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                            陆游歌行类乐府的意蕴、特征及创作分期

                            时间:2019-02-22 来源:成都大学学报(社会科学版) 作者:商宇琦 本文字数:11045字

                              摘    要: 歌行类乐府作为宋代成就卓着的一类乐府诗,在文学史上有着重要地位。陆游的歌行类乐府数量居宋人之首,且题材广泛、诗风多变、立意深远,既有鲜明的个性特征,又兼具唐人风神。他的乐府歌行句式错落有致,音韵和谐悦美,善于通过独特的意象表现反映时代精神的政治隐喻、寄托微茫,于沿用、借用乐府旧题之同时赋予其新义,并在各个时期呈现出不尽相同的主题意蕴和艺术风格,是一位名副其实的歌行类乐府创作大家。

                              关键词: 陆游; 歌行类乐府; 乐府诗; 南宋;

                            星云棋牌官网下载   LEFUSHIZUOWEIWOGUOGUDAIYUNWENDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,LIDAIJIAZUODIECHU,ZAIWENXUESHISHANGLIUXIALENONGMOZHONGCAIZHIBI。LEFUSHIZHIFAZHANYIBANYITANGWEIJIE,KEFENWEITANGQIANLEFUSHIJITANGHOULEFUSHI,BUTONGSHIDAIZHILEFU,QIYINLESHUXING、TICAIQUXIANG、YISHUSHOUFA、WENTIDIWEIJIEGEYOUSHUYI。SONGDAILEFUSHI,“BUJINCHUANGHUOSHENDUO,CHENGJIUZHUOZHE,ERQIENEIRONGFENGFU,XINGSHIDUOYANG,GEJUGEXINGHEFENGCAI”[1]16,XIWENXUESHISHANGJITANGDAIHOUDEYOUYIGAOFENG。BEISONGDEFANZHONGYAN、MEIYAOCHEN、WENYANBO、OUYANGXIU、SIMAGUANG、WANGANSHI、SUSHI,NANSONGDELIGANG、FANCHENGDA、YANGWANLI、ZHUXI、CHENZAO、WANGYAN、DAIFUGUDENGWENREN,JIEYOUZHIGAOLIANGDADELEFUSHICHUANSHI。QIZHONG,GEXINGLEILEFUYOUWEISONGDAILEFUSHIZHONGCHUANGZUOSHIRENSHULIANGZUIDUO、FAZHANBIANHUAZUIKUAI、ZUIJUGEXINGYUTESEDEYILEILEFUSHI1,SHULIANGYIYUWEIKEGUAN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   SUOWEI“GEXINGLEILEFU”,JI“LEFUGEXING”,TANGYIHOUDUICIGAINIANZHITAOLUNDAIBUFAREN,QIZHONGYIMINGRENHUYINGLINJIHUZHENHENGDEZONGJIEXINGGUINAZUIWEIJINGDAO,WANGHUIBINXIANSHENGDUICILUNZHIYIXIANG2,ZIBUFUZHUISHU。BENWENSUOLUNZHILUYOUGEXINGLEILEFU,SHIZHI《JIANNANSHIGAO》ZHONGHANYOU“GE”“XING”“GEXING”JI“TAN”“YUAN”“QU”“YIN”“CI”DENGZIYANGDEQUANBUXINJIUTILEFU。

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                              一、陆游歌行类乐府的多重意蕴与风致

                            星云棋牌官网下载   LUYOUREZHONGYULEFUSHICHUANGZUO,QI《JIANNANSHIGAO》JIHUMEIJUANJUNSHOULUYOUYIDINGSHULIANGZHILEFUSHI,SHENZHISHIRENCHUIMUZHINIANRENGZUOYOUBUSHAOZHANGPIANLEFUGEXINGZUSHI,QILEFUCHUANGZUOSHIJIANZHIZHANG、SHULIANGZHIDUOYIWEIQITANANSONGSHIRENSUOBUJI8。ZUOWEIZHANJULUYOULEFUSHIDABANJIANGSHANDEGEXINGLEILEFU,GENGYIQIFENGFUZHISHICAI、ZHUOYUEZHISHISIJILUZHESHIRENGANKUBEIXINDESHENGMINGTIYAN,KEHUACHUSHIRENFUZADUOGANDEXINLULICHENG,PUXIELEYISHOUSHOUHAOMAIJUNSHUANG、XIANGXIANGQILI、YUWEIWUQIONGDEZHANGGE。

                              (一)矢志报国与壮志未酬之歌

                              LUYOUYISHENGYISHIZHIBAOGUO、SHOUFUZHONGYUANWEIJIREN,NAIHE“YICUNDANXINKONGXUGUO”(《DUZUOXIANYONGERSHOU》)9、“BAOGUOYUSIWUZHANCHANG”(《JINCUODAOXING》),SUIRANCANKUGUIJUEDEZHENGZHIXIANSHIZONGLINGSHIRENSHIYUYUANWEI,DANZHEIBINGBUFANGAIQIYUSHIZHONGSHANGBAOTIANZIXIAJIUQIANSHOU,CHUIXIANGKANGJINFUTUDEZHANDOUHAOJIAO。YINCI,TUOGUFENGJIN、YINYUXIANSHIQIESHUQINGXINGJIQIANGDELEFUGEXING10BIANCHENGLETASHUHUAIYANZHIDEZUIJIAXUANZE。SHIKAN《CHUSAIQU》:

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                              时值淳熙四年(1177)冬,陆游寓居成都,心中所怀却为从戎杀敌之志,诗风豪健沉雄,捐躯赴难之想、慷慨济世之心隐然可窥。诗人高义凛凛,自然与那些“唾壶麈尾事儿嬉”的“京都贵公子”有着天壤之别。
                             

                            陆游歌行类乐府的意蕴、特征及创作分期
                             

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                              CISHIYUYANGANGJIANSHUANGLANG,QISHIXIONGHAO,“YUMENGUAN”“ZHENGREN”“SHUHUO”DENGBIANSAIYIXIANGZAISHIRENSHENGHUAMIAOBIZHIXIABUDUANDEDAOZHONGXINZUHE,ZHANXIANCHURUTANGRENBIANSAISHIBANDEHAOMAIANGYANG、ZHUANGKUOFEIDONGZHIMEI。《YUXUANTANGSONGSHICHUN》PINGZHIYUE:“PANQIQIYUJIANGU,ZHEXIANHUAYULAOJIAN,BUTUZUOBEILIANGYUQI。TIJUESITAIBAI”[3]849。ZAIRU《SAISHANGQUSISHOU》QIER:“JIANGJUNXUGUOBUHUAIGUI,YOUJIANSANGQIANMUYEFEI。YAOSHIJUNWANGNIANZHENGSHU,XINQIUYIBAOCIDONGYI”,ZE“ZIHETANGYIN”[3]895,ZHIZHITANGRENBIEJIZHONGYINANFENBIAN。FANGWENGCILEILEFUGEXING,ZUINENGTIXIANQI“TIANCAIHAOMAI,BISHIQIUJING”[2]106ZHIFENGZHI,SHIFENGXIONGJIAN,JIANGMIELUHAOQINGSHENYUNGULIZHIZHONG,DUZHILINGRENZHENFEN。

                              (二)自持自适与豁达超旷之音

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                              LEISIDEZHUTI,HAIKEZAI《HOUCHUNCHOUQU》ZHONGKUIJIANYIER:

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                              (三)感怀民瘼与褒赞风俗之调

                              GUANHUAIMINMO、XINXICANGSHENGSHIGEXINGLEILEFUZHONGCHANGJIANDEZHUTI。TANGYUANHENIANJIAN,BAIJUYI、YUANZHENYI“WEIGESHENGMINBING,YUANDETIANZIZHI”(《JITANGSHENG》)[7]WEIJIREN,CHUANGZUO《QINZHONGYIN》SHISHOU、《QINFUYIN》DENGGEYONGMINSHENGJIKUZHIZHANG,QIHOULIUYUXI、DUMU、LISHANGYINDENGJIEZUOYOUCILEIJIAZUO。SONGDAI,GEXINGLEILEFUZHONGCHUXIANLEGENGDUODEYONGTANMINSHENGDIAOBIZHIZUO,RUMEIYAOCHEN《YETIANXING》《SHANCUNXING》,LIUCHANG《TIANJIAXING》《HUANGTIANXING》,SUSHI《WUZHONGTIANFUTAN》《YAZHONGMAIXING》,ZHOUZIZHI《XIARETAN》《QIULINTAN》《QIUHUANGTAN》,FANCHENGDA《LAYUECUNTIANLEFUSHISHOU》DENG,JIEWEICILEITICAIMINGPIAN。

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                              YOUSHANJIEZHONGMAI,YOUSHUIJIEZHONGJING。NIULINGCHUANGJIANGU,CHICHIYOUYEGENG。JIELISHIBENYE,SUOYUANLETAIPING。MENQIANSHEIBOZHUO,XIANLIZHENGZUSHENG。YISHENRUXIANTING,RIYEQIONGCHI。RENSHUBUDANSI,ZIJIWUYOUSHENG。HAIJIAYUJUSHUO,KONGSHANGFUMUQING。LAORENTANGDESHI,QIZIHONGMAOQING!

                              SHIGEMIAOHUILEMOUNONGHUBUKANXIANLIZHENGZUERBEISHOUYAQIONGCHIHOUBUGANGUIGAOFUMUDEBUXINGZAOYU,BINGZAISHIMOFACHU“LAORENTANGDESHI,QIZIHONGMAOQING”DECHENZHONGKUITAN。ERMEIFENGHANJI,SHIRENBIANYOUXINCHONGCHONG,DUIXIACENGLAODONGRENMINJIYULESHENQIETONGQING。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   LUYOUDUIBAOZHAOLEFUSHI《DONGWUYIN》POWEITUIZHONG,ZHICHUCISHILIUBOQIANZAIZHIAOMIZAIYU“GAIQISHANCHUANQISU,YOUYIGANFARENYI,GUSAORENMOKE,DEYICHICHENGSHANGXIA,YUJINGZHOU、HANDAN、BADONGSANXIAZHILEI,SENRANBINGCHUAN。”[5]150WUDUYOUOU,YIGEXINGLEILEFUMIAOMORENWENJINGGUAN、SHANCHUANFENGSU,YIWEILUYOUSUOSHAN。RU《CAILIANQU》《SAISHENQU》《FENGNIANXING》《NONGJIAGE》《SANXIAGE》《JINGZHOUGE》DENG,JIEWEICILEIMINGPIAN。XIANYUPIANFU,CICHUJINYI《JINGZHOUGE》WEILISHIZUOFENXI:

                              CHUJIANGLINLINLVRUNIANG,XIANWEIJIANGBIANXIZHUFANG。DONGZHENGDAGUGUAGAOFAN,XISHANGTANGZHULIANBAIZHANG。FUBOGUMIAOZHANHAOFENG,WUCHANGBAIDIZAIYANZHONG。YILOUNVERXIAOYINGKE,QINGGEWEIJINQIANSHANGKONG。SHATOUXIANGMOSANQIANJIA,YANYUMINGMINGKAIJUHUA。XIARENZHUDUOCHURENSHAO,TUDANGZHENGXIANGZHUYUCHA。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   《JINGZHOUGE》FEILUYOUSHOUCHUANG,LIBAIYIZUOYOU《JINGZHOUGE》,RANZHEITONGTIYIZUODELIANGSHOUGEXING“NEIRONGWANQUANBUTONG,ERQIEQIGEDIAO、FENGWEIYEJIONGRANYOUBIE”[1]20。LIBAIZHIZUOXIEJINGZHOUFURENDUIZAIWAIJINGSHANGZHANGFUDESINIANYUDANYOU,FANGWENGZHIPIANCEZHONGMIAOXIEJINGZHOUZHIFENGWUMINSU;SHIFENGSHANGYIYUQUAIYUAN,YIZHIJIEQINGKUAI。WENGFANGGANGPINGCISHIYUE:“FANGWENG《JINGZHOUGE》QIGU,YANRANZHUZHI”[2]310,SHUOMINGCIZUOZAIMIAOHUIJINGZHOUSHEHUIWENHUAJIRENWENDILIFANGMIANPOWEICHENGGONG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGERYANZHI,LUYOUGEXINGLEILEFUTICAIGUANGFAN,WUSUOBURU,WUSUOBUKUO,QIEFENGGEDUOBIAN,LIYIGAOYUAN,SHISIXINQI,SHANGZHUITANGXIANGEXING,“ZAIBEINANLIANGSONGDELEFUSHIZHONG,NAISHIWURENKEYUZHIBIJIANDE”[1]19。

                              二、陆游歌行类乐府的艺术特征

                              LUYOUGEXINGLEILEFUBUJINYANGYIZHENONGLIECHENGZHIDEQUANQUANBAOGUOQINGSI,QUCAIGUANGFAN,HAITONGGUODILIKONGJIANSHUXIE、GONGYUANYUXIASHISHUXIEYITUOGUMINGZHI、PAICHOUQIANYOU,YOUZHEJUSHIDUOYANG、YINYUNHEXIEYUEMEIDETEDIAN,BINGZAIYANYONGLEFUJIUTIZHIJICHUSHANGJIETIFAHUI、FUYIXINYI,ZAISONGDAIGEXINGLEILEFUZHONGBIEJUTESE。

                              (一)含蓄寄托之隐喻与言志感怀之意象

                              LUYOUGEXINGLEILEFUZHONGYOULIANGZUJINGDIANYIXIANG,SHAOJIANHUOWEIJIANYUSONGRENGEXINGLEFUZHIZHONG,CHENGXIANCHUDUCHUANGXINGYUDUOYANGXINGZHITONGYI,JUYOUYIDINGDEDIANFANYIYI。

                              1.地理空间书写

                            星云棋牌官网下载   GEXINGLEILEFUDUOCHUBIANSAISHIMINGPIAN,RUWANGCHANGLING、LIBAIJUNZUOYOU《CONGJUNXING》、WANGHAN《YINMAZHANGCHENGKUXING》、LIHE《YANMENTAISHOUXING》DENG。LUYOUGEXINGLEILEFUZHONGYIYOUBUSHAOBIANSAITICAIZHIZUO,ZAIKUODAGEXINGLEFUTICAIFANWEIZHITONGSHI,HAITONGGUOYIXIETEDINGDEDILIKONGJIANSHUXIEJIYUSHENCHENDEGERENHUAIBAOYUZHENGZHILIXIANG。QISHI,SHIRENSUOZUOBUFENLEFUGEXINGZHONGDEDILIYIXIANGZAOYICHAOCHUNANSONGBANTU,GUDUOWEIXIANGXIANGZHICI,YUCENCANDEXIYUJISHIZHIZUOYOUBENZHIQUBIE。LIRU《ZHANGGEXING》“HEDANGKAIXUANYANJIANGSHI,SANGENGXUEYAFEIHUCHENG”ZHONGDEFEIHUCHENG,SHISHUJINGUOXIJINGLU;《ZHENGFUYUANXIAOTANGRENZUO》ZHONG“WANLIANXIJIUSUSHI,DONGFENGCHUICAOYOULILI”ZHONGDEANXIZEWEISHENGTANGSHIDAIZHIJIANGYU;SHIREN《LIANGZHOUXING》SUOMIAOHUIDE“LIANGZHOUSIMIANJIESHAQI,FENGCHUISHAPINGMAWUJI”JINGZHIYIJINXIANYUXIANGXIANG,YINLIANGZHOUYUBEISONGSHIQIBIANWEIXIXIASUOZHANLING;《YANQIXING》ZHONG“YANQISHANTOUMUYANZI,NIUYANGSHENGDUANXINGRENZHI”YU“YANQISHANXIACHUNXUEQING,MANGMANGWEIYOUJILISHENG”DEHUAMIANYIWEISHIRENXUGOUCHANSHENG,YANQISHANYOUMINGYANZHISHAN,ZAIJINGANSUSHANDANXIANJINGNEI,DANGSHIBINGFEINANSONGJIANGYU;《CHUSAIQU》ZHONG“CHAOJIANLANGSHANXUE,MUSUYUGUANYUN”“JIANGJUNYUJIANBUXUFA,ZHIDAOQILIANWUYANQUN”ZHONGDELANGSHAN、YUGUAN、QILIANSHAN,《JIANGJUNXING》“TIANSHANREHAIZAIMUZHONG,XIADIANJIRIMINGXUANHE”ZHI“TIANSHAN”“REHAI”,NAIZHI《SAISHANGQU》“DANGDAOHECUIWEI,YUNSHIYUMENGUAN”SUOXIEZHIYUMENGUAN,JIEXISHIRENZHIXIANGXIANGERFEIQINLI。LUYOUJIEZHUCILEIHANTANGKONGJIANYIXIANG,YIFANGMIANLIULUCHUQIDUIHANTANGSHENGSHIDEXIANGWANG,LINGYIFANGMIANYIXIANGTONGGUOLEFUGEXINGCHUANGZUOSHIXIAN“JIUZHOU”DEWANZHENG,QUELINANSONGWANGCHAODIDEDEHELIXING,JUYOUJIQIANGDEZHENGZHIZHIXIANG:“QIWENXUESHIJIELIDEDILIYIXIANGYUKONGJIANXIANGXIANG,SUZAOLENANSONGWANGCHAOSHIDAIJINGSHENDEZHENGZHIYINYU。”[9]ERQIE,LUYOUZAICIZHONGSUOHUADINGDEGUOTUFANWEI,“BUJINBAOKUOZHONGYUANJIYANZHAOQINGXUDENG,GENGDAOYOUZHOU、JILUSAI、YUGUANERZHIYANRANSHAN,XIBIANZEYICHAOMAIDEXIANGXIANGHANKUOLETIANSHAN、BEITING、ANXIDENG”[10]。GUCI,WOMENBUJINYAODUCHULUYOUCILEILEFUGEXINGZHONGDEBIANSAIYIYUFENGGUANG,GENGYAOTOUGUOSHIZHONGDEDILIFANGWEILINGWUSHIRENSUOJIYUDESHENCHENDEJIAGUOYISHIYULISHIXINGWANGGAN。

                              2.宫怨与侠士书写

                            星云棋牌官网下载   TANGSONGWEIGONGYUANSHICHUANGZUODEDINGSHENGSHIQI,CHUXIANLEBUSHAOYILEFUXIEGONGYUANZHIZUO,RULIBAI《YUJIEYUAN》《QIEBOMING》、BAIJUYI《SHANGYANGBAIFAREN》、ZHANGJI《CHUFEIYUAN》、LUGUIMENG《JIEYUYUAN》DENG,JIEWEICIZHONGMINGPIAN。LUYOUGONGYUANTICAIDEGEXINGLEILEFUZAIKEHUARENWUXINGXIANGSHANGPOWEICHENGGONG,RU“JINNIANXUANHOUGONG,LIANJUANQIANEMEI;ZAOZHIHUOQIANSU,HUIBUCHENGENCHI”、“CHUNFENGSHISONGXIAOSHAOSHENG,DUYANLUOJINLEIRUXI。LEIRUXIXITIANBUZHI,CISHENGZAIJIANYINGWUQI”(《ZHANGMENYUAN》)ZHONGSHICHONGYUWUDIDECHENHUANGHOU,“QIESUIYISHUAIXISHANGGONGCANSANG,YUANZHIJIANGUANXIZUZHIXUANHUANG。YUSUBUDEXIYANGHUCANGCANG,PEIFUZHONGZHENXIZHISIGANWANG”(《ZHANGXINGONGCI》)YU“QIZHICIYUBI,PIANRUOYEYUNSHUANG。YONGXIANGSUIFANGQI,YOULVZHONGBANGSHANG”(《JIEYUYUAN》)ZHONGSUIJIANQIJUNWANGQUERENGSHOUZHONGZHENDEBANJIEYU,DENGDENG。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,YOUBIEYUYIBANCHUNCUIMIAOXIEGONGNVYOUYUANZHIGONGYUANSHI,LUYOUSHIYUJIECHENHUANGHOUWEIHANWUDIFEIHOU、BANJIEYUSHICHONGYUHANCHENGDIZHISHISHI,JITUOZHENGZHISHANGZHISHIYIZAOYU,“ZHONGHOUFEICE,SHENYUYANYUAN”[3]847,CHONGCHIZHESHIRENGUZHONGGENGGENGERBUDEYONG,MIANDUIHEYIYICHENG、BEIFAWUWANGDESHENQIEAITONG。CHUGONGYUANTICAIWAI,XIASHISHUXIEYIWEIXIANJIANYUSONGRENGEXINGLEFUZHONGDEDUTEZHUTI。RU“YISHENDUBAOWANGUOCHOU,GUIGAOCHANGLINGLEIRUYU”(《JIANKEXING·WOYOUJIANXIAFEICHANGREN》)ZHONGKANBIJINGKEDEXIASHI,“SHIDANGHANHUSHOU,ZAIBAIZOUBEIQUE。TAOQUBIANXINGMING,SHANZHONGCANYUXIE”(《JIANKEXING·SHIWUZHIJIANREN》)ZHONGGONGCHENGSHENTUIDEJIANKE,DENGDENG。RANZHEIXIEXIASHIYULIBAI《XIAKEXING》ZHONG“SHIBUYISHAREN,QIANLIBULIUXING”DEHAOYIN、ZHONGPIFUYIQIYIBAOSICHOUDEPUTONGXIASHIJIANKEYOUSUOBUTONG,TAMENSHIWEIFUSONGSHIZHONGXINGERXINGXIATIANXIA,YISHISONGJINDUIZHISHIJUXIASHIRENCHIXINGENGGENGDEYINGXIONGZHUYIJITUOZHISUOZAI。

                              (二)错落有致之句式与和谐悦美之音韵

                            星云棋牌官网下载   LEFUSHIJUSHU、ZISHUSUISHIDAIDEYANBIANERFAZHAN,QIJUTIDEJIEZOUXINGSHIYISUIYINLEQUDIAODESHANBIANERYOUSUOBUTONG。HUYINGLIN《SHISOU》YUN“SHIYILEFUWEISHIZHIYITI,YULIKAOHANWEILIUCHAOTANGRENSHI,YOUSANYAN、SIYAN、WUYAN、LIUYAN、QIYAN、ZAYAN、JINTI、PAILV、JUEJU,LEFUJIEBEIYOUZHI”[11],KEJIANLEFUSHIJUDUZHIFUZA。SONGDAIGEXINGLEILEFUJIAOQIANDAIERYAN,QIZHONGYIGETEDIANBIANSHIQIYANTISHULIANGDEDAFUJIZENG,“SONGDAIDEGEXINGLEILEFU,WULUNSHIWUYANHAISHIQIYAN,QUEJIHUQUANWEIQIYANTI”[4]93。LUYOUDEGEXINGLEFUSUIYIQIYANTIWEIZHU,RANRENGYOUBUSHAOZAYISANYAN、BAYAN、JIUYAN、SHIYANNAIZHISHIERYANZHE,ZAIYIQIYANTIGEXINGWEIZHULIUDESONGDAI,DUJUYIGE。PIRU,JIANYISANYANLEI:“HUOQISHU,LUQIJU,FOYIHECENGKESAOCHU”(《ZUIGE》);QUNYINFU,TAIYANGSHENG,DITUISAI,SONGZHONGXING”(《SAISHANGXING》(YIZUO《HUWUREN》);“YUNTONGTONG,XIEYULAI。YUWEIRUTUYUNYIKAI,BUNENGWEIRENLIANFUAI”(《YUNTONGTONGXING》);“GUANYIMIAN,BUKEYIFUGUAN;MENYIDU,BUKEYIFUKAI”(《DUANGEXING》);JIANYIQIYANZHE:“WUHU!RENSHENGNANLIAOLAOGENGQIONG,MAIYESANGCUNBAIFAWENG”“BUXIANQIHESHANGQINGTIAN,BUXIANEGUANMINGZHUQIAN。DANYUANSHAOSHESI,DEJIANPINGHUNIAN”(《ZHANGGEXING》);JIANYIBAYANLEI:“JUNBUJIANSAISHANGSHIMAWENG,MAQUANZHIBUWEIFU。YOUBUJIANXINFENGZHEBEIWENG,BEIFEISHENQUANLAOXIANGGUO”(《LIANGWENGGE》);JIANYIJIUYANLEI:“WOYUANYIRIYIBAIERSHIKE,WOYUANYISHENGYIQIANERBAISUI。SIHAIZHUGONGCHANGZAIZUO,LVJIUJINZUNZHONGRIZUI”(《RICHURUXING》);JIANYISHIYANLEI:“JUNBUJIANXUANFANGSAIHEBAIWANREN,YIDANHENGLIUYOUYIXI”(《DONGZHIYEZUOZUODUANGE》),DENGDENG。ZHEIXIEZAYANTISHIXIANGJIAOQIYANTISHI,BUJINYUZHANGFAJIEGOUSHANGGENGJIALINGHUO,QIESHIQUANSHIYINJIEXIANGLIANG、JIEZOUXIANMING、CUOLUOYOUZHI,“YIYANGDUNCUO,ZHANGDUANJIEZOU,GEJIQIZHI”[12],YUYINLEMEISHANGJIAOQIYANTIGENGSHENGYICHOU。

                              (三)沿用旧题,赋予新义

                              LEFUSHITEBIESHIGUTILEFU,ZAIZHANGQIDEFAZHAN、YANBIANGUOCHENGZHONGXINGCHENGLEXIANGDUIGUDINGDEZHUTI。RANHOUSHIWENRENCHUYUJITUOBUTONGHUAIBAOZHIXUYAO,TONGYITIMUWANGWANGHUIYANSHENGCHUGEYIDENEIRONG。LUYOUGEXINGLEILEFU,YUYANXIGUTIZHITONGSHI,YOUFUYIXINYI、FANXINTICAI,FANGGUZHISHIBUWANGCHUXIN,KUODALESHITIDEBIAODAKONGJIAN。LIRU,《LEFUJIETI》SHI《DUANGEXING》YUE:“《DUANGEXING》,WEIWUDI‘DUIJIUDANGGE,RENSHENGJIHE’,JINLUJI‘ZHIJIUGAOTANG,BEIGELINSHANG’,JIEYANDANGJISHIWEILEYE。”[13]SHI《ZHANGGEXING》YUN:“GUCIYUN‘QINGQINGYUANZHONGKUI,CHAOLUDAIRI’,YANFANGHUABUJIU,DANGNULIWEILE,WUZHILAODANAISHANGBEIYE。”KEJIAN,《DUANGEXING》《ZHANGGEXING》DEGUYISHI“NULIWEILE”、“JISHIWEILE”。LUYOUDESHUSHOU《ZHANGGEXING》《DUANGEXING》,BINGBUJUNIYUCHUANTONGGUYI,HUOYUNTUIXIANZHILEERWANGJINTUIZHIYOU:“YANTIANYIGEDONGYIQIU,LIGENGFANQIUWUYUMOU。ERBIANXIANSHIYOUHEJI,ZHENGKEFUZHIFENGMANIU”(《DUANGEXING·SHANGZUNBUJIESANLAOCHOU》);HUOYUNGONGMINGWEILI、BAOGUOWUJIE:“GUOCHOUWEIBAOZHUANGSHILAO,XIAZHONGBAOJIANYEYOUSHENG”(《ZHANGGEXING·RENSHENGBUZUOANQISHENG》);HUOJINTOUZHEZHUANGZHIXIAOCANYUBEIJIUZHONGDEWUNAIYUBEILIANG:“WUCAOFUCUIBUZIWU,NAIYUGUANJIANCHANGCUIWEI。QUANJUNYINWUYONGBEIZHUO,DANDANGSHOUTIBEIDOUKUI”(《DUANGEXING·GUANYIMIANBUKEYIFUGUAN》)。LEFUGUTI《QIANYOUYIZUNJIUXING》,BENYIWEIZHUBINZHUZHANGSHOU,QIHOULIBAIYOUJIAYIFAHUI,SHIQICHENGWEIJISHIXINGLEZHICI。LUYOUZEZAICIJICHUSHANGXINGCHENGLEZIJIDESHUXIEJILI,SHIYOUQIANHUJIZHITONGYUQIANHUGUOZHITAN,ZHURULETEDINGDESHIDAIJINGSHEN,PIRU《QIANYOUZUNJIUXINGERSHOU》QIER:“ZHANGFUKEWEIJIUSESI,ZHANCHANGHENGSHISHENGCHUANGDI。HUATANGLEYINZIYOUSHI,SHAODAIQINHUXIANTIANZI。”CIWAI,LUYOUBUFENXINTILEFUGEXINGYIYUQIANRENTONGTIZHIZUOZHUZHIBUTONG。YI《CHUGONGXING》WEILI,TANGRENZHANGJIZHIZUO,ZHUYAOXUXIEYANYOUSHELIECHANGJINGZHIHUAMEIZHUANGDA;LUYOUZHIZUO,ZEYUBIAOXIANCHUWANGJIAYOUSHELIEDEHONGDACHANGMIANZHITONGSHI,YI“GUOZHONGZHUANGSHILIYIDAN,QINKOUDONGLAIQIANSHEISHE”ZUOJIE,TUOGUFENGJIN,JIECHUWANGYOULIEXIANGLETUHAOGUOLIERWUYIDIYUQINGUORUQINZHIGUSHI,QUANYUNANSONGCHAOTINGDANGWOXINCHANGDAN、ZHENGEDAIDANYIFANGBEIJINGUOSUISHIKENENGZHINANFAN,ZHIQUSHANGYEGENGJINHUGULEFUDEYUANCIJIYANGZHIFENG。LUYOUZHEIXIEYANYONGJIUTIERXIAOJIEBENSHI、FUYIXINYIDEGEXINGLEILEFU,YIRENSHENGJINGLI、NANSONGSHISHIWEIYUANQUAN,FUYISHIRENZISHENDUTEDEJINGSHENQIZHI,ANZHAOZIJIDESHENGHUOYUYISHUJINGYAN,POWEIZIJUEDIJINXINGLEFUSHITIDEYISHUGEXINYUXIBIAN。

                              三、陆游歌行类乐府的创作分期

                              LUYOUDEGEXINGLEILEFUDECHUANGZUO,ZHUYAOKEFENWEISIGESHIQI,JIQIANDAOJIUNIAN(1173)—CHUNXISINIAN(1177)CHENGDOUSHIQI,CHUNXILIUNIAN(1179)—QINIAN(1180)TIJUFUJIANCHANGPINGCHASHI、JIANGXICHANGPINGCHAYANGONGSHISHIQI,CHUNXISHISANNIAN(1186)—SHISINIAN(1187)ZHIYANZHOUSHIQI,CHUNXIBANIAN(1181)—CHUNXISHIYINIAN(1184)JISHAOXISINIAN(1193)—JIATAIYUANNIAN(1201)DEXIANGJUSHANYINSHIQI。LUYOUJIZHONGCHUANGZUOGEXINGLEILEFUDEJIGEJIEDUAN,YUQISHIHUANSHENGYAZHIBIANQIAN、DIYUKONGJIANZHIZHUANHUAN、CHUANGZUOXINTAIZHISHANBIANZHENGRUOHEFUQI,ZAIBUTONGSHIQIBIAOXIANCHUBUJINXIANGTONGDECHUANGZUOTEZHENG。

                              (一)成都时期

                            星云棋牌官网下载   QIANDAOBANIAN(1172)MO,WANGYANZHENGXIDAMUJIESAN,LUYOUDAIZHE“CISHENHESHISHIRENWEI”DEZIWENJINGJIANMENGUANZHANZHUANZHICHENGDOU,RENCHENGDOUANFUSI、SICHUANZHIZHISICANYIGUAN,KAIQILEWEIQISANNIANDECHENGDOUMUFUSHENGYA。CONGNANZHENGQIANXIANTUIRUHOUFANG,YIWEIZHESHIRENGONGMINGNANLIHE“JINGLVEZHONGYUANBIZIZHANGANSHI,QUZHANGANBIZILONGYOUSHI”[14]12058ZHANLVELIXIANGDEPOMIE,YIFANGMIANSHIZHISHISHILU、GANSHIYOUGUODEKUMENBEIFEN,LINGYIFANGMIANSHIJINGUANCHENGTIANFUWOYE、XIANYOUBINPENGSUODAILAIDEWEIJIE,ERZHEXIANGHUJIAOZHI,XINGCHENGLELUYOUMAODUNERFUZADEXINLINGSHIJIE。CISHIQI,SHIRENZUOYOU《CHENGDOUXING》《ZUIGE》《BAOJIANYIN》《JINCUODAOXING》《DUANBEITAN》《SHUJIUGE》《GUTENGZHANGGE》《CHUNCHOUQU》《SAISHANGQU》《ZHANGGEXING》《JIANKEXING》《YUJINGXING》《CHUSAIQU》DENGXINJIUTILEFUGEXINGSHIJISHOU,HUOJIEYIPAIYOU,HUOSHUHUAIMINGZHI,XINGCHENGDIYIGECHUANGZUOGAOFENG。《CHENGDOUXING》《SHUJIUGE》《DUANBEITAN》DENGZUO,ZEYISHUDIRENWENYUANSOUWEITICAI,JIANGSICHUANFENGWUTECHAN、LISHIYIJIRONGZHUYUGEXINGZHONG,XIANXIANCHUJIQIANGDEYISHUGONGLI。ER《JINCUODAOXING》《ZHANGGEXING》《JIANKEXING》《CHUSAIQU》DENGRUIYIJINQU、FENFACHUOLIDELANGMANXIONGHAOZHIZUO,XIAOFANGTANGRENYOUQISHILIBAI、CENCANGEXINGLEFU,HUOYANYONGCIJU,HUODUOTAISHIYI,ZAILUYOULEFUGEXINGCHUANGZUOSHISHANGJUYOULICHENGBEIYIYI。

                              (二)提举福建常平茶事、江西常平茶盐公事时期

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZISHUDONGGUIBUJIU,LUYOUJICHUFUJIANLUCHANGPINGCHASHI,XUANYOUCHUJIANGXILUCHANGPINGCHAYANGONGSHI。LUYOUSHIHUANMIN、GANQIJIAN,“HUANQINGDANBO,SHENGHUOJILIAO,DANSHIPIANDUOKANGKAIJIANGZHIZUO”[15],ZHEIYOUQITIXIANZAIQI《CHUSAIQU》《QIANYOUZUNJIUXINGERSHOU》《DAJIANGCHUSHIGE》《BIHAIXING》DENGDASHENGTANG、HAOZHUANGBENFANGDEGEXINGLEILEFUSHANG。ERDUIYOUHUANSHENGYADEYANJUAN,YOUSHISHIRENCHANGFASIGUI、SISHUZHIYONG,JIESHIJIUPAIQIANQINGLEI。RUCIXINTAI,ZAIQIGEXINGLEFUZHONGYIQINGXILILI。RU“WEIYOUDIAOCHUANCHAYIJU,WENJUNHUWEIBUGUIQU”(《ZHANGGEXING·RENSHENGHUANYOUYIBUE》)、“SHISHANGBEIHUANYIOURAN,HESHILANZUIJINJIANGBIAN”(《ZHANGGEXING·YANYANWEIXIANXIAN》)。ZHEIYIJIEDUAN,SHIRENGEXINGLEFUDESHULIANGSUIBUJICHENGDOUSHIQI,DANWULUNSHISHIGEDEQIANCIZAOJU、MOUPIANBUJU,YIHUOYIXIANGDECHUILIAN、BEIJIANSHIFENGDESUZAO,DOUTIXIANCHUSHIRENZHUIBUHANWEITANGRENLEFUDEZIJUEYISHI、DUIQIANRENTONGTIZHIZUODETIRENCHAOYUEJIYIGUWEIXINDESHIXUECHANGSHI。

                              (三)知严州时期

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CHUNXISHISANNIAN(1186),XIANJUDUONIANDELUYOUFUXINGZAI,SHOUCHAOMINGZHIYANZHOU。BICISHI,XIAOZONGYUZHIYUE:“YANLINGSHANSHUISHENGCHU,ZHISHIZHIXIA,KEYIFUYONGZISHI。”[14]12058DAIZHEXIAOZONGDE“KOUYU”,YIGUCHEN、ZHISHIZIXUDELUYOUYUYANZHOURENSHANGRENGFUYOUDUOSHOUAIGUOGEXING,QIZHONGMINGPIANRU《YANQIXING》《SAISHANGQU》。《JINGZHOUGE》《DONGWUNVERQU》DENG,ZESHISHIRENJISHUZHONGZUO《CHENGDOUXING》《SHUJIUGE》DENGZHIHOUDEYOUYIPIYILEFUGEXINGFANYONGFENGTUDEZUOPIN,JUYOUQIANGLIEDEDIYUYINJIHESHENHOUDERENWENYUNHAN。CIWAI,TAYOUZUO《FANGCAOQU》《GUKELE》《TONGJIANGXING》DENG,ZAIRUSHIHUJIXIAZHUIQIUJINGSHENZHITAOXI,TIWUCHAOYUEKUNANHOUDEPINGJINGYUDANRAN。ZHIDEYITIDESHI,ZHEIYISHIQI,LUYOUCHONGFENFAHUIYUANBAIXINLEFU“CIMEIJIANSHI”[16]254DEZHUZHI,XUEXILEFUSHI“FENGXINGDANGSHIZHISHI,YIYIHOUSHIZHIREN”[16]255DEGONGNENG,YI《CHUGONGXING》WEIFENGNANSONGCHAOTINGSHANGXIATOUDUOYANAN、RENCHISHICHOUDEGOUQIEXIANXIANG。ZHEIYESHIYANZHOUSHIQILUYOUDUIQIANJIGEJIEDUANGEXINGLEILEFUCHUANGZUOZHUTIDEYICIFENGFUYUTUOZHAN。

                              (四)乡居山阴时期

                            星云棋牌官网下载   LUYOUYISHENGDEJUEDABUFENSHIJIANJUNZAISHANYINDUGUO,ERXIANGJUSHANYINSHIQIYISHILUYOUGEXINGLEILEFUCHUANGZUOSHULIANGZUIDUO、TICAIZUIGUANG、CHIXUSHIJIANZUIZHANG、SHIYIZUIWEIJINGZHANCHENGSHUDESHIQI。XIANGJUSHIQIDELUYOU,RENGXIXINGUOSHI,XINYOUMINMO,SHIRENSUXINSUIYUANLAOGOUHE,RANDAYIWEIGANWANGJUNCHEN,ZHONGJUNBAOGUO、SHOUFUSHIDIZHIZHIYULAOYUJIAN。“WEINANYIYISHUSHENG,HAOMUDANGTU,WANHUYUEMAZHISI,JILAOBUSHI。”[2]187ZHEIZAIQILEFUGEXINGZHONGYOUWEITUCHU,RU《DAXUEGE》《ZUIGE》《CHUSAIQU》《QIUFENGQU》《JIANGJUNXING》《XIAOCHUSAIQU》《LIANGZHOUXING》《BEIGEXING》《SAISHANGQUSISHOU》《QIUYUEQU》《QIQIXING》DENG,ZAIZHANGPIANDUANYONGZHONGSHUQIHUAIBAO、JIYUBEIFEN,QINGGANSHENCHENCHONGPEI,XIANSHICHUGAOCHAODESHIYIZAOYIHESHENYUANDESHISHIYINGXIANG。TUIJUQIJIANDUIGONGMINGWEILIERLAOJINGJIANGZHIDEJIAOLV、DUISHIJIANLIUSHIDETIRENYUSIKAO,YIWEIZHEIYISHIQILUYOUGEXINGLEFUZHONGDECHANGJIANZHUTI。RU“DANJIANDANDANSHENGTIANDONG,DANJIANMUMURUDIZHONG。SHIWOSHUHUCHENGLAOWENG,JINGLISHUAIBINCHENGSHUANGPENG”(《RICHURUXING》)、“JIULINGWEISISHENRISHUAI,ZHUYANYIQUSHEINENGNEI”(《FANGGEXING》)DENG,YURANYOUGULEFUFENGYUN。YIDALIANGYONGXIANYICHAOYUESHITUDESHI、ZHUIQIUCHAOKUANGZISHIWEIZHUTIDELEFUGEXINGZUOPIN,CHENGWEILUYOUWANNIANSHENGHUOZHONGDELINGYIZHONGRENSHENGDISE,RU《HOUCHUNCHOUQU》《BISHIXING》《FANGGEXING》《ZHANGGEXING》《PENGLAIXING》DENGDENG。LUYOUZAIJICHENGGULEFU“GANYUAILE,YUANSHIERFA”[17]CHUANGZUOJINGSHENZHITONGSHI,YICONGMEICICHUANTONGCHUFA,ZAI《YUNTONGTONGXING》《DONGTAOXING》《NONGJIATAN》ZHONGAIMINSHENGMINDUOJIAN,XIJIGAOJUMIAOTANGZHEDANGQINZHENGZEMIN、KUANSHUMINLI。ERGULEFUDEZANSONGGONGNENG,YIYUCIJIEDUANDE《SAISHENQU》《CAILIANQU》《FENGNIANXING》ZHONGDEDAOCHENGXIAN。SHANYINZUOWEIYIPIANYUGUANCHANGXIANGDUILIDEYINYIKONGJIAN,SHIZHISHENQIZHONGDESHIRENYOUGENGDUODESHIJIANJINGLICHUANGZUOLEFUGEXING、DUANLIANSHIYI,CHUANDIZHEQITAJIGESHIQIYIXINGCHENGHUOSHANGWEIJUBEIDEDUOYUANQINGYUNHEXINXIANDEBIAOXIANJIQIAO,XINGCHENGLEDUDAODEJINGSHENMIANMAOHEYISHUMEILI。KEYISHUO,LUYOUSHAOXISINIAN(1193)HOUXIANGJUSHIQIDELEFUGEXINGCHUANGZUO,CAIZHENZHENGZHENYUCHENGSHU,DADAOLECHUANGZUOSHENGYAZHONGDEGAOFENG。

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                              参考文献

                              [1] 王辉斌.两宋乐府诗鸟瞰[J].贵州师范学院学报(社会科学版),2010(1):16-22.
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                              注释

                              1北宋梅尧臣、欧阳修、王安石、苏轼、黄庭坚、郭祥正、晁补之,南宋李纲、周紫芝、陆游、杨万里、孙应时、汪元量皆有歌行名篇传世。详参吴彤英《宋代乐府题边塞诗研究》(河北师范大学2009年硕士论文)、孟静《宋代古题乐府研究》(河北师范大学2010年硕士论文)、王辉斌《论宋代的歌行类乐府》(《四川文理学院学报》,2010年第4期)《论宋代的旧题乐府及其新变》(《四川文理学院学报》,2011年第1期)、罗《宋代乐府诗研究》(北京大学2013年博士论文)、陈瑞娟《宋初乐府诗研究》(《文艺评论》,2014年第6期)等。
                              2详参胡应麟《诗薮》卷三、胡震亨《唐音癸签》卷一、王辉斌《唐后乐府诗的界定与分类》(《江汉大学学报》,2010年第2期)中对乐府歌行的定义。
                              3此数据由王辉斌先生在《论宋代的歌行类乐府》一文中统计得出。
                              4例如,田雯直言放翁之歌行可上追杜甫、韩愈,与北宋诸诗文大家相比亦不遑多让:“至于歌行,惟唐之杜、韩,宋之欧、王、苏、陆,其鼓骇骇,其风瑟瑟,旌旗壁垒,极辟阖雄荡之奇”;张培仁盛誉陆游《董逃行》,赞其“悲壮淋漓,实能于李、杜、韩、苏外,自辟一境,足为千古炯戒;方东树指出放翁之《长歌行·人生不作安期生》乃《诗稿》中的压卷之作。而以选录清前五七言古诗着称的王士《古诗笺》中,收录宋人歌行乐府数量情况如下:欧阳修5首,王安石3首,东坡8首,黄庭坚1首,晁补之4首,而陆游竟高达16首。由是可知放翁歌行乐府不仅数量颇丰,其质量亦可圈可点,有一定研究价值。详参孔凡礼、齐治平编《陆游资料汇编》(中华书局2006年版);王士选,闻人笺《古诗笺》(上海古籍出版社1980年版)。
                              5如吕辉《陆游七言律诗研究》(陕西师范大学2008年博士论文)、管琴《七律的放翁诗法——从“律熟”的评价说起》(《文学评论》,2016年第4期)、陶文鹏《论陆游的七言绝句》(《绍兴文理学院学报》,2015年第6期)、诸雨辰《突转与断片:陆游七绝的构思方式与题材选择》,(《中国韵文学刊》,2015年第3期)等。
                              6事实上,不仅陆游之歌行类乐府,整个宋代乐府诗研究亦面临着研究格局不够均衡,有“点”的研究,却少有“线”和“面”的观照,多将某位作家之乐府诗与其他诗歌作整体研究,而非单独研究乐府诗的创作情况,研究空白较多。可参看陈瑞娟《建国后宋代乐府诗研究综述》(《内蒙古大学学报》,2014年第3期)。
                              7详参王辉斌《论宋代的歌行类乐府》(《四川文理学院学报》,2010年第4期)、孙启祥《论陆游乐府诗的体裁及其他》(《绍兴文理学院学报》,2017年第6期)。
                              8王辉斌先生认为,在南宋诗人中,唯有陆游是最喜欢也是最擅长于乐府诗创作的一位诗人,这从八十五卷本《剑南诗稿》几乎每卷都有乐府诗的事实,即可准确获知。这一事实表明,陆游之于乐府诗的创作,乃是由青年而晚年,以至于终生而为的。(《论宋代的旧题乐府及其新变》,《四川文理学院学报》,2011年第1期。)
                              9本文所引陆诗,皆据钱仲联《剑南诗稿校注》,为免繁冗,文中只标明诗题,不一一出注。
                              10孙启祥《论陆游乐府诗的体裁及其他》指出,乐府诗托古讽今、隐喻现实的体裁优势,也许更便于充分表达对投降妥协的谴责、对爱国志士的呼唤、对恢复中原的期盼、对杀敌灭贼的憧憬,减少从政治上授人以柄的可能。
                              11此结论为笔者据祝穆《方舆胜览》、王象之《舆地纪胜》及谭其骧《中国历史地图集》进行比照后所得。
                            星云棋牌官网下载   12例如,田锡、欧阳修、苏舜钦、梅尧臣、周紫芝、周麟之等集中,几无杂言体乐府歌行。

                              商宇琦.论陆游的歌行类乐府[J].成都大学学报(社会科学版),2020(01):64-71.
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