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                            叙利亚危机与“教派主义”的关系探究

                            时间:2018-11-29 来源:世界宗教研究 作者:王霏 本文字数:13624字

                              摘    要: 本文强调“教派主义”既是叙利亚危机中的突出元素, 也将是影响叙利亚重建的关键因素。本文首先分析论证叙利亚危机不完全属于教派冲突, 指出阶级、意识形态、地方关系等也在叙利亚危机中扮演了重要角色。继而对叙利亚“教派主义”的产生、发展及动员进行详细论述, 指出叙利亚“教派主义”因为长期的历史矛盾、短期的危机刺激及教派成员对集体被灭绝的恐惧等诸多因素动员起来。最后, 结合哈菲兹·阿萨德与巴沙尔·阿萨德统治时期“教派主义”与民族认同之间的关系, 分析在叙利亚未来重建中“教派主义”将扮演的重要角色。

                              关键词: 教派主义; 叙利亚; 重建; 认同;

                            星云棋牌官网下载   XULIYAWEIJIZI2011NIAN3YUEBAOFAZHIJINYIYOU8NIANDUO, CONG2017NIANKAISHI, XULIYAZHENGFUZAIYIELUOSIWEISHOUDEGUOJISHEHUIDEBANGZHUXIAZHUJIANSHOUHUILESHIDI, 1JIAKUAILEYUFANDUIPAIDEZHENGZHITANPANJINCHENG, XULIYAZHONGJIANJIJIANGTISHANGRICHENG。RANER, XULIYAZHONGJIANBUKEBIMIANDIHUIZAOYUZHURUZHENGQUANZHENGDUO、JIANGJIEBANTUZHENGDUAN、ZIJINKUIFA、ANQUANYINHUANDENGZHONGZHONGKUNNAN。ZAIZHONGDUOKUNNANDANGZHONG, ZUIFUZAHENANYIJIEJUEDEMOGUOYU“JIAOPAIZHUYI”WENTI, TAZHIJIEYINGXIANGDAOXULIYADEMINZU (GUOZU) RENTONG。

                              XULIYAZAI“ZHONGDONGJUBIAN”DEGUOJIAZHONGJIDIANXINGYOUTESHU。CHENGQIDIANXING, SHIYINWEITABEISHOUZHIZEDEWEIQUANTONGZHIZAIBAOFA“ZHONGDONGJUBIAN”DEGUOJIAZHONGJIWEIDIANXING;CHENGQITESHU, SHIYINWEITASHIYIGEYOUSHAOSHUJIAOPAICHENGYUANTONGZHIDEGUOJIA, ERZAIWEIJIBAOFAZHIQIAN, TAYOUYIZHIYIMINZU、ZONGJIAO、JIAOPAIDUOYANGHUAQIEHEXIEGONGCUNDEMIANMAOSHIREN。ZHENGYINRUCI, ZAIZHEIYANGYIGEDIANXINGYOUTESHUDEZHONGDONGGUOJIABAOFARUCIZHANGSHIJIANDEWEIJIJIWEIYINRENZHUMU, QIZHONGDE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”YINSUGENGYINWEI“YISILANGUO”DEJIERUYUFAZHANZHUANGDAERCHENGWEIJIAODIAN。BENWENSHITUTONGGUOTANTAOXULIYAWEIJIYU“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEGUANXI, FENXIXULIYA“JIAOPAIZHUYI”RENTONGDEFAZHANYUTEDIAN, JINERZHICHU“JIAOPAIZHUYI”ZAIXULIYAWEIJIYIJIWEILAIZHONGJIANZHONGSUOBANYANDEJIAOSE, YIQICONGZHEIYISHIJIAOCHANSHIXULIYAZHONGJIANDEKUNNANXING。ZAIMUQIANXULIYAZHONGJIANPOZAIMEIJIE、WOGUOQIYESHITUJIJICANYUQIZHONGJIANDEXINGSHIXIA, BENWENJUYOUJIAOQIANGDELILUNYUXIANSHIYIYI。

                              一、叙利亚危机属于教派冲突?

                            星云棋牌官网下载   “JIAOPAIZHUYI” (Sectarianism) YICIGUANGYISHANGFANZHIBUTONGZONGJIAOHUOJIAOPAI (XIAWENTONGCHENGJIAOPAI) 、ZUQUNHUOZHENGZHITUANTIZHIJIANBAOKUOLIANGXINGGUANXIZAINEIDEYIQIEGUANXI, 2XIAYISHANGZHUYAOZHIJIAOPAIZHIJIANDEPIANJIAN、QISHIJIZENGEDENGBUHEXIEGUANXI。3YOUYUBENWENZHUYAOGUANZHUDESHIJIAOPAICHONGTU, YINERSHIYONGDESHI“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEXIAYINEIHAN。YOUYUZAIXULIYAWEIJIZHONG, DAZHE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”HUANGZIDESHANDONGXINGYUYANYIJIBANGJIA、MOUSHA、XINGBAOLI、TUSHADENGCENGCHUBUQIONG, YINCIZHEICHANGWEIJIZIBAOFAQIBIANCHANGCHANGBEIMIAOHUIWEIYUANYU“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DECHONGTUYUCHOUSHA。

                              GENJUZHEIYIGUANDIAN, XULIYARENMINBEIFENWEIDUOZHONGJUYOUZHENGZHIXINGDEJIAOPAITUANTI, QIZHONG12%WEIYISILANJIAOSHENYEPAIDEYIGEXIAOFENZHIALAWEIPAI, ZHICHITONGWEIALAWEIPAIDEZONGTONGBASHAER·ASADEDEZHENGQUAN;YUE64%WEIXULIYAZUIDADEJIAOPAITUANTIXUNNIPAI, YOUYUZAIASADEZHENGQUANTONGZHIXIAZAODAOBIANYUANHUAERDADOUZHICHIFANDUIPAI;XULIYADEQITAFEIXUNNIPAIZONGJIAOTUANTI, RUJIDUTU (YUEZHAN10%) , DELUZIPAI (YUEZHAN3%) JIQITA (YAZIDIREN、YOUTAIRENDENG, YUEZHAN1%) YOUYUHAIPAZAIZHANDUOSHUDEXUNNIPAITONGZHIXIAJIANGSHOUDAOBUGONGDAIYUERZHICHIXIANZHENGQUAN。HAIYOUYUEZHAN10%DEKUERDEREN, SUIRANTAMENDADUOSHIXUNNIPAIJIAOTU, DANZHUYAORENTONGZIJIDEZUQUN, YIKAISHICHIZHONGLIZHUYI, HOULAIKEWANGFENLI。ZHEIZHONGSHUOFAWANGWANGJIANGXULIYAMIAOHUICHENGYIGEYOUYINGFALIANGGUOZAIDIYICISHIJIEDAZHANJIESHUSHIRENWEICHUANGZAODEGUOJIA, RENWEIJIAOPAIRENTONGJIANGDABAI“SAIKESI-PIKETIXI”HOUXINGCHENGDEZHENGZHIRENTONG。4SUOYI, JIEJUEXULIYAWENTIYEYAOFANGZHAOLIBANENNEIYANGANJIAOPAIFENPEIZHENGZHIQUANLICAIXING。5JIANGXULIYAWEIJIMIAOSHUWEIJIAOPAICHONGTUSHIJIYUYIXIAJIASHE, BENWENJIANGZHUYIFENXI:

                              第一, 假设教派认同这一次民族 (国族) 认同存在, 且该社团成员拥有基于这种认同关系而形成的政治取向。这反映出叙利亚民族认同构建的失败, 因为二者不能共存。6然而, 即便在危机爆发后, 叙利亚仍呈现出“教派主义”与“国家主义”共存的局面。
                             

                            叙利亚危机与“教派主义”的关系探究
                             

                            星云棋牌官网下载   2011NIAN3YUE, XULIYAWEIJIBAOFAYISHI, HEPINGDUIKANGXINGWEISHIFENSANDE、JUBUDE, DANQUEHUAIYOU“GUOJIAZHUYI”DEMUBIAO。KANGYIZHESUIRANDADUOSHUSHIXUNNIPAIALABOREN, DANTAMENTICHUDEKOUHAOZHONGCHONGMAN“RENMIN”、“XULIYA”ZIYANGERFEI“JIAOPAIZHUYI”CIHUI, SHENZHIYAOQIUGENGHUANXIANZAIDECHONGMAN“ALABOMINZUZHUYI”SECAIDEXULIYAGUOQI, GAIYONGXULIYAJIANGUOCHUQISHIYONGDEGUOQI。7QIANDING“DAMASHIGEXUANYAN”DEQIANCHENGYUANYIDUCHENGWEIXULIYAMINJIANFANDUIPAILINGDAOCENGDEHEXIN, DANDANG2011NIANXIATIANHEPINGKANGYIZHUANBIANWEIWUZHUANGDOUZHENGSHI, DADUOSHULINGDAORENLIKAILEXULIYA。2011NIAN11YUE20RI, 20MINGDULIDEFANDUIPAIHUODONGZHEYAOQINGLEBAOKUOMUSILINXIONGDIHUI、“DAMASHIGEXUANYAN”CHENGYUANYIJIQITAMINZHUPAIRENSHIZAINEIDE70MINGFANDUIPAICHENGYUANZAITUERQIYISITANBUERZUJIANLEYITUTUANJIESUOYOUSHISUJIWENHEYISILANFANDUIFENZIDEDAIBIAOJIGOU“XULIYAQUANGUOWEIYUANHUI” (Syrian National Council, al-Majlis al-Watani al-Suri) , FABIAOLE“XULIYAQUANGUOWEIYUANHUIZHENGZHIGANGLING”, YU“DAMASHIGEXUANYAN”LEISI, JIANG“JIANLIMINZHU、DUOYUANHUAHEWENMINGDEGUOJIA”8ZUOWEIMUBIAO。CIWAI, GAIGANGLINGYEBIAOSHIYINGZAIXULIYALINGTUHERENMINTUANJIEDEKUANGJIANEIZHICHI“KUERDEREN”JI“YASHUREN”DEZUQUNQUANLI。9

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YUCITONGSHI, SUIRANXULIYAGUONEIWUZHUANGKANGYIZHUJIANDAITILEHEPINGDUIKANG, DANHENDUOWUZHUANGZUZHIYIKAISHIRENGCAIYONGJUYOU“GUOJIAZHUYI”DEBAORONGXINGMINGCHENG, ZUIDIANXINGDESHI2011NIANXIAJIXINGCHENGDEJUNDUI“ZIYOUXULIYAJUN” (YINGWENWEIFree Syrian Army, JIANCHENGFSA) 。ZAICIJIEDUAN, XULIYAZHENGFUYEYONG“GUOJIAZHUYI”DEHUAYUBOCHIFANDUIPAI, BINGJIANLIXINJUNSHIJIGOU“GUOFANGJUN” (National Defence Forces) , ZAIZHANGDA6NIANDESHIJIANLIJIANCHISHIYONG“GUOJIAZHUYI”DEHUAYULAIJIXUGOUJIANMINZUGUOJIARENTONGHEBAORONGXINGDEGUOJIATIZHI。CIWAI, JINGUANFANDUIPAINEIBUCHANSHENGFENLIE, DANLIUWANGDEZHENGZHIFANDUIPAI、XULIYAGEMINGHEFANDUILILIANGQUANGUOLIANMENG (National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, JIANCHENGSNOC) , YIJIBAOKUOBEIXUERUOLEDEZIYOUXULIYAJUNZAINEIDEWUZHUANGZUZHI, ZHUYAODESUQIURENGSHIBAORONGXINGDEZHENGZHISUQIU。

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                            星云棋牌官网下载   DISAN, JIASHE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEZHENGZHIMOSHI (RULIBANENDEZHENGZHIMOSHI) NENGJIEJUEJIAOPAICHONGTU。ZHEIGEJIASHEXIANRANBAWENTIJIANDANHUALE, BINGBUFUHESHIJI。XULIYAFUZADEZONGJIAOZHENGZHIQINGKUANGJIDUTEDEYISHIXINGTAIFAZHANSHIQIZHENGZHIRENTONGGENGJIAFUZA。BENWENJIANGZAIDISANBUFENDUIGAIWENTIJINXINGCHANSHI。

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                            星云棋牌官网下载   CIHOU, BEIGUANYI“JIAOPAITUSHA”DESHIJIANCENGCHUBUQIONG。ZAOZAI2011NIAN4YUE27RI, SHABIHA (Shabiha) MINBINGBEIBAODAOZAITEKALAKE (Telkalakh) TUSHALE5ZHI40GEXUNNIPAIRENSHI, 14ZHENGFUJIUBEIZHIKONG“ZHONGZUTUSHA”。CIHOU, LEISIBAODAOYUELAIYUEDUO。LIRU, 2011NIAN12YUEZHENGFUZAIKAFA·OUWEIDE (Kfar Oweid) TUSHA100REN;2012NIAN3YUEZHENGFUZAIHUOMUSISHIDEBABU·ZHUIADE (Bab Driad) HEKAMU·ZHOUTENG (karm al Zhoutan) TUSHA50REN;2012NIAN4YUEZAITAFUTANNAZI (Taftanaz) TUSHA100REN;2012NIAN5YUEZAIHULA (Houla) TUSHA108REN;2012NIAN6YUEZAIKUBAYE (al Qubayr) TUSHA78REN;2012NIAN8YUEZAIDAMASHIGEDEDALAYA (Darayya) TUSHA200REN。ZHEIXIEANLIZHONGJIHUSUOYOUSHOUHAIZHEDOUSHIXUNNIPAIALABOREN, ERZHENGFUSHENGCHENGDATUSHASHIFANDUIPAINIEZAOHUOZIJIZHIZAODE。TONGYANG, DUIFEIXUNNIPAIDETUSHAYEYOUBAODAO, LIRU, 2012NIAN4YUEZAIHUOMUSIDEKAMALUOZI (Karmallouz) 15RENBEISHA;2012NIAN12YUEZAIAQILABU (Aqrab) 300RENBEISHA;2013NIAN9YUEZAIMAKESA·HAISEN (Maksar al-Hesan) 16RENBEISHA;2013NIAN10YUEZAISADADE (Sadad) 45RENBEISHA。15ZHEIXIEANLIZHONGSHOUHAIZHEZHUYAOSHIALAWEIPAIHUOJIDUTU, FANDUIPAIYEZHIZEZHEIDOUSHIZHENGFUNIEZAOHUOJIJINDESHENGZHANZHE (Jihadists) ZHIZAODE。CIWAI, KUERDERENZHEIYIZHANGQISHOUQISHIDESHAOSHUZUQUNYEBEIDONGYUANQILAI。ZUICHUKUERDEQINGNIANSUIALABOFANDUIPAIYIQIKANGYI, HOULAIZHUJIANCHENGZHANGWEIBAOLIDEWUZHUANGMINZUZHUYIZHE, BINGJIANLILEMINZHULIANMENGDANG (Democratic Union Party, JIANCHENGPYD) 。JIJINDEFANZHENGFUXUNNIPAIZUZHIRUNUSILAZHENXIANZHEIZHONG“JIDIZUZHI”DEFENZHIYE (Jubhat al-Nusra, JIANCHENGJAN) CHUXIANLE。ZHENDUIJIAOPAIDEBANGJIA、LVEDUOCAICHAN、XINGBAOLI、DUIJIAOHUIHUOQINGZHENSIDEXIJIDENGYEBUSHENGMEIJU。

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                              二、叙利亚“教派主义”的产生与动员

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                            星云棋牌官网下载   DUIYUDIYIGEWENTIYEJIUSHI“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DECHANSHENG, XUEJIEYOULIANGZHONGKANFA。YIZHONGSHIYONGXIANDAIZHUYIDEYANGUANGLAISHENSHI, RENWEIBUGUANSHIMINZURENTONGHAISHICIMINZURENTONGDOUSHIZHENGZHIRENTONG, DOUSHIJINGYINGJIECENGYIJIXIANDAIGUOJIAFAZHANDAILAIDEJINGJIHESHEHUIBIANGESUOFUYUMINZHONGDE“XIANGXIANGCHUDE”QINGGANLIANXI。16YIZHEIZHONGJIESHI, SUOWEIDE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”ZHEZHISHIYONGGUOQUDEJIAOPAIRENTONGLAIHEFAHUAZIJIERYI。LINGYIZHONGYONGQIANXIANDAIZHUYIDEYANGUANGLAIJIESHI, RENWEIJIAOPAIJIANYINWEIGUDAIJIUYOUDEFENQIYUCHOUHENERSHIDIYIDAIDAIXIANGCHUAN, PINGSHIZHEIZHONGDIYICHUYUXIUMIANZHUANGTAI, DANSUISHIYOUKENENGBEIYIXIETUFASHIJIANZHONGXINHUANXINGHEXIUZHENGZHUANHUAWEIJIAOPAICHONGTU。17QIANYIZHONGGUANDIANRENWEIRENTONGZHUYAOSHIZISHANGERXIAGOUJIANCHULAIDE, HOUYIZHONGGUANDIANQIANGDIAOLERENTONGZIXIAERSHANGDEXINGCHENG。

                              ZHENDUIXULIYA“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEQIYUAN, CHIQIANYIZHONGGUANDIANDEXIANDAIZHUYIZHERENWEIXULIYADE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”ZHUYAOSHIHAFEIZI·ASADE、BASHAER·ASADEFUZIZHANGQUANDEJIEGUO。18CHIHOUYIZHONGGUANDIANDEQIANXIANDAIZHUYIZHERENWEIXULIYAWEIJIWEICHUANTONGJIAOPAICHONGTUDEKUODAHUATIGONGLEJIHUI。19RANER, ZONGGUANXULIYA“JIAOPAIZHUYI”FAZHANDELISHI, JIUHUIFAXIANZHEILIANGZHONGJIESHIDOUCUNZAIWENTI。YIFANGMIAN, “JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEZHENGZHIHUAHUOBEIZHENGZHIJINGYINGLIYONGDEXIANXIANGBINGFEILAOASADESHANGTAIHOUCAIYOU;LINGYIFANGMIAN, DANGJINBEIXULIYAWEIJI“JIHUO”DE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”BINGBUDANCHUNSHIJIAOPAIJIANXIUMIANDEGULAOCHOUHENDEBAOFA, ERSHIXULIYAZHENGZHI、JINGJI、SHEHUIXIANDAIHUAGUOCHENGZHONGMAODUNJILEIHEJIHUADEJIEGUO。BENWENRENWEI, XULIYA“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DECHANSHENGYOUYIXIAJIZHONGYUANYIN:

                              DIYI, GUDAIJIAOPAIJIANDEMAODUNYUCHOUHEN。SUIRANXULIYAJINTIANDE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”HAOWUYIWENHUISHOUDAOXIANDAISHEHUIFAZHANDEYINGXIANG, DANGUDAIJIAOPAIJIANDEFENQI、MAODUN、CHOUSHAXINGCHENGDELISHIJIYIYEBIRANDUIQIYOUBUKEMOMIEDEYINGXIANG。CHULEZONGJIAOJIAOPAIZHIJIANZAOQIDEFENQI, AOSIMANDIGUOSHIQIXUNNIPAIZHENGFUDUIFEIXUNNIPAIALABORENSHIXINGDEJIAOPAIQISHIYEYINGXIANGSHENYUAN。ZAIAOSIMANDIGUODETONGZHIXIA, DIGUONEIBUDEYOUTAIREN、JIDUTUSHOUDAOCHABIEDAIYU, ERALAWEIPAI、DELUZIPAIZHEIYANGDEYISILANSHAOSHUJIAOPAISHENZHIYINWEIJINGCHANGZAODAOPOHAIERBUDEBUDUODAOSHANLIJUZHU, ZHANGCIYIWANG, XINGCHENGLEJIAOQIANGDEJIAOPAIRENTONG。20DANZHIDEZHUYIDESHI, ZHEIZHONG“JIAOPAIZHUYI”JISHAOBEIZHENGZHIHUA, AOSIMANDIGUOSHIXINGDESHIJIANJIETONGZHI, DIFANGSHOULINGWANGWANGYESHIZONGJIAOLINGXIU, XIANGYOULINGDAOQUAN, SUOYIBULUO、JIECENG、DIYUZHEIXIEYINSUWANGWANGHEJIAOPAIYIYANGZHONGYAO。21JISHI1860NIANAOSIMANDIGUOZAIDAMASHIGEBAOFADEFANJIDUTUDEJIAOPAICHOUSHAYEBUWANQUANCHUYUGUDAIJIAOPAIJIANDECHOUHEN, ERGENGDUOSHIXUNNIPAIMUSILINJIAOSIMANTONGZHIDANGJUDUIJIDUTUSHANGYECHENGGONGYIJISHOUXIFANGBIHUBUMANDAOZHIDE。22

                              DIER, FAGUO“FENERZHIZHI”DEWEIRENTONGZHIZHENGCE。WEILEFENHUAYIXUNNIPAIMUSILINWEIZHUDEFANFASHILI, FAGUOWEIRENTONGZHIDANGJUZAIXULIYAGUANGFANGULIBINGKUODAJIAOPAIZHIJIANDECHAYI。231920NIANFAGUOWEIRENTONGZHIQUELIHOU, XIANJIANGYUAN (DA) XULIYADIQUHUAFENWEILIBANEN (1920NIAN8YUE) 、“ALAWEIPAIGUO” (1920NIAN8YUE) 、DAMASHIGEDULIQU (1920NIAN) 、ALEPODULIQU (1920NIAN) 、YALISHANDALETA“ZIZHIQU” (1921NIAN8YUE) 、“JIEBEIERDELUZIGUO” (1922NIAN) LIUGEBUFENJINXINGTONGZHI;HOUYOUJIANGXULIYA (BUHANLIBANEN) HUAFENCHENG“ALAWEIPAIGUO”、XULIYA (DAMASHIGEQUHEALEPOQUDEHEBING) 、YALISHANDALETAZIZHIQU、JIEBEIERDELUZIGUOSIBUFEN, ZHIDAO1936NIAN。ZHEIYANGDEXINGZHENGHUAFENQIANGHUALEXULIYASHAOSHUJIAOPAIDEJIAOPAIRENTONG, TONGSHI, FAGUOWEIRENTONGZHIDANGJUXIANGSHAOSHUJIAOPAIZHENGBINGDEZHENGCEZHIJIEGAIBIANLEYUANLAIXULIYADEJIAOPAIQUANLIJIEGOU, JIAZHONGLEXULIYADE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”。24

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DISAN, XULIYAJIANGUOHOUDEZHENGZHIFAZHANGUIJIYUZHENGFUJIAOPAIZHENGCEDESHIWU。YOUYUFAGUORENDEGUODUZHENGBING, XUNNIPAIDUIJUNSHISHIYEDEMIESHI, YIJICANJUNNENGJIJIAOPINQIONGDESHAOSHUJIAOPAITIGONGJINBUDEJIHUI, SHAOSHUJIAOPAIQUNTIZAIJUNDUIZHONGDEBILIYICHANGGAO。ZHEIZHISHISHAOSHUJIAOPAIZAICIHOUGEZHONGJUNSHIZHENGBIANZHONGBANYANZHEZHUYAOJIAOSE, LIRU, ALAWEIPAIJUNGUANZAI1963NIAN、1966NIANHE1970NIANDEZHENGBIANZHONGJUNZHANZHUDAODIWEI。1970NIAN, SHUYUALAWEIPAIDELAOASADEDESHANGTAICHEDIGAIBIANLEXULIYADEZHENGZHIFAZHANGUIJI。ZAIMINZUGUOJIARENTONGGOUJIANDEBIAOMIANXIA, JIAOPAI、BULUOHEDIQUDERENTONGHAIZAIJIXU。ERFUXINGDANGZHENGFUYIXIEJIAOPAIZHENGCE, BIRULAOASADEZHENGFU、DUIMUSILINXIONGDIHUIDEZHENYA, YIJIBASHAERYIDUSHIFANGDALIANGMUSILINXIONGDIHUICHENGYUANDENGJUCUODOUYIDINGCHENGDUMAIXIALECUISHENGXIANDAI“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEHUODUAN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DIERGEWENTIJI“‘JIAOPAIZHUYI’ZENYANGBEIDONGYUANQILAI”GENGJIAYINRENGUANZHU。XIAOJIDE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”QINGXUBULUNSHIZAIXULIYAHAISHIZHONGDONGYIZHIDOUBUHANJIAN, ER“JIAOPAIZHUYI”QINGXUHUOJIAOPAIRENTONGZAIXULIYAWEIJIZHONGYINHEZHENGZHIHUAHEBEIDONGYUANQILAIYOUWEIYINRENZHUMU。AILIKE·KAOFUMANDUIJIAOPAIZHANZHENGDEFENXIYOUZHUYUWOMENDUIZHEIYIWENTIDELIJIE。KAOFUMANRENWEI, DUOJIAOPAIDEGUOJIAZHONGBENSHENJUYOUGEJIAOPAIGONGCUNDEZIRANZHIXU, ZHIYOUZHANGQIHEDUANQIYINSUDEJIEHECAIHUIDAPOZHEIYIJUMIAN, SHIZHIFAZHANWEIBAOLICHONGTU。SHOUXIAN, GEJIAOPAITONGCHANGJUYOUJIGESHIJICUNZAIDELISHI, QIEXIANGHUJIANYOUGULAODECHOUHENHEBUXINRENGAN;QICI, JIAOPAIJIANCUNZAIJINGJIJINGZHENG, QIECHUYU“WAIWEI”DEJIAOPAIZHENGZAICONGSHILIXIAJIANGDE“HEXIN”JIAOPAISHENSHANGQUDEWUZHILIYI;ZAICI, “YOUCAOZONGLIDEJINGYING”WEISHIXIANZIJIGENGDABAOFUERCUJINHEFAZHANMOUYIJIAOPAI。DANGRAN, JINGYINGMENYEBIXUZAIDUANQINEIYOUJINXING“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DONGYUANDEJIHUI——ZHONGDADEZHENGZHIHUOJIEGOUXINGBIANGE;ZUIHOU, JIAOPAICHENGYUANBIXUYOUZHENZHENGDEDUIBENJIAOPAIQUNTIMIEJUEDEKONGJU, SUIZHIYINFAGAIQUNTIWEILEANQUANKAOLVERYUANYIZHICHIHUOZHISHAOBUFANDUIJITISHIYONGBAOLIFANKANG。25XULIYA“JIAOPAIZHUYI”BEIDONGYUANDEQINGKUANGJIBENFUHEKAOFUMANDEFENXIYUANSU, DANYOUJUYOUZISHENTEDIAN。BENWENJIANGZHEIXIEYUANSUFENWEIZHANGQIYINSU、DUANQIYINSU、DAOHUOSUOSANLEI, JUTIRUXIA:

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DIYI, CONGZHANGQIYINSULAIKAN, XULIYAGEJIAOPAIJIANZIGUBIANCUNZAIMAODUNYUCHOUHEN, DAN“YOUCAOZONGLIDEJINGYING”DEXINGWEIQUESHIJIHUA“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEZUIZHONGYAOYUANYIN。HADADERENWEIJINGYINGZHENGCEZHINENGFANYINGHUOJIAJUSHEHUIZHONGXIANYOUDEJIAOPAIJIANDEJINZHANGGUANXI, 26ERBENWENRENWEIXIANDAIDEJIAOPAICHONGTUBUNENGWANQUANGUIYINYUGUDAIDECHOUHEN, JINGYINGDECANYUBENJIUSHIZHANGQIYINSUZHONGDEZHONGYAOBUFEN。QIZHONG, SANZHONG“YOUCAOZONGLIDEJINGYING”DUIXULIYA“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DONGYUANYINGXIANGZHONGDA:DIYIZHONG, TONGZHIZHENGQUANZHONGDEJINGYING。WULUNSHIAOSIMANDIGUO、FAGUOWEIRENTONGZHIZHENGQUAN、XULIYAJIANGUOHOUDELIRENZHENGFUZHONGDEJINGYING, DOUCENGWEILEHUODEDUANQIZHENGZHILIYIERJIANGCIMINZURENTONGZHENGZHIHUALE。DIERZHONG, DIFANGJINGYING。20SHIJI20NIANDAI, DAPIJIAOPAI (YOUQISHISHAOSHUJIAOPAI) LINGXIUWEILEJIAQIANGZIJIDEQUANLIERYONGHUFAGUOWEIRENTONGZHIDANGJUJIANGJIAOPAIRENTONGZHENGZHIHUADEZHENGCE;20SHIJI70NIANDAI, MUSILINXIONGDIHUIZAIYULAOASADEDEDOUZHENGZHONGJIANGXUNNIPAIDEJIAOPAIRENTONGZHENGZHIHUA;RUJINXULIYAWEIJIZHONGYOUCHUXIANLEXUDUOSHAOSHUJIAOPAIDELINGXIU。DISANZHONG, GUOJIJINGYING。WULUNSHI20SHIJI70NIANDAIDEAIJI、YUEDAN, HAISHIJINTIANSHITUYINGXIANGXULIYAJUSHIDEMEIGUO、SHATEALABO、KATAER、TUERQI, HUOSHIFEIGUOJIADEGUOJIXINGDONGZHE, RUMEITIHUOSHENGZHANFENZI, DOUHUODUOHUOSHAOCHUYUZIJIDEMUDEERJIANGXULIYADEJIAOPAIMAODUNZHENGZHIHUALE, BINGCONGRENMINDICENGQIANGHUALEZHEIZHONGZHENGZHIHUALEDEJIAOPAIRENTONG。

                              DIER, CONGDUANQIYINSULAIKAN, XULIYAWEIJIBENSHENBIANSHIJIHUAJIDONGYUAN“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEDUANQIYINSU, DANXULIYARENBINGMEIYOUYINCISANGSHIDUIMINZUGUOJIADERENTONG。RUQIANWENSUOSHU, XULIYAWEIJIQUESHIZAIDUOFANGDEJIERU、SHANDONGXIACHENGLEDUANQINEIDONGYUAN“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DE“LIANGJI”;DANZHIDEZHUYIDESHI, JIBIANSHIYOU“JIAOPAIZHUYI”QINGXUQUDONGDEBUFENXULIYAFANDUIPAI, RENGCHANGCHANGSHIYONGJUYOUBAORONGXINGDE“GUOJIAZHUYI”HUAYUJINXINGZHENGZHIDONGYUAN。ZAIZHENGZHILINGYU, JINXING“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DONGYUANDEJIHUIBUSHIGUOJIADEBENGKUI, ERSHIZHENGQUANGENGDIEDEWEIXIE。ZAIXULIYA, “JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEDONGYUANYUZAIYILAKE、LIBANENBUTONG, YINWEIRENMENMEIYOUKANDAOZHENGQUANDECHEDIKUATAI。SHENZHIZAIMOUXIEDIQU, JISHICHUXIANLEZHENGQUANDEBENGKUI, YERENGRANCUNZAIDUI“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEPAICHI。ZHEISHUOMING, XULIYACUNZAIDUOZHONGRENTONG, “JIAOPAIZHUYI”RENTONGBINGBUZHANZHUDAODIWEI。

                              DISAN, ZUOWEI“DAOHUOSUO”, DUIBENJIAOPAIQUNTIKENENGMIEJUEDEKONGJU, JIANGZHANGQIYINSUYUDUANQIYINSUJIEHE, JINYIBUDONGYUANLEXULIYADE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”。BULUNSHIALAWEIPAIZAILISHISHANGBEIXUNNIPAIZHENGFUPOHAIDEJINGLI, HAISHI1860NIANXUNNIPAIMUSILINDUIJIDUTUDEDATUSHA, XULIYASHAOSHUJIAOPAICHENGYUANDOUBUHUIWANGJI。ZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGLISHIJIYIYIJIDANXINBEIJITIMIEJUEDEKONGJUXINLI, JIYIBEIZHENGZHIJINGYINGLIYONG, SHIZHICHENGWEIJIANGDONGYUAN“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEZHANGQIYINSUYUDUANQIYINSULIANHEQILAIDESHENGSUO。ZHEIZHUYAOTIXIANZAILIANGFANGMIAN:YIFANGMIAN, BASHAERZHENGFUZAIXULIYAWEIJIZHICHULIYONGLEZHEIZHONGKONGJUXINLI, LITUJIANGSUOYOUFANDUIPAIGUANYI“JIAOPAIZHUYI”ZHEDETOUXIANYUYIDAJI。WEIJIYIKAISHI, ZHENGFUBIANDUIWENHEDEFANDUIPAIJINXINGBAOLIZHENYA, BINGZAIGUANFANGMEITISHANGJIANGFANDUIPAIDINGYIWEIYISILAN“JIAOPAIZHUYI”ZHE, JINERJIQIKAOFUMANFENXIDESHAOSHUJIAOPAICHENGYUANDEANQUANKUNJINGJIDUIZHONGZUMIEJUEDEKONGHUANG, ZHENGQUFEIXUNNIPAIFANDUIZHEDUIZHENGFUDEZHICHI。ZHENGFUZHEIZHONGYULUNXUANCHUANZAINUSILAZHENXIANHE“YISILANGUO”CHUXIANHOUGENGJIAQIANGLIELE。LINGYIFANGMIAN, DANG2012NIANFANDUIPAIZHANLINGDALIANGLINGTUHOU, “JIAOPAIZHUYI”JIQIFUHAOZAIXULIYAWEIJIZHONGXUNSUZENGJIA。MIANDUIRIYISHENGWENDEWEIJI, XULIYAZHENGFUJIESHOULEJUYOU“JIAOPAIZHUYI”BIAOQIANDE“ZHENZHUDANG”HEYILANGSHENYEPAIMINBINGDEBANGZHU, ZHONGZUGUOFANGJUN (NDF) 。ZHEIZHIJUNDUIGUANFANGSHANGSHISHISUJUNDUI, DANZHENGFUGULIQICHENGLILEYOUDIFANGJIAOPAIYOUQISHIALAWEIPAI、DELUZIPAI、JIDUTUZHUDAODEDIFANGXIASHUDANWEI。ZAIGUOFANGJUNZHIWAI, GENGJUJIAOPAIRENTONGDEZHICHIZHENGQUANDEMINBINGYELUXUCHUXIAN, LIRUDELUZIJIASHENMUWAXIWA (Jaysh al-Muwahhideen, Army of Monotheists, YIWEI“YISHENLUNZHEJUNDUI”) 27HEALAWEIMUKAWAMAASA (al-Muqāwama as-Sūrīya, The Syrian Resistance, YIWEI“XULIYADIKANGYUNDONG”) 28。TONGSHI, XIANQIANSHOUDAOYIZHIDE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”FUHAOJIZENG。MINBINGDEXUANCHUANHEDAMASHIGEDESHICHANGSHANGCHUXIANLEDELUZIDEWUSEXINGHESHENYEPAIDEZUERFEIKA (Zulfiqar) JIANDENGBIAOZHI, 29ZHEIZAIYIQIANSHAOSHUJIAOPAIMEIYOUANQUANKONGJUZHIQIANJUEBUKENENGFASHENG。JIBIANRUCI, ZHEIXIE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”FUHAOYEZONGSHIYU“GUOJIAZHUYI”FUHAOYIQICHUXIAN。ZHEIYOUYICISHUOMING, “JIAOPAIZHUYI”YUANBUSHIXULIYAWEIJIWEIYIDEQUDONGYINSU。

                              三、“教派主义”与叙利亚民族认同

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU, XULIYAWEIJISUIBUSHIJIAOPAICHONGTU, DANRENGCHONGCHIZHE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”YUANSU。YINCI, “JIAOPAIZHUYI”YEJIANGZAIXULIYAWEILAIZHONGJIANZHONGJIXUBANYANZHONGYAOJIAOSE, WEIXULIYAZHENGFU、JINGJI、ANQUAN、WENHUADENGDUOFANGMIANDEZHONGJIANTICHUTIAOZHAN。ERSUOYOUZHEIXIETIAOZHANQISHIZUIZHONGDOUYUANYUDUIXULIYAMINZURENTONGDETIAOZHAN, HUANJUHUASHUO, ZAIXULIYAZHONGJIANZHONGZUIJISHOUDEJIANGSHISHOU“JIAOPAIZHUYI”YINGXIANGDEXULIYAMINZURENTONGDEZHONGJIAN。

                              BENWENRENWEI, XULIYASUIYINWEIJIERSHIQIGUOJIA、RENMINSHOUDAOZHONGCHUANG, SHI“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEDAOYIDINGCHENGDUDE“FUXING”, DANXULIYAMINZURENTONGRENGRANCUNZAI, QIGUOMINNAIZHINANMINRENGYANBITIQI“GUOJIA”。DANYOUYUXULIYADE“GUOJIAZHUYI”ZICHANSHENGZHICHUJIUYU“JIAOPAIZHUYI”YOUQIANSIWANLVDELIANXI, BULUNSHI“DAXULIYAZHUYI”ZHEIYI“ALABOMINZUZHUYI”XIANSHENGDEDANSHENG, 30HUOSHIMINZUZHUYIZHEZAIFAGUOWEIRENTONGZHIXIAZHUJIANGOUJIANCHUDEXULIYAGUOJIADECHUXING, HAISHIXULIYAGUOJIADULIHOUDEZHENGZHIFAZHANDOUJUYOU“JIAOPAIZHUYI”DEYINGZI。1970NIAN, ALAWEIPAICHUSHENDEHAFEIZI·ASADETONGGUOZHENGBIANSHANGTAI, SHIGUOJIAZHUYIYU“JIAOPAIZHUYI”ZHIJIANDEFUZAGUANXIDADAOQIANSUOWEIYOUDEGAODU。YINCI, BENWENXUANZEHAFEIZI·ASADEHEBASHAER·ASADETONGZHISHIQIXULIYA“JIAOPAIZHUYI”YUMINZURENTONGDEGUANXILAIDUIERZHEGUANXIJINXINGCHANSHI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   HAFEIZI·ASADESHIQI, XULIYA“JIAOPAIZHUYI”YUMINZURENTONGDEGUANXIRUXIA:

                              DIYI, ZHENGFUSHIYONGSHISUDE“ALABOFUXINGSHEHUIZHUYI”SIXIANGGOUJIAN“ALABO”XULIYAMINZURENTONG, YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYIZHILE“JIAOPAIZHUYI”。SHOUXIAN, ZHENGFUJIANGSUOYOUXULIYARENBULUNJIAOPAIDINGYIWEI“ALABOXULIYAREN”, 31BINGTONGGUOJIANDINGDEFANYISELIELICHANG、DUILIBANENDE“TESHUGUANXI”DENGWAIJIAOZHENGCELAIQIANGHUAZHEIZHONGRENTONG。QICI, LALONGXUNNIPAIMUSILINCANYUZHENGFUGUANLI, RU1984NIANSHANGRENDEFUZONGTONGMUSITAFA·TALASI (Mustafa Tlass) , BINGSHIFANGDALIANGXUNNIPAIZHENGZHIFAN。32ZAICI, JIAQIANGMINZUJIAOYU、WENHUAYISHU、LISHI、TIYUDENGDUOFANGMIANJIANSHE, 33SHENZHIDAGAOGERENCHONGBAI, YICIQIANGHUAXULIYAMINZURENTONG。

                              DIER, ZONGJIAOSHANGHONGYANGXUNNIPAIYISILANJIAO, SHIJITISHENGLEALAWEIPAIDEZONGHESHILI, ZHISHI“JIAOPAIZHUYI”ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYOUSUOHUICHAO。YIFANGMIAN, LAOASADEZHENGFUZAITUIXINGSHISUHUADEMINZURENTONGGOUJIANDETONGSHI, YELIYONGZONGJIAORENTONGGONGGUQIZHENGFUDEHEFAXING。YUSADAMUZHIZHENGHOUZAISHENYEPAIZHANDUOSHUDEYILAKEDALIHONGYANGXUNNIPAIYISILANJIAOBUTONG, LAOASADEBUJINMEIYOUKEYITUICHONGYISILANJIAOSHENYEPAIJIAOYIJIWENHUA, FANERJIANGXUNNIPAIYISILANJIAOJIQIWENHUAFANGZAIYOUXIANDIWEI, XUEXIAOZHONGJIAOSHOUDEYISILANJIAOZHISHIDOUSHIXUNNIPAIYISILANJIAOZHISHI。34TONGSHI, HAFEIZI·ASADENULIDANHUAZIJIALAWEIPAIDEJIAOPAISHENFEN。ZAISHITUQUXIAO1973NIANXIANFADISANTIAO“ZONGTONGBIXUSHIMUSILIN”WEICHENGGONGHOU, LAOASADESHUOFULIBANENSHENYEPAILINGDAORENMUSA·SADEER (Musa al-Sadr) XUANBUALAWEIPAIWEISHENYEPAIZHONGDE12YIMAMUPAI, 35CONGERSHIASADEFUHECHENGWEIXULIYAZONGTONGDETIAOJIAN。36LINGYIFANGMIAN, ALAWEIPAIZONGHESHILIBUDUANTIGAO, YINQIXUNNIPAIDEBUMAN。LAOASADETONGZHISHIQI, BUJINALAWEIPAIZAIJUNDUI、FUXINGDANG、ZHENGFUBUMENZHONGZHANJUEDUIYOUSHI, 37ZHENGFUHAIJIJIXINADELUZIPAIDENGSHAOSHUJIAOPAICHENGYUAN, 38ZHEIYINQIXUNNIPAIMUSILINJIDABUMAN。JIBIANZAISHISUHUATUIXINGZUIGUANGFANDEJIAOYULINGYU, ALAWEIPAIYESHIZUIDASHOUYIZHE。YUANLAIZAIXULIYAWENMANGLVZUIGAODEALAWEIPAICHENGYUANDEDAOZHENGFUYUNXUCHENGPIQIANJUDAODACHENGSHI, XINGCHENGDAPIXINDEFUYOUJIECENGHESHOUGUOLIANGHAOJIAOYUDEZAIZHENGFUBUMENGONGZUODEZHONGCHANJIECENG。YINCI, YOUXUNNIPAIMUSILINZUCHENGDE“MUSILINXIONGDIHUI”KAISHIFANDUIASADEDESHISUHUAZHENGCE, ZHIZEQIWEI“FEIMUSILIN”。

                              ZAIZHEILI, ZHIDEZHUYIDESHIKUERDERENWENTI, SUIRANKUERDERENBUSHUYUBENWENTAOLUNDE“JIAOPAI”FANCHOU, 39DANZUOWEIZHONGDONGKUAJIEMINZUYIJIZAIXULIYAWEIJIZHONGFAHUIZHONGYAOZUOYONGDESHAOSHUZUQUNFEICHANGZHIDEGUANZHU。KUERDERENSUIRANZAIZONGJIAOSHANGDADUOXINYANGXUNNIPAIYISILANJIAO, DANCONGZUQUNSHANGLAISHUOSHUYUSHAOSHUZUQUN。ZAISHAOSHUJIAOPAICHENGYUANSHOUYIYULAOASADEZHENGFU, SHENZHIDELUZIREN、BEIDOUYINRENDOUBEIYUNXUBAOLIULEZIJIDECHUANTONGFATING40DETONGSHI, KUERDERENZHEIZHIZHANSHAOSHUDEFEIALABORENJIAOPAI (ZUQUN) QUESHOUDAOZHONGZHONGYAZHI。ZAI“ALABOFUXINGSHEHUIZHUYI”YISHIXINGTAIDETUIXINGXIA, “FEIALABO”DEZUQUNRENTONGBEIQIANGXINGJINZHI, KUERDERENDEWENHUABEISHIWEI“FEIFA”, BUYUNXUKUERDERENYONGKUERDEYUJIAOXUE, HUOMINGMINGERTONG、CUNZHUANG、JIEDAODENG, GENGBUYUNXUGUOKUERDERENCHUANTONGJIERI。41ZHEIXIEZHENGCEJIHUALEKUERDERENYUZHENGFUDEMAODUN, SHIQI“ZUQUNRENTONG”SHANGSHENG, ZUIZHONGZAIXULIYAWEIJIZHONGKAISHISUQIUZIJIDEZUQUNLIYI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   BASHAER·ASADESHIQI, XULIYA“JIAOPAIZHUYI”YUMINZURENTONGDEGUANXIRUXIA:

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                              注释

                              1 林涵:《巴沙尔当面感谢普京:多亏俄罗斯, 拯救了叙利亚》, 《环球时报》2017年11月22日。。
                              2 F.Haddad, Sectarianism in Iraq:Antagonistic Visions of Unity, New York:Columbia University Press, 2011, p.31.
                              3 .
                              4 I.Rabinovcih, “The End of Sykes-Picot?Reflections on the Prospects of the Arab State System”, Brookings, Middle East Memo, February 2014.http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2014/02/sykes%20picot%20rabinovich/sykes_picot_rabinovich.pdf.
                              5 Rustum Mahmoud & Stephan Rosiny, “Opposition visions for preserving Syria’s ethnic-sectarian mosaic”, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, October 2016, pp.1-20.
                              6 F.Haddad, Sectarianism in Iraq:Antagonistic Visions of Unity, New York:Columbia University Press, 2011, p.37.
                              7 S.Ismail, “The Syrian Uprising:Imagining and Performing the Nation”, Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 11, no.3 (2011) :pp.358-549.
                              8 Syrian National Council, “Political Program for the Syrian National Council”, 20 November 2011, .
                              9 Ibid.
                              10 S.Starr, Revolt in Syria:Eye-witness to the Uprising, New York:Columbia University Press, 2012, p.120.
                              11 D.Chatty, “Syria’s Bedouin enter the Fray:How Tribes could keep Syria Together”, Foreign Affairs, November 13, 2013, .
                              12 A.Tabler, In the Lion’s Den:An Eyewitness Account of Washington’s Battle with Syria, Chicago, IL:Lawrence Hill Books, 2011, p.233.
                              13 S.Ismail, “The Syrian Uprising:Imagining and Performing the Nation”, Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 11, no.3 (2011) , pp.358-549.
                              14 R.Fisk, “We will never Cease our Struggle until we Bring Down Assad”, Independent, 2 May 2011, .
                              15 Christopher Phillips, “Sectarianism and conflict in Syria”, Third World Quarterly, Vol.36, No.2, 2015, pp.357-376.
                              16 F.Halliday, Nation and Religion in the Middle East, London:Saqi books, 2000, pp.23-37.
                              17 F.Haddad, Sectarianism in Iraq:Antagonistic Visions of Unity, New York:Columbia University Press, 2011, pp.17-20.
                              18 P.Droz-Vincent, “State of Barbary (Take Two) :From the Arab Spring to the Return of Violence in Syria”, Middle East Journal, 68, no.1 (2014) :33-58.p.40.
                              19 G.Abdo, “The New Sectarianism:The Arab Uprisings and the Rebirth of the Shia-Sunni Divide”, Brookings, SD:Saban Center for Middle East Policy Paper, April 10, 2013, p.2.
                              20 H.Batatu, Syria’s Peasantry, the Descendants of its Lesser Rural Notables, and their Politics, Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press, 1999, p.17.
                              21 H.Batatu, Syria’s Peasantry, the Descendants of its Lesser Rural Notables, and their Politics, Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press, 1999, p.12.
                              22 B.Masters, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab World:The Roots of Sectarianism, Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2004, p.8.
                              23 B.T.White, The Emergence of Minorities in the Middle East:The Politics of Community in French Mandate Syria, Edinburgh:Edinburgh University Press, 2011, p.44.
                              24 王霏:《试论叙利亚的族群、教派与地域忠诚问题》, 《阿拉伯世界研究》2016年第1期, 第33页。
                              25 S.J.Kaufman, Modern Hatreds:The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, New York:Cornell University Press, 2001, pp.3-12.
                              26 F.Haddad, Sectarianism in Iraq:Antagonistic Visions of Unity, New York:Columbia University Press, 2011, pp.17-20.
                              27 A.J.al-Tamimi, “The Druze Militias of Southern Syria”, Syria Comment, November 13.2013, hualandis.com/blog/druze-militias-southern-syria/.
                              28 A.J.al-Tamimi, “A Case Study of ‘The Syrian Resistance’, A Pro-Assad Militia Force”, Syria Comment, September 22, 2013, files-the-syrian-resistance-a-pro-assad-militia-force/.
                              29 O.A.Rifai, “The War of Identities amidst the Syrian Uprising:The Continual Reproduction of Sub-state Identities and the Quest to Reconstruct Syrian National Identity”, MPhil diss., University of St.Andrews, June 2014.http://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/handle/10023/6353
                              30 王霏:《从宗教社团认同看19世纪“大叙利亚认同”的起源》, 《世界宗教文化》2016年第6期, 第13-21页。
                              31 Eberhard Kienle, “Arab Unity Schemes Revisited:Interest, Identity and Policy in Syria and Egypt”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol.27, No.1, 1995, pp.53-67.
                              32 Oded Haklai, “A Minority Rule over a Hostile Majority:The Case of Syria”, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Vol.6, No.3, Autumn 2000, pp.19-50.
                              33 详见王霏、张丹:《阿萨德统治时期叙利亚阿拉维派的认同困境》, 《世界宗教文化》2017年第1期, 第24页。
                              34 J.Landis, “Islamic Education in Syria:Undoing Secularism”, Paper presented at “Constructs of Inclusion and Exclusion:Religion and Identity Formation in Middle Eastern School Curricula, ” Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University, 2003.http://www.ou.edu/content/dam/International/IPHome/Bios/landisdoc/IslamicEduinSyria.pdf.
                              35 Christopher Phillips, “Sectarianism and conflict in Syria”, Third World Quarterly, Vol.36, No.2, 2015, pp.357-376.
                              36 在叙利亚历史中, 阿拉维派长期不被伊斯兰教认可, 逊尼派甚至什叶派也将其视为异端。详见王霏:《“法特瓦”与阿拉维派被承认的历史》, 《世界宗教研究》2012年第6期。
                              37 详见王霏、张丹:《阿萨德统治时期叙利亚阿拉维派的认同困境》, 《世界宗教文化》2017年第1期, 第25页。
                              38 Derek Hopwood, Syria:1945-1986:Politics and Society, London:Unwin Hayman, 1988, p.93.
                              39 西方的“教派主义”一词Sectarianism往往涵盖库尔德人这一“族群”。
                              40 Christopher Phillips, “Sectarianism and conflict in Syria”, Third World Quarterly, Vol.36, No.2, 2015, pp.357-376.
                              41 K.Yildiz, The Kurds in Syria:The Forgotten People, London:Pluto Press, 2005, pp.91-93.
                              42 Damascus Declaration (English) , The Damascus Declaration for Democratic National Change, 16 October, 2005, krH5.
                              43 R.Hinnebusch, “Syria:From ‘Authoritarian Upgrading’ to Revolution?”, International Affairs, 88, no.1 (2012) :95-113.
                              44 S.Ismail, “Changing Social Structure, Shifting Alliances and Authoritarianism in Syria”, edited by F.Lawson, Demystifying Syria, London:Saqi, 2009, pp.13-28.
                              45 S.Azmeh, “The Uprising of the Marginalised:A Socio-economic Perspective of the Syrian Uprising”, LSE Middle East Centre Paper Series, London:LSE, November 6, 2014.http://www.lse.ac.uk/middleEastCentre/Events/events2014/SA-13-10-14.aspx.
                              46 F.De Chatel, “The Role of Drought and Climate Change in the Syrian Uprising:Untangling the Triggers of the Revolution”, Middle Eastern Studies, 50, no.4 (2014) :521-535.
                              47 R.Hinnebusch, “Syria:From ‘Authoritarian Upgrading’ to Revolution?”, International Affairs, 88, no.1 (2012) :95-113.
                              48 《沙特称叙利亚未来不应有巴沙尔:过渡阶段也不行》, 《参考消息》2017年8月16日, 。

                              王霏.“教派主义”与叙利亚重建[J].世界宗教研究,2019(04):162-170.
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