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                        公司章程自治的主要优势与局限性

                        时间:2019-03-18 来源:法制博览 作者:江莉 本文字数:3219字

                          摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 公司章程是由公司依法自行制定的,国家不加干预,是一种作用于公司的行为规范,不同的公司所制定章程都会有所不同,这也就体现了公司的自治性,同时也体现了公司自由经营的精神。公司法能作为大致纲领来强制规定公司的合法性,但依然需要各公司制定公司章程来保障公司的具体运营,公司章程能弥补公司法的不足,能指导公司的稳步发展。

                          关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 公司法; 公司章程自治; 公司自治;

                        星云棋牌官网下载   GONGSIDEZHANGCHENGSHIJISHANGJIUSHIGONGSIDEZIZHIGUIFANWENJIAN,SHIYIGEGONGSIZUIWEIJIBENDEXINGWEIZHUNZE。YIBANGONGSIZHANGCHENGDOUSHIZUNXUNGONGSIGUDONGDEYISHIERJUECEZHIDINGDE,FANYINGLEGONGSILIDADUOSHUCHENGYUANDEYISIYUJUECE,GONGSIDEZHANGCHENGSHIYIGEGONGSIGUDONGZHIJIANDEGONGTONGGANGLING,DUIYUGONGSIERYAN,GONGSIXIANGYAOSHIXIANZIZHIDEJIBENZHUNZEJIUSHIYIJUGONGSIZHANGCHENG。GONGSIZHANGCHENGYOUBUZHISHIYIGEGONGSIDEGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,GENGSHIYIGEGONGSIDEZIZHIFAGUI。GONGSIZHANGCHENGSHIKEYIBIANGENGHEBUCHONGDE,GONGSIDEGUDONGKEYITONGGUOJUEDINGHUIYILAIZHIDINGHEBIANGENGZHANGCHENG,SHIQIJUYOUSHIJIANYIYI,SHIYINGZISHENSHIJIDEFAZHANXUYAO。ZONGERYANZHI,GONGSIZIZHIXUYAOYIZUNXUN《GONGSIFA》WEIQIANTI。

                          一、公司自治原则在公司法中的体现

                        星云棋牌官网下载   《GONGSIFA》ZHONGZHUYAOTIXIANGONGSIZIZHIYUANZEDEDIANZAIYULIANGGEFANGMIAN:YIFANGMIAN,CHUZIRENNENGGOUZIZHIJUECE,CHUZIDEGUDONGKEYIYITONGSHANGYIJUEDINGGONGSIDEZHONGDAJUECE,TONGSHIKEYIXUANRENGONGSIDEGUANLICENG,QIECHUZIRENZIXINGDUIZIJIDETOUZIYUXINGWEIFUZE,GUANLIRENYUAN(FEICHUZIREN)ZEZHINENGYIJUCHUZIRENDEYISHIGUANLI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,GONGSIGENJUZISHENDESHIJIQINGKUANGSHIXIANZIZHUSHENGCHAN、ZIZHUJINGYING、ZIFUYINGKUI,ZHISHIGONGSIDEHUODONGXUYAOSHIHEFADE,GONGSIZIXINGDUIGONGSIDEYUNZUOXINGWEIFUZE。DANGRAN,GONGSIZIZHIYUANZEYETIXIANZAIGONGSIYAOZUNSHOUSHICHANGGUIZE,BUNENGWEIHUOQULIYIBUZESHOUDUAN,ZAISHICHANGZHONGGONGPINGJINGZHENG,YEKETIXIANZAIGONGSIDEZIWOYUNZUO、ZIWOJIANDUDENGFANGMIAN。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIYIGEGONGSIDESHIJIYUNZUOZHONG,SHIBUXUYAOWAIBUQUANLIDEGUODUJIERUDE,SUOYIWEILEFANGZHIGUOJIAQUANLIGUODUJIERUGONGSIDEYUNXINGZHONG,ZIZHIYUANZESHIGONGSIFADEYIXIANGJIBENYUANZE。DANSHI,GONGSIZAISHIJIYUNZUOGUOCHENGZHONG,SHIBIJIAOFANZADE,SUOYIGONGSIZIZHIYEHUIXIANLUCHUDUOZHONGBIDUAN,ZHEISHIJIUXUYAOSHICHANGDEGANYU,HUOZHEGUOJIADEJIERU。SUOYICAIYONGGONGSIFARENRENGEFOURENZHIDUYESHIHENYOUBIYAODE。

                          二、公司章程的自治性

                          公司章程是由公司依法进行制定的,国家不加干预,是一种作用于公司的行为规范。虽然公司法对公司的行为准则有一些规定,且较为完整,但只能对公司运行时出现的普遍问题发挥作用,而一个公司的具体运作实际过程中,出现的问题较为复杂,每个公司的成立背景、经营范围、出资结构、管理构架都有所不同,这些不同导致公司实际运作中需要的行为准则都有所不同,面对问题不可能都进行统一的规定,此时,各公司自行制定的章程就能发挥实际作用,弥补公司法的不足,公司法只能作为大致纲领来强制规定公司的合法性,但具体的运作经营,还需要公司章程来指导公司的稳健发展。由公司出资人来共同制定公司章程,管理约束公司的管理层,使公司章程成为公司内部规范行为的准则。公司章程是一种由公司自行制定执行的行为规范,是在法律之外的不由国家强制实施的行为规范。若公司内部有人员违反公司章程,但是又没有违反,这样的行为由公司自行商定惩处,不由国家出面管理,所以公司章程的效力只作用于公司,对第三人发挥不了作用,章程制定规则,同时制定惩处制度,规定内部人员的责任与义务,在公司运作经营的过程中发生作用,是公司发展的保障。公司章程有其多样性,每个公司的成立背景、经营范围、出资结构、管理构架都有所不同,公司章程是股东的意志体现,维护股东的利益,所以,公司章程的多样性也是其自治性特征的表现。因此,不同的公司所制定章程都会有各自的不同之处,这也就体现了公司的自治性,同时也体现了公司自由经营的精神。
                         

                        公司章程自治的主要优势与局限性
                         

                          三、公司章程自治的主要优势

                          (一)有利于维护公司股东的合法利益。

                          GONGSIZHONGGUFENGAODUFENSANHESHEHUIHUA,SHIWOGUODABUFENGUFENYOUXIANGONGSIZAIXIANJIEDUANDEYUNYINGSHIJIQINGKUANG,DAGUDONGHUIZHANGWOZHEGENGDUODEHUAYUQUANYUJUECEQUAN。XIAOGUDONGMENZEYINWEITOUZISHAO,BUCANYUGONGSIYUNZUO,QIEBUGUANXINGONGSISHIWU,YINWEIGUPIAODEJIAZHICAISHIYUXIAOGUDONGMENZISHENLIYIXIANGGUANDE,YINCI,GONGSIZIZHIBENSHIYIGUDONGZIZHIWEIJICHU,BUGUOYEKELIJIECHENGSHIYIZIBENWEIJICHU。HENMINGXIAN,YOUDAGUDONGLAIKONGZHIGONGSISHIJUYOUYIDINGDEHELIXINGDE,CHUZIDUODEGUDONGCHENGDANDEZERENHEFENGXIANYEDUO,DANZHEIYANGDEZUOFAYECUNZAIBUKEHUSHIDEBIDUAN,JIUSHIGONGSIGUANLIZHEDEXINGWEIBUKEKONGDESHIHOU,QIZUOCHUDEJUECEKENENGBUSHIWEILEGONGSILIYIHUOZHEQITAGUDONGDELIYI,TAMENKENENGHUIWEILEQIGERENLIYILIYONGKONGZHIQUANLILAISHEQIGONGSIDELIYI。WEIBIMIANZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGDEFASHENG,GONGSIKEZHIDINGZHANGCHENG,MINGQUEHEGUIDINGGUDONGDEQUANYIHEZEREN,DUISUNHAIGUDONGLIYIHUOZHEGONGSILIYIDEXINGWEIJINXINGCHENGCHU,CONGERJINYIBUBAOZHANGGONGSIGUDONGMENDEHEFAQUANLIYULIYI。

                          (二)有利于实现资本的规范运作。

                          HELI、GAOXIAO、KEXUEDEGONGSIZIBENYUNZUOSHIYIGEGONGSIWENJIANFAZHANDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN,SUOYIGONGSIDUIYUQIZIBENZHIDUDEYOUXIAOGUIDINGYESHIYIGEGONGSIBIBUKESHAODE。ZAISHIJIYUNYONGZHONG,RUOSHIGONGSIDEZHIDUGUIDINGFEICHANGYANKE,TOUZIZHEDEREQINGHUISHOUDAOYINGXIANGHEDAJI,HUIYINGXIANGDAOSHEHUIDELIUDONGZIBEN,HUIYINGXIANGSHICHANGWENJIANFAZHAN。DANSHIGONGSIZAIJINGYINGGUOCHENGZHONG,XUYAOYITAOXINGWEIZHUNZELAIJIANGGONGSIJINGYINGXINGWEIJIAYIGUIFANDE,SUOYI,GONGSIDEZHANGCHENGYIBANSHIZAIGONGSIFADEJICHUSHANG,ZAIJIEHEGONGSIZISHENDESHIJIJINGYINGDEQINGKUANG,LAIDUIYUNZUODEGUIZEJIAYIJUTIHUA、GUIFANHUA,RANGGONGSIDEGUANLIRENYUANZAIGONGSIDESHIJIJINGYINGGUOCHENGZHONGYOUXINGWEIGUIFANZUOWEIZHUNZE,LAIBAOZHENGGONGSIDEJIANKANGYUNZUOYUWENJIANFAZHAN,SHIXIANSHICHANGJINGJILIANGXINGYUNXING。

                          (三)有利于公司治理,建立企业文化。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   GONGSINENGGENJUSHIJIAN,JIEHEGONGSIZAIJINGYINGYUNXINGDESHIJIQINGKUANGLAIZHIDINGZHANGCHENG,SHIGONGSIYUNZUODEGUIFANHEZHIDUGENGKEXUE、GENGHELI。ZHEIYANGKEJIEYUECHENGBENJIESHENGKAIZHI、TIGAOXIAOYI,GENGNENGJINYIBUTIGAOGONGSIDEJINGYINGYUNXINGXIAOLV,CUJINGONGSIDELIANGXINGFAZHAN,WEIGONGSIDEWENJIANFAZHANTIGONGLIANGHAODETIAOJIAN。ZAIGONGSIDEZIZHIGUOCHENGZHONG,GONGSINENGXIUGAIHEWANSHANGONGSIZHANGCHENG,TONGGUOZHIDINGZHANGCHENGLAIJIEJUEGONGSIYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONGDESHIJIWENTI,XIHUAGONGSIFADEGUIDING,MIBUGONGSIFAZAISHIJISHIYONGZHONGDEBUZU,NENGBUDUANDITUIDONGGONGSIZHILIGENGKEXUE、GENGHELI。YIGEGONGSIDEQIYEWENHUASHIGAIGONGSIZAIZHANGQIFAZHANZHONGZHUJIANXINGCHENGDE,SHIGAIQIYEZHANGSHIJIANZAISHEHUIJINGJISHICHANGSHANGJINXINGDESHENGCHANHUODONGHUOZHEJINGYINGHUODONGZHONG,XINGCHENGDEYIXILIEDEJINGYINGZONGZHIYUJIAZHIGUANNIAN,GUANGDAYUANGONGYEHUIZIJUEZUNSHOUGONGSIXINGCHENGDEXINGWEIZHUNZE。GONGSIZHIDINGFUHEZISHENSHIJIQINGKUANGDEYUNZUOGUIZE,YOULIYUGONGSIDEGEXINGHUAFAZHAN,TONGSHIYEHUICHANSHENGGONGSIGEXINGHUADEQIYEWENHUA。QIYEWENHUASHIYIGEGONGSIDEWUXINGCAICHAN,YONGYOULIANGHAODEGEXINGHUADEQIYEWENHUADUIQIYEXINGXIANGDEJIANLIYUSHANGYEXINYUDEWEIHUDOUYOUZHEBUKEHUSHIDEZUOYONG,QIYEWENHUADUIQIYEDEJIANKANGFAZHANYOUZHEBURONGXIAOQUDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

                          四、公司章程自治的局限性

                        星云棋牌官网下载   CONGGONGSIDENEIBUFANGMIANKANLAI,GONGSIYIBANCAIQUDEYISHIYUANZESHI“ZIBENDUOSHUJUE”,XIAOGUDONGDEYIZHIZEHUIBEIYAZHIHUOZHEQUDAI,CONGERDAOZHIBUFENDAGUDONGKEYIZHIPEIZHEZHENGGEGONGSI。ZAIYIBANGONGSIDEYUNZUOGUOCHENGZHONG,SUOYOUQUANHEGUANLIQUANSHIFENLIDE,ZHANGWOGUANLIQUANDEGUANLICENGWANGWANGHUIWEIZISHENLIYIMOUSI,ZAISHISHIGUANLIDEGUOCHENGZHONGWEIBEIGUDONGDEYIZHI。ZAIGONGSIDESHIJINEIBUZUZHIGOUJIANCAOZUOZHONG,GONGSINEIBUZUZHIXINGTAIFUZA,GUANLIRENYUANDEJINGYINGZIZHUQUANYEJIAOWEIFANZA,ZAIGUANLICENGWAIDEGUDONG,YEHENNANHUOQUGONGSINEIBUDESHIJIYUNZUOXINXI,ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,BIANNANYIBAOZHANGZHAIQUANRENDELIYI。

                          CONGGONGSIWAIBUFANGMIANKANLAI,GONGSIZAISHIJIYUNZUOGUOCHENGZHONG,ZAILIYIDEQUDONGXIACUNZAIZHEMANGMUKUOZHANGDEKENENGXING,RUGUOGUANLIRENYUANZAIGUANLIYUNZUOGONGSIDEGUOCHENGZHONG,DIDANGBUZHUWAIJIELIYIDEYOUHUO,ZEHUIYINGXIANGZHENGGESHEHUIJINGJIDEWENDING,RUGUOLONGDUAN、WURAN、BUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGKEYIWEIGONGSIHUANLAILIYIDEHUA,ZEDADUOGONGSIDOUWUFADIKANGZHULIYIDEYOUHUO,CISHIGONGSIZHANGCHENGBIANSHIQIYEDEYIMIAN“FANGHUOQIANG”,YOULEGONGTONGZHIDINGDEQIYEZHANGCHENGZAI,GENGNENGRANGQIYEDIZHIYOUHUO,DIDANGFENGXIAN。

                          五、结语

                          SUIZHE《GONGSIFA》DEBUDUANXIUZHENG,BUDUANGAIJIN,GONGSIZHANGCHENGZIZHIJIANGCHANSHENGJIJIZUOYONG,GENGDUODICUJINGUANGDAQIYEDEJIANKANGFAZHAN。DANGONGSIZHANGCHENGZIZHIYEMIANLINZHEHENDUOSHIJIWENTI,XUYAOBUDUANDIWANSHAN《GONGSIFA》,HAIYAOTIGAOGONGSITOUZIZHEYUGONGSIGUANLIZHEDEFALVYISHI,RANGGONGSIZHANGCHENGNENGCHENGWEIGONGSIZAISHIJIYUNZUOHEJINGYINGHUODONGDEXINGWEIZHUNZE,GENGHAODIFAHUIGONGSIZIZHIDEYOUSHI,SHIXIANGONGSIDEWENJIANLIANGXINGFAZHAN,CONGERGENGHAODECUJINSHEHUIJINGJIDEFAZHAN。

                          参考文献

                          [1]孟超,王兴国.论公司自治的优势和局限性[J].法制与社会,2009(23):275.
                          [2]张景峰,杨金辉.公司法基本原则探析[J].山西高等学校社会科学学报,2002(02):59-61.
                          [3]滕桂艳.公司章程自治的特征分析及面临的挑战[J].全国商情(理论研究),2011(Z4):88-89.

                          江莉.浅析我国公司章程自治[J].法制博览,2020(05):185-186.
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