGGANHEZHIHUI,KELONGRENFEIDANWUSUNYURENLEIZUNYAN,FANERHAIHUICUJINRENLEIZUNYAN。45ZHEIZHONGGUANDIANQUESHIHUIRANGRENGANDAOFEIJIE,ZAIDAODEHEQINGGANSHANGLINGRENNANYIJIESHOU。KAOLVYIXIASHEJIJIYINGANYUDEYIGELIZI,YIDUISHICONGDENVTONGXINGBANLV,TAMENBINGBURENWEIERLONGSHIYIZHONGCANJIHUOQUEXIAN,XIANGFANERBAZHEIDANGZUOSHIYIZHONGWENHUAHESHENFENRENTONG。TAMENFEICHANGXIWANGNENGGOUSHENGYUYIGEXIANGZIJIYIYANGSHICONGDEHAIZI,JINGGUOYIFANZHOUZHEZHAODAOLEYIGEWUDAIDOUYOULONGZIDEJINGZIJUANZENGZHE,ZUIHOUCHENGGONGDISHENGXIALEYIGESHICONGDEHAIZI。46ZHEIGESHIJIANQUESHIYINFALEDALIANGDEDAODEZHENGYI,SHENZHIZAODAOLEYANLIDESHEHUIQIANZE。ZHEIDUINVTONGXINGBANLVJIANGZIJIDUIDAISHICONGDEWENHUAQIANGJIAYUXIAYIDAI,XIANGDANGRANDIRENWEISHICONGZUOWEIYIZHONGWENHUARENTONGNENGBEIPUBIANJIESHOU,YOUQISHINENGGOUWEITAMENXIANGYAOZHIZAODEHAIZISUOJIESHOU。ZHEIZHONGXIANGFABUJINGUOYUPIANJI,SHENZHIYEDUOSHAOYOUXIEZISI,SHICONGBIJINGZAIYIBANDEYIYISHANGHUISUNHAISHENGMINGTIDEWANZHENGXING,SHIDESHENTIDETINGJUEGONGNENGSANGSHI,BIRANHUIYINGXIANGDAOJINHOUDEXUEXI、GONGZUOHESHENGHUO。TONGGUOJIYINJISHURENWEIDIZHIZAOSHICONGDEHAIZI,ZAIBENZHISHANGSHIJIANGHAIZIDANGZUOMANZUZIJIXIWANGSHENZHIYUWANGDEGONGJU,YINERQINFANLEHAIZIDEZUNYAN。

                                    RENZHICUNZAIZHEIFUTUXIANGJUYOUWANZHENGXING(personal integrity),JIYINGANYUZHIYAOPOHUAIHUOGAIBIANZHEIFUTUXIANG,JIUYOUKENENGHUIZAOCHENGDUIRENZHIZUNYANDEQINFAN。ZHENGSHIJIYUZHEIYIDIAN,YIXIEXUEZHEZHICHU,RENZHIZUNYANSHIGUYOUDEJIAZHI,“JINJINSHIJIYURENDECUNZAIZHEIYISHISHIERBEIYAOQIUYUYIZUNZHONG”47。KEYISHUO,DUIRENZHIZUNYANDEZUNZHONGWUXUEWAIDELIYOU,TAGOUCHENGLERENZHIWEIRENDEYIXIANGDIXIANXINGTIAOJIAN。ZUOWEIYIXIANGBEISHIZAIFAJIAYISHIDINGHUADEJIBENJIAZHIHUOQUANLI,ZAIPANDUANQISHIFOUSHOUDAOSHANGHAISHI,XUEZHEMENTILIANCHULEYIGE“KETIGONGSHI”,JIRUGUOJIANGZUOWEIGETIDERENJINJINDANGZUOKETI、SHOUDUANHUOGONGJULAIDUIDAISHI,BIANZHIJIEQINFANLETADEZUNYAN。ZHEIJUTIYOUYUNHANLELIANGGECENGMIANDEYISI:QIYI,RENBENSHENJIUSHIMUDE,ERBUDEBEIDANGZUOGONGJUHUOSHOUDUAN,FOUZERENZHIZUNYANDANGRANWUCUN;QIER,RENNENGGOUZIZHI、ZIJUE,ZIJIZHANGKONGHEGUIHUAZIJIDESHENGHUOHESHENGMING,BINGYINGDEDAOGUOJIAJITARENDEBANGZHU。48JIYINBIANJISHITUTONGGUOJISHULAICAOZONGHUOKONGZHISHENGMING,ANZHAORENMENDEYUANWANGQINGDANLAIDINGZHIJUYOUTEDINGTEZHENGDEREN,SHENZHITONGGUOKELONGCHUANGZAOYUBENTIJIHUYIMOYIYANGDEFUZHIREN,SHISHISHANGYIJINGGOUCHENGLEDUIRENZHIZUNYANDEZUIYANLIQINFAN。

                                    OUZHOULISHIHUIZHICHU,TONGGUOYOUYISHIDICHUANGZAOJIYINXIANGTONGDEREN,ZHEIZHONGDUIRENLEIJINXINGGONGJUHUADEZUOFAYOUBEIYURENGEZUNYAN。FAGUOXINGZHENGYUANBIAODACHULELEISIDEQIANZE,“ZAISHIYANSHILISHENGCHANJUYOUGENJUDINGDANQUEDINGDESHENGLISHENZHIXINLITEZHENGDEREN,DUIRENLEIZUNYANHEZIYOUGOUCHENGLEBINULIZHIGENGCHEDIDEQINHAI。SHISHISHANG,BUDANRENLEIDEXINGWEI,ERQIERENLEIDECUNZAIDOUKENENGWUFAWANHUIDIBEICUIHUI”49。ZONGERYANZHI,RENZHIZUNYANGOUCHENGLERENLEIDEYISHENGCUNDETIAOJIAN,YEGOUCHENGLEXIANDAIFALVZHIDUDEZHONGYAOJICHU。MEIGESHENGMINGZAIYUZHOUZHIXUZHONGDOUYOUQIQIARUQIFENDEWEIZHI,MEIGERENDOUYOUQUANZHANGKONGZIJIDEMINGYUN,BINGZIZHUDIANZHAOQISUOGUIHUADEFANGSHISHENGHUO。ZAICHUSHENGZHEIGEZIRANSHIDIANSHANG,FUMUBUNENGJUEDING“RANGZIJIDEHAIZICHENGWEIYIGEZENYANGDEREN”,TAMENBUNENGDANFANGDIJIANGZIJIDEXIANGFAQIANGJIAYUWEICHUSHENGDEHAIZI,WUQUANTONGGUOJIYINJISHUGANYUSHENGZHIGUOCHENG,LAIRANGHAIZI“SHENGCHULAIGENGHAO”,YINWEIZHEIZHONGZUOFABINGMEIYOUZHENZHENGBAQIANZAIDECHUSHENGZHEDANGZUOMUDE,ERJINJINJIANGQIDANGZUOSHIYIZHONGMANZUGERENYUWANGHUOSHIXIANGERENTEDINGMUDEDEGONGJUHUOSHOUDUAN。YINCI,KEYISHUO,JIYINKEJIDEGUANGFANYUNYONGNAIZHILANYONG,HUIRANGSHENGWUSHIQUDUOYANGXINGHESHENSHENGXING,CONGERYANZHONGDIQINFANRENZHIZUNYAN。

                                    (三)自主性与人的自由意志

                                    JIYINBIANJICHULECONGZIRANXINGHERENZHIZUNYANLIANGGECENGMIANWEIJIRENDEXINGZHI,HAIYOUHENZHONGYAODEYIDIANSHITAHUIQINFANQIANZAIZHEDEZIZHUXING。ZIZHUXINGDEJIBENYISI,SHISHUORENNENGGOUZIJIZUOJUEDING,NENGGOUZIYOUDIANZHAOZIJIDEGUIHUASHENGHUO,BINGNENGGOUDULIDIDUIZIJIDEXINGDONGFUZE。ZIZHUXINGDECUNZAIXUYAOYIGEQIANTI,JISHIRENMENNENGGOUYONGYOUZIYOUYIZHI。ERRENMENSHIFOUYONGYOUZIYOUYIZHI,HUORENMENNENGFOUZIZHUDIBIANSHIHEKONGZHIZIJIDEXINGWEI,YOUGOUCHENGLEXIANDAISHEHUIZHIDUSHEJIDEJICHU。YEJIUSHISHUO,RUGUORENMENBINGBUYONGYOUZIYOUYIZHI,TAMENJIANGSHIQUBIANSHIZIJIDEXINGWEIJIQIKENENGCHANSHENGDEHOUGUODENENGLI,YEWUFAJUEDINGHUOKONGZHIZIJIDEXINGWEI,CONGERZIRANYEJIUBUNENGDUIZIJIDEXINGWEIHOUGUOCHENGDANZEREN。

                                    RENSHIFOUYONGYOUZIYOUYIZHI,SHIXIFANGZHEXUEZHONGDEYIGEZHONGYAOQIEPOJUZHENGYIDEWENTI。ZHICHIZIYOUYIZHIDELUNZHE,RENWEIRENSHIZIYOUDE,NENGGOUZIZHUDIJUEDINGHEKONGZHIZIJIDEXINGWEI。XIANGFAN,FOUDINGLUNZHESUIRANBINGBUWANQUANBIDINGFANGQIRENLEIZIYOU,DANRENZUOWEIYUZHOUHEZIRANDEYIBUFEN,ZIRANYAOSHOUDAOZIRANYINGUOLVDEXIANZHI,YINCIRENBUKENENGWANQUANYONGYOUZIYOUYIZHI。ZAIZHEXUESHANGWANGWANGJIANGZHEIZHONGFOUDINGZIYOUYIZHIDEZHUZHANGCHENGWEIJUEDINGLUN。DANGRAN,JUEDINGLUNDEXINGSHISHIJUTIDUOYANGDE,ZAIBUTONGDELISHISHIQI、BUTONGDEYUJINGHEWENHUAXIAQIYANGMAOBUJINYIZHI。GUINAQILAI,ZHUYAOBAOHANSUMINGLUN(RENDEYIQIEJIEYOUMINGYUNHUOZHURUSHANGDIZHILEIDESHENMILILIANGSUOJUEDING)、YINGUOJUEDINGLUN(RENDEXINGDONGHEXUANZESHOUZHIYUZIRANJIEDEYINGUOLV)、XINLIJUEDINGLUN(RENDEXUANZESHOUXIANQIANDEDONGJIHEXINGGESUOJUEDING),CHUCIZHIWAIHAIYOUWULIJUEDINGLUN、LISHIJUEDINGLUN、LUOJIJUEDINGLUNDENG。50FEIJUEDINGLUNFOURENRENMENKEYIZIYOU、ZIZHUDIXUANZEHEXINGDONG,ZHEIHUICONGGENBENSHANGBIANDISHENGMINGCUNZAIDEJIAZHIHEYIYI,QINDUOSHENGMINGGETIDUIYUZIJISHENGHUODEZHUZAIQUAN。

                                    YUCIXIANGBANSUI,XIANDAISHENJINGKEXUESHIYANYONGSHUJUHEJIEGUOJINYIBUZHIYILEZIYOUYIZHIDECUNZAI。YUCIXIANGGUANDEZHUYAOSHILIANGCHANGSHIYAN,FENBIESHIZHEMINGDE“LIBEITESHIYAN”HE“HAIENSISHIYAN”,SHIYANJIEGUOLINGRENZHENJING,WOMENDEXINGDONGBINGBUSHOUDANAOYOUYISHIDEKONGZHI,ERSHISHOUZHIYUYIXIEWUYISHIDESHENJINGXINGHUODONG。51GAISHIYANYANJIUDEJIEGUOYUWOMENRICHANGSHENGHUOTIYANBINGBUXIANGFU,YEZAODAOLEHENDUORENWENSHEKELINGYUYANJIUZHEDEPIPINGHEZHIYI,BIRUYIXIEXUEZHEZHICHU,KEXUEYANJIUHUODONGBENSHENJIUYUSHELERENYONGYOUZIYOUYIZHI,“RUGUOMEIYOUYIZHIZIYOU,YIQIEDOUSHIBEIJUEDINGLEDE,ZEKEXUEYANJIUHUODONGBENSHENJIUMEIYOUJINXINGDEKENENG”52。TONGYANG,YIGEBUZHENGDESHISHISHI,XIANDAIZIRANKEXUEDEFAZHANYIJINGBUFENDIFANGQIJUEDINGLUN,YOUQISHIXIANDAIWULIZHONGLIANGZILIXUEDETICHUJIUSHIWEILEYAOZHENGWEIJUEDINGLUN。ZAIZHENGLUNYUBIANHUZIYOUYIZHIDEWENTISHANG,ZUIHAOHAISHIHUIGUIDAOFEIJUEDINGLUNDESIWEISHANGLAI,TANTAOZIYOUYIZHIHEYINENGGOUZAIWOMENDEXINLINGSHIJIEZHONGTONGSHUAIXINGDONGHEXUANZE,BINGFENXITADUIYUQUEBAOGETIDEZIYOUHEZIZHUXINGSUOJUYOUDEGUANJIANXINGYIYI。

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIKANGDEKANLAI,RENSHIWEIYIJUYOULIXINGDECUNZAIZHE,RENDECUNZAIBENSHENJIUJUYOUDULIDEDAODEJIAZHI,RENZISHENJIUSHIMUDEJUEDINGLERENDESHENSHENGXING。TONGSHI,YIZHIZIYOUYEGOUCHENGLERENDEDUTEBENZHI,ZHENGSHITASHIDERENDEDULIDAODEDIWEICHENGWEIKENENG。WEICI,KANGDETICHULE“ZIYOUGONGSHI”(formula of autonomy)ZUOWEIDISANTIAOJIBENDAODELVLING:“YIZHIDUIYUZISHENLAISHUO,JIUSHIYIZHONGPUBIANYOUXIAODEFAZE”,HUOZHESHUOYIZHIZILVDEYUANZESHIZHEIYANGDE,“BUYAOYIQITAFANGSHIZUOXUANZE,CHUFEIQIXUANZEDEZHUNZETONGSHIZUOWEIPUBIANDEFAZEBEIYIQIBAOHANZAITONGYIGEYIYUZHONG”53。GUER,CONGJIJIDECENGMIANERYAN,YIGERENZHIYAOYONGYOUWANQUANDEYIZHIZIYOU,JIUNENGGOUZIZHUDIJINXINGXUANZEHEZUOCHUXINGDONG;CONGXIAOJIDECENGMIANLAISHUO,ZIZHUXINGZHINENGTONGGUOZIJIDEJUEDINGZUOCHU,ERBUNENGYOUTARENDAIWEIZHIXING,GENGBUNENGYITARENDEZIZHUXINGLAIXIANGDANGRANDIDAITIQIANZAIZHEDEZIZHUXING,FOUZEGERENJIANGHUISHIQUZHUTIXING,ZHUANERLUNWEIYIZHONGKETIHUOGONGJU。

                                    ZAIJIYINBIANJIDESHILIDANGZHONG,FUMUWEILERANGHAIZI“CHUSHENGENGHAO”,SHENZHIYONGYOUCHAOQIANG(ZHISHAOCHAOYUECHANGREN)DENENGLIHUOBINGFU,ERJUEYIXUANZEYONGJIYINJISHUGANYUSHENGZHI,CONGERDADAOTAMENSUOYUQIDE“WANMEI”MUDE。ZAIQIANWENTAOLUNZIYOUZHUYIYOUSHENGXUESHI,CENGLUNJIWEIJIYINGANYUBIANHUDEYIGELIYOUJIUSHIKAOLVDAOYAOZUNZHONGFUMUDEZIZHUXING。ZHEILIMIANQUEYINZANGZHEYIGEJINZHANGGUANXI,ZUNZHONGFUMUDEZIZHUXINGQUESHISHIYIGEJUYOUXIYINLIDEDAODELIYOU,RANERTAQUEYOUKENENGBEILINGYIGEGENGWEIZHONGYAODELIYOUSUOJIBAI,JIHAIZI(QIANZAIZHE)YEKESUZHUZIZHUXINGLAIZUZHIHUOPAICHIFUMUDEQIANGXINGGANYU。YOURENKENENGHUITICHUPIPING,QIANZAIZHESHANGWEICHUSHENGZENMEKENENGZIJIZHUZHANGZIZHUXINGDEQUANLINI?DUICIWOMENXUYAOZUOCHUYIDIANCHENGQING,ZIZHUXINGBINGBUYIWEIZHELIKAILEFUMUDEGANYU,HAIZIKEYIZIZHUDIXUANZEQIYICHUANTEZHENG。54YINWEI,RENHERENDOUWUFAZIYOUDITIAOXUANZIJIDEYICHUANJIYIN。SUNHAIQIANZAIZHEDEZIZHUXING,YIWEIZHEQIANZAIZHEXIANGYOUZUOZIJIDEQUANLI,TAXIANGCHENGWEIZIJISHENGHUOSHIDEWEIYIQIEDULIZUOZHE,TABUXIANGJINJINSHIWEILEBIERENERHUO,BUXIANGCHENGWEISHIXIANTARENMUDEDEGONGJUHUOSHOUDUAN。

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   FUMUJIBIANBUSHICHUYUYIJISIYU,ERSHIKAOLVDAOHAIZIDEWEILAIFAZHANXUYAO,TONGCHANGYIBUNENGDANFANGZUOCHUJIYINBIANJIDEJUEDING,ZHEISHIYINWEI:DIYI,JUEDINGDEZUOCHUZHESHIFUMU,ERDUIYUJIYINGANYUSUOZAOCHENGDESHIJIHOUGUOQUEYOUQIANZAIZHEHUOWEILAIRENCHENGDAN,ZHEIDUITAMENLAISHUOSHIBUGONGPINGDE,TAYOUQUANCANYUDAORENHEKENENGYINGXIANGDAOQIZISHENLIYIDEJUEDINGZHONGLAI;DIER,SHANGYIDIANZHUYAOSHIJIYUHOUGUOTICHULAIDE,YOUYUJIYINJISHUCUNZAIDEKEGUANFENGXIAN,YOUFUMUTIDAIHAIZIZUOJUEDINGXIANRANBUTAIHESHI。HOUTUIYIBUJIANG,JIASHEJIYINKEJIFAZHANDAOKEYIQINGSONGGUIBIFENGXIANDEDIBU,NEIMEZAICIZHONGQINGXINGXIAFUMUNENGFOUDANFANGTIHAIZIZUOJUEDING?JIBIANSHIWEILEHAIZIDELIYI,ZHEIZHONGJUEDINGRENGRANBUJUYOUWANQUANDEDAODEXING,“WOMENWEIWEILAIRENZUOJUEDING,WANQUANSHICHUYUSHANLIANGDEMUDE,SHIWEILESHIWEILAIRENLEIYONGYOUYIZHONGYOUJIAZHIDEPINZHI。RANERZHEIYIDIANFEIDANBUNENGGOUCHENGWEITARENZUOJUEDINGDELIYOU,FANERZHINENGBIAOMINGSHIYIZHONG‘SHANLIANG’DEQIANGZHI,YIZHONG‘DEXINGDEKONGBU’”55。QIANZAIZHEDEZIZHUXINGCONGXIAOJIDEMIANXIANGSHANGYIWEIZHEPAICHIQITAXINGSHIDEGANYU。

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   QIANZAIZHEZAIBUZHIQINGHUOWEIQUDEQITONGYIDEQINGKUANGXIA,BEITONGGUOJIYINJISHUJIAYIBIANJIGAIZAO,CONGERYIYIZHONG“WANMEIDEXINGSHI”BEIZHIZAOCHULAI。ZHEISUIRAN“KANSHANGQUHENMEI”,DANQUEBIANSUNLEQISHENGMINGDEZHENGTIJIAZHI,QINFANLENEIHANYURENZHIBENZHIZHONGDEZIZHUXING。HABEIMASIDUIJIYINGONGCHENGDEPIPING,QIAQIAYEZHUAZHULEZHEIYIDIAN。TARENWEI,ZAIYIGEMINZHUZHIDEDUOYUANSHEHUIZHONG,MEIYIGEGONGMINDOUYOUYIZHONGZIZHUDIXUANZEZIJIRENSHENGDEPINGDENGXINGQUANLI。56JIYINGONGCHENGTONGGUODUIJIYINDEJISHUCAOZONG,RANGYIBUFENRENSHENGLAIBILINGYIBUFENREN(ZHENGCHANGREN)GENGQIANG,ZHEIJIANGHUIGAIBIANRENLEICHUSHENGDEZIRANGUOCHENG,JINERPOHUAIZHEIZHONGPINGDENGDEJIBENQIANTI。ZAICIJICHUSHANG,TAJINYIBUDUANYAN,“CHUFEIWOMENJIANGZIJIDECHUSHENGPAICHUYUSHOURENWEIDEGANYUHUOSHEJI,FANERSHIJIANGQISUYUANYUZHURUSHANGDIHUOBENXINGZHILEIDEDONGXI,WOMENCAINENGSHUOZIJISHIZIYOUDE”57。JIYINBIANJIJIANGRENDANGZUOSHIJISHUCAOZONGHUOJIAGONGDEDUIXIANG,CUANGAILEGERENZUOWEIQISHENGHUOSHIDEWEIYIZUOZHE。YUCITONGSHI,ZHURULULUHENANAZHEIYANGDE“JISHUREN”SHIFOUHAIYONGYOUWANQUANDEZIYOUYIZHI?TAMENJIANGLAIYINGFOUYAODUIZIJIDEWEIFA、FANZUIXINGWEIFUZE?TAMENNENGFOUYIZIJIZUOWEI“RENZAOREN”BUJUYOUZIZHUXINGTICHUKANGBIAN?ZHEIXIEDOUSHIJIYINKEJIDUIZIYOUYIZHIJIZIZHUXINGDAILAIDETIAOZHAN,YEJIANGCONGSHENCENGCIQINSHIXIANDAIFALVZHIDUDEJICHU。

                                    四、基因科技工程的可能界限

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   WUKEFOURENDEYIGESHISHISHI,WOMENZHENGSHENCHUYUYIGEWEIJISIFUDE“DUOYUANFENGXIANSHEHUI”。DEGUOZHEMINGSHEHUIXUEJIABEIKESHI“FENGXIANSHEHUI”GAINIANDETICHUZHE,SHENZHIJIANGXIANDAISHEHUIDEFENGXIANHEZAINANSHIWEI“KEJIFAZHANFUZUOYONG”DEBIRANJIEGUO。GAOKEJIDEYINGYONGJISHENGHUOYUDANGXIADERENMENDAILAILEGEZHONGBIANLIHEHAOCHU,ERYUCITONGSHITAYESHIZHONGBANSUIZHEMOUZHONG“BUANQUANGAN”,TADUANYAN:“21SHIJIYINGXIANGLIJIQIANGDEXINJISHUZHONGJIUYINZANGZHESHANGWEIFAXIANDEZHONGDAFENGXIAN。WOMENYONGJIYINJISHU、NAMIJISHUHEJIQIRENJISHUDAKAILEPANDUOLAZHIHE,DANSHIXIANERYIJIAN,WOMENJIHUMEIYOUYISHIDAOZHEIYIDIAN。”58ZAIQUANQIUHUADEFENGXIANLANGCHAOZHONG,KEJIFENGXIANSUOKENENGDAILAIDEJUDAEGUOSHIZHIDEJINGTIDE。ZHENGRUWOMENSUOKANDAODE,YIFANGMIANJIYINKEJIZAIYILIAOFANGMIANQUESHINENGGOUFAHUIZHONGYAODEZUOYONG,ERLINGYIFANGMIANTAYOUHUIPOHUAIRENZHIBENXINGYIJIKENENGHUIDAILAIQITADEFENGXIANXINGHOUGUO。JIRANBUNENGWANQUANJUCHI,JIUXUYAOZHENGQUEDIRENSHIDAOTADEKENENGJIEXIAN。

                                    (一)科学研究自由与限制基因科技工程

                                    ZAI“WOMENNENGZUOSHENME”YU“WOMENBEIYUNXUZUOSHENME”ZHIJIANHAICUNZAIHENDADEYIDUANJULI,YIBANERYAN,BINGFEISUOYOU“WOMENNENGZUODE”DOUYIWEIZHE“WOMENKEYIZUO”HUO“WOMENYINGDANGZUO”。QIARUKAOFUMANSUOZHICHUDENEIYANG,“KEXUEWENDESHI,SHENMESHIWOMENNENGGOUZUODE,DANSHILUNLIXUEYUFAXUEYAOWENDESHI,SHENMESHIYUNXUZUODE。”59RENLEIDEHENDUOXINGWEISUIRANZAISHISHISHANGBUCUNZAIKUNNAN,DANYOUSHIJIYUFALV、DAODE、ZONGJIAO、XIGUAN、ZHENGZHIDENGFANGMIANDEYUANYINERBEIJINZHI。DUIYUJIYINGONGCHENGTONGYANGYESHIRUCI,JIYINKEJINENGGOUBANGZHUWOMENZUOHENDUOSHIQING,XIAODAOGAIBIANSHENGAO、TIMAOTEZHENG,DADAOGAIBIANXINGBIE、ZHILIAOYICHUANXINGJIBING,DANBINGBUSHISHUOWOMENJIUBEIYUNXULIYONGJIYINKEJILAIZUOSUOYOUZHEIXIESHIQING。JISHUZAICUJINJINGJIFANRONGHETISHENGRENLEISHENGHUODETONGSHI,YEZAISHENKEYINGXIANGHEGAIBIANZHENGZHIFALVSHIJIAN。KAOLVDAOJIYINKEJIJIRENLEISUOKENENGDAILAIDEGEZHONGWEIXIE,TADECUNZAIHEGONGYONGDEFAHUIYINGXIANZHIZAIYIDINGDEFANWEIHEXIANDUNEI。

                                    ZAIJINGTIJISHUZHISHANGZHUYIHUOJISHUWANNENGZHUYIDETONGSHI,YIFANGMIANYAOXIANZHIJIYINGONGCHENGBIANJIEDEKUOZHANG,LINGYIFANGMIANYEYAOBAOZHANGJIYINKEXUEYANJIUDEZIYOU。RUCIYILAI,WOMENJIUYAOSIKAORUHECHULIKEXUEYANJIUZIYOUYUXIANZHIJIYINGONGCHENGZHIJIANDEGUANXI。ZAIYINGFOUXIANZHIKEYANZIYOUDEWENTISHANG,GUINAYIXIADATISHANGYOUZHEIYANGJIZHONGGUANDIAN:DIYI,BUGANYU,WANQUANFANGKAIJIYINKEXUEYANJIU,YOUYUZHISHIBENSHENJUYOUNEIZAIJIAZHI,KEXUEJIAKEYIZUORENHEKENENGZUODESHIQING;DIER,QUANMIANGANYU,JIYINGONGCHENGHUIPOHUAIZIRANSHENSHENGLUN,CUIHUIRENDEXINGZHIJINERWEIJIRENLEICUNZAI,YINERYINGDUIKEXUEYANJIUHUODONGJINXINGQUANMIANJINZHI;DISAN,YOUXIANDEGANYU,FUYUKEXUEJIACONGSHIKEXUEYANJIUDEZIYOU,DANZHEIZHONGKEYANHUODONGYINGZUNSHOUYIDINGYUANZE,BINGQIEBUNENGCHAOGUOBIYAODE、ZHENGDANGXIANDU。60HENXIANRAN,ZAIZHEISANZHONGGANYUMOSHIZHONG,QIANLIANGZHONGMOSHIFENBIEDAIBIAOLELIANGGEJIDUAN,WULUNSHIQUANMIANXIANZHIKEXUEYANJIUHAISHIQUANMIANFANGKAIKEXUEYANJIUDOUSHIBUXIANSHIDE,DOUYOUKENENGHUIJIRENLEISHENGCUNDAILAIYIXILIEDEYANZHONGWENTI。YINCI,JIAOWEIHELIDEMOSHISHIJIANCHIYOUXIANDEGANYU。

                                    YOUXIANDEGANYUMOSHI,SHOUXIANSHIZUNZHONGKEXUEYANJIUDEZIYOU。PIEKAIJISHUDAODISHIBUSHIZHONGLIDEZHEIGEZHENGYIXINGWENTIBUTAN,KEJIQUESHINENGGOUZAOFURENLEI,ZAIJINTIANZHEIYANGYIGEGAODUFADADEWULIANWANG、HULIANWANGSHIDAI,RENLEIDUIYUKEJIDEYILAIXINGCHENGDUGENGGAO。ZAI20SHIJI,KEXUEJIAMENJINGGUOYIFANNULIZHONGYUPOJIELERENLEIDEYICHUANJIYINTUPU,CONGKEXUEDEJIAODURANGWOMENLIJIERENSHIYOUHEERLAIDE。TONGSHI,KEXUEYANJIUYERANGWOMENGENGQINGXIDIKANDAOYIXIEYICHUANJIBINGDEFABINGYUANLI,WEITONGGUOXIUGAIZHIBINGJIYINLAIGUIBIJIBINGTIGONGLEMOUZHONGKENENGDEKONGJIAN。LINGWAI,JIANCHIJIBENLUNLIYUANZEHEDAOYIYUANZEDEKEXUEYANJIU,DUICONGSHIYANJIUDEKEXUEJIABENRENSHIJUYOUNEIZAIJIAZHIDE,TANENGGOUMANZUKEXUEJIAQIUZHIHETANQIUWEILAISHENMISHIJIEDEYUWANG。YICIJIAODULAIKAN,ZHILIAOXINGDEJIYINKEJIYANJIUSHIYINGYUYIBAOZHANGDE,ERYIZENGQIANGWEIMUDEDEJIYINKEJIYANJIUZEYINGYUYIPUBIANJINZHI。RENLEIJIYINBIANJIWEIYUANHUIYU2017NIAN2YUE15RIJIURENLEIJIYINBIANJIDEKEXUEJISHU、LUNLIYUJIANGUANXIANGQUANSHIJIEFABUYANJIUBAOGAO,ZHICHUJIYINJISHUBUNENGWEISUOYUWEIERBIXUJIESHOUXIANZHI。QIZHONG,ZHUANMENDUIJIYINBIANJIDEJICHUXINGYANJIUJINXINGBIAOTAI,RENWEIKEXUEJIAKEYIZAISHIYANSHIDUITIXIBAO、GANXIBAOXI、RENLEIPEITAIZUOJICHUXINGDEKEXUEYANJIUSHIYAN,DANQIANTISHIYAOJIESHOUXIANYOUGUANLITIAOLIDEGUIZHI。61CHUCIZHIWAI,ZHEIZHONGJICHUXINGYANJIUBIXUYIZHILIAOJIBINGWEIMUDE,YOUQISHIZHENDUISHENGZHIXIBAODEYANJIUSHIYANBIXUSHIYAOYIGONGKEHUOZHILIAOJIQIYANZHONGDEJIBINGWEIMUDE,TONGSHIYAOJIESHOUYANGEDELUNLIHEFALVGUIFANDEYUESHU。CONGXIANDAIFALVZHIDUDESHEJILAIKAN,KEYANZIYOUYIBEILIFAZHEPUBIANDITONGGUOSHIZAIFAJIAYIZHIDUHUALE。SHENZHI,YIXIEGUOJIAJIANGKEYANZIYOUTISHENGZHIJIBENQUANLIHEZIYOUDEDIWEI。

                                    ZONGZHI,ZAISHIJIANZHONGPANDUANSHIFOUYAOXIANZHIJIYINKEJIYANJIUZIYOU,HUOZHEPANDUANSUOSHIJIADEZHEIZHONGXIANZHIDEQIANGDUYOUDUODA,YINGZONGHEKAOLVYIXIAYINSU:(1)SUOCHANSHENGDESHIJISHANGHAIDAODIYOUDUODA?ZHEIZHONGSHANGHAIDEXINGZHIRUHE?(2)DUISHENGTAIHUANJINGCHANSHENGDEYINGXIANG,BIRUSHIFOUYINFASHENGWUZAIHAI;(3)SHIFOUHUIDAOZHI(BAOKUORENZAINEIDE)WUZHONGDEJIANSHAOHUOXIAOSHI;(4)DUIYANJIUZHEHUOSUOZAISHEHUIBENSHENSHIFOUHUIDAILAIQINHAI;(5)SHIFOUYUQITARENDE(SHENGMINGQUAN、RENZHIZUNYAN、ZIZHUXINGDENG)JIBENQUANLIBAOZHANGCHANSHENGCHONGTU;62(6)ZHEIZHONGYANJIUDEDONGJISHIFOUDANCHUN,RUGUOYANJIUDEMUDESHIWEILEFUWUYUKELONGREN,NEIZHEIZHONGYANJIUXIANRANYAOSHOUDAOJINZHI;(7)SHIFOUWEIBEIQITADIXIANLUNLIYUANZEHUOTEDINGFALVZHIDU,BIRUWEIFANFALVGUIDINGRENYIDIUQISHIYANSHENGYUDERENGONGPEITAI。ZHEIXIEBIAOZHUNZHENGTISHANGLAIKANRENGRANJUYOUYIDINGDECHOUXIANGXING,XUYAOJIEHEGEANDEJUTIQINGJINGJINXINGJUTIPANDUAN。JIBUNENGDUIJIYINGONGCHENGFANGRENBUGUAN,YOUBUNENGBUJIAQUFENDIQUANMIANXIANZHIJIYINKEYANZIYOU。WEILAIDELIFAGONGZUO,XUYAOZAIBAOZHANGKEYANZIYOUYUXIANZHIJIYINGONGCHENGZHIJIANXUNQIUPINGHENG。

                                    (二)有限干预与开放性的未来

                                    QIANWENZAITAOLUNJIYINBIANJIDELEIBIESHIJIUCENGZHICHU,ANZHAOJIYINGANYUSHENGZHIHUORENZHIZIRANSHITIDEMUDEBUTONG,ZHISHAOKEYIQUFENCHUZHILIAOXINGJIYINGANYUYUZENGQIANGXINGJIYINGANYU。MUQIAN,ZHIYOUZHILIAOXINGGANYUNENGGOUHUODEYIDINGDEZHENGDANGJICHU。ERQIEJISHIZAIZHILIAOXINGJIYINGANYUZHONG,YOUJINYIBUBAOKUOJIYUTIXIBAOBIANJIDEZHILIAOXINGGANYUHEJIYUSHENGZHIXIBAOBIANJIDEZHILIAOXINGGANYU。QIANZHEZAILINCHUANGZHONGYIBEIPUBIANJIESHOU,ZAIRICHANGYILIAOSHIJIANZHONGFAHUILEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。ERHOUZHEZAILINCHUANGZHONGSHIBEIJINZHISHISHIDE,ZAIJICHUYANJIUJIEDUANYOUDEGUOJIAYOUTIAOJIANDIYUNXU,YEYOUXIEGUOJIA(BIRUDEGUO)JINZHIRENHEYIYANJIUWEIMUDEDEZHIZAOPEITAIDEXINGWEI。KAOLVDAO,ZHEIZHONGLEIXINGDEJIYINGANYUXINGWEISUIRANZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGHUISUNHAIQIANZAIZHEDEZIZHUXING,DANGANYUJUEDINGFUWUYU“SHENGMINGJIANKANG”ZHEIYANGYIGEKEYIYUZHIKANGHENGDEJIAZHI。YEJIUSHISHUO,FUMUTIHAIZIZUOCHUJIYINGANYUDEJUEDING,WANQUANSHICHUYUWEILEHAIZIDEJIANKANGKAOLV。SUIRANZHEIZHONGXINGWEIBINGBUBIDINGYINCIJIUSHIWANQUANZHENGDANGDE,DANTAKEYIYONGYOUYIXIECHUBUDEZHENGDANGHUASHIYOU。YINCI,WOMENSIHUKEYISHUO,JIYINGANYUDEYOUXIANXINGJIUTIXIANZAITAZHINENGZAI“ZHILIAOJIBING”ZHEIGEFANGMIANFAHUIZUOYONG。CHAOCHUCIZHONGFANWEIDEJIYINGANYUHENKUAIHUIFASHENGYIHUA,JINERCHANSHENGBIANDIRENLEIJIAZHI、POHUAIRENGEWANZHENGXINGDEJIEGUO。

                                    XIANGBIZHIXIA,ZENGQIANGXINGJIYINYANJIUZHISUOYIBUNENGBEIJIESHOU,CHULETAHUIPOHUAIRENDEZIRANXINGHEMAOFANRENZHIZUNYANZHIWAI,YIGEGENGZHONGYAODEYUANYINZAIYUTABODUOLEQIANZAIZHEZHUZAIZIJIMINGYUNHESHENGHUODEJIHUI。GETIDESHENGMINGLICHENG,JIANGHUIBIANDEBUZAINEIMEDEZIRAN,ERBIANCHENGLEYIZHONGKEYIXUANZEHUOKONGZHIDEZHUANGTAI。SHOUDAOGUOJIYINGANYUDEREN,KENENGCONGCIYAOHUOZAITARENWEIQIGUIHUADESHIJIELI。ZAICI,WOMENHUANYIZHONGBUTONGDEBIAOSHU,JIYINGANYUQINFANLEQIANZAIZHEZIZHUZHANGKONGZIJISHENGMINGDEQUANLI,SHISHISHANGSHIZAIQINFANQIANZAIZHEDE“WUZHIQUAN”,XIANGYOUBUBEIGAOZHIZIJIDEWEILAISHENGHUOSHIZENYANGDEQUANLI,RANGZIJIDESHENGHUOHECUNZAIBAOCHIYIDINGDESHENMI,YOUCIHUIDAILAIGEZHONGXINQIDETIYAN、JINGLINAIZHITIAOZHAN,ERZHEIZHONGSHENGHUOXINGSHIBENSHENSHICHONGMANJIAZHIDE。ZHEIZHONG“WUZHIQUAN”YETIXIANZAIYAOQIUSHENGHUOJUYOU“FEIJIHUAXING”,YIJI,“TABUYUNXUTABIANCHENGQIFUMUHUOZHEQITAZHIZAOZHEDEYIXIANGSHEJI,MEIGERENDOUBIXUYONGYOUZIYOUJUEDINGZIJISHIWUDEQUANLIHEZIYOUXUANZETASHENGHUOFANGSHIDEQUANLI;TABUYUNXUZUOWEIQITARENYUXIANZHIDINGDESHENGHUODEJIHUAHUOZHESHENGHUOLIXIANGDEHUASHENSHENGDAOZHEIGESHIJIESHANGLAI”63。SHENGMINGDEYIYIJIUZAIYUZHEIZHONGKAIFANGXING,KAIFANGXINGYIWEIZHEMEIGESHENGMINGDOUSHIDUTEDE,MEIYOURENHELIANGGERENDESHENGMINGJINGLISHIWANQUANXIANGTONGDE,MEIGERENDOUYOUTIYANSHENGMINGSHENMIDEQUANLI,TONGGUOZIYOUDEGUIHUAHEZIZHUDEXINGDONGZAIKAIFANGXINGDELISHIZHANGHEZHONGZHUIXUNSHENGMINGDEDUTEYIYI。

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   TIYANSHENGMINGDEZHEIZHONGSHENMIXING,XUYAOJINGGUOGETIDEQINLILAIWANCHENG。JIYINGANYURENWEIDIGAIBIANLECHUSHENGDEZIRANGUOCHENG,GANYUJUEDINGDEZUOCHUZHEJIANGZIJIDUI“HAOSHENGHUO”HUO“HAORENSHENG”DEGUANNIANQIANGJIAYUQIANZAIZHE,CONGERTIQIANWEIHOUZHEGUIHUAHAOWEILAIDESHENGHUOFANGSHI。QIANZAIZHEDUIZIJIDEWEILAISHENGHUOYIYANJIUKEYIWANGDAOTOU,ZIJIZAINAFANGMIANYONGYOUCHAOQIANGDEBINGFU,ZIJIJINHOUHUILIHUANHEZHONGJIBING,ZIJIJIANGLAIGENGNENGSHENGRENHEZHONGGONGZUODENG,ZAISHENGMINGGANGKAISHISHIBIANYIJINGDUISHENGHUOZHONGJIANGYAOFASHENGDEZHEIXIESHIQINGLERUZHIZHANG,RUCIYILAISHENGMINGZHONGJIUHUISHIQUYIXIEBENGAIYOUDEXINQI、JINGXIHEQIDAI。CONGDAIJIZHENGYIDEJIAODULAIKAN,FUMUDANFANGZUOCHUDEJIYINGANYUJUEDINGKENENGHUIYUHAIZIZHUZHANG“KAIFANGXINGWEILAIDEQUANLI”(right to an open future)ZHIJIANCHANSHENGCHONGTU。YOUYUZHEIGEQUANLIBINGBUSHIXIANSHIDE、DANGXIADE,YINCIYEBEICHENGWEI“YUQIDEZIZHUXINGQUANLI”(anticipatory autonomy rights)。YIXIECHANGDAOZHEIYIGAINIANDEXUEZHE,BIRUFANBOGE(Joel Feinberg),HUIRENWEIZHEIYIQUANLIZHUZHANGJUYOUYOUXIANXING,YAORANGHAIZI“ZAIWEILAICHENGRENSHIJIELIJINKENENGDUODIHUODEGONGKAIDEJIHUI,BINGYOUCIZUIDAXIANDUDISHIXIANZIWOMANZU”64。DANGFUMUDEDANFANGJIYINGAIJINJUEDINGYUZHEIZHONGQUANLIZHUZHANGCHUXIANCHONGTUSHI,YIBANYINGZHONGDIANBAOZHANGHAIZIDEZHEIYIJIBENXINGQUANLI。LINGWAI,CONGQUANLIPINGHENGDESHIJIAOLAIKAN,RURUOQIANZAIDEHUIFUJIANKANGQUANYUKAIFANGXINGWEILAIQUANZHIJIANCHUXIANJINZHANG,BIZHEQINGXIANGYURENWEIQIANZHEJUYOUYOUXIANXING。

                                    JIYINGANYURUGUOXIANGYAOHUODEZHENGDANGXING,NEIMEBIRANYAOZHIFUPOHUAIQIANZAIZHEZIZHUXINGDEDAIJIA,BINGJINERHUIFUDAIXINGDIQINFANQIANZAIZHEDE“KAIFANGXINGWEILAIDEQUANLI”。NEIME,NENGGOUDUIDENGDIZUOWEIYIGEDUIJIAJINXINGJIAOHUANDEZHINENGSHIWEILEBAOHUQIANZAIZHEDELIYIFANGMIANDEKAOLV,ERQIESUOYAOBAOHUDELIYITONGCHANGSHI“SHENGMINGJIANKANG”LIYI。JIANJIANDI,ZHEIYOUZHUANXIANGLEJIYINGONGCHENGSUOKENENGYONGYOUDEZHENGDANGXIANDU,JIZHIYOUYIZHILIAOYANZHONGJIBINGWEIMUDEDEJIYINGANYUCAISHIKEYUDE。ZHEIZHONGTEDINGDEYOUXIANJIAZHANGZHUYI,YIBANSHINENGGOUHUODECHUBUDEZHENGDANGXINGLIYOUDE。DANZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,ZAIDUIJIYINGANYUJINXINGSHIJIANSHENCHADEWENTISHANG,YOUSHIWOMENHENNANBIANSHIQINGCHUJIBINGDEJIEXIANSHISHENME,ERXIANGYINGDIJIANGZHILIAOZUOWEIYIGEBIAOZHUNYESHISHIFENBUQINGXIDE。DUIYUYIXIEBUHAOZHENDUANDEJIBING,YOUQISHIDANGZHANGAICHENGDUBEIHUAFENCHENGBUTONGDEDENGJISHI,WOMENJIUHUIYOUYUDANGZHEIZHONGZHANGAIDADAOHEZHONGCHENGDUSHIDUITADEGANYUCAISHIHELIDE。LINGWAI,ZAIGEBIELINGYU“ZHILIAO”YU“GAIJIN”HUO“ZENGQIANG”ZHIJIANDEJIEXIANYESHIHENNANBAWODE。65ZHENGSHIYINWEIZHEIZHONGQUFENCUNZAIKUNNAN,WOMENGENGYINGGAIJINSHENDITIFANGNEIZHONGDAZHEJIYINZHILIAOWEIMINGERXINGJIYINZENGQIANGWEISHIDEGOUDANG。ZAIKAIZHANJIYINGONGCHENGDEGUOCHENGZHONG,YINGZUIDAXIANDUDIZUNZHONGQIANZAIZHEDEZIZHUXING,RANGTACHONGFENDIXIANGYOUYIGEKAIFANGXINGDE(SHENZHINAPASHIBUQUEDINGDE)WEILAI。

                                    五、结论

                                  星云棋牌官网下载   JISHUZONGSHIHUIZHANXIANCHUTADELIANGMIANXING,LIKAIJISHUWOMENDESHENGHUOJIANGHUISHIQUHENDUOSECAISHENZHIBIANDEWUBIJIANNAN,DANSHIFENGXINGJISHUZHISHANGHEJISHUWANNENGDEXINTIAOYOUSHIYOUHUIJIWOMENDAILAICHENZHONGDEZAINAN。JIYINBIANJIDUIGETISHENGMINGSUODAILAIDEQIANZAIFENGXIANWANGWANGSHILINGRENNANYICHENGSHOUDE。YIWANGKEXUEJIESUOKELONGDEDONGWUDUOYIZAICHENGZHANGGUOCHENGZHONGHUANBINGERWANG,ZHEIYIJINGWEIRENLEIQIAOXIANGJINGZHONG,KELONGRENHUOFUZHIRENDEJIYINGONGCHENGHUIXIAOMIEWOMENDEDUOYUANWENHUA,WEIXIESHENGWUDEDUOYANGXING,BINGZUIZHONGCUIHUIRENLEIZIJI。YINCI,YAORENSHIDAOJIYINGONGCHENGDENEIZAIXIANDU,ZHEIGEXIANDUYAOSHOUDAODIXIANDAODELUNLIHEJIYINGUANZHILIFADEGONGTONGYUESHU,BUNENGRANGKEXUEJIAHEYIXUEJIAWEILEMANZUZIJIDEHAOQIXINERWEISUOYUWEI。HEXULI(Huxley)ZAI《MEILIXINSHIJIE》ZHONGJIWOMENMIAOSHULEYIFUMEIHAODEJINGXIANG:YIGEMEIYOUQIANGQUAN,MEIYOUJIBING,MEIYOUSHEHUIMAODUN,MEIYOUJUSANG、FENGKUANG、GUDUHEJINGSHENYAYIDESHEHUI。DANSHIWOMENZHENDEHUIXIHUANZHEIGEXINSHIJIEMA?DAANSHIWEIBI。YUANYINZAIYU,ZHEIGESHIJIEZHONGDEREN“YUNXUJIANKANGFUZU,DANTAMENYIJINGBUSHIRENLEI。TAMENYIBUZAIXUYAOFENDOU,BUGANQUMENGXIANG,BUZAIYONGYOUAIQING,BUNENGGANZHITONGKU,BUXUYAOZUOCHUJIANNANDEDAODEXUANZE,BUZAIZUCHENGJIATING,YEBUYONGQUZUORENHECHUANTONGSHANGYURENXIANGGUANDESHI”66。YIYANYIBIZHI,ZAIZHEISHIJIEZHONG,RENXINGYIJINGBEIGENBENDIGAIBIANLE。RENLEIZUOWEIYIGELIXINGCUNZAI,WOMENHUOZHEJIUYINGGAIQUJINGLIGEZHONGYINGGAIJINGLIDE,ZAIBUQUEDINGDECHENGZHANGJINGYANZHONGQUZHUIXUNSHENGMINGDEZHENZHENGYIYI。

                                    注释

                                    1参见肖显静:《转基因技术的伦理分析》,载《中国社会科学》2016年第6期,第69-70页。
                                    2参见马长山:《人工智能的社会风险及其法律规制》,载《法律科学》2018年第6期,第48-52页。
                                    3参见陈景辉:《人工智能的法律挑战:应该从哪里开始》,载《比较法研究》2018年第4期,第145-148页。
                                    4参见何怀宏:《何以为人人将何为--人工智能的未来挑战》,载《探索与争鸣》2017年第10期,第30-33页。
                                    5李震山:《“复制人”科技发展对既有法律思维与制度之冲击》,载《中外法学》2002年第5期,第597页。
                                    6参见[德]库尔特·拜尔茨:《基因伦理学》,马怀琪译,华夏出版社2000年版,第2-5页。
                                    7参见王延光:《基因治疗的伦理:问题与争议》,载《哲学动态》2005年第1期,第18页。
                                    8甘绍平:《对人类增强的伦理反思》,载《哲学研究》2018年第1期,第116页。
                                    9See From Chance to Choice:Genetics and Justice 156-202(Allen Buchanan,Dan W.Brock,Norman Daniels&Daniel Wikler eds.,Cambridge University Press 2000).
                                    10See Mr Harold Edgar&Mr Thomas Tursz,Report on Human Gene Therapy 17 United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization(1994).
                                    11参见[德]迪特玛尔·冯·普佛尔滕:《法哲学导论》,雷磊译,中国政法大学出版社2017年版,第46-47页。
                                    12[美]弗朗西斯·福山:《我们的后人类未来:生物技术革命的后果》,黄立坚译,广西师范大学出版社2017年版,第101页。
                                    13同注6引书,第22-25页。
                                    14See Daniel J.Kevles,In the Name of Eugenics:Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity 1-10(University of California Press 1986).
                                    15See Francis Galton,Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development 30(Macmillan 1883).
                                    16Nicholas Agar,Liberal Eugenics:In Defence of Human Enhancement 135(Wiley-Blackwell 2004).
                                    17[美]迈克尔·桑德尔:《反对完美:科技与人性的正义之战》,黄慧慧译,中信出版社2013年版,第76页。
                                    18Nicholas Agar,supra note 16,at 137.
                                    19See Sara Goering,Eugenics,The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy(Fall 2014 Edition),Edward N.Zalta(ed.),http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2014/entries/eugenics/(accessed Oct.10,2019).
                                    20Robert Nozick,Anarchy,State and Utopia 315(Basic Books 1974).
                                    21See John Rawls,A Theory of Justice 107-108(Harvard University Press 1971).
                                    22参见[美]德沃金:《至上的美德:平等的理论与实践》,冯克利译,江苏人民出版社2012年版,第468-471页。
                                    23参见[美]德沃金:《生命的自主权》,郭贞伶等译,中国政法大学出版社2013年版,第101-105页。
                                    24同注22引书,第477页。
                                    25同注17引书,第76页。
                                    26See Dov Fox,The Illiberality of“Liberal Eugenics”,20 Ratio Juris 22-24(2007).
                                    27朱振:《反对完美--关于人类基因编辑的道德与法律哲学思考》,载《华东政法大学学报》2018年第1期,第77页。
                                    28See Jürgen Habermas,The Future of Human Nature 53-65(Polity Press 2003).
                                    29[加]许志伟:《生命伦理:对当代生命科技的道德评估》,朱晓红编译,中国社会科学出版社2006年版,第230页。
                                    30Julian Savulescu,New Breeds of Humans:The Moral Obligation to Enhance,10 Reproductive Bio Medicine Online 36-39(2005).
                                    31黄军研究团队的实验结果显示:其使用86个废弃胚胎引入CRISPR/Cas9系统进行编辑,71个胚胎存活,最后发现只有28个胚胎成功被编辑,成功率大约30%。此外,编辑过程中还检测到了大量的脱靶剪切效应。参见曲彬、张映等:《人类胚胎基因编辑:科学与伦理》,载《科学与社会》2016年第3期,第26页。
                                    32同注6引书,第103页。
                                    33同注17引书,第IX页。
                                    34Jürgen Habermas,supra note 28,at 58-59.
                                    35樊浩:《基因技术的道德哲学革命》,载《中国社会科学》2006年第1期,第124页。
                                    36Jürgen Habermas,supra note 28,at 53.
                                    37同注8引文,第116页。
                                    38参见甘绍平:《克隆人:不可逾越的伦理禁区》,载《中国社会科学》2003年第4期,第61页。
                                    39同注23引书,第103页。
                                    40同注23引书,第92页。
                                    41参见[德]瓦尔特·施瓦德勒:《论人的尊严--人格的本源与生命的文化》,贺念译,人民出版社2017年版,第37-39页。
                                    42See Ruth Macklin,Dignity Is a Useless Concept,327 British Medical Journal 1419-1420(2003);Steven Pinker,The Stupidity of Dignity:Conservative Bioethics’Latest Most Dangerous Ploy Creator,238 The New Republic 28-31(2008).
                                    43See Suzy Killmister,Dignity:Not Such a Useless Concept,36 Journal of Medical Ethics 160-164(2010).
                                    44参见郑玉双:《人的尊严的价值证成与法理构造》,载《比较法研究》2019年第5期,第170-185页。
                                    45参见叶桥健:《克隆人在伦理道德上真的不可以接受吗?》,载《开放时代》1997年第5期,第71-78页。
                                    46See Margarette Driscoll,Why We Chose Deafness Our Children,Sunday Times(London),Apr.14,2002.
                                    47韩大元:《论克隆人技术的宪法界限》,载《学习与探索》2008年第2期,第94页。
                                    48同注5引文,第602页。
                                    49张乃根、[法]米雷埃·德尔玛斯-玛尔蒂:《克隆人:法律与社会》,复旦大学出版社2002年版,第7页。
                                    50对于各种“决定论”的形式和内容的详细讨论,参见徐向东:《理解自由意志》,北京大学出版社2008年版,第29-59页。
                                    51对相关实验的介绍,参见费多益:《自由意志:幻象、纷争与解答》,载《自然辩证法研究》2010年第12期,第18-19页。
                                    52甘绍平:《意志自由与神经科学的挑战》,载《哲学研究》2013年第8期,第88页。
                                    53[德]康德:《道德形而上学的奠基》,李秋零译,中国人民大学出版社2013年版,第63页。
                                    54同注17引书,第8页。
                                    55甘绍平:《基因工程伦理的核心问题》,载《哲学动态》2001年第1期,第35页。
                                    56Jürgen Habermas,supra note 28,at 2,66.
                                    57Id.at 58.
                                    58[德]乌尔里希·贝克、威廉姆斯:《关于风险社会的对话》,载薛晓源、周战超编译:《全球化与风险社会》,社会科学文献出版社2005年版,第24页。
                                    59颜厥安:《鼠肝与虫臂的管制:法理学与生命伦理文集》,北京大学出版社2006年版,第4页。
                                    60参见[美]托马斯·A.香农:《生命伦理学导论》,肖巍译,黑龙江人民出版社2005年版,第15-16页。
                                    61See Human Genome Editing:Science Ethics and Governance,http://nationalacademies.org/gene-editing/index.htm(accessed Oct.10,2019).
                                    62同注5引文,第603页。
                                    63同注6引书,第2-5页。
                                    64See Joel Feinberg,The Child’s Right to an Open Future,in Freedom and Fulfillment:Philosophical Essays 84(Joel Feinberg ed.,Princeton University Press 1992).也有学者对“孩子的开放性权利”提出质疑,认为这是一个混乱的、不太可能成立的并且具有较大危害性的概念。See Claudia Mills,The Child’s Right to an Open Future”,34 Journal of Social Philosophy 499-509(2003).
                                    65同注6引书,第335-336页。
                                    66同注12引文,第9页。

                                    孙海波.基因编辑的法哲学辨思[J].比较法研究,2019(06):105-120.
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