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                              高等院校实验室安全管理现状与加强策略

                              时间:2019-03-20 来源:教育教学论坛 作者:许洪振,刘姣娣,李先瑄 本文字数:3224字

                                摘    要: 高校实验室安全是学校与社会安全稳定的重要内容之一,也是高校平安校园建设的重要组成部分。文章通过分析高校实验室安全管理现状及存在的问题,从加强安全教育、实行实验室准入制度、建立健全安全管理制度、建立安全责任制、做好防范措施、制订科学合理的应急预案等方面研究高校实验室的安全管理对策,以期有效提高实验室安全管理水平。

                                关键词: 高校实验室; 安全管理; 对策研究;

                                Abstract: Laboratory safety in universities is one of the important contents of school and social's security and stability,as well as an important part of the construction of safe campus in universities.By analyzing the present situation and existing problems of laboratory safety management in universities,studied the countermeasures of laboratory safety management in universities from the aspects of strengthening safety education,implementing laboratory access system,establishing and perfecting safety management system,establishing safety responsibility system,doing well preventive measures,and formulating scientific and reasonable emergency plans,in order to effectively improve the level of laboratory safety management.

                                Keyword: University laboratories; safety management; Countermeasure research;

                                一、引言

                                GAOXIAOSHIYANSHISHIGAODENGXUEXIAODEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,JINNIANLAIGEGAOXIAOYUELAIYUEZHONGSHISHIYANSHIJIANSHE。GAOXIAOSHIYANSHIZAIXUESHENGZONGHESUZHIJIAOYU、SHIYANJINENGPEIYANG、ZHISHICHUANGXINHEKEJICHUANGXINNENGLIFANGMIANBANYANZHEZHONGYAODEJIAOSE。TONGSHI,GAOXIAOSHIYANSHIYOUSHIGAOXIAOJIAOSHIKAIZHANKEXUEYANJIUHETIGONGSHEHUIFUWUDEBIYAOCHANGSUO[1]。JIANSHEANQUANSHUSHIDESHIYANSHIHUANJINGGUANXIDAOGAOXIAOJIANKANG、WENDING、KECHIXUFAZHAN,SHIQUANTISHISHENGDEGONGTONGYUANWANG,GUANXIDAOSHISHENGDESHENGMINGJIANKANGHECAICHANANQUAN,SHIXUEXIAOYUSHEHUIANQUANWENDINGDEZHONGYAONEIRONGZHIYI。

                                JINNIANLAI,GAOXIAOBANXUEGUIMODEKUODAYUGAOXIAOKEYANYUSHEHUIFUWUZHINENGDEZENGQIANG,SHIYANSHIJIANSHETOUZIGUIMODEDAFUZENGJIA,SHIYANSHIDESHEBEIZHONGLEI、SHULIANG、KAICHUDESHIYANKECHENGJIKEYANSHIYANRIYIZENGDUO。DANSHISHIYANSHIDEANQUANGUANLIZHIDUHEGUANLIJIGOUBUJIANQUAN,SHIYANSHISHIYONGGUOCHENGGUANLIHESHIYANHUANJIETUOJIE,DAOZHISHIYANSHISHIGUSHIYOUFASHENG。YINCI,YANJIUGAOXIAOSHIYANSHIANQUANGUANLIXIANZHUANGHECUNZAIDEWENTI,QUEBAOSHIYANSHIANQUANGAOXIAOYUNXING,YICHENGWEIGAOXIAOSHIYANSHIGUANLIDEYIXIANGZHONGYAOGONGZUO。

                                二、现状分析

                                (一)高校实验室安全管理体制机制不健全

                                目前高校实验室的安全管理通常由安全保卫部、校办和实验室管理部负责。管理体制相对宽松,职责分工重复,容易导致安全工作责任不清的现状。部分实验室安全责任主体不明确,安全责任落实不彻底,实验室未配备专职安全人员,日常安全管理浮于表面,应付检查,安全管理职责无法层层落实到基层[2,3]。安全管理制度建设滞后,思想观念对安全工作重视不够,制度执行流于形式或执行不到位。
                               

                              高等院校实验室安全管理现状与加强策略
                               

                                (二)安全意识淡薄,重视程度不足

                              星云棋牌官网下载   MUQIAN,GAOXIAOSHIYANSHIKEYANRENYUANDEYANJIURENWUWANGWANGBIJIAOZHONG。TAMENDEGONGZUOZHONGDIANYIBANJIZHONGZAIXIANGMUSHENQING、ZHUANXIEKEYANLUNWENHECHENGGUOSHENBAOSHANG。DUISHIYANSHIANQUANDEZHONGSHIBUGOU,BUTONGCHENGDUSHANGCUNZAIZHEQIANGDIAOKEYANHEJIAOXUEERBUSHIQIANGDIAOANQUANDESIXIANG。TONGSHI,SHIYANSHIGUANLIRENYUANDEQUEFAYESHIYIZHONGCHANGJIANXIANXIANG。YIXIEDAXUESHIYANSHISHENZHIMEIYOUZHUANZHISHIYANSHIGUANLIRENYUAN,DAOZHISHIYANSHIZHUNRUZHIDUSHISHIBUDAOWEI。ZAISHIYANKEKAISHIQIAN,JIAOSHIWANGWANGHUIDUISHIYANXUESHENGJINXINGANQUANJIAOYU,DANWANGWANGZHISHIXINGSHIHUADE,XUESHENGDEANQUANYISHIBORUO,BINGMEIYOUZHENZHENGZHONGSHI。

                                (三)实验室硬件设施不完善

                                (1)ANQUANSHESHICHENJIULAOHUA。YOUYUSHIYANSHISHIYONGSHOUMINGDEYANZHANGHEDIANLUDELAOHUA,SUIZHEDIANQISHIYANSHEBEIDEZENGJIA,FUHEZENGJIA,CUNZAIJIAODADEHUOZAIYINHUAN;CHANSHENGYOUDUQITIDESHIYANSHIMEIYOUTONGFENGXITONG,HUOZHEJINJINANZHUANGPAIQISHAN,DABUDAOLIANGHAODETONGFENGXIAOGUO。

                                (2)XIAOFANGQICAIPEIBEIBUZU。XUDUOSHIYANSHIDEYONGFANGLAOJIU,MEIYOUANYAOQIUPEIBEIGUDINGSHIMIEHUOXITONGHUOYIDONGSHIXIAOFANGSHEBEI,WEIXIUBUZU,SHENZHIYINCHAYANBUJISHIDAOZHIGUOQIBUNENGSHIYONG。

                                (3)SHIYANSHIYONGFANGYANZHONGBUZU。SHIYANSHISHEBEIBAIFANGYONGJI,TONGYIJIANSHIYANSHIBAIFANGBUTONGLEIXINGDESHEBEI,CUNZAIANQUANYINHUAN。

                                (4)SHEBEIGUANLIBUGUIFAN,SHEBEIBUJUBUHELI,SHIYANSHIGUOYUYONGJI,SHENZHIZHANYONGANQUANTONGDAO,WUPINHUNFANGXIANXIANGPUBIAN;SHEBEICAOZUOGUICHENGBUGOUWANSHAN,BUFENSHEBEIMEIYOUXIANGYINGDECAOZUOGUICHENG;SHEBEISHIYONGJILUBUGUIFAN,WEIJISHITIANXIE,RIQIBIANGENGHUOSUIYISHIYONG,HUOYONGYIXIEFUHAOTIHUANXIANGTONGDETIANXIENEIRONG;TEZHONGSHEBEIGUANLIZHIDUBUJIANQUAN,WEIDINGQIJIANDING。

                                三、高校实验室的安全管理对策

                                (一)加强安全教育,实行实验室准入制度

                                GAOXIAOSHIYANSHIGUANLIRENYUANWANGWANGCUNZAIANQUANYISHIDANBO、ANQUANZHISHIQUEFA、ANQUANJINENGQUEFADENGXIANXIANG。DUIGAOXIAOSHISHENGJINXINGANQUANJIAOYU,KEYIXIANZHEJIANGDIANQUANSHIGUDEFASHENGLV。ZHEIJIUYAOQIUGAOXIAOYAOZHONGSHIANQUANJIAOYU,BAANQUANJIAOYUZUOWEISHIYANSHIANQUANGUANLIDEZHONGZHONGZHIZHONG。SHIYANSHIRENYUANYINGRENZHENXUEXIANQUANJISHUZHISHI,TIGAOZISHENDEANQUANSUZHI。DUISHISHENGJINXINGANQUANZHISHIJINENG、TUFASHIJIANHECHANGJIANANQUANSHIGUCHULIDENGSHIYANSHIANQUANJIAOYU,QUEBAOJIAOXUEGUOCHENGDESHUNLIJINXINGHERENSHENANQUAN[4]。SHISHISHIYANSHIZHUNRUZHIDU,DUCUSHIYANSHIRENYUANZHONGSHIANQUANGUANLIHEJIAOYU。JINXINGANQUANJIAOYUHOU,DUIMEIGEXUESHENGZHUYIJINXINGKAOHE。KAOHEHEGEHOUCAINENGJINRUSHIYANSHIXUEXI。FOUZE,XUYAOJIXUJIESHOUANQUANJIAOYU,ZHIDAOKAOSHIHEGE。

                                (二)建立健全安全管理制度

                                WANSHANSHIYANSHIANQUANGUANLIGUIZHANGZHIDU,KEYIGUIFANSHIYANSHIRENYUANDEXINGWEI,QUEBAOSHIJIANJIAOXUEGUOCHENGDESHUNLIWANCHENG。SHIYANSHIANQUANGUANLISHEJIFANGFANGMIANMIAN,ZHIDINGKEXUEDEGUANLIZHIDU,QUEBAOQIKEXINGXING[5,6]。JIANLIANQUANZERENZHI,YOUZHUYAOFUZERENQUANMIANFUZEANQUAN,ZHIGONGDUIBENGANGWEIANQUANFUZEZHEIYANGYIZHONG“ZONGDAODI、HENGDAOBIAN”DEANQUANZERENZHI。JIANCHIDINGQIJINXINGYINHUANPAICHA,DUIJIANCHADEWENTIDENGJITAIZHANG,GENZONGZHENGGAI,ZHIZHIYINHUANXIAOCHU。

                                (三)建立安全责任制

                                ZHUJIQIANSHU“ANQUANZERENSHU”,ZUODAOZERENLUOSHI。JIANLIANQUANZERENZHI,BINGZHUJIQIANSHU“ANQUANZERENSHU”,ZHEISHILUOSHIANQUANZERENDEYOUXIAOCUOSHI[7]。

                                (四)做好防范措施,制订科学合理的应急预案,制定并采取切实可行的措施

                                TONGGUOCENGCENGLUOSHIANQUANGUANLIDEZEREN,LAIYANGEGUANCHEZHIXINGSHIYANSHIDEANQUANGUANLIZHIDU,TONGGUODINGQIBUDINGQIKAOHE,LAIBUDUANTIGAOHEQIANGHUAANQUANYISHIHEZHIYEDAODESHUIPING。ZHIDINGKEXUEHELIDEYINGJIYUAN,BIMIANHEJIANGDITUFASHIGUZAOCHENGDEBUBIYAODESUNSHANGHESHANGHAI,BINGKAIZHANYINGJIYANLIAN,BAOZHENGSHIYANSHIRENYUANYINGDUIGEZHONGTUFAANQUANSHIGUSHI,NENGGOUZUODAOCHENZHELENGJING,TIGAOANQUANGUANLISHUIPING。SHIYANSHIRENYUANYINGDINGQIDUIGEZHONGANQUANFANGHUSHESHI、SHEBEIJINXINGJIANCHABINGZUOHAOQINGKUANGJILU,PAICHAANQUANYINHUAN,ZUOHAORICHANGWEIHU,YIQUEBAOQICHUYUZHENGCHANGGONGZUOZHUANGTAI。

                                (五)加强对事故的管控

                                GENJUSHIGUANLIFENXI,SHIGUGUANLIYUKONGZHI,CONGREN、JI、WU、FA、HUANWUGEFANGMIANRUSHOU。ZAIJINRUSHIYANSHIHEJINXINGSHIYANDEGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHONGYAODESHIYAOJIANCHASHIYANRENYUANSHIFOUYOUBUANQUANDEZHUANGTAIHEWEIZHANGCAOZUOXINGWEI,RUDAISHIPINDAOSHIYANSHI,HUOJIANGYINLIAOFANGZHIZAIGONGZUOTAISHANGDEWENTI;JIANCHASHIYANSHEBEISHIFOUNENGGOUANQUANYUNXING、SHIFOUCUNZAIANQUANYINHUAN;JIANCHAZUOYEHUANJINGSHIFOUCUNZAIQUEXIAN,RUTONGFENGWENTI、SHIYANHUANJINGSHIFOUQINGJIEDENG。SHIYANGUOCHENGZHONGYINGZUNSHOUDEGUIZHANGZHIDUHECAOZUOGUICHENGDENG,ZHIYOUJINXINGQUANFANGWEIDEGUANKONG,CAINENGYOUXIAODIBIMIANSHIGUDEFASHENG。

                                四、结束语

                                GAOXIAOSHIYANSHISHIJIAOXUEHEKEYANDEZHONGYAOJIDI,SHIYANSHIANQUANDUIGAOXIAOHESHEHUIDEWENDINGJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。ZAISHIYANSHIANQUANGUANLIZHONG,YIFANGMIANYAOCONGSHIYANSHIGUANLIZHIDURUSHOU,WANSHANSHIYANSHIGEXIANGGUANLIZHIDU,LUOSHIXIANGYINGDEANQUANJIANCHAZHIDU;CHONGFENLIYONGXIANDAIXINXIJISHU,TIGAOSHIYANSHIDEANQUANGONGZUOSHUIPING。GAOXIAOSHIYANSHIYAOYANGEZHIXINGSHIYANSHIANQUANZHUNRUZHIDU,BUDUANWANSHANGEXIANGYINGJIYUAN,DINGQIKAIZHANGEZHONGYINGJIYANLIAN,QUEBAOYINGJIXIANGYINGHEYOUXIAOXING。QUEBAOANQUANXIANGYINGNENGLIBINGZHUBULUOSHIDAOGANGWEIHERENYUAN。DUJUERENHEANQUANSHIGUDEFASHENG,QUEBAOGAOXIAOSHISHENGHESHEHUIDEANQUAN。

                                参考文献

                                [1] 金开军,尚厚玉.人工智能在实验室安全系统中的运用研究[J].山东工业技术,2019,(17):124.
                                [2] 刘攀攀.高校化学实验室安全管理的探讨[J].广东化工,2019,46(12):177-178.
                                [3] 邹德斌.浅析如何做好实验室安全作业管理[J].品牌与标准化,2019,(03):68-70.
                                [4] 崔玮.高校研究型实验室安全管理工作思考[J].时代经贸,2019,(18):33-34.
                                [5] 王斌楠,陈建新,宫世雯,胡伟石,苏醒.绩效管理理论下高校实验室安全管理水平提升的研究[J].实验技术与管理,2019,36(06):259-262+266.
                                [6] 张锋,李宏.高校实验室安全管理的思考[J].广东化工,2019,46(10):180+183.
                              星云棋牌官网下载   [7] 申建军,霍凯奇,李超.5S法在安全工程专业实验室安全管理中的应用[J].山东化工,2019,48(10):178-179.

                                许洪振,刘姣娣,李先瑄.高校实验室安全管理与对策研究[J].教育教学论坛,2020(13):16-17.
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