星云棋牌官网下载

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            马克思法哲学的历史唯物主义方法解读

            时间:2018-12-30 来源:学术界 本文字数:12757字
            作者:孙美堂 单位:中国政法大学马克思主义学院

              摘    要: 流行的马克思主义法哲学解读范式,离开了马克思的历史视野、实践张力和整体思路,离开了马克思重要的思维方式——历史辩证法,没有把握马克思法哲学的真谛。理解马克思法哲学,需借助历史辩证法。对社会生活进行本质抽象并上升为总体性,从社会存在特别是社会的物质关系中寻找法的根源,把法视为全部社会有机体中的一环;用历史发展的观念看待社会形态与法,承认法的具体形态随着生产发展状况的提高而不断被否定和超越,随着人们间的关系从依附状态向独立自由个性的发展,法必然日益彰显其自由价值;历史实践、社会改造,尤其是生产发展,是法发展演进的根本途径。既然如此,马克思法哲学的应有之义,不是强调和固守法的阶级性,不是强调和固守国家的专政功能,而是促进人的自由解放。

              关键词: 星云棋牌官网下载马克思法哲学; 历史辩证法; 法的阶级性; 自由;

              一、流行解读方式的问题

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              诚然,马克思承认法的阶级性,承认国家是统治阶级的工具。但是我们不要忘记这些观点的前提:马克思针对的是阶级社会———因为他处在19世纪资本主义语境下,所以他重点是针对那个时代和制度下的法。马克思对法的阶级性的理解,从属于他更宏大的历史观,这就是马克思自己提到的“三点新贡献”:“(1)阶级的存在仅仅同生产发展的一定历史阶段相联系;(2)阶级斗争必然导致无产阶级专政;(3)这个专政不过是达到消灭一切阶级和进入无阶级社会的过渡”2。他认为,一方面,法建立在一定经济关系和生产发展状态的基础之上,法的关系是财产关系等的体现。于是,法的阶级属性问题取决于经济、社会发展状况,就是顺理成章的了。另一方面,社会的生产力、经济关系和法律关系,都是历史发展的,从来不存在一成不变的某种“性”。如果离开了马克思的社会结构理论与历史发展思路,强调法的阶级性、国家的专政职能,就可能把历史地存在的和有局限的东西理解为天然合理的东西,把具体的东西当成抽象的,把要否定和超越的东西当作固化的和永恒的东西。
             

            马克思法哲学的历史唯物主义方法解读
             

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              二、历史辩证法的提出

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              MAKESIDEZHEIGEJIESHIYIWEIZHESHENMENI?YIWEIZHETABAQIMENGSIXIANGDEJICHU、YESHIZICHANJIEJIFALVDEJICHU———QIYUEYUANZE,CONGGENJISHANGDONGYAOLE、DIANFULE。QIYUEYUANZESHILUOKE、LUSUODENGDEFAZHEXUEJICHU,SHIZICHANJIEJIFALVDEJIBENYUANZE。MAKESIJIESHITAMENGUCHUIDEQIYUEYUANZEHEJINGSHEN,CONGXINGSHISHANGKAN,SIHUWANMEIWUXIA,DANTABEIHOUHAIYOUSHENCENGJICHU,ZHEIJIUSHIMAKESISUOWEI“WUDEYILAIXING”GUANXI,ZHEIGEJICHUSHIYOUWENTIDE。GETIDEFAZHAN、RENDEJIEFANGHEZIYOUQUANMIANFAZHAN、FAZHIWENMINGJINBU,HAIXUYAOJINYIBUFOUDING,FOUDINGZHEIGE“WUDEYILAIXING”GUANXI,XIAOCHUYUESHURENDEGEZHONGYIJIDE、WUHUADELILIANG,ZHANGXIANZHENZHENGDEREN。

              三、历史实践中的辩证法

            星云棋牌官网下载   MAKESIFAZHEXUEDELISHIBIANZHENGFA,JIUSHIYAOBABAOKUOFAZAINEIDEQUANBUSHEHUISHENGHUOLIJIEWEIBUDUANFOUDINGHECHAOYUEDEGUOCHENG。LISHIBIANZHENGFAJIANGDUIXIANGJINXINGBENZHICHOUXIANG,SHANGSHENGWEIYOUKEGUANPUBIANXINGDEFANCHOU,DADAODUIDUIXIANGDEZONGTIXINGBAWO,BINGBAZHEIGEDUIXIANGLIJIEWEIBUDUANZIWOFOUDING、ZIWOYANGQIDEDONGTAIGUOCHENG。DUIXIANGDEMEIYIGEJIEDUANDOUYOUTACUNZAIDEGENJUYUHELIXING,DANMEIYIHUANJIEDEGENJULIANDAITADEHELIXINGYOUDOUSHILISHIDE,DOUSHIYAOBEIFOUDINGHECHAOYUEDE;MEIYIZHONGXIANCUNDEXINGTAIDOUYINLISHIDEJUXIANERBEIFOUDINGHECHAOYUE,BEIXINDEXINGTAISUOQUDAI。BUJINRUCI,LISHIZHONGDEMEIYIGEHUANJIE,YOUBUWAIHUZHEIGEDUIXIANGDEZONGTIXING,SHIZHEIGEDUIXIANGZISHENDEYIGEJUTIHUANJIE,BIANZHENGDEFOUDINGHECHAOYUESHIJISHIZHEIGEDUIXIANGZHUANHUAWEI“ZIJIDETAWU”。YUSHI,DUIXIANGTONGGUOBUDUANDEFOUDINGYUCHAOYUE,DEYIFAZHANWANSHAN。DUICI,MAKESIXIEDAO:“BIANZHENGFAZAIDUIXIANCUNDESHIWUDEKENDINGDELIJIEZHONGTONGSHIBAOHANZHEDUIXIANCUNDESHIWUDEFOUDINGDELIJIE,JIDUIXIANCUNSHIWUDEBIRANMIEWANGDELIJIE;BIANZHENGFADUIMEIYIZHONGJICHENGDEXINGSHIDOUSHICONGBUDUANDEYUNDONGZHONG,YINERYESHICONGTADEZANSHIXINGFANGMIANQULIJIE;BIANZHENGFABUCHONGBAIRENHEDONGXI,ANQIBENZHILAISHUO,TASHIPIPANDEHEGEMINGDE。”3YEJIUSHISHUO,YONGDONGTAIDE、LISHIDEYANGUANGKANDAISHIWU、DUIXIANG,ZHEISHIMAKESIFENXILISHIYUXIANSHIDEJIBENFANGFA,YESHIYANJIUFADEJIBENFANGFA。

              ENGESIDUIHEIGEERBIANZHENGFADEPINGJIA,SHIDUILISHIBIANZHENGFAHENHAODECHANSHI。TASHENGZANHEIGEERDEWEIDAGONGJISHIBAZIRANJIE、SHEHUIHERENDESIWEILIJIEWEIYIGEGUOCHENG。TAHAIANZHAOHEIGEERDEBIANZHENGFAFENXIHEIGEERDEZHEXUEMINGTI:“FANSHIXIANSHIDEDOUSHIHEHULIXINGDE,FANSHIHEHULIXINGDEDOUSHIXIANSHIDE”,TUICHULINGYIGEMINGTI:“FANSHIXIANCUNDE,DOUYIDINGYAOMIEWANG。”2ANZHAOZHEIZHONGSIWEI,“YIQIEJIANGYINGDEDONGXIRONGJIELE,YIQIEGUDINGDEDONGXIXIAOSANLE,YIQIEBEIDANGZUOYONGJIUCUNZAIDETESHUDEDONGXIBIANCHENGLEZHUANSHUNJISHIDEDONGXI”2。RUCIBAWODUIXIANGDEZONGTIXINGHEPUBIANBENZHI,BATADEMEIGEJUTIJIEDUANHEXINGTAI,DOUZHIYUZHEIZHONGPUBIANDEHEBENZHIDEGUIDINGXINGZHONGKAOCHA,DANGZUOLIUDONGDEGUOCHENGKAOCHA,ZHEIZHONGBIANZHENGFAJIUSHILISHIBIANZHENGFA。

              BUGUO,MAKESIDELISHIBIANZHENGFAYUHEIGEERBIANZHENGFAYOUBENZHIQUBIE。WOMENZHIDAO,MAKESIMINGQUEBIAOSHITADEBIANZHENGFAYUHEIGEERDE“JIERANXIANGFAN”。HEIGEER“BIANZHENGFASHIDAOLIZHEDE。BIXUBATADAOGUOLAI,YIBIANFAXIANSHENMIWAIQIAOZHONGDEHELINEIHE”。3AERDOUSAITANDAOZHEIGEWENTISHIZHICHU,BUNENGJIANDANDILIJIEWEIBAOCHIYUANYOUJIEGOUBUBIANDETIAOJIANXIA,JINJINBASIWEIYUCUNZAIERZHEJIANDEGUANXIDIANDAOYIXIA,ERSHICONGSIBIANZHUANXIANGSHIJIAN。8ZHEIGESHUOFAYOUYIDINGDAOLI。MAKESIDELISHIBIANZHENGFABUXIANGHEIGEERNEIYANG,XIANYUGAINIANDEZIWOFOUDING;TADEFOUDINGSHISHIJIANDEFOUDING,SHITONGGUOSHENGCHANFAZHAN、SHEHUIGEMINGDENGXIANSHITUJINGWANCHENGDEFOUDING。MAKESILIJIEDELISHIBIANZHENGFA,ZESHISHEHUISHENGHUO(DANGRANYEBAOKUOFA)DELISHIYUXIANSHIDEYUNDONG,ZHEIZHONGYUNDONGSHIRENMENDELISHISHIJIANSHIJIDITUIDONGDE、ZAOJIUDE。LISHIDEBIANZHENGYUNDONGBUSHITONGGUOFANCHOUDEZIWOFOUDINGHECHAOYUELAIWANCHENGDE,ERSHITONGGUOKEGUANSHIWU、KEGUANCUNZAIDEZIWOYUNDONGLAISHIXIANDE,TONGGUOGEMINGDESHIJIANLAISHIXIANDE。YUSHI,MAKESIBABIANZHENGFACONGLILUNLINGYUZHUANDAOXIANSHISHEHUI,CONGZHEXUESIBIANZHUANXIANGSHEHUISHIJIAN,CONGFANCHOUDEZIWOFOUDINGZHUANDAOTUIDONGLISHIFAZHANDEXIANSHIYUNDONG。MAKESIDEXUDUOSHUOFA,JIUSHIZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANGLIJIE。LIRU:“PIPANDEWUQIDANGRANBUNENGDAITIWUQIDEPIPAN,WUZHILILIANGZHINENGYONGWUZHILILIANGLAICUIHUI;DANSHILILUNYIJINGZHANGWOQUNZHONG,YEHUIBIANCHENGWUZHILILIANG”1;“SHEHUISHENGHUOZAIBENZHISHANGSHISHIJIANDE”;“ZHEXUEJIAMENZHISHIYONGBUTONGDEFANGSHIJIESHISHIJIE,ERWENTIZAIYUGAIBIANSHIJIE”1,DENGDENG。MAKESIYANJIUDEZHONGDIANCONGFAXUEHEZHEXUEZHUANXIANGZHENGZHIJINGJIXUE,YESHIWEILEXUNZHAOGAIBIANZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEXIANSHITUJING。

              YUSHI,MAKESIDELISHIBIANZHENGFA,JIUBUSHIZONGTIXINGGAINIANDEZIWOFOUDINGYUCHAOYUE,ERSHIYOUZHUTINENGDONGDESHIJIANSUOTUIDONGDESHEHUICUNZAIDEZIWOYANGQIYUCHAOYUE。XIANDAIZIBENZHUYISHEHUIDELISHIZHUTIZHUYAOSHIGONGYEWUCHANJIEJI,SUOYIENGESISHUO“DEGUODEGONGRENYUNDONGSHIDEGUOGUDIANZHEXUEDEJICHENGZHE”。2MAKESIDELISHIBIANZHENGFA,SHIRENMENDEXIANSHISHEHUIHEHULUOJIDEGAIZAO、FAZHANYUTISHENG,SHISHENGHUOBENSHENDEDIJIYUGAOJI、YIRANYUWEIRAN、XIANSHIYULIXIANG、ZIZAIYUZIYOUDEBUDUANGUODU———ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,YOURENYICHENGZHIWEI“SHIJIANBIANZHENGFA”。

            星云棋牌官网下载   MAKESIDEFAZHEXUEYEGUANCHUANZHEZHEIYANGDELISHIBIANZHENGFA。MAKESIDEFAZHEXUEYIZIYOU、ZHENGYI、RENDEZUNYANDENGWEIMUDEJIAZHI,DANTAJIBUXIANGQIMENGSIXIANGJIANEIYANG,CONGXUGOUDEZIRANZHUANGTAIXIADEZIRANQUANLICHUFA,YEBUXIANGGUDIANZHEXUEJIANEIYANG,CONGZIYOUYIZHIHUOQITACHOUXIANGYUANZECHUFA,ERSHICONGXIANSHIDESHIJIANCHUFA,TONGGUOGAIBIANSHEHUIDEWUZHISHENGHUOZHUANGKUANGLAISHIJIDIGAIBIANBUHELIDEJINGJIGUANXI、SHEHUIGUANXIHEFALVGUANXI。KEYISHUO,QIMENGSIXIANGJIABAFADELIXIANGDINGZAIGUOQU,MAKESIZEDINGZAIWEILAI;DEGUOGUDIANZHEXUEJIABAFADELIXIANGDINGZAIXINGERSHANGDECHOUXIANGYUANZE,MAKESIZEDINGZAIXINGERXIADEXIANSHISHENGHUO;QIANRENDOUSHITUTONGGUOCHAOYANDEYUANZELAIGUIFANXIANSHIDEFA,MAKESIZEBAFADEGUIFANLIJIEWEILISHISHIJIANZHONGDEBUXIEZHUIQIUYUCHUANGZAO。BAOKUOFAZAINEIDERENLEISHEHUILISHI,SHIKAIFANGDEHEZIYOUDE。RUGUOWOMENLIJIEDEMAKESIDELISHIBIANZHENGFA,ANZHAOMAKESIZISHENDEZHEIGETEDIANLAILIJIEMAKESIDEFAZHEXUESIXIANG,JIUHUIYOUQUANXINDERENSHI。CONGZHEIGEJIAODUKEYISHUO,MAKESIJISHIFAZHEXUEJIAYOUBUSHIFAZHEXUEJIA,TAYINGGAISUAN“CHAOFAZHEXUEJIA”。

              四、历史辩证法与人的解放

              NEIME,ANZHAOMAKESIDELISHIBIANZHENGFA,FAZUOWEIYIZHONGLISHIXIANXIANG,JUTIRUHEYANBIAN?FOUDINGLESIYOUZHIHEJIEJIHOU,FASHIFOUJIXUCUNZAI?FADELISHIFAZHANYANBIAN,SHIFOUZHUIQIUMOUZHONGMUDEJIAZHI?DUIZHEIYANGDEWENTI,MAKESISIWEIJUTICHANSHU,DANYOUXIEYUANZEXINGSHUOFA。LIRUTASHUO:“ZONGJIAO、JIATING、GUOJIA、FA、DAODE、KEXUE、YISHUDENGDENG,DOUBUGUOSHISHENGCHANDEYIXIETESHUDEFANGSHI,BINGQIESHOUSHENGCHANDEPUBIANGUILVZHIPEI。YINCI,DUISIYOUCAICHANDEJIJIYANGQI,ZUOWEIDUIRENDESHENGMINGDEZHANYOU,SHIDUIYIQIEYIHUADEJIJIDEYANGQI,CONGERSHIRENCONGZONGJIAO、JIATING、GUOJIADENGDENGXIANGZIJIDERENDEJISHEHUIDECUNZAIDEFUGUI”。9WOMENLIANXIMAKESIQITASHUOFA,KEZUORUXIAJIEDU:

              DIYI,FASHISHEHUIYOUJITIYIBUFEN,SHOUSHEHUISHENGCHANDEPUBIANGUILVZHIPEI。GUOJIAHEFADEYANHUALUJINGYUWEILAI,FUCONGRENXIANGZIJIBENZHIFUGUIDEJIEGUO。

              ZAIMAKESIKANLAI,BUSHISHEHUIYIFALVWEIJICHU,ERSHIFALVYISHEHUIWEIJICHU。ZHEIYIWEIZHEFASHISHEHUIYOUJITIZHONGCHUYUCONGSHUDIWEIDEYIHUAN。ANSHANGSHUYINWEN,GUOJIA、FA,YIJIZONGJIAO、YISHUDENG,DOUSHISHENGCHANFANGSHIDEMOUZHONGTESHUCHENGXIANXINGTAI。SUIZHESHENGCHANDEFAZHAN,ZHEIXIE“TESHUFANGSHI”MINGYUNGEYI:HUOXIAOWANG,HUOYANBIANYUWANSHAN。HEQUHECONG,QUJUEYUZHEIXIE“TESHUFANGSHI”GENRENDEBENZHENCUNZAIFANGSHIDEGUANXI。YINWEILISHIDEBIANZHENGYUNDONGSHISHENGCHANLAODONGDEFAZHAN,YESHIRENDEJIEFANGGUOCHENG,SHIRENHUIFUZIJIDEBEIDIANDAOLEDEBENZHI、HUIGUIRENDEBENZHENZHUANGTAIDEGUOCHENG。SIYOUCAICHAN、ZONGJIAO、GUOJIADENG,SHISHIRENXINGDIANDAOHENIUQUDEYINSU,SHISHEHUIBUZIYOUDEYUANYINHEBIAOXIANXINGSHI。SUOYISHANGSHUYINWENZHONG,MAKESIBAJIJIYANGQISIYOUCAICHANYUYANGQIXIANXINGDEZONGJIAO、JIATINGYUGUOJIAFANGZAIYIQI,YINWEIZHEIXIE“TESHUFANGSHI”BUSHIRENDEBENZHENZHUANGTAI。ZIBENZHUYISIYOUZHIXIA,RENBEIGUODUODEFEIRENDEDONGXISUOSHUFU,RENXINGBEINIUQU,TAMENBIXUYUSIYOUCAICHANYIQIBEIJIJIYANGQI。BUGUOZUOWEIBEIYANGQIDEDUIXIANG,MAKESIHOUYIJUMEIYOUTIFA、DAODE、KEXUE、YISHUDENG。ZHEIGEXIJIEBUYINGGAIHUSHI。ZHEIYEXUYIWEIZHE,FA、DAODE、KEXUE、YISHU,YUSIYOUZHI、ZONGJIAOHEGUOJIABUSHITONGYILEIWENTI。RENMENXUYAOZOUCHUSIYOUZHIHEGUOJIA,ZHIYUFA、DAODE、KEXUE、YISHUDENG,MAKESIHENKENENGBATAMENLIJIEWEIRENLEISHEHUIDECHANGTAI。SIYOUZHIHEGUOJIADEWENTIJIEJUELE,FAHEDAODEYEJIUCONGJIEJISHEHUIDE“TESHUDEFANGSHI”ZHUANHUAWEIRENDEZIWOCUNZAIFANGSHI,LIXIANGDEFAYULIXIANGDESHEHUI、LIXIANGDERENDEZHUANGTAI,SHIXIANGTONGDE,TAMENDOUYINGGAIANZHAOREN“YINGRAN”DEZHUANGTAICUNZAI。FA、DAODEGENKEXUE、YISHUDENGYIYANG,JIANGCHENGWEIREN、SHEHUI“SHIQISUOSHI”、“LIYINGRUCI”DEZIJUEZIYOUZHUANGTAI。

            星云棋牌官网下载   ENGESI《ZAIAIBEIFEITEDEYANSHUO》ZHONGYOUXIESHUOFAKEZIBUCHONG。TARENWEI:XIANDAISHEHUISHIYIQIERENFANDUIYIQIEREN,YINERCUNZAICUBAOHEYEMANDEFANZUI,YEJIUXUYAODALIANGDEXINGZHENGJIGUANHESIFAJIGUAN。DANSHIWEILAISHEHUIXIAOMIELERENMENJIANDEDIDUIXIANXIANG,CHANCHULEFANZUIDEGENYUAN,XINGZHENGHESIFAJIGUANDEDABUFENGONGZUOJIUCHENGWEIDUOYU。“ZAIMEIYOUSHENMESHEHUIGEHEHESHEHUICHABIEDEDIFANG,QINFANCAICHANDEFANZUIXINGWEIZIRANERRANDIJIUBUHUIZAIFASHENGLE。XINGFAHUIZIXINGXIAOSHI,MINFA……YEHUIBUZAICUNZAI。XIANZAIDEGEZHONGZHENGDUAN……DAONEISHIJIUZHISHIHANYOUDELIWAI,BINGQIEHENRONGYITONGGUOZHONGCAIFATINGLAIDIAOJIE。”10YUJIEJIDUIKANGXIANGBANSUIDENEIXIEXINGZHENGJIGOUHEXINGSHIFATINGZHEILEI“TESHUFANGSHI”,SHIRENLEICHUZAIBUZHENGCHANGZHUANGTAIDECUNZAIWU,TAHUISUIZHEJIEJIDUIKANGDEXIAOSHIERXIAOSHI;WEILAISHEHUIHAIJIANGCUNZAIDELIRUZHONGCAIJIGOU,ZESHIYAOJIEJUERENDECHANGTAIXIADEMAODUN。KEYISHUO,XIAOSHIDESHIWEIBEIRENDEBENXINGDEYIJIWU,BAOCUNDESHIYURENDEBENXINGXIANGSHIYINGDEFALVJIGOU。

            星云棋牌官网下载   DIER,YUSHEHUIHERENDELIXIANGZHUANGTAIXIANGSHIYINGDELIXIANGDEFA,YINGYILIYURENDEZIYOUJIEFANG、QUANMIANFAZHANWEIJIBENDEJIAZHIYUANZE。

              ZIYOUSHIZUINENGTIXIANMAKESIFAZHEXUEZHIQUDEJIAZHI。ZAOZAIBOSHILUNWENQIJIAN,MAKESIJIUYIYUANZIDEPIANLIYUNDONGDENGHUAYU,TICHULEZIYOUGAINIAN;《LAIYINBAO》SHIQI,MAKESIYOUTICHULECHUBANZIYOU、ZHENGZHIQUANLIZIYOUDENGSIXIANG;ZAI《1844NIANJINGJIXUEZHEXUESHOUGAO》ZHONG,MAKESICONGDUOFANGMIANCHANSHULERENDEZIYOUBENZHI:“ERZIYOUDEYOUYISHIDEHUODONGQIAQIAJIUSHIRENDELEITEXING”9;RENYUDONGWUDEQUBIESHIGAIBIANHUANJING,JICONGZIRANZHONGHUODEZIYOU;JIJIYANGQISIYOUZHI,BARENCONGYIHUAZHUANGTAIXIAJIEFANGCHULAI,SHIXIANZIYOU。MAKESIDEGONGCHANZHUYILIXIANGZHONG,YISHENGCHANGAODUFADA、JIAOWANGPUBIANHUA,LAODONGCHANPINGONGTONGXIANGYOUWEITIAOJIAN,SHIXIANRENDEZIYOUJIEFANG。MAKESIGUANYUGONGCHANZHUYIDETUICEWUBUYUZIYOUXIANGGUANLIAN。LIRU:QIANYINMAKESI《1857—1858NIANJINGJIXUESHOUGAO》ZHONGDESHUOFA:LISHIFAZHANDEDISANGEJIEDUANJIGONGCHANZHUYISHI“JIANLIZAIGERENQUANMIANFAZHANHETAMENGONGTONGDESHEHUISHENGCHANNENGLICHENGWEITAMENDESHEHUICAIFUZHEIYIJICHUSHANGDEZIYOUGEXING”5。ZAI《GONGCHANDANGXUANYAN》ZHONG,MAKESI、ENGESIMIAOSHUWEILAISHEHUI:“MEIGERENDEZIYOUFAZHANSHIYIQIEQITARENDEZIYOUFAZHANDETIAOJIAN”。1ZAI《ZIBENLUN》ZHONG,MAKESISHEXIANG“YIGEZIYOURENDELIANHETI”,WUZHISHENGCHANGUOCHENGDEXINGTAISHI“ZUOWEIZIYOUJIEHEDERENDECHANWU”3。CIWAI,MAKESI(YIJIENGESI)FANFUTIDAO“JIEFANG”———ZONGJIAOJIEFANG、ZHENGZHIJIEFANG、SHEHUIJIEFANG、RENDEJIEFANGDENG。JIEFANGDANGRANYESHIZIYOU。

              DISAN,JIEJIXINGBUSHIFADEGUYOUBENXING,ERSHITEDINGLISHIXINGTAIXIADEJUTISHUXING;ZHUIQIUHEBAOZHANGRENDEDULIZIYOUGEXING,ZHUIQIUHEBAOZHANGRENDEZIYOUQUANMIANFAZHAN,CAISHIMAKESIFAZHEXUEDEJIAZHIMUBIAO。

            星云棋牌官网下载   RUGUOSHUO,FASHISHEHUISHENGCHANLIHEJIAOWANGGUANXIDECHENGXIANXINGTAI,ERSHEHUISHENGCHANLIDEFAZHANYIJIYOUCIYINQIDEBIANGE,QIJIAZHIMUBIAOYOUSHIZIYOUHEJIEFANG,NEIME,ZHENZHENGNENGDAIBIAOMAKESIFAZHEXUESIXIANGJINGSUI、TIXIANMAKESIFAZHEXUEBENZHITEZHENGDEDONGXI,JIUBUSHI“JIEJIXING”,ERSHIZIYOU,SHIYANGQIWUDEYILAIXINGHEYIJIGUANXIHOUDEZIYOUQUANMIANFAZHANZHUANGTAI。ZHUIQIURENDEZIYOUYUJIEFANG,CAIZHENZHENGTIXIANMAKESIFAZHEXUEDEBENZHITEZHENG。YOUMAKESIDEWENBENKEYIHEHULUOJIDITUILUN:FAYINGGAIYIZHUIQIUHEBAOZHANGRENDEDULIZIYOUGEXING、ZHUIQIUHEBAOZHANGRENZIYOUQUANMIANFAZHANWEIZONGZHI。ANZHAOBIANZHENGFADEYIBANYUANLI:RENHESHIWU、CUNZAI,DOUMEIYOUGUDINGDE“BENXING”。RUGUOYIDINGYAOSHUO“BENXING”,ZELIUDONGBIANHUACAISHIWANWUDEBENXING。TONGLI,FAYEMEIYOUJIDINGDE、YUSHENGJULAIDE“BENXING”。WOMENBUYIYONG“SHUXINGSHUO”DESIWEIFANGSHILIJIEMAKESIFAZHEXUE。RUGUOYIDINGYAOSHUOFAYOUHE“BENXING”,ZEFADE“BENXING”JIUSHIYIGUIFANDEFANGSHIFUWUYURENLEISHEHUIRUXIADELISHI:RENMENDEWUZHISHENGHUOFANGSHIYOUYIFUZHUANGTAIZOUXIANGDULI、ZIYOU、JIEFANGHEQUANMIANFAZHANZHUANGTAI,RENLEICONGBUZIYOUZOUXIANGZIYOU。MEICUO,MAKESI(YIJIENGESIDENG)QUESHIDALIANGLUNJISIYOUZHIXIADEFAJIANLIZAISIYOUZHIJINGJIJICHUZHISHANG,ZICHANJIEJIDEFASHIZICHANJIEJISHENGCHANGUANXIHECAICHANGUANXIDETIXIANDENG,DANWOMENBUNENGJUCIDECHU“FADEBENZHISHUXINGJIUSHIJIEJIXING”ZHEIZHONGCHOUXIANGJIELUN,ERYAOXIANGMAKESINEIYANGYONGLISHIBIANZHENGFAKANDAISIYOUZHI、JIEJI,YIJIJIANLIZAITAMENJICHUSHANGDEFA。ANZHAOMAKESIZHUYIDEGUANDIAN:SIYOUZHIHEJIEJIDECUNZAISHISHENGCHANFAZHANBUCHONGFENDECHANWU,SHIYAOBEIFOUDING、BEIJIJIYANGQIDE。RENHEYIZHONGSIRENZHANYOUZHI,BAOKUOZIBENZHUYISIYOUZHI,DOUSHILISHIDECHANWU,TAMENDOUYOUYIGECHANSHENG、FAZHANHEXIAOWANGDEGUOCHENG。YINCI,DAIBIAOBUTONGSHEHUIXINGTAIHEJINGJIGUANXIDEFA,YEJIUDOUSHILISHIDECONGCONGGUOKE。FADEJIEJITEXINGSHIGELISHIXIANXIANG。SUIZHESHENGCHANGAODUFAZHAN、JIAOWANGPUBIANHUA,RENHUODEZIYOUJIEFANG,FADEJIEJIXINGYEBIRANBEIYANGQI。ZHENGRURENSHENGZHANGFAYUGUOCHENGZHONGQUESHIYOUGUOYOUZHIJIEDUAN,DANWOMENBUNENGSHUOYOUZHISHIRENDE“BENXING”。RUGUOFEIYAOSHUORENYOUSHENMEBENXINGDEHUA,ZHINENGSHUOCONGYOUZHIXIANGCHENGSHU、CONGQINGCHUNXIANGSHUAILAO,RUCIDONGTAIDIHUOZHECAISHIRENDE“BENXING”;FAZAITADEMANZHANGYANHUASHISHANG,QUESHICENGDAIBIAOTONGZHIJIEJILIYIYUYIZHI,DANWOMENBUNENGSHUOJIEJIXINGSHIFADEGUYOUBENXING。RUGUOFEIYAOSHUOFAYOUSHENMEBENXINGDEHUA,ZHINENGSHUO,“FANYINGRENLEICONGBUZIYOUZOUXIANGZIYOUDELISHI”CAISHIFADEBENZHISHUXING。MAKESIZHUYIBUSHISIZHUAZHUJIEJIXINGBUFANG,ERSHIYAOXIAOMIEJIEJI,CHAOYUEJIEJIXING,CUJINRENDEZIYOUQUANMIANFAZHAN。

              XUYAOSHENMINGDESHI,CUJINRENDEJIEFANGHEZIYOUQUANMIANFAZHAN,SHIMAKESIFAZHEXUEDEZUIGAOZONGZHI,DANBUPAICHIQITAJIAZHISUQIU,BAOKUOGONGPING、ZHENGYI、ZHIXUDENG。XIANYUPIANFU,SHUBUZHUISHU。

              五、马克思法哲学的当代实践转换

              MAKESIBAQIMENGYUNDONGYILAIDEFAZHEXUEJIBENJINGSHEN———YIRENDEQUANLI、ZUNYAN、ZIYOUWEIHEXINJIAZHI———CONGCHOUXIANGSIBIANDESHEDINGZHUANHUAWEILISHISHIJIANDEMUBIAO,JINERTICHURENDEJIEFANGHEQUANMIANFAZHANDEGONGCHANZHUYILIXIANG,DIANDINGLEKEXUESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHEXUEDEJIBENZONGZHIHEXIANSHILUJING。BUGUO,CONG19SHIJIOUZHOUYUJINGDAO21SHIJIZHONGGUOYUJING,CONGMAKESIFAZHEXUEWENBENHELILUN,DAOZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHIJIANSHESHIJIAN,XIANRANBUSHIZHIJIEDE、YIYIDUIYINGGUANXI,FANGFOTAOYONGWULIXUEGONGSHILAIZUOLIANXITIYIYANG。ZHEILIXUYAOJINGLIHENDUOZHONGJIEHUANJIE,XUYAOYIXILIEZHUANHUANYUZAICHUANGZAOGUOCHENG。ZHEIXIANGGONGZUOCONGYIDINGYIYISHANGSHUOBIWENBENJIEDUGENGJIANNAN。YAOSHIXIANZHEIGEZHUANHUAN,YEBIXULIJIEHEBAWOLISHIBIANZHENGFA。CHULESHUXIMAKESIDEWENBENWENXIAN,HAIXUYAOZHANGWOMAKESINEIZHONGHONGDADELISHISHIYE、SHENKEDEPIPANJINGSHENHEYONGYUTANSUOYUCHUANGXINDESHIJIANJINGSHEN。CONGMAKESIDEWENBENDAOJINTIANDEXIANSHISHIJIAN,KONGPAYAOCHULISANGEFANGMIANDEGUANXI:CONG19SHIJIOUZHOUYUJINGDAO21SHIJIZHONGGUOYUJINGRUHEGUODU?CONGZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANFANGSHIDAOZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIRUHEGUODU?CONGPIPANXINGFANSHIDAOJIANSHEXINGFANSHIRUHEGUODU?ZHEISHISHENMEYISINI?

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            星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGZHI,YOUYUSHIDAIHELISHIJINGYUDECHAYI,WOMENBUKENENGCONGMAKESIWENBENZHONGZHAODAOFAZHIJIANSHEDEXIANCHENG“MIJI”。MAKESIFAZHEXUEDUISHEHUIZHUYIFAZHIJIANSHEDEZHIDAO,JIUBUSHIJIAOTIAOSHITAOYONGWENBEN,ERSHIZAIBAZHUNMAKESIFAZHEXUEJINGSHENDEJICHUSHANG,ZHENDUIWOMENDELISHIYUJINGHEJUTIWENTI,QUELIFAZHIJIANSHEDEDASILU。WOMENBUYINGGAIZHUAZHUMAKESIDEZHIYANPIANYU,ZAISHENGBANYINGTAODIYONGLAI“ZHIDAO”MOUYIBUMENFA,YEBUNENGYINWEIMAKESIPIPANGUOZICHANJIEJIFA,JIUMANGMUJUCHIZHI,ERSHIYAOBAWOMAKESIFAZHEXUEDESHIZHIHEZHENDI,TAOYONGZHONGGUOGURENDEHUASHUO,WOMENZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYAO“DEYIWANGYAN”“DEXIANGWANGXING”,YAOTOUGUO“XING”ERBAWOQI“SHEN”,SHENRUDAOMAKESISHEHUILIXIANGHEFADEZONGZHIZHONGQU。

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              注释

              1[4][9][11][18][19][25][30]《马克思恩格斯选集》(第1卷),北京:人民出版社,1995年,第57,132,132,289,9,58、60、61,294,190页。
              2[7][14][15][20]《马克思恩格斯选集》(第4卷),北京:人民出版社,1995年,第547、532、215-216、270、258页。
              3[6][13][16][26]《马克思恩格斯选集》(第2卷),北京:人民出版社,1995年,第32,32,112,112,141、142页。
              4《马克思恩格斯全集》(第3卷),北京:人民出版社,1960年,第377页。
              5[24]《马克思恩格斯全集》(第46卷上),北京:人民出版社,1979年,第104、104页。
              6《马克思恩格斯选集》(第3卷),北京:人民出版社,1995年,第607页。
              7《马克思恩格斯全集》(第23卷),北京:人民出版社,1972年,第102页。
              8参见[法]阿尔都塞:《保卫马克思》,北京:商务印书馆,2006年,第76-80页。
              9[23]《马克思恩格斯全集》(第3卷),北京:人民出版社,2002年,第298、273页。
              10《马克思恩格斯全集》(第2卷),北京:人民出版社,1957年,第608页。
              11《马克思恩格斯全集》(第35卷),北京:人民出版社,1971年,第154页。
              12《马克思恩格斯全集》(第22卷),北京:人民出版社,1965年,第628-629页。
              13《马克思恩格斯全集》(第1卷),北京:人民出版社,1956年,第416页。

              孙美堂.马克思法哲学的历史辩证法[J].学术界,2019(11):39-47.
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