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                  中产阶层网络焦虑情绪的表现、来源及疏导

                  时间:2018-11-29 来源:商丘师范学院学报 作者:刘奕辰 本文字数:4119字

                    摘    要: 中国中产阶层的成长一直伴随着某种程度的不安全感和“焦虑情绪”,随着网络自媒体的发展和表达自由度的提高,中产阶层的这种不安全感和“焦虑情绪”进一步发酵和蔓延。现实社会的压力是“焦虑情绪”产生的外部原因,阶层认同偏低是其内在根源,而网络空间的特质加剧了“焦虑情绪”。对中产阶层“焦虑情绪”的网络表达应进行一定的正确引导。

                    关键词: 网络空间; 中产阶层; 焦虑情绪;

                    WANGLUOSHEHUISHIXIANSHISHEHUIDEYANSHEN,XIANSHISHEHUIDEJIEJI、JIECENGZAIWANGLUOSHEHUIZHONGYEHUIYOUSUOFANYING,QIEWANGLUOSHEHUISHIDUIXIANSHISHEHUIDE“ZAIZAO”GUOCHENG。WANGLUOSHEHUIWEIRENYURENZHIJIANDEJIAOLIUTIGONGLEPINGTAI,SHINEIXIEZAICHUANTONGJISHUXIAWUFAKAIZHANDEQIANZAIJIAOLIUXUQIUDEYISHIFANG,CHENGWEIRENMENREZHONGDEGOUTONGFANGSHI[1]。SHEHUIQINGXUDECHENGZAIPINGTAICONGXIANSHISHEHUIYANSHENZHIWANGLUOSHEHUI,TONGSHIYEYOUYUWANGLUOBIANPINGHUACHUANBODEJIEGOUHESHISHICHULIHAILIANGXINXIDENENGLI,JIANGZHONGCHANJIECENGZHEIYIJUDADEQUNTIJIJIEZAIXUNIDEWANGLUOSHIJIE,WEIZHONGCHANJIECENGGOUJIANZIWO、BIAODAJIAZHIGUANNIAN、XUANXIEQINGXUTIGONGLEKEZILIYONGDEXINKONGJIAN,ZHONGCHANJIECENGTONGGUOWANGLUO“HUDONG”DACHENG“GONGSHI”,ZHUJIANXINGCHENG“XIANGJINDEZIWODINGWEIHEJIAZHIQUXIANG”,BINGQIEBIAOXIANCHUDUTEDEQINGXUHEXINTAI。

                    一、网络空间中中产阶层“焦虑情绪”的表现形式

                    ZAIXIANSHISHENGHUOZHONG,ZHONGCHANJIECENGSHILIXINGDE“JINGJIDONGWU”,YIBANBIAOXIANWEIBAOSHOUDEYIMIAN。DANZAIWANGLUOKONGJIANZHONG,ZHONGCHANJIECENGDEWANGLUOBIAODACHANGCHANGBANSUIZHEYIXIEFEILIXINGQINGXU。ZAIYULUNSHIJIANCHANSHENG、FAJIAODEQIANQIGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHONGCHANJIECENG“QINGXUXIANXING”DEBIAOXIANJIAOWEIMINGXIAN,CHANGCHANGSHIQUDUISHIJIANJIBENSHISHIDEPANDUAN,XIANRU“QINGGANXIANJING” ,YOUQISHIZHENGFUGONGXINLIWENTIZAIWANGLUOYULUNZHONGTOUSHECHUDE“TAXITUOXIANJING”,ZAIXINWENBAODAOSHISHIWAJUEQUEWEIDEYUJINGXIA,ZHONGCHANJIECENGGENGYUANYIXIANGXINZIJIDE“YINMOULUN”,ZHEIZHONGQINGXUCHONGDONGXINGDEBOYI,ZUOYOUZHEZHONGCHANJIECENGQUNTIYULUNJIAODIANDEZOUXIANG[2]。CONGJINJINIANZHONGCHANJIECENGGUANZHUDEYITILAIKAN,DATIFENWEILIANGLEI:YISHIZHUFANG、JIAOYU、YILIAO、ANQUAN、HUANBAODENGYUZISHENLIYIMIQIEXIANGGUANDEYITI;ERSHIHEZHONGCHANJIECENGMEIYOUZHIJIELIYIGUANLIAN,DANSHEJISHEHUIGONGPINGZHENGYIDEYULUNSHIJIAN。

                    ZAISHEJIZISHENJINGJILIYI、GONGGONGANQUAN、JIAOYUGONGPING、YIYAOANQUAN、SHENGTAIHUANJINGDENGHUATISHI,ZHONGCHANJIECENGBIAOXIANCHU“TUIJIJIREN”DEJIAOLVGANHEBUANQUANGAN。QUANGUODUODIWUMAIWENTIYINQILEZHONGCHANJIECENGDEHUANJINGANQUANJIAOLV;ZAIYI“LEIYANGAN”、SHANDONGYIMIAOAN、“WEIZEXISHIJIAN”WEIDAIBIAODESHEHUIREDIANZHONG,ZHONGCHANJIECENGYULUNDAIRUGANJIAOQIANG,BIAOXIANCHUDUIYILIAO、JIANKANGDENGSHEHUIWENTIDEPUBIANJIAOLV;“DIDISHUNFENGCHEKONGJIEYUHAI”“HEYIJIUDIANNVZIYUXI”DENGCHUFAZHONGCHANJIECENGDERENSHENANQUANJIAOLV。YIWANGCILEIHUATIDEGUANZHUDUIXIANGDUOWEIJINGJISHANGDERUOSHIQUNTI,DANJINLIANGNIAN,ZHONGCHANJIECENGKAISHICHENGWEIZHEILEIHUATIDEDANGSHIREN,TONGYANGDESHEHUIDIWEIHESHENFENBEIJING,SHIDEZHONGCHANJIECENGCHANSHENGLEDAIRUGANHEQINGGANGONGMING,CONGERJUJIAOYUZHEILEIYITIBINGZHUDONGCANYUYITIDECHUANBOHETAOLUN。2014NIAN,RENMINWANGTONGGUODUI300MINGWANGLUOYIJIANLINGXIUDEDIAOCHAFAXIAN,ZHONGCHANJIECENGSHIWANGLUOGONGGONGSHIJIANZHONGDEJITIFASHENGYANJIU“YIJIANLINGXIU”QUNTIDEZHULIJUN[3],ZHONGCHANJIECENGDESHEHUI“CHUJIAO”BIJIAOMINGAN,GUANZHUDIANDUOJIZHONGYUSIFAANJIANLEI、ZHENGFUGUANLILEI、JIAOYUYUJIUYELEI、SHEHUIDAODELEI、TUFASHIGULEISHIJIAN。ZHONGQINGWANZHOUGONGJIAOCHEZHUIJIANGSHIJIAN、KUNSHANBAOMANANBEI“FANSHA”AN、FANBINGBINGTOUSHUILOUSHUIANDENGDOUSHIZAIWANGLUOPINGTAIPUGUANG、CHUANBO,BEIXUNSUTUIZHIWANGLUOYULUNZHONGXIN,ZHEIXIELEIXINGDEHUATIYIZHIZAISHEHUIHUATIZHONGZHANYOUZHULIUDIWEI,ZHANGSHIJIANCHENGWEIZHONGCHANJIECENGGUANZHUDEYULUNJIAODIAN。

                    但是不同于弱势群体激进的表达方式,中产阶层焦虑情绪的表达往往直陈社会问题,更尖锐激烈,言语或行文更重理性与逻辑,往往采取网上集体讨论、挖掘相关专业资料、比照有关法律法规等方式。在“雷洋案”的曝光过程中,网络舆论从对视频缺失的质疑到对当事者行为的追问,再到对执法行为的问责,进而到由法律界人士力挺、力援当事人家属发声,提出“呼吁事件解决”的诸种要求。回顾事件的表达过程,论坛里、“朋友圈”中、“两微”上,每每可以发现那些所谓中产阶层“大V”,扮演着“意见领袖”的角色,主导着网络舆论、大众传媒,其价值态度很可能成为社会主流价值,引领网友情绪从开始的质疑、愤怒、焦虑到后来的理性客观。“焦虑情绪”表达的背后是理性诉求,以一系列以安全为关键词的事件为标志,中产阶层基于安全感形成集体认同,传统的单向性、片面性议题设置正遭遇多元化主体的理性破解,很多焦点事件开始逐渐被纳入法治化的平等框架内解决。而且在教育、公平等传统话题上,中产阶层两面思维和法治意识表现明显;在医生剪衣救人遭索赔、上海警察抱摔妇婴等热点事件的传播中,一个突出的特点就是舆论不再是单一思维的情绪批判,规则意识、法律意识开始在讨论中觉醒并成为共识。
                   

                  中产阶层网络焦虑情绪的表现、来源及疏导
                   

                    二、网络空间中中产阶层“焦虑情绪”的来源

                    XIANSHISHEHUIDEYALISHI“JIAOLVQINGXU”CHANSHENGDEWAIBUYUANYIN。ZAIGUANYU“JIAOLVQINGXU”DEXIANGGUANYANJIUZHONG,SHEHUIZHUANXINGZUOWEIZHONGYAODEBEIJINGYINSU,JIAOLVBUJINJINSHIYIGEXINLIXUEGAINIAN,HAISHIDAIYOUSHIDAITEDIANDEHONGGUANSHEHUIXINTAI。WOMENGENGYINGGUANZHUPUBIANJIAOLVXIANXIANGBEIHOUYINZANGDESHEHUIYINSU、ZHIDUYINSU、WENHUAYINSUDENG,ZHIDU、WENHUA、MEIJIE、SHEHUIHEZIWODENGDEJIAOZHIROUHE,MAIXIALETAMENZAIWANGLUOKONGJIAN“QINGXUHUA”DEYINHUAN。ZHONGCHANJIECENGSHITIAOCHUYISHIZHUXINGDENGJIBENXUQIU、QIDAIYONGYOUGENGGAOSHENGHUOZHILIANGHEPINZHIDEYIQUNREN,RANERXIANSHISHEHUIZHONGCUNZAIDEZHUFANG、JIAOYU、ANQUAN、HUANJINGDENGWENTI,SHITAMENSHICHANGGANSHOUDAOYIZHONGBUANQUANGAN[4]。GOUFANGJIAOLVHUOFANGDAIYALIPUBIANCUNZAI,DOUSHIGAOSHENGHUOCHENGBENYALISHIDEZHONGCHANJIECENGZAIQIXIAOFEIYUWANGYUYOUXIANDEJINGJINENGLIZHIJIANCHONGMANZHEMAODUN;ZHIYEJINGZHENGDEYALI、JIUYEDEYALISHIZHEIYIQUNTIPIYUBENMING,DAOCHUDOUYOUHUOMINGHUOANDE“TIANHUABAN”;ZINVYOUZHIJIAOYUJIHUIJINGZHENGGENGWEIHAOQIANHAOLI。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   JIECENGRENTONGPIANDISHI“JIAOLVQINGXU”CHANSHENGDENEIZAIGENYUAN。JIEJIXINGWEIHUOXINGDONGSHIYOUDUIMOURENDEJIEJIWEIZHIDEZHENGQUERENSHI(JIQIZHUGUANDESHENFENRENTONGYUQIKEGUANJIEJIWEIZHIXIANGCHENG)JIJIEJIYISHIDEXINGCHENG,YIGEQUNTIDESHEHUIDIWEIBUJINJINQUJUEYUKEGUANCENGMIANDESHEHUISHISHI,ERQIEWANGWANGHAIQUJUEYUZHEIGEQUNTIDUIZIJISHEHUIDIWEIDEZHUGUANRENTONGHEPANDUAN[5]。DANGQIAN,WOGUODEJIECENGYISHICHENGXIANWEI“LIANGJIQINGXI,ZHONGJIANMOHU”DEJIECENGRENTONGTEZHENG:CHUYUZHONGJIANSHEHUIJIECENGDECHENGYUANDUIZIJIDEJIECENGDIWEIZEXIANGDUIBUSHINEIMEMINGQUEQINGXI,SHENZHISHIMOHUDE[6]。JINSHINIANLAI,ZHONGGUOTUOPINZHIFUDERENYUELAIYUEDUO,ZHONGCHANJIECENGYEZAIKUODA,ANKEGUANZHIBIAO(RUSHOURU、XIAOFEI、ZHIYE、JIAOYUDENG)DINGYIDEZHONGCHANJIECENGRENSHUMINGXIANZENGZHANG,DANCHENGRENZIJISHIZHONGJIANJIECENGHUOZHONGCHANJIEJIDERENDEBILIQUEMEIYOUMINGXIANZENGZHANG[7],XUDUORENSUIZAIWUZHITIAOJIANFANGMIANJUBEILEZHONGCHANWAIQIAO,DANNEIZAIQUEQUEFAZHONGCHANXINTAI[8]。XIANGSHANGLIUDONGSHIGETIYOUYIGEJIECENGDAOLINGYIGEJIECENG,SHIXIANJIECENGDIWEIDEBIANHUA,ERBENWENSUOZHIDE“XIANGSHANGLIUDONG”BUJINJINSHICHOUXIANGDEJIECENGLIUDONG,TONGSHIYESHIGETISHENGHUOFAZHANYIYISHANGDELIUDONG。XIANGSHANGLIUDONGYUQIJIASHEZERENWEI,RENMENYEYOUKENENGYUJINGJIDIWEIGAOYUZIJIDEQUNTIXIANGBIJIAO,BINGJIANGCANZHAOQUNTIGENGGAODEDIWEIDANGZUOZIJIWEILAIDIWEIDEXINHAO[9]。ZHEIZHONGDUIWEILAIXIANGSHANGLIUDONGDEQIWANGYOUDAOZHI“JIAOLVQINGXU”EXINGXUNHUAN。BUJINRUCI,DANGQIANXIAOFEIZHUYIJIAZHIGUANFANLAN,XIAOFEIBUZAISHIJIANDANDEGOUMAIXINGWEI,XIAOFEIDEMUDEBUZAISHISHENGCUNERSHIYUWANG,ZAISHANGJIA、MEITIDUIPINZHI、JINGZHISHENGHUODEXUANCHUANGUOXIEZHONG,ZHONGCHANJIECENGTONGGUOXIAOFEILAIZHANGXIANZIJIDEPINWEI,TONGGUOXIAOFEIDEFUHAOLAIWANCHENGZIWODEJIECENGDINGWEI,ERJIAOGAODEWUZHIXIAOFEIYUWANGHEJINGJINENGLIZHIJIANDEMAODUN,SHIDEZHONGCHANJIECENGDESHENGHUOBIANDEZHUOJINJIANZHOU。

                    WANGLUOKONGJIANDETEZHIJIAJULE“JIAOLVQINGXU”。WANGLUOKONGJIANJUYOUQUZHONGXINHUA、KAIFANGXING、NIMINGXINGDENGTEZHI,DUOSHUSHEHUIGONGGONGSHIJIANYIJINGBUZAISHIDANYIPINGTAICHUANBO,ERSHIKUAPINGTAILIANDONGCHUANBO,YIZUIKUAIDESUDUSHIXIANDAFANWEIDEKUOSAN。ZHONGCHANJIECENGZAIXINGWEIMOSHIHEJIAZHIGUANDENGFANGMIANQUTONG,RONGYIXINGCHENGJIAOQIANGDEQUNTIRENTONGGAN,YIDANYOULESHEHUITUFASHIJIANZUOWEIDAOHUOSUO,ZHONGCHANJIECENGJIANGHUIZAIMOUXIEGUANDIANSHANGXINGCHENGGONGSHI,QINGXUXINGGUANDIANJIZENG。YUHUANAN、JIANGGEANDECHUQIJIEDUAN,GONGZHONGDETAOLUNPIEKAIFALIZHUANXIANGLUNLI,DUIANQUANZHENGYIDEQINGXUKONGHUANGGUOXIEZHEDAOYIXUANXIE,YANGAILEDUIFALVDEZUNZHONGWEIHU,CHUXIANLEMINGXIANDEQINGXUJIHUA,“JIAOLVQINGXU”DEXUANXIEXIANYUDUIZHENXIANGHESHISHIDEZHUIWEN。CHUCIZHIWAI,TONGYIREDIANSHIJIANDE“ZHANGWEIXIAOYING”YEBUDUANCHUXIAN,YIXIEYINFAQUANMINTANTAODEZHONGDASHIJIANBIAOXIANCHUXIANZHEDE“ZHANGWEIXIAOYING”,SHIJIANZAIDUOFANGDESHENGYINZHONGBUDUANDAIXIE,YINGUOLIANBUDUANWANZHENG,YULUNJIANDUBUDUANJIASHEN,HUAJIELEWANGLUOYULUN“YIHONGERSHANG”ZHIHOU“YIHONGERSAN”SUODAILAIDEFEILIXINGZHIFENG。YIBEIJINGBADALINGLAOHUSHANGRENSHIJIANWEILI,CONGZUIKAISHISHIPINZAICAOGENYULUNCHANGCHUXIAN,DAOPINGLUNHUYUDUJUEYULUNSHENPAN,ZHIZHIDANGNIAN11YUEDIDANGSHIRENSHANGJIEMU“DAOQIAN”,YULUNTAIDUZHUJIANFASHENGBIANHUA。BEIJINGBADALINGLAOHUSHANGRENSHIJIANHOU,YOUCHUXIANLETONGLEIXINGDENINGBOYAGEERLAOHUSHANGRENHEBADALINGLAOHUSHANGRENANDEKAITING。YUHUANAN、HANGZHOUBAOMUZONGHUOAN、JIANGGEANDENGDOUXIANHOUJINGLILEANFAHEKAITINGLIANGGEYUQINGZHOUQI,BAZHONGCHANJIECENGDUIHEXINWENTIDEGUANZHUYUFAZHIZHENGYIDEQIDAIXIANGRONGHE。BUGUANSHIDANYIWENTIDEZONGXIANGYANXU,HAISHITONGLEIWENTIDEHENGXIANGJIQUN,DUITONGYIZHUTIDEFANFUSHENGWEN,BUDUANTINGLIUYUGEANDETANTAOHESHENCENGCIWENTIDEWAJUE,QIANGHUALESHIJIANBENSHENDEDIANXINGYIYIHESHEHUIYINGXIANG,LAZHANGLEZHONGCHANJIECENGQUNTIDUISHIJIANQINGXUDEXIAOHUAZHOUQI。

                    三、关于疏导网络空间中中产阶层“焦虑情绪”的一些思考

                  星云棋牌官网下载   WANGLUOKONGJIANZHONG,ZHONGCHANJIECENG“JIAOLVQINGXU”DEBIAODAYOUQIJIJIDEYIMIAN,SHIDANGDEJIAOLVZAIYIDINGFANWEINEINENGGOUJIFASHEHUICHENGYUANNEIZAIDEQIANNENG,CONGERCUSHIRENMENFENFAXIANGSHANG,ZENGJIASHEHUIHUOLI,CUJINSHEHUIGONGNENGLIANGXINGYUNZHUAN。ERDANG“JIAOLVQINGXU”CHAOGUOYIDINGXIANDUZHIHOU,QIJIJIZUOYONGJIUNANYIFAHUI,QUERDAIZHIDESHIDUOFANGMIANDESHEHUIFUMIANYINGXIANG,HUIDAOZHIZHONGCHANJIECENGRUOSHIXINTAIFANHUA,ZHENGFUGONGXINLIXUERUO,SHENZHIKENENGCUISHENGQITASHEHUIFENGXIAN。ZHENGQUEYINDAOZHONGCHANJIECENG“JIAOLVQINGXU”DEWANGLUOBIAODA,SHUDAOQI“JIAOLVQINGXU”,KEYICONGSHEHUIHEZUODESHIJIAOZUOCHUYIXIEXIANSHISIKAO。QIANGHUADUIZHONGCHANJIECENGXINTAIDESHUDAO,YINDAOZHONGCHANJIECENGZHENGQUERENZHIHEGUIYIN。ZAIFAYUJIAOCHONGFENDE“GANLANXING”SHEHUILI,YIDINGGUIMODEZHONGCHANJIECENGNENGGOUQIDAOSHEHUI“WENDINGQI”DEZUOYONG。DANXIANSHIZHONG,ZHEIYIZUOYONGDEFAHUISHIYUZHEIYIJIECENGSIXIANGYISHIDECHENGSHUHEJIAZHITIXIDEWANSHANXIANGLIANXIDE[10]。YOUXIAOKUODAZHONGDENGSHOURUQUNTIXUYAOZHENGFU、SHEHUIXIEDIAOHEZUO,CHUANGZAOYOULIYUZHONGCHANJIECENGFAZHANZHUANGDADESHEHUITIAOJIANHEHUANJING,JINKENENGDIJIANSHAOZHONGCHANJIECENGCHENGYUANKENENGCHANSHENGDEBUANQUANGANHEBEIBODUOGAN,TISHENGQIANQUANGAN、GONGPINGGAN。WEILAIDECUNLIANGGAIGESHIQI,YEZHENGSHIWOGUOZHONGCHANJIECENGGUIMOXUNSUKUODADESHIQI,YINCIBIXUDUIQIJINXINGJIJIDEYINDAO,ZHUYIPEIYANGZHONGCHANJIECENGJIJIXIANGSHANG、RENTONGZHULIUJIAZHIGUAN、JIJICANYUYIJILIXINGBIAODADEYISHI,RANGZHONGDENGSHOURUQUNTIKANDAOGENGDAFAZHANKONGJIANYIJIXIANGSHANGLIUDONGDEKENENGXING[11]。

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