星云棋牌官网下载

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                              学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 历史论文 > 中国古代史论文

                              宋代药材的栽培技术发展及原因

                              时间:2019-03-12 来源:农业考古 作者:梁松涛,苏红 本文字数:9935字

                                摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 宋代的药材种植已与日常食物生产相分离,出现了专业化种植模式,种植的药材种类逐渐增多,形成了若干地道药材的种植中心。宋人发现土质、播种时机、肥料的使用都会对药材的药性产生影响;宋代将间作法、肉引法运用于药材栽培,提高了药材的产量与品质;经过嫁接的药材会使药性下降,有的甚至不堪入药,这些技术体现了宋人在药材种植时“以药性为核心”的思想。宋代种植技术,对元、明、清乃至今天都产生了直接的影响,在中国药材栽培史上具有重要地位。

                                关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 宋代; 药材; 种植技术;

                                Abstract: Separated from daily food production, the cultivation of medicinal herbs in the Song Dynasty had a specialized planting pattern. As the variety of medicinal herbs grew gradually, a number of planting centers of authentic herbs were formed. People of the Song Dynasty found that soil quality, seeding time and fertilizer use had an impact on the medicinal nature of medicinal herbs; they applied interplant method and meat introduction method into the cultivation of medicinal herbs, which improved the yield and quality of medicinal herbs; they also found that the medicinal nature of medicinal herbs would decline after grafting, some of which would even not be used as medicines. All these techniques embody the idea of “taking medicinal properties as the core” behind planting medicinal materials in the Song Dynasty. The planting techniques of the Song Dynasty had a direct impact on the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties and even today, playing an important role in the history of Chinese medicine cultivation.

                                Keyword: the Song Dynasty; medicinal herbs; cultivation techniques;

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                                一、宋代药材种植的发展概况

                                隋唐时期,种植药材的多为隐居的山居人士,他们出于养生的目的,需要大量服用某些药物[7](P414),其中一些草木类药材多依靠采集,但随着对药材需求的不断增加,药材的来源便由野外采集过渡到人工种植。到了宋代,由于药材的需求增加,情况发生了转变,人工种植成为药材的主要来源,药材种植规模与专业程度都远远超过唐代,药材种植进入了一个新阶段。
                               

                              宋代药材的栽培技术发展及原因
                               

                                (一)出现了以种药为生的药户

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,SONGDAINONGYEDEZHUANYEHUACHENGDUZHUJIANTIGAO,XIANGCHA、HUACAO、SHUIGUO、SHUCAI、YAOCAIDENGDOUYIJINGKAISHIJINXINGZHUANYEHUAZHONGZHI,QIZHONGZHUANMENCONGSHIYAOCAIZHONGZHIDENONGHUBEICHENGWEI“YAOHU”。FUGONGZAI《XIEPU》ZHONGTIDAO“(XIEHU)RUOJINTAIZHIYAOHU、QIHU,MUZHIQIHUBIYE。”[8](XIAPIAN,P14)CICHU“YAOHU”DANGZHILIANGZHELUTAIZHOUDEYAOCAIZHUANYEZHONGZHIHU。KEJIAN,ZHISHAOZAIBEISONGSHIQI,ZAINONGYESHENGCHANLINGYU,YAOCAIDEZAIPEIYIJINGCHUXIANZHUANYEHUASHENGCHAN。WANGXIANGZHIZAI《YUDIJISHENG》ZHONGJIZAILEDANGSHIKUIZHOULULIANGSHANJUNGAODOUSHANBAIXINGZHONGJIANGDEQINGKUANG,“DIHUANGRANGERYU,MINZHONGJIANGYIWEIYE”[9](P426),JIANGJIKESHIYONG,YEDUOZUOYAOYONG,SHEHUIXUQIULIANGDA,YIZHONGJIANGWEIYE,MUDEXIANRANBUSHIZIYONG,ERSHINADAOSHICHANGJIAOYI,YOUCI“YISHIQUJIYAN”。KEJIAN,SONGDAIYIJINGCHUXIANGUIMOHUA、ZHUANYEHUADEYAOCAIZHONGZHI。ZHUANYEZHONGZHIHUDECHUXIAN,BIAOMINGYAOCAIZHONGZHIYICHENGWEIYIMENDULIDEZHUANYEXINGNONGYEHUONONGYEFENZHI。

                                (二)药材种植种类增多,对药材的甄别逐渐精细化

                                YAOCAIZHONGZHIZHONGLEIZAISONGDAIDADAZENGJIA。YOUXUEZHEZUOGUOTONGJI,TANG《XINXIUBENCAO》ZHONGJIZAIRENGONGZHONGZHIDEYAOCAIJIN40ZHONG,DAOLESONGDAI,《BENCAOTUJING》(CHUQUYUQITAWENXIANZHONGFU)SUOJIZAIDERENGONGZHONGZHIYAOCAIYIDA138ZHONG,CHUQULIANG、GUO、SHUZHILEI,RENGYOU79ZHONG[3](P239),YAOCAIZHONGZHIDEZHONGLEIBITANGDAIZENGJIALEJIANGJINYIBEI。CHULEYAOCAIZHONGLEIZENGJIAWAI,SONGRENDUIYAOCAIDEZHENBIEGENGJIAJINGXI。SONGDAIDUITONGYIZHONGCAOMUDEBUTONGPINZHONGNAXIESHIYAOCAI,NAXIEBUSHIYAOCAIYOULEZHUNQUEDEQUFEN。LIRUSHANGLUZHEIWEIYAOCAI,CAIZIYESHENGZHEHENSHAO,“DUOSHENGYURENJIAYUANPUZHONG”[10](P303)。《BENCAOTUJING》JIZAI,SHANGLU“YOUCHIBAIERZHONG:HUACHIZHEGENCHI,HUABAIZHEGENBAI。CHIZHEBURUYAO”,QUQIGENBAIZHERUYAO。YOUXIEYAOCAI,XUYAORENGONGZHONGZHI,QIPINZHICAIYOUBAOZHENG。RUXINGHE,“XINGZIRUYAO,JINYIDONGLAIZHEWEISHENG,RENGYONGJIAYUANZHONGZHE。SHANXINGBUKANRUYAO”[10](P550)。

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                                (三)药材种植面积扩大,形成了若干道地药材种植中心

                              星云棋牌官网下载   QIXIAZAI《SONGDAIJINGJISHI》ZHONGTIDAO,YAOCAIZIBEISONGKAISHILEDAMIANJIDEZHONGZHI[4](P162)。WANGXIANGZHIZAI《YUDIJISHENG》ZHONGJIZAILEYUHUACHENGYINJUSUIHANSHAN,ZAISHANSHANGZHONGYAO,MIANJIHENDA,PENGCHENGYISHIZENGZHIYUE:“BUJIANLINGYANGYUHUACHENG,LINGRENXIWANGYUSHANGSHEN。JINWENYANGSUDUOZAIYAO,GENGPOQINGSHANSHILICHUN。”[9](P4040)YIZHONGZHIFUZIWEILI,YANGTIANHUIJIZAISICHUANMIANZHOUSHIDANGSHIZHEMINGDEFUZIZHONGZHIZHONGXIN,ZHANGMINGXIANGONG20GEXIANG,QIZHONGCHISHUI、LIANSHUI、HUICHANG、CHANGMINGSIXIANGZHONGZHIFUZI,GAISIXIANGGONGYOUTIAN520QING,ERFUZIZHONGZHIMIANJIZHANZONGMIANJIDE20%,JI104QING,NIANCHANFUZIDA16WANJINYISHANG,QISUOCHANCHUDEFUZIDADUOXIAOWANGSHANFUMINZHEDENGCHU,“SHANFUZHIJIACAISHIQIXIAZHE,MINZHEZHIJIACAISHIQIZHONGZHE。QISHANGPINZEJIESHIDAFUQIUZHI”[11](P33)。YINWEISICHUANCHANCHUDEFUZIZHILIANGSHANGDENG,SHIDEZHANGMINGXIANFUZICHENGWEIDANGSHIDEDAODIYAOCAI。CHUSICHUANWAI,SONGDAIZHEMINGDEDAODIYAOCAIHAIYOUSHANGDANGRENCAN、QIZHOUBANXIA、HUAZHOUXIXINDENG,ZHEIXIEDAODIYAOCAIYINGGAIYETONGSICHUANFUZIYIYANG,XINGCHENGLEDAGUIMODEZHONGZHIZHONGXIN,ZAIZHEIZHONGZHONGZHIJICHUZHISHANG,SONGDAICHUXIANLETESEZHONGZHIYAOCAIDEDIYUHUAQUSHI,XINGCHENGLERUOGANZHONGDAODIYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIZHONGXIN。

                                (四)对药材种植技术的经验总结获得了进一步发展

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SONGDAI,YOUYUYINSHUAJISHUDECHENGSHUYUPUJI,SHUJIDALIANGYINSHUA,YAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUGUANGFANCHUANBO,SHIDESONGDAIYOUGENGDUODEQUNTIGUANZHUYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIJISHU。SUITANGSHIQIJIZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUDESHUJIBUWAIHUNONGSHUYUYISHULIANGZHONG。DAOLESONGDAI,SHIDAFUZHUZHONGYANGSHENG,DADUOQINZIZHONGZHIYAOCAI,BINGJIANGZHONGZHIJINGYANXIEJINWENJI,RUSHENKUO《MENGXIWANGHUAILU》ZHONGCHAOLULEGOUQI、BAIHE、HEHUAN、HUANGJING、NIUBANG、WUJIA、GANJU、MUXU、LIANZI、OU、QINGXIANG、DIHUANGDENG12ZHONGYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIFANGFA,ZHOUMIZAI《GUIXINZASHI》ZHONGJIZAILEZHONGZHIDAFULINGDEFANGFA,ZHANGSHINAN《YOUHUANJIWEN》JIZAILEDINGXIANGDEZHONGZHIFANGFA。CHUCIZHIWAI,LIANGSONGSHIQIKAISHIDALIANGBIANZUANNONGSHU,YINANSONGWEIZUI,LIRU《CHENFUNONGSHU》《FENMENSUOSUILU》《ZHONGYIBIYONG》DENG,QIZHONG《CHENFUNONGSHU》YINANFANGSHUIDAOSHENGCHANWEIZHU,JIANJISHUCAI、YAOCAIZHONGZHI,SHISONGDAIZUIJIECHUDESIZHUANNONGSHUDAIBIAO。ER《FENMENSUOSUILU》YU《ZHONGYIBIYONG》JIQIBUYIZEJIZAILEXUDUOYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIFANGFA,ZUINENGTIXIANDANGSHIYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIJISHUSHUIPING。YIZHUWEILI,TANGDAI《SISHIZUANYAO》ZHONGZHIJIANYITIAOZHONGZHUFA,BEISONGSHENKUODE《MENGXIWANGHUAILU》ZHONGZENGWEILIANGTIAO,NANSONGDENONGSHU《FENMENSUOSUILU》ZEZENGZHISHILIUTIAO,ER《ZHONGYIBIYONGBUYI》CHULEFANGFAZENGDUOWAI,SHANGBIJIAOLEQIANDAIGEZHONGZHONGFADEYOULIE,ZHICHU“《MENGXIWANGHUAILU》ZHIFAYOUMIAO”[12](P222)。TONGYIZHONGYAOCAIDEDUOZHONGZHONGZHIFANGFAFANYINGLESONGRENZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUFANGMIANDETANSUO,ZHEIZHONGTANSUOZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGCUJINLESONGDAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUDEFAZHAN。

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                                二、宋代药材的种植技术

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                                (一)药材种植时注重对土质的选择

                                YAOCAIDEZHONGZHIYAOTIAOXUANSHIYIDETUZHI。YAOCAIDUITURANGYAOQIUBIYIBANNONGZUOWUGENGJINGXI,YINWEIYAOCAIRUYAODEBUWEIBUTONG,YOUDEYIZHIYERUYAO,YOUDESHIGENJINGRUYAO,YOUDEWEIHUAGUORUYAO。BUTONGZHONGLEIYAOCAIDUITUZHIDEYAOQIUBUJINXIANGTONG。RUTANGDAISUOBIANZUANDE《SISHIZUANYAO》ZHONGTIDAO,ZHONGXIE“YIBAIRUANLIANGDI”[13](P54),ZICAO“YILIANGRUANHUANGBAIDI,QINGSHAYOUSHAN”[13](P80)。SONGDAI,RENMENBUJINGUANZHUZHONGZHITURANGDUIYAOCAIPINZHIDEYINGXIANG,GENGFAXIANBUTONGYAOCAIDUITURANGFEILIDEYAOQIUBUTONG。DABUFENYAOCAIXUYAOYINGYANGCHONGZUDEFEIDI,RUZHONGDIHUANG,“DAYIFEIRANGXUDI,ZEGENDAERDUOZHI”[10](P80),BAIHE,“ZEFEIDISHUCHUJIAFEN”[14](P190);DANYEYOUBUXIFEIDE,RULUDOU。LUDOUJILVDOU,ZHONGYAOCHANGZUOPIANFANGYIZHIDANZHONG、XIAOKE,《ZHONGYIBIYONG》ZHONGDUIZHONGLVDOUDETURANGYAOQIUSHI“YISHOUBUYIFEI”[12](P205)。CIWAI,ZHONGZHIYONGDIYEBUJINXIANYUTUZHI,GENGYOUSHAZHI、SHIZHIZHE,RUZHONGLUOBU“YISHANUODI”[12](P209),CHANGPU“DUOZHIYUGANZAOSHASHITUZHONG,LAYUEYIZHIYOUYIHUO”[10](P3),ZHONGSHILIU,“XIANPUYIZHONGSHIZI,CIPUSHANI,YOUPUSHIZI,ANGEN,FANGZHEGENZAIQISHANG”[14](P146)。SONGRENGUANYUBUTONGYAOCAIDUITURANGFEILIHOUBO、TUZHIRUANYING、ZAIPEITIAOJIANDENGJISHUFANGMIANDEYAOQIU,YIYOULEJIAOWEICHENGSHUDERENSHI。

                                (二)播种前采用浸种、磨皮、泥封等法对药材种子进行处理

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIZHIQIAN,DUIZHONGZIJINXINGSHIDANGDECHULIKETIGAOFAYALV,HAIKESHIYOUMIAOSHENGZHANGJIANZHUANG。SONGRENDUIYAOCAIZHONGZIDECUYAFANGSHICHANGJIANDEYOUJINZHONGFA、MOPIFA、NIFENGFADENG。JINZHONGFASHIYONGJINPAODEFANGSHILAICHULIZHONGZI,JIKECUYA,YOUKESHASICHONGLUANHEZHONGZIXIEDAIDEXIJUN。RUSONGRENZAIZHONGBOLENGSHI,“XIANYISHUIJIAOQIZI,SIYA,HEYILONGKANG,XUETUZHONGZHI”[12](P208)。ZHONGLUOBUSHI,“YIMANLIYUTOUGUZHUZHIZIZHONG,YOUSHAN”[12](P209)。SONGRENHAIYONGNIFENGFACUYA,ZAIZHONGGOUQISHI,“LONGZHIZHONGFUCAOZHUN,RUBEIZHANG,YUQIDENG,JIYINITUCAOZHUNSHANG。YIGOUQIZIBUYUNISHANG,JIYIXITUGAI,LINGBIAN,YOUYILANNIUFENYIZHONG,YOUYITUYIZHONG,LINGQIPING。DAIMIAOCHU,SHUIJIAOZHI”[12](P209)。NANSONGCHENGSHUDE《ZHONGYIBIYONG》ZHONGTIDAOZHONGLIANZISHI,“QUJIANHEIZI,WASHANGMOJIAN,ZHILINGPIBO。QUJINTUZUOSHUNIFENG,SANZHIDAZHANGSHIDAITOUJIANZHONGLINGMOXUJIANNI。YUZHONGSHI,ZHIZHICHIZHONG,ZHONGTOUXIANGXIA,ZINENGZHOUZHENG。BOPISHANGYISHENG,SHURIJICHU。BUMOBUCHU”[12](P218)。ZHEIZHONGMOPIFAZHUYAOZHENDUIWAIPIJIANYING、BUYIMENGYADEYAOCAIZHONGZI,JIEMOCAZHONGZIWAIPISHIQIYIYUMENGCHU。

                                (三)掌握了各类药材的不同播种时间

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SONGRENDUIGELEIYAOCAIDEXIXINGFEICHANGLEJIE,WANGWANGGENJUGELEIYAOCAISHENGZHANGSHIJIAN,XUANZEHESHIDEBOZHONGJIJIE。DABUFENYAOCAIZAICHUNTIANBOZHONG,RUJU、OU、ZIYU、BIANXUDENG,DANYEYOUQIUDONGJIANBOZHONGCAIFANSHENGDE,RUYINGZISU,“JIUYUEBUZI,SHEDONGZHICHUNSHISHENG,MIAOJIFANSHENGYI。BUERZHONGZHIDUOBUCHU,CHUYIBUMAO”[10](P609-610)。XUSUIZI,“QIUZHONGDONGZHANG,CHUNXIUXIASHI”[10](P317)。HONGHUAYUFUZIDOUZAIDONGZHIQIANHOUBOZHONG,《FENMENSUOSUILU》JIZAI:“FANZHONGHUAYAO,XUDONGZHIHOULICHUNQIAN。”YOUCIZHICHULEYAOCAIDATIDEBOZHONGSHIJIAN。ER《ZHONGYIBIYONG》ZHONGZELIECHULESHIYIZAIDONGTIANBOZHONGDEYAOCAI:“ZHENGYUEZHONGBIDOU、CONG、YU、SUAN、GUA、HU、KUI、LIAO、MUXU、QIANGWEIZHILEI。”[12](P207)

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIZHUZHONGBOZHONGSHIJIANDETONGSHI,SONGRENYEFEICHANGZHUZHONGDUIYAOCAIZHONGZIDEBAOCUN,YIBANDUOCAIYONGGANZAODEFANGFABAOCUNZHONGZI。SONGRENDUIYAOCAIZHONGZIJINXINGGANZAODEFANGFAYOUSHAIGANFA、YINGANFADENG。RUHUAIZI,“SHOUBOQUZI,SHUPUGAN”[14](P83)。QIEZI,“SHUITAOZI,QUCHENZHEPUGANGUOZHI”[14](P177)。ZHUYU,“ZHONGYANGRISHOUZI,YINGANWEIMIAO”[14](P190)。ZHONGZIDEGANZAOBUJINKEYIJIANSHAOZHONGZINEIDEHANSHUILIANG,FANGZHIZHONGZICHONGZHUHEMEIBIAN,ZAIXIAZHONGHOUHAINENGGENGDUODIXIQUTURANGZHONGDESHUIFEN,CONGERCIJIZHONGZIDEHUOLI,YILIYUZHIZHUDEHOUQISHENGZHANG。

                                (四)扩大肥源,选择与药材生长相适应的肥料

                                SONGDAIDUIYAOCAIJINXINGHELIDESHIFEIDADAOLEJIWEIJIANGJIUDECHENGDU[2](P808)。ZAIYAOCAISHENGZHANGJIEDUAN,SUOSHIYONGFEILIAOZHONGLEIDAWEIZENGJIA,CHUYUANYOUDEFENFEI、LVFEI、HUIFEIDENGJIBENFEILIAOWAI,SONGDAIYIKUOZHANZHIRENCHUQINFEN、BINGFEI、NIFEI、TUFEI、XUNFEI、KUANGWUFEI、HUOFEI、ZHAFEIHEZAFEIDENGSHIYUZHONG。QIYONGFEITESEZAIYUGUANGPIFEIYUAN,YONGFEIDEYI。CHENFUZAI《NONGSHU·FENTIANZHIYIPIANDIQI》ZHONGZHICHU,“JIEXIANGSHIQITUZHIXINGLEI,YISUOYIFENERFENZHI”[15](P6)。YAOHUZAIZAIPEIZHONGHUIGENJUYAOCAIDETEXINGLAIXUANZEHESHIDEFEILIAO。RUZHONGLIANSHI,“YONGLAZAOSHAOXUGUOOUZHONG,LAINIANFAHUASHENG”[14](P109)。“YONGXUNZHUTANGJIAOMOLI、SUXIN,HUAZEFEI”[14](P125)。“PUTAODANGYONGMIGANSHUIHEHEIDOUPI”[14](125)。“YOUYIZHUOXIBUYIHUIZHIJIAORUIXIANG,NENGQUQIUYINQIEFEIHUA。GAIRUIXIANGGENTIAN,DEHUISHUIZEQIUYINBUSHI,ERYIFUGOUNIYOUZIFEIYE”[14](P125)。

                                LVFEIHEFENFEISHIZUICHANGYONGDEFEILIAO,JIHUSUOYOUDEYAOCAIDOUKEYONGDAO。SONGRENYIJINGFAXIANYAOCAIDUIFENDEZHONGLEIYOUSUOQUBI,BIRUJIFEN,“YONGMOLIZESHENG,YONGBAIHEZESHENZISHENG”[14](P125)。MUXISHIHEYONGZHUFEN,ZHONGLIANSHIYIYONGYANGFEN,MAIMENDONGYONGQUANFEN,“SHENGBICONGMAO”[14](P189)。ZHENGSHIYOUZHEIXIEQUBI,《FENMENSUOSUILU》ZHONGYAN:“HUAMUYOUBUYIFENHUIZHESHENDUO,YOUYISHENWENYONGZHI,FEIQIYIZEQIMULIGAO。”[14](P125)

                                ZHIDEYITIDESHI,SONGRENKAICHUANGXINGDISHIYONGNIFEI。NIFEIHANYOUZHONGDUOWEISHENGWU,KEYIGAILIANGTURANGJIEGOU,JUYOUBAOFEIXINGNENG,DUINONGYEDEFAZHANQIDAOZHONGYAOZUOYONG。YOUYUNANFANGTANGCHIZHONGDUO,GUNIFEIZAINANFANGDALIANGSHIYONG。NANSONGWANGXUZAI《WUMENTIANJIASHIYONG》ZHONGSHENGDONGDITIDAOLENIFEIDESHIYONGGUIMO,“ZHUZENGLIANGLIANGJIAHENI,JINJIAOGOUQUCIZUIFEI”。《FENMENSUOSUILU》ZHONGTIDAOYAOCAIZHONGZHISHI“RIZHONGBUBIJIN,YIBUBITIANFEITUJIAN,YONGGOUNISHUIJIAOZHIBUFANG”[14](P147)。ZAIZHONGDAMEISHUSHI“QUQIZHISHAO,DAQIGENPAN,WOYIGOUNI,WUBUHUOZHE”[14](P147)。SONGDAINIFEIDESHIYONG,KUODALEFEIYUAN,DUIYAOCAIZHONGZHI、SHENGZHANGJUYOUZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

                                (五)使用间作、肉引等栽培技术,提高药材的产量及品质

                                SONGDAIZAIDAGUIMOZHONGZHIYAOCAIDESHIJIANZHONG,JIJITANSUOXINDEZHONGZHIJISHU,JIANGGEZHONGZHONGZHIJISHUYONGYUYAOCAIDESHENGCHANZHIZHONG,TIGAOYAOCAICHANLIANGJIPINZHI。SHOUXIAN,JIANZUOFADELIYONGTIGAOLETUDILIYONGLV,ZENGJIALEYAOCAICHANLIANG。JIANZUOSHIBAJIZHONGZUOWUTONGSHIBOZHONG,LIYONGBUTONGZHIWUJIANDEHULIYINSULAICUJINSHENGZHANG,CONGERTIGAOZHIWUCHANLIANGDEZHONGZHIFANGFA。JIANZUOFAZAI《QIMINYAOSHU》ZHONGYIYOULEMINGQUEJIZAI,DAOLESONGDAI,JIANZUOFAQUYUFENGFUHUA。CHENFU《NONGSHU》ZHONGJIZAILESANGZHUDEJIANZUO:“LINGQILONGCHAKUO,QIXIABIANZAIZHU,YINFENZHUJISANGYIHUOFEIYIYI,SHILIANGDEZHIYE。SANGGENZHISHEN,ZHUGENZHIQIAN,BINGBUXIANGFANG,ERLIBEICHA。”[15](P21)SANGYUZHUJIANZUOKEYISHILIANGZHEJUNSHOUYICHU,CONGERDADAO“YONGLISHAOERJIANGONGDUO”DEXIAOGUO。SONGRENZAIBUTONGYAOCAIZHIJIANYESHIYONGJIANZUOFALAITIGAOCHANLIANG。RUZHONGLIANSHI,“YIMAIMENDONGZIJIAZHONG,MAOSHENG”[12](P218)。SHUCAIYUHUAYAOZHIJIANYEKEYONGJIANZUOFA:“CAIYUANZHONGJIANZHONGMUDAN、SHAOYAO,ZUIMAO。”[14](P110)JIANZUOFAYONGYUCAOBENYAOWUDEZHONGZHITIXIANLESONGDAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIDUINONGZUOWUZHONGZHIJINGYANDECHONGFENJIEJIANHEFAZHAN,FANYINGCHUDANGSHIDEZHONGZHIJISHUYIDADAOYIDINGDESHUIPING。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   QICI,FAMING“ROUYINFA”ZHONGZHIFULING。NANSONGSHIQIZHOUMIZAI《GUIXINZASHI》ZHONGJIZAILEYIZHONGYONG“ROUYINFA”LAIZAIPEIDAFULINGDEFANGFA。“FULINGSHENGYUDASONGZHIGEN,SHANGYI。JINSHICUNMINNAIZEQIXIAOZHE,YIDASONGGENPOERXIYUQIZHONG,ERJINSHUZHI,SHIZHIYESHENRUYUNEI,RANHOUZEDIZHIWOZHE,KANERYIZHI。SANNIANNAIQU,ZECHENGDALINGYI。DONGXIAOSHANZUIYIFULING,WANGWANGMINDUODAOZHONG,MIZHIZHIERQU,SHUNIANHOUNAIQUYAN。”[16](P159)ZHEIZHONGZHONGZHIDAFULINGDEFANGFA,YIZHIDAOJINDAIDOUZAISHIYONG。

                                (六)认识到药材经过嫁接后药性有所减弱,甚至不堪使用

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SONGDAIYUANYIJISHUFADA,JIAJIEJISHUGUANGFANYUNYONGYUGUOMU、HUAHUISHENGCHANLINGYU。JINGGUOJIAJIEHOUDEHUAHUIGUANSHANGXINGQIANG,GUOSHIGENGJIATIANMEI。《FENMENSUOSUILU》ZHONGJIZAILEYONGSHAOYAOJIAJIEMUDANDEFANGFA:“MUDANYUSHAOYAOGENSHANGJIE,YIFA。WUGUOYIERNIAN,MUDANZISHENGBENGEN,ZEXUANGEQUSHAOYAOGEN,CHENGZHENMUDANYI。”[14](P121)DUICI,《BENCAOTUJING》ZHONGMINGQUEZHICHU:“PURENYUQIHUAZHIGUIYI,JIEQIUDONGYIJIE,PEIYIRANGTU,ZHICHUNSHENGKAI,QIZHUANGBAIBIAN。GUQIGENXINGSHUSHIBENZHEN,YAOZHONGBUKEYONGCIPIN,JUEWULIYE。”[10](195)YOURUTAOZI,QIGUOROUFEIMEI,ZHIDUOWEITIAN,DUOZUOSHUIGUOSHIYONG,QIRENZERUYAO。SONGDAISHI,TAOSHULISHUKEYIHUXIANGJIAJIE,“TAOSHU,LIJIEZHIZEHONGERGAN;LIJIETAOZHI,SHENGZIZEWEITAOLI”[14](P154)。《BENCAOTUJING》ZHONGTONGYANGZHICHU:“TAOHEREN……DADOUJIAGUODUOSHIPURENYITAMUJIEGENSHANGZAIZHI,SUIZHIFEIMEI,SHUSHIBENXING。CIDENGYAOZHONGBUKEYONGZHI。”[10](P551)ZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIZHONG,SONGRENFAXIANJIAJIEHOUDEYAOCAI,QIYAOXINGWANGWANGHUIXIAJIANG,BUSHIHERUYAO,SHENZHIBUKANRUYAO。

                                ZAISONGDAI,SUIZHENONGYEJISHUSHUIPINGDEFAZHANYUTIGAO,WENSHIZHONGZHIJISHU、QIANCHAJISHU、YATIAOJISHUDENGYIJINGCHENGSHU,YINYAOCAISHENGCHANDUIYAOXINGYAOQIUDETESHUXING,ZHEIXIEJISHUSHIFOUSHIYONGYUYAOCAIZHONGZHI,HAIXUYAOYOUXIANGGUANSHILIAOLAIZUOZHENG。

                                ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,SONGDAIYAOCAIDEZHONGZHIBUTONGYUQITANONGZUOWU,QIHEXINSHIYIZHUZHONGYAOXINGWEIZHU,GUANZHUYAOXIAO,SUOYIZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUZHONG,DUIZHONGZHITUZHI、BOZHONGSHIJIYIJIFEILIAODEXUANZE,DOUYAOYIJUYAOXINGDEBUTONGDEQISUOYI。SONGRENZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIZHONGGUANGKAIFEIYUAN,CAIYONGJIANZUO、ROUYINFADENGJISHUTIGAOYAOCAIPINZHI,ZHEIXIEFANGFADUIHOUSHICHANSHENGLESHENYUANYINGXIANG。

                                三、宋代药材种植技术发展的原因

                                SONGDAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIZHONGLEIDUO、GUIMODA,JISHUXIANJIN,JIUQIYUANYINSHISONGDAIYAOCAISHICHANGXUQIUSHIRAN。SONGDAIJINGJIFANRONG、SHEHUIYANGSHENGFENGQISHENGXINGJIGEDIGUANFANGYAOJUDECHENGLI,SHISHEHUIDUIYAOCAIDEXUQIULIANGZENGDA,ZHIKAOYEWAICAIJIHEGERENKAIPIYAOPUDEFANGSHIYIBUNENGMANZUZHEIZHONGXUQIU,GUCHUXIANLEYAOCAIDEZHUANYEHUAZHONGZHI。LINGWAI,YOUYUSONGDAIKESHUYEDEFADA,BENCAOXUE、YUANYIXUEZHEZUODALIANGKANXING,YOULICUJINLESONGDAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUDEFAZHAN。

                                (一)民间药市的繁荣使药材种植向专业化发展,有利于提高种植技术

                                SONGDAISHANGYEFADA,CHENGSHIFANRONG,YAOSILINLI,KAIFENG、HANGZHOUYIJISUZHOU、CHENGDOUDENGCHENGSHI,YAOYEYOUQIFANSHENG。《DONGJINGMENGHUALU》JIZAILEBEISONGSHIQIDEKAIFENG,JINGUIMOJIAODADESHENG、SHUYAOPUJIUYOU23JIA[17](P12-23)。SICHUANDEZIZHOUYAOSHI、CHENGDOUYAOSHI、YIZHOUYAOSHIDENG,JUNYIMAIMAIYAOCAIWEIZHU,MAOYIXIANGDANGFANSHENG。YICHENGDOUWEILI,QIYAOSHIZHUYAOYOUSANGE:GUANJIEYAOSHI、DACISIYAOSHI、YUJUGUANYAOSHI。YAOSHIKAIFANGSHIJIANGEBUXIANGTONG,QIZHONGGUANJIEYAOSHIYOUERYUEBARI、SANYUEJIURILIANGTIAN,DACISIYAOSHIWEIWUYUEWURI,YUJUGUANYAOSHIWEIJIUYUEJIURIZHONGYANGJIE。QIZHONGGUIMOZUIDADEYAOSHUZHONGYANGJIEYUJUGUANYAOSHI,ZHUANGCHUOZAI《JILEIBIAN》ZHONGJIZAI:“ZHIZHONGJIUYAOSHI,YUQIAOMENWAIZHIYUJUHUAWUMEN,SHESIYIHUOBAIYAO,XISHEZHILEIJIEDUIJI。FUYIN、JIANSI,JIEBUXINGYIYUE。YOUYUWUMENZHIXIASHEDAZUN,RONGSHUSHIHU,ZHIBEISHAO,FANMINGDAORENZHE,JIEZIYIN。RUSHIZHEWURI。”[18](P21)LUYOUZAI《LAOXUEANBIJI》ZHONGJIZAI:“CHENGDOUYAOSHIYIYUJUHUAWEIZUISHENG,YONGJIUYUEJIURI。”[19](P80)YINWEIYAOCAIZHONGLEIFENGFU、PINZHONGQIQUAN,CHUSHOUDALIANGMINGGUIYAOCAI,CHENGDOUYAOSHIXIYINQUANGUOYAOSHANGWUSHU,SUOHUOLIYIYEXIANGDANGKEGUAN。

                                YAOSHIFANRONG,YAOCAIDESHICHANGXUQIULIANGDA,DUIYAOCAIPINZHIDEYAOQIUHUIYUELAIYUEGAO,ZHEIYANGJIUCUSHINONGHUHUOYAOHUZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHISHIZHUANZHUYUTIGAOZIJISUOZHONGYAOCAIDEZHILIANG,ZHONGZHIJISHUBUDUANTIGAO。

                                (二)官药局对药材的需求大、品质要求高,从而促进了种植技术的进步

                                BEISONGCHAOTINGZAIYILIAOZHENGCESHANGJIAOQIANDAIBUTONG,GUOJIAFEICHANGZHONGSHIYILIAOSHIYE,DUOCIZUZHIXIUDINGYISHU,BIANZUANLELIANGBUDAXINGYISHU──《TAIPINGSHENGHUIFANG》《TAIPINGHUIMINHEJIJUFANG》。TONGSHI,DALIANGQIECHIXUDIZHENGLIBENCAOXUEZHEZUO,BINGYUXININGJIUNIAN(1076)JIANLI“TAIYIJUSHUYAOSUO”,GONGKAIXIANGMINZHONGCHUSHOUCHENGYAO,RUYUZAIHUANGHUOJIYILIUXING,HAIHUIANZHAOCHAOTINGZHISHI,MIANFEITIGONGCHENGYAO。DAGUANSANNIAN(1109)YIHOU,GELULUXUSHEZHISHUYAOSUO,“FENZHINEIWAI,FANQISHIJU”[16](P225)。GUANYAOJUSUOYONGSHENGYAOYIBANYOUSANGELAIYUAN:GONGNA、CAIGOUHEHAIWAISHURU[20],QIZHONGTUGONGSHULIANGJUDA。ZHANGRUIXIANZAI《SONGDAIYAOCAICHANDIGAIMAO》YIWENZHONGLIEJULEYUANFENGNIANJIAN23LUTUGONGYAOWUZHONGLEIHESHULIANG,RUGANCAOCONGTANGSHIDE21080KESHANGSHENGDAOSONGSHIDE166400KE,HUANGLIANCONGTANGSHIDE680KESHANGSHENGDAO32000KE[21](P135-138),QISHULIANGJIHUCHAOGUOTANGDAISHUSHIBEI。TUGONGYAOPINJIHUJUEDABUFENBEISONGDAOGUANYAOJUZHIYAO。SUIZHEGUANYAOJUZAIQUANGUODEPUBIANSHELI,SUOXUYAOCAISHULIANGYINGGENGDUO,YOUCIKEJIANGUANYAOJUZHIZUOCHENGYAODUITUGONGYAOCAIDEDALIANGXUQIU。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SONGDAIYAOCAIDECAIGOUSHUMUYEXIANGDANGKEGUAN。SONGCHAOTINGSHEYOUZHUANMENJIGOUJIGUANLIFUZEJIZHONGSHOUGOUYAOCAISHIWU。RUZONGZEZAIZHENGHECHU,“ZHILAIZHOUYEXIAN,SHIHUBUXIATIJUSIKEMAINIUHUANG,GONGZAIJINGHUIMINHEJIJUHEYAOYONG,DUZEJIRUXINGHUO,ZHOUXIANBAIXINGJINGTUNIUYIQUHUANG”[17](P282)。LAIZHOUNIUHUANGZAIDANGSHIPINZHIZUIJIA,YINCISHINIUHUANGSHOUGOUZHONGXIN。ZHEIZESHILIAOSUIFANYINGLEGUANFUYINWEIJIXUSHOUGOUNIUHUANGERZIRAOBAIXING,DANQUECONGLINGYIFANGMIANFANYINGLEHEJIJUSUOXUYAOCAIXUYAODALIANGCONGMINJIANCAIGOUDESHISHI。GUANFUZAICAIGOUSHI,FEICHANGZHUZHONGYAOCAIDEPINZHI,YAOCAIPINZHIYUEHAODEDIFANG,SHOUGOUSHULIANGJIUYUEDA,ZHEIBIRANHUISHIYAOHUZAIZHONGZHISHITEBIEGUANZHUYAOCAIDEPINZHI,ZAIZHONGZHIJISHUSHANGHUIYOUCHUANGXIN,YIBIANHUODEZHILIANGSHANGCHENGDEYAOCAI,CONGERCUJINLEYAOCAIZHONGZHIJISHUDETIGAO。

                                (三)养生风气盛行,社会需要高品质药材,从而对药材种植技术提出更高的要求

                                SONGCHAOJINGJIFADA,YIXUELILUNSHUIPINGTIGAO,SHEHUIDAZHONGDUIYANGSHENGPUBIANGUANZHU。YUTANGRENZHUZHONGFUSHIJINDANBUTONG,SONGRENRENSHIDAOFUSHIJINDANWUYIYUYANGSHENG,ZHUANERJIANGMUGUANGFANGZAICAOMUSHANG。ZHANGSHINAN《YOUHUANJIWEN》ZHONGZAIYIYIREN“LINGRENNENGSHI,JIUFUQINGSHENYIQI”,“SHIDAFUYICIXIANGKUIYI,ZAZHIYINSHIJIANYE”[22](P43)。CHULEZHIJIEFUYAO,SONGRENCHANGCHANGJIANGCAOBENZHIWUYUYINSHIJIEHEQILAI,SHILIAOYANGSHENG。RUBAIHE,“DAO、SHAIHEMIAN,ZUOTANGBING,ZUIYIXUEQI”[23](P23);MAIMENDONG,“CAIGENQUXIN,DAOZHIHEMI,YIYINQIZHONGTANGZHU,AORUYIWEIDU。ZHUZHICIQINEI。WENJIUHUA,WENFU,ZIYIDUOYI”[23](P75);SHANYAO,“RUCHANGMIANSHIZHI,JIASUMI,WEICHUNMIANYOUJING。YIQILI,ZHANGJIROU,JIUFUQINGSHEN,ERMUCONGMING,BUJIYANNIAN”[24](P120)。

                                SONGDAIYANGSHENGFENGQISHENGXING,DUIBUYILEIYAOCAIDEXUQIULIANGZENGDA。ZAIRICHANGDESHILIAOZHONG,DUIYAOCAIPINZHIYAOQIUGAO,DUOSHIYONGDAODIYAOCAI,ZHEIZHONGXUQIUZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDUIYAOCAIZHONGZHITICHULEGENGGAODEYAOQIU,SHIYAONONGZAIZHONGZHIGUOCHENGZHONGGENGJIAGUANZHUYAOCAIDEZHILIANG,XIANGFANGSHEFADITIGAOZHONGZHIJISHU,YIBIANCHANCHUGAOPINZHIDEYAOCAI。

                                四、结语

                                SONGDAIKEJIJIAOQIANDAIYOULEHENDAFAZHAN,NONGYEZHONGZHIJISHURIQUCHENGSHU。YOUYUSONGDAIJINGJIFADA,YAOCAISHICHANGFANRONG,SHEHUIXUQIULIANGDA,DUIYAOCAIPINZHIYAOQIUGAO,CONGERDUIYAOCAIZAIPEIJISHUTICHULEGENGGAODEYAOQIU,ZHIJIECUJINLESONGDAIZAIPEIJISHUDEFAZHAN。SONGDAICHUXIANLEYAOCAIDEZHUANYEHUAZAIPEI,YAOCAIZAIPEIYIYURICHANGSHIWUSHENGCHANXIANGTUOLI。ZAIZAIPEIGUOCHENGZHONG,SONGRENFAXIANTUZHI、BOZHONGSHIJI、FEILIAODESHIYONGDOUHUIDUIYAOCAIDEYAOXINGCHANSHENGYINGXIANG。JIANZUOFAYUNYONGYUYAOCAIZAIPEI,TIGAOLEYAOCAICHANLIANG。NANSONGSHISUOFAMINGDE“ROUYINFA”YONGYUFULINGDEZHONGZHI,SHICHANCHUDEFULINGGENGWEIYOUZHI。SONGRENYEFAXIAN,JINGGUOJIAJIEDEYAOCAIYAOXINGXIAJIANG,YOUDESHENZHIBUKANRUYAO。ZHEIXIEDOUTIXIANLESONGRENZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHISHANG“YIYAOXINGWEIHEXIN”DESIXIANG。SONGDAIZAIYAOCAIZHONGZHIFANGMIANDEJISHUDUOBEIYUAN、MING、QINGLIDAISUOXIQU,DUIZHONGGUODEYAOCAIZHONGZHICHANSHENGLESHENYUANDEYINGXIANG。

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                                梁松涛,苏红.论宋代药材种植技术[J].农业考古,2020(01):116-122.
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