星云棋牌官网下载

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                            无人船碰撞责任问题与应对建议

                            时间:2018-09-17 来源:上海海事大学学报 作者:王国华,孙誉清 本文字数:12094字

                              摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 为明确无人船的“无人”特征对无人船碰撞相关责任的影响, 对船员的避碰责任、船舶间的避让责任以及碰撞后的责任等问题进行研究。结论表明:岸基操控人员与船员在空间位置和配员数量方面的差异, 使得需要对良好船艺的评价标准作出相应的改变;若将无人船一刀切地识别为失去控制的船舶或操纵能力受限制的船舶, 则不能满足无人船的发展需要;由于无人船技术因素的介入, 无人船发生碰撞后可能涉及的侵权责任、救助责任或刑事责任在主体、管辖等方面将面临不同程度的变化。为应对无人船碰撞相关责任问题, 建议从明确无人船和岸基操控人员的法律地位、调整国际海事条约的规定、建立针对无人船的约束机制等方面入手。

                              关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 无人船; 避碰责任; 救助责任; 侵权责任; 刑事责任;

                              Abstract: To clarify impacts of the“unmanned”feature about unmanned ships on related responsibilities of unmanned ship collision, some issues on the collision avoidance responsibilities of seafarers, the collision avoidance responsibilities between ships and the responsibilities after collision are studied. The conclusions are as follows: the difference in the space location and the number between shore-based operators and seafarers makes it necessary to make corresponding changes to evaluation criteria of good seamanship; the indiscriminate assumption of recognizing unmanned ships as out-of-control ships or ships with limited maneuverability can not meet the development needs of unmanned ships; because of the intervention of the technical factors of unmanned ships, the tort liability, assistance responsibility or criminal responsibility that may be involved after unmanned ship collision face different degrees of change in subject, jurisdiction, etc. For the purpose of dealing with related responsibility issues on unmanned ship collision, it is suggested to clarify the legal status of unmanned ships and shore-based operators, adjust international maritime treaties, and establish constraint mechanism for unmanned ships.

                              Keyword: unmanned ship; collision avoidance responsibility; assistance responsibility; tort liability; criminal responsibility;

                              0、 引言

                            星云棋牌官网下载   RENGONGZHINENGDEXUNSUFAZHANZHENGZAISHENKEYINGXIANGZHERENLEISHEHUISHENGHUO。MUQIAN, YIAlphaGoWEIQIRENGONGZHINENGCHENGXU、GoogleWURENJIASHIQICHE、“WEIRUANXIAOBING”XUNIBANLVJIQIRENDENGWEIDAIBIAODERENGONGZHINENGJISHUDEYINGYONGSHIJIAN, DUIBAOKUOLUNLI、DAODE、FALVDENGGEFANGMIANRENLEISHEHUIDECHUANTONGRENZHIXINGCHENGLEBUXIAODETIAOZHAN。RENGONGZHINENGJISHUZAICHUANBOJIASHIHEHUOWUGUANLIFANGMIANDEYUNYONG, JIANGSHICHUANBOBUZAIPEIBEICHUANYUAN, JINERQUXIAOCHANGGUICHUANBIXUDECHUANYUANSHENGHUOCANGSHI、YILIAOSHESHI、JIUSHENGSHEBEI、SHIWU、YINYONGSHUIDENG, YIDADAOJIESHENGYUNYINGCHENGBEN、TIGAOYUNSHUXIAOLVDEXIAOGUO。RANER, WURENCHUANJISHUDEYINGYONGSHIBIHUIYINQIHAISHANGHAISHIFALVTIXIXIANYOUGEJUDEJULIEBIANHUA。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   GENJUCAIYONGDEJISHUFANGAN, WURENCHUANZAIYUNZUOXINGSHISHANGZHUYAOFENWEI3LEI:YUANCHENGCAOKONGDEWURENCHUAN、QUANZIZHUCAOKONGDEWURENCHUANHEYAOKONG-ZIZHUCAOKONGFUHEXINGWURENCHUAN。[1]DIYILEIWURENCHUANCAIYONGDEJISHUFANGANSHIANJIKONGZHIZHONGXINCAOKONGRENYUAN (JIANCHENG“ANJICAOKONGRENYUAN”) TONGGUOCHUANSHANGSHEBEICAIJIHANGXINGHUANJINGCANSHUBINGYICIJINXINGHANGXINGJUECE。DIERLEIWURENCHUANCAIYONGDEJISHUFANGANSHICHUANBOKONGZHIXITONGZIZHUCAIJICHUANBOHANGXINGHUANJINGCANSHUBINGYICIJINXINGHANGXINGJUECE。DISANLEIWURENCHUANCAIYONGDEJISHUFANGANSHICHUANBOKONGZHIXITONGHEANJICAOKONGRENYUANGONGTONGJINXINGCHUANBOHANGXINGHUANJINGCANSHUCAIJIHEHANGXINGJUECE。[2]

                              JIUMUQIANQUANQIUJIAOWEIZHIMINGDEWURENCHUANJISHUYANJIULUNZHENGXIANGMUERYAN, OUMENGDE“HAISHANGZHINENGWANGLUOWURENJIASHIXIANGMU” (maritime unmanned navigation through intelligence in networks, MUNIN) ZHUYAOCAIYONGDESHIDIERLEIJISHUFANGAN, JIHANGXINGJUECEZHUYAOYOUCHUANBOKONGZHIXITONGZUOCHU, ERRENLEIFUZEDUIGAIXITONGSHISHIJIANKONG。[3]LUOERSI·LUOYISIGONGSISUOZHUDAODE“GAOJIWURENJIASHICHUANBOYINGYONGKAIFAJIHUA” (advanced autonomous waterborne applications, AAWA) CAIYONGDESHIDISANLEIJISHUFANGAN, JISHIHAIYUQINGKUANGBIANGENGWURENCHUANZIZHUCHENGDU, DANGWURENCHUANZAIGONGHAISHANGHANGXINGSHIWANQUANYOUCHUANBOKONGZHIXITONGZIZHUJUECE, YIDANJINRUQITAHANGQU (RUGANGKOUSHUIYU) ZEQIEHUANWEIRENLEIJIANKONGHUOYAOKONGMOSHI。[4]

                              无人船技术势必会成为未来航运技术的发展方向。因此, 国际海事委员会 (ComitéMaritime International, CMI) 无人船国际工作组 (international work group unmanned ships, IWGUS) 于2017年3月24日向各国海商法协会发出《CMI无人船问题单》以征询各国法律对无人船技术的适应情况。该问题单涉及船舶、船员、海洋法、海上人命安全、避碰规则、法律责任等6类问题。截至2018年3月15日, 已有19个国家的海商法协会作出答复。与此同时, 国际海事组织 (International Maritime Organization, IMO) 海上安全委员会 (Maritime Safety Committee, MSC) 第98届会议批准了关于梳理无人船法律监管范围的工作计划[5], 并将在未来的4届MSC会议议程内完成对无人船法律问题的研究。
                             

                            无人船碰撞责任问题与应对建议
                             

                              KAOLVDAOBIMIANCHUANBOPENGZHUANGSHIBAOZHANGHAISHANGJIAOTONGANQUANDEGUANJIANWENTIZHIYI, BENWENJIADINGPEIBEIANJICAOKONGRENYUANDEWURENCHUANWEI《1972NIANGUOJIHAISHANGBIPENGGUIZE》 (JIANCHENG“COLREG”) GUIZHIDECHUANBO, YISHULIANJICAOKONGRENYUANDEBIPENGZEREN、CHUANBOJIANDEBIRANGZERENYIJIFASHENGPENGZHUANGHOUDEZERENWEIXIANSUO, FENXIWURENCHUANPENGZHUANGXIANGGUANZERENWENTIBINGTICHUYINGDUIJIANYI。

                              1、“船员”的避碰责任问题

                            星云棋牌官网下载   GENJU《1982NIANLIANHEGUOHAIYANGFAGONGYUE》 (JIANCHENG“UN-CLOS”) DI94TIAODEGUIDING, CHUANQIGUOYINGCAIQUCUOSHIBIMIANCHUANBOFASHENGPENGZHUANG, QIZHONGJIUYOUYIXIANGYAOQIUCHUANZHANGHECHUANYUANJUBEIYUCHUANBOXIANGPIPEIDEHANGHAIJISHU。KAOLVDAOCOLREGSHIDUILIANGHAOCHUANYIDEGUINAHEZONGJIE[6], WULUNSHIYANGEZUNSHOUCOLREGDEGUIDINGCAIQUBIPENGXINGDONG, HAISHIZAITESHUQINGKUANGXIACAIQUBEILICOLREGDEXINGDONG, ZHIYAOSHIZHONGJIANGZHENGQUEYUNYONGLIANGHAOCHUANYIDEYAOQIUGUANCHUANYUCOLREGDESHISHIGUOCHENGJIKE。CHANGGUICHUANSHANGDECHUANYUANSHILVXINGBIPENGZEREN、ZHIXINGBIPENGXINGDONGDEZHIJIEZHUTI, ERWURENCHUANANJICAOKONGRENYUANSHIBIHUICHENGWEICHANGGUICHUANCHUANYUANDETIDAIZHE, DANSHIWURENCHUANANJICAOKONGRENYUANYUCHANGGUICHUANCHUANYUANZAIKONGJIANWEIZHIHEPEIBEISHULIANGSHANGDECHAYIDUIWURENCHUANNENGFOUQUESHIZUNSHOUCOLREGYOUJIAODAYINGXIANG。

                              1.1、 岸基操控人员与船员的空间位置差异

                              ANJICAOKONGRENYUANYUCHUANYUANDEKONGJIANWEIZHICHAYISHIWURENCHUANYUCHANGGUICHUANDEZHUYAOQUBIEZHIYI。JUTITIXIANZAIANJICAOKONGRENYUANDEFALVDIWEIHECOLREGDEZHIXINGDIDIANDEBUTONG。ZHENGRUQIANWENSUOSHU, COLREGBINGWEIDUICHUANYUANDEWEIZHIZUOCHUJUTIGUIDING, YINERXUYAOHUIGUIGUONEIFACENGMIANJINXINGFENXI。YIFANGMIAN, WOGUO《HAISHANGJIAOTONGANQUANFA》SUIRANZAITIAOWENCUOCISHANGBINGWEIMINGSHICHUANYUANBIXUZAI“CHUANSHANG”, DANGAIFADI3ZHANGDEBIAOTISHI“CHUANBO、SHESHISHANGDERENYUAN”, JIYI“SHANG”ZIQIANGDIAOLECHUANYUANDEKONGJIANWEIZHIYINGZAICHUANBOSHANG。LINGYIFANGMIAN, WOGUO《HAISHANGFA》DI35TIAOGUIDINGCHUANZHANG“FUZECHUANBODEGUANLIHEJIASHI”, WEIPAICHUANJICAOKONGRENYUANCHENGWEIFALVYIYISHANGCHUANZHANGDEKENENGXING。YOUCIKEJIAN, ANJICAOKONGRENYUANWANQUANJUBEICHENGWEIFALVYIYISHANGCHUANYUANDEKENENGXING, DANYEHUIYINQIYUCHANGGUICHUANCHUANYUANZAIKONGJIANWEIZHISHANGDECHAYIERYUXIANYOUFALVZHIDUFASHENGYIDINGCHONGTU。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   JISHISUOYOUGUIFANXINGFALVWENJIANJIANG“CHUANSHANG”DENGBIAOSHIFANGWEIDEZIYANQUCHU, HAIXUYAOCHULIANJICAOKONGRENYUANZHIXINGGUOJIGUIZEDEDIDIANWEIYULUDIDEWENTI。ZHENGGUILEWANGSHICOLREGGUIDINGDECHUANBOBIRANGXINGDONGZHIYI。GENJUCOLREGDI5TIAOHEWOGUO《HAICHUANCHUANYUANZHIBANGUIZE》DI21TIAODEGUIDING, CHANGGUICHUANDEZHENGGUILEWANGXUYAOPINGJIESHIJUE、TINGJUEDENGYIQIESHOUDUANBAOCHIGUANCHA, YIBIANDUIJUMIANHEPENGZHUANGWEIXIANZUOCHUGUJI。MUQIAN, CHANGGUICHUANDECHUANYUANKEYITONGGUOMUSHI、LEIDA、DIANZIDAOHANG、HUISHENGTANCEDENGDUOZHONGTUJINGJINXINGHAISHANGHANGXINGHUANJINGQINGKUANGDESHIBIE, CONGERDUIJUMIANJINXINGPINGGUBINGXUNSUZUOCHUPANDUAN。[7]GENJUMEIGUOZUIGAOFAYUANPANJUEDEChamberlain v.WardYIAN, ZHENGGUILEWANGBIXUYOUZHUANMENDECHUANYUANZAICHUANSHANGHESHIDEWEIZHIJINXING。ZHIDEQINGXINGDESHI, COLREGMEIYOUXIANZHILEWANGDEDIDIAN, SHUOMINGCOLREGYIMIAOSHUCHUANBOZHENGTIDEYIWUWEIZHU。YINCI, ZAICHONGFENQIEHESHIDEJISHUSHOUDUANZHICHIXIA, ANJICAOKONGRENYUANWANQUANKEYITONGGUOANSHANGLEWANGDADAOJIEJINHUOCHAOGUOCHUANYUANCHUANSHANGLEWANGDEXIAOGUO。

                              RANER, ANJICAOKONGRENYUANYUANZAIKONGZHIZHONGXINDEBANGONGSHINEI, RUHENENGSHIRENQUEXINANJICAOKONGRENYUANZAIWURENCHUANHANGXINGQIJIANQUESHIBUJIANDUANDISHISHILEZHENGGUILEWANG?SHIJIANZHONG, CHANGGUICHUANDECHUANYUANKEYITONGGUOBENCHUANYUTACHUANHUIYUSHIDETONGXINHUOTACHUANSUOCAIYONGDEXINHAOHUOBIRANGCUOSHILAIZHENGMINGZIJIQUESHILVXINGLELEWANGZHIZE。LIRU:ZAIYANXINGCHUANWUYOUXIANGONGSIYURONGCHENGSHISHANQIANYUYEGONGSICHUANBOPENGZHUANGJIUFENANZHONG, YUANSHENFAYUANRENWEI“ZAISHIGUFASHENGGUOCHENGZHONGYUANGAOYEWEINENGJUZHENGZHENGMINGGAIYUCHUANCAIQUHEZHONGJINGGAOHEBIRANGCUOSHI, BIAOMINGGAIYUCHUANZAILEWANG、BIRANGJIQITAFANGMIANYOUGUOSHI”。DUIYUWURENCHUANERYAN, LIANGCHUANJISUANJIXITONGJIAOHUXINXI、RENYUANTONGXINDENGDOUKEYIZHENGMINGANJICAOKONGRENYUANSHISHILEZHENGGUILEWANG。CHUCIZHIWAI, WEILAIKEYIKAOLVJIANGZHENDUIANJICAOKONGRENYUANDEDUOJIAODULUXIANGJIANDUSHEBEIZUOWEICHUANBOANQUANBIAOZHUNZHIYI, NARU《1974NIANGUOJIHAISHANGRENMINGANQUANGONGYUE》 (JIANCHENG“SOLAS”) DEBIAOZHUNTIXIZHONG。

                              1.2、 岸基操控人员与船员的配备数量差异

                            星云棋牌官网下载   SHANGYONGWURENCHUANKONGZHIJISHUMUQIANYIJINGSHIXIAN1GEKONGZHIMOKUAICAOKONGZHISHAO15SOUWURENCHUAN。[8]JIADING1GEKONGZHIMOKUAIYOU1MINGANJICAOKONGRENYUANFUZECAOZUOQIEKONGZHIMOKUAICAOKONG15SOUWURENCHUAN, ZEMEISOUWURENCHUANZHINENGFENPEIDAO1/15MINGANJICAOKONGRENYUAN。JISHIMEISOUWURENCHUANZHIXUYAOYOURENLEICONGSHILEWANG、BAOCHICHUANBOANQUANHANGXINGHEJIANKONGXITONGYUNXINGQINGKUANGDENG3XIANGGONGZUO, MEIXIANGGONGZUOYEZHINENGYOU1/45MINGANJICAOKONGRENYUANWANCHENG。RENYUANSUIRANBUNENGFENGE, RENDEJINGLIHUOZHUYILIQUEKEYIFENSAN。ZAI15SOUCHUANXUYAOTONGSHIZUOCHUBIRANGXINGDONGDEJIDUANQINGKUANGXIA, ZONGSHIANJICAOKONGRENYUANJUBEIZAIHAODECHUANYI, YEHENNANRANGRENXIANGXINTAKEYIWANQUANYINGFUJUMIAN。YOUCI, KAOLVDAOSHULIANGCHONGZUDECHUANYUANSHICHANGGUICHUANLIANGHAOCHUANYIDEYIGEFANGMIAN[7]325, PEIBEISHULIANGCHONGZUDEANJICAOKONGRENYUANDUIYUWURENCHUANTONGYANGZHONGYAO。

                              JIAOTONGYUNSHUBUZHIDINGDE《CHUANBOZUIDIANQUANPEIYUANGUIZE》GENJUCHUANBOLEIXING、HANGQU、DUNWEIHUOGONGLVFENBIEQUEDINGLECHUANBODEZUIDIANQUANPEIYUANBIAOZHUN。GENJU《CHUANBOZUIDIANQUANPEIYUANGUIZE》DI12TIAODEGUIDING, CHUANBOSUOYOURENKEYIXIANGHAISHIXINGZHENGZHUGUANBUMENSHENQINGJIANMIANCHUANBOPEIYUAN, SUOJIANMIANDECHUANYUANSHULIANGSHOUGAIGUIZE《ZUIDIANQUANPEIYUANBIAO》DEXIANZHI。YIWOGUO《HAICHUANJIABANBU、LUNJIBUHEKEYUNBUZUIDIANQUANPEIYUANBIAO》 (2016NIANXIUDING) GUIDINGDE3 000ZONGDUNYISHANGDEYIBANGUOJIHANGXINGCHUANBOWEILI:CILEICHUANBOYAOQIUPEIBEICHUANZHANG、DAFU、ERFU、SANFUGE1REN, GAOJIZHIBANSHUISHOU2REN, ZHIBANSHUISHOU1REN;RUGUOLIANXUHANGXINGSHIJIANBUCHAOGUO36 h, KEYIJIANMIANSANFUHEZHIBANSHUISHOUGE1REN。XINJIAPOYECAIYONGLEISIDELIFAXINGSHI, XINJIAPO《2017NIANSHANGCHUANHANGYUN (PEIXUN、FAZHENGHEPEIYUAN) GUIZE》DI13~16TIAOMINGQUEGUIDINGLEGELEICHUANBOJIABANBU、LUNJIBUDENGDECHUANYUANZUIDISHULIANG。CILEIPEIYUANGUIZEKEYITONGGUOMINGQUEANJICAOKONGRENYUANDEPEIBEISHULIANGJIQIXIANGYINGZHIZELAISHIYINGWURENCHUAN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YUWOGUOHEXINJIAPOBUTONG, YINGGUOYOUGUANZUIDIANQUANPEIYUANDEGUIDINGXIANGDUISHIYINGWURENCHUANDEFAZHANQUSHI。YINGGUO《2015NIANSHANGCHUANHANGYUN (PEIXUNBIAOZHUN、FAZHENGHEZHIBAN) GUIZE》DI46TIAODI3KUANGUIDING, WEIBIANYUCHUANBOZHIXINGYUQIHANGCHENG, CHUANBOSUOYOURENBIXUXIANGYINGGUOZHENGFUTIJIAOCHUANBOPEIYUANRENSHUHEDENGJIFANGMIANDEJIANYI, YIQUDEANQUANPEIYUANWENJIAN。YINCI, YINGGUOJIWURENCHUANSUOYOURENZAISHENQINGANQUANPEIYUANWENJIANSHI, RUONENGXIANGZHUGUANBUMENSHUOMINGWURENCHUANJISHUXIJIEHEPEIZHIANJICAOKONGRENYUANSHULIANGDELIYOU, QIEQIKEXINGXINGHEANQUANXINGDENGSHOUDAOZHUGUANBUMENDERENKE, ZEWURENCHUANKENENGHUODEYINGGUOZHENGFUDECHUHAIHANGXINGXUKE。

                              2、 船舶间的避让责任问题

                            星云棋牌官网下载   SUIRANCOLREGDI3TIAODINGYIDE“CHUANBO”ZHIDESHI“YONGZUOHUOZHENENGGOUYONGZUOSHUISHANGYUNSHUGONGJUDEGELEISHUISHANGCHUANFA”, BINGWEIMINGQUEPAICHUWURENCHUAN, DANYOUYUCOLREGDENGGUOJIGUIZEGUIZHICHANGGUICHUANDELIFABENYI, WEISHIYINGWURENCHUANERDAFANWEIDIAOZHENGGUOJIGUIZEDECHENGBENYOUGUOGAO。YINCI, RUOCANKAOXIANYOUGUIZEZHIDINGSHIYONGYUWURENCHUANDEGUIZE, CONGGUIZETIXIWENDINGXINGHEJINGJIXINGDEJIAODUKAOLVKENENGGENGYIWEIGEGUOJIESHOU。KEYICONGCOLREGZERENDENGJIZHIDURUSHOU[4], MINGQUEWURENCHUANHETACHUANDEBIPENGZEREN, JINERJIEJUEWURENCHUANCANYUHAISHANGJIAOTONGHUODONGKENENGCHANSHENGDEANQUANWENTI。LIRU:TONGGUOFUYUQIJIAOGAOJIBIEDE“BEIRANGLUQUAN”SHIXIANYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJIANMIANWURENCHUANBIRANGZERENDEXIAOGUO。[7]330

                              2.1、 COLREG的责任等级制度

                              CHUYUBAOZHANGHAISHANGHANGXINGANQUANDEMUDE, ANZHAOCHUANBOHANGXINGNENGLI、SUOCONGSHIDEGONGZUODENGYINSUDEBUTONG, GUIDINGBUTONGLEIXINGDECHUANBOLVXINGBUTONGDEBIRANGYIWU、CHENGDANDAXIAOBUTONGDEANQUANZEREN, CONGERXINGCHENGJUYOUCENGCIXINGTEZHENGDEZERENDENGJIZHIDU。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   COLREGDEZERENDENGJIZHIDUSHIZHISHANGSHIYIZHONGHAISHANGJIAOTONGRANGLUZHIDU。CAOZONGNENGLISHOUDAOXIANZHIDECHUANBO (JIANCHENG“CAOXIANCHUAN”) HESHIQUKONGZHIDECHUANBO (JIANCHENG“SHIKONGCHUAN”) XIANGYOUZUIGAOJIBIEDE“BEIRANGLUQUAN”, JIDONGCHUANZEXIANGYOUZUIDIJIBIEDE“BEIRANGLUQUAN”。ZAILUSHANGJIAOTONGLINGYU, LUQUANKEYIJIESHIWEIJIAOTONGCANYUREN (JIDONGCHE、FEIJIDONGCHE、XINGRENDENG) GENJUFALVGUIDINGSUOXIANGYOUDEZAIYIDINGKONGJIANHESHIJIANFANWEINEISHIYONGDAOLUJINXINGJIAOTONGHUODONGDEQUANLI[9], KEXIFENWEITONGXINGQUAN、XIANXINGQUANDENG。YIWOGUODAOLUJIAOTONGFALVZHONGDE“LIRANGXINGREN”ZHIDUWEILI:CHUYUBAOZHANGDAOLUJIAOTONGANQUANDEMUDE, FALVXIANZHIJIDONGCHEZAIXINGRENCHUANYUEDAOLUSHIDELINSHITONGXINGQUAN, TONGSHIFUYUXINGRENCHUANYUEDAOLUDEXIANXINGQUAN。ZAIWURENCHUANCANYUHAISHANGJIAOTONGHUODONGSHIYEKEJIEJIANGAIZUOFA, JIZAICOLREGZERENDENGJIZHIDUXIAWEIWURENCHUANQUEDING“BEIRANGLUQUAN”, JIYUWURENCHUANSHIDANGDEZHAOGU。

                              2.2、 无人船视同失控船

                            星云棋牌官网下载   JIANGWURENCHUANSHIWEISHIKONGCHUAN, FUYUQISHIDANGDEQUANLIBINGYAOQIUQICHENGDANXIANGYINGDEYIWUJUYOUYIDINGHELIXING: (1) DANGYIMINGANJICAOKONGRENYUANCAOKONGDUOSOUWURENCHUANSHI, ANJICAOKONGRENYUANSUOTOURUDEJINGLIKENENGWUFAFENPEIDAOSUOYOUWURENCHUAN, QILISUOBUNENGJIDEWURENCHUANZAIZAOYUWEIXIANHUOJINPOJUMIANSHIDEFANYINGSHIJISHANGSHIANJICAOKONGRENYUANBUNENGKONGZHIDE; (2) WANQUANYOUCHUANBOKONGZHIXITONGZIZHUCAOKONGDEWURENCHUAN, QIXINGWEIBINGBUSHOURENLEIKONGZHI; (3) RUGUOSHEBEIGUZHANGHUOSUNHUAIDECHANGGUICHUANBUNENGANZHAOYUQIYUNZHUANSHIKEYISHIWEISHIKONGCHUAN, ZEKONGZHIXITONGFASHENGGUZHANGSHIDEWURENCHUANYEYINGDANGSHIWEISHIKONGCHUAN; (4) YUANJIKONGZHIZHONGXINTONGXINFASHENGZHONGDUANDEYOUQISHIYUANCHENGCAOKONGDEWURENCHUAN, KEYISHIWEISHIKONGCHUAN。RUGUOCOLREGBAWURENCHUANJIEDINGWEIJUYOUZUIGAO“BEIRANGLUQUAN”DESHIKONGCHUAN, ZEZAIWURENCHUANNENGGOUFACHUCOLREGGUIDINGDEDENGHAODEQIANTIXIA, WURENCHUANHUIHUODEQITASUOYOUYUZHIHUIYUCHANGGUICHUANDERANGLUDAIYU。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   JIANGWURENCHUANSHIWEISHIKONGCHUANSUIRANNENGGOUZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJIEJUEHAISHANGJIAOTONGANQUANWENTI, DANYECUNZAIMINGXIANBUZU: (1) CUNZAIDAODEFENGXIANWENTI。RUGUOZAIFALVSHANGQUEDINGWURENCHUANWEISHIKONGCHUAN, ZECHUCAOXIANCHUANZHIWAIDECHUANBODOUYAOWEIQIRANGLU, ZHEIYIWEIZHEWURENCHUANKONGZHIXITONGDEKAIFARENYUAN、CHUANBOSUOYOUREN、ANJICAOKONGRENYUANJIANGJIHUBUXUYAOKAOLVWURENCHUANWEITACHUANRANGLUDEWENTI。RANER, YUCOLREGGUIDINGDESHIKONGCHUANBUTONGDESHI, “SHIKONG”DEWURENCHUANDESHEBEIRENGNENGZHENGCHANGYUNZUO。YINCI, BUNENGPAICHUCUNZAIYIZHONGKENENGXING, JIWEIMOUQULIYIERLIYONGWURENCHUANJIAOGAO“BEIRANGLUQUAN”DEYOUSHIYIJIWURENCHUANZHUJISHEBEIJUNZHENGCHANGKEYONGDEXIANSHITIAOJIAN, GUYIZAOCHENGWURENCHUANYURANGLUCHUANZHIJIANCHANSHENGPENGZHUANGWEIXIANHUOJINPOJUMIANDEKENENGXING。 (2) CUNZAIFENGXIANBUJINDEWENTI。CAOXIANCHUANYUSHIKONGCHUAN (WURENCHUAN) HUOSHIKONGCHUANYUSHIKONGCHUAN (WURENCHUAN) XIANGYUSHI, RENGXUYAOLIANGZHEYUNYONGLIANGHAOCHUANYICAIQUXINGDONGYIBIMIANPENGZHUANG。

                              2.3、 无人船视同操限船

                              COLREGDINGYIDECAOXIANCHUANZHUYAOYOUQIGONGZUOXINGZHIJUEDING。[4]GENJUCOLREGDI3TIAODI7KUAN, CONGSHISHUJUN、HAIYANGCEHUI、TUODAI、PUSHEGUANDAODENGZUOYEDECHUANBOSHUYUCAOXIANCHUAN。CONGSHICILEIZUOYEDEWURENCHUANHAOWUYIWENYINGDANGSHIWEICAOXIANCHUAN。

                              JIANGWURENCHUANSHIWEICAOXIANCHUANDEHELIXINGZAIYU, BAOKUOWEIXINGTONGXINZAINEIDEGEZHONGYANCHIYINSUDEJIANDANDIEJIAKENENGDAOZHIWURENCHUANDECAOKONGJIAOZHICHANGGUICHUANGENGSHOUXIANZHI。LIRU:CHUANBOZAIHAISHANGHANGXINGQIJIANDESHUJUCHUANSHUZHUYAOLIYONGWEIXINGTONGXIN, ERWEIXINGTONGXINYOUSHOUDUOPULEPINPIAN[10]、YUXUE[11]、DUOJINGXIAOYING[12]DENGYINSUZHIYUE, YINCIWEIXINGSHUJUDECHUANSHUSHOUDAOYIXILIEXIANZHI。ZAIDUOZHONGYINSUYINGXIANGXIA, WURENCHUANYUANJICAOKONGZHONGXINZHIJIANDETONGXINKENENGCHUXIANJIAODAYANCHI, RUHANGXINGHUANJINGXINXISHUJU (GAOQINGSHIPIN、GAOXIANGSUTUPIANDENG) CHUANSHUDECHIYANHETONGXINZHILINGCHUANSHUDECHIYANDENG。CIWAI, HAICUNZAIRENDEFANYINGSHIJIAN、JISUANJICHULISHUJUDESHIJIANHECHUANBOZHIXINGMINGLINGBENSHENDEFANYINGSHIJIANDENGQITAYINGXIANG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   JIANGWURENCHUANSHIWEICAOXIANCHUANYECUNZAIMINGXIANBUZU: (1) SUIZHEHANGHAIJISHU、TONGXINJISHUHEJISUANJIJISHUDEFAZHANJINBU, GELEIYANCHIYINSUDUIRENLEICAOZONGWURENCHUANNENGLIDEYINGXIANGJIANGZHUBUJIANXIAOSHENZHIXIAOSHI。YIFANGMIAN, ZAIYINGXIANGXIAOCHUHOUJIXUJIANGWURENCHUANSHIWEICAOXIANCHUANDUICHANGGUICHUANBUGONGPING;LINGYIFANGMIAN, ZAI“SHIKONGCHUAN”YU“JIDONGCHUAN”ZHIJIANFANFUDIAOZHENGWURENCHUANDEFALVDIWEI, WUXINGZHIJIANHUIDALIANGZENGJIAGEGUOZHENGFUHEHANGYUNQIYEDEYUNYINGCHENGBEN。 (2) ZAIMIANDUICHUANBOPENGZHUANGWEIXIANHUOJINPOJUMIANSHI, YOUCHUANBOKONGZHIXITONGZIZHUKONGZHIDEWURENCHUANSHENZHIKENENGBIYOUCHUANYUANZHIJIECAOZUODECHANGGUICHUANDEFANYINGSUDUGENGKUAI, JIANGZHEILEIWURENCHUANSHIWEICAOXIANCHUANBUHELI; (3) TONGWEI“CAOXIANCHUAN”DEWURENCHUANZHIJIANDEBIRANGZERENNANYIQUEDING。

                              3、 船舶碰撞后的责任问题

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CHUANBOFASHENGPENGZHUANGHOU, XUYAOYOUGUANZERENRENCHENGDANDEZEREN, CHUQINQUANZERENZHIWAIHAIBAOKUOJIUZHUZERENNAIZHIXINGSHIZEREN。WEIBIANYUFENXI, JIADINGWURENCHUANHEANJICAOKONGRENYUANFENBIESHUYUWOGUOFALVXIADECHUANBOHECHUANZHANG。

                              3.1、 侵权责任

                            星云棋牌官网下载   GENJU《HAISHANGFA》DI168HE169TIAODEGUIDING, DANGWURENCHUANYUTACHUANFASHENGPENGZHUANGSHI, YOUCUNZAIGUOCUODEYIFANGCHENGDANPEICHANGZEREN, HUOYOUDISANFANGCHENGDANRENYUANHUOCAICHANSUNSHIDEPEICHANGZEREN。RANER, RENGONGZHINENGJIERUCHUANBOCAOKONGZHIHOU, CHUANBOPENGZHUANGZERENHUIGENGWEIFUZA。

                              3.1.1、 无人船控制系统原因

                              WURENCHUANJISHUDEJICHUSHIQIKONGZHIXITONG:YIFANGMIAN, WURENCHUANKONGZHIXITONGXUYAOCHULIYOULEIDA、DIANZIHAITUXITONGDENGCAIJIDEHANGXINGHUANJINGXINXI, HUOZHIJIEJIANGSUOCAIJIDEXINXICHUANSHUJIANJICAOKONGRENYUAN;LINGYIFANGMIAN, WURENCHUANKONGZHIXITONGKENENGXUYAOZHIJIEGENJUHANGXINGHUANJINGZUOCHUHANGXINGJUECE。KONGZHIXITONGYIDANFASHENGCUOWU, SHIBIHUIYINGXIANGHANGXINGJUECE, JINERDAOZHICHUANBOZUOCHUCUOWUXINGDONGBINGYINQIJINPOJUMIANSHENZHIPENGZHUANGSHIGU。

                              TACHUAN、RENYUANHUOCAICHANSUNSHIDEPEICHANGZEREN, YINGYOUZUOCHUCUOWUXINGDONGDEWURENCHUANCHENGDAN。DUIYUYOUWURENCHUANKONGZHIXITONGCUOWUDAOZHIDEPEICHANGZERENDEZUIZHONGGUISHU, BIZHERENWEIYINGQUFENKAOLV:QIYI, RUGUOSHIYOUYUKONGZHIXITONGDEGUYOUQUEXIANSHIWURENCHUANZUOCHUCUOWUXINGDONGERDAOZHITACHUAN、RENYUANHUOCAICHANSUNSHI, ZEKEYIGENJU《CHANPINZHILIANGFA》DI26TIAODEGUIDINGYOUXITONGKAIFAZHECHENGDANCHANPINZHILIANGZEREN, YIHUOGENJU《HETONGFA》DI262TIAODEGUIDINGYAOQIUXITONGKAIFAZHECHENGDANWEIYUEZEREN;QIER, RUGUOKONGZHIXITONGBUCUNZAIZHILIANGXIACIQIEXITONGCUOWUSHIZAISHIYONGQIJIANCHANSHENGDE, ANZHAOGUOCUOZERENYUANZEZUIZHONGZERENYINGYOUCUNZAIGUOCUODEYIFANGCHENGDAN (RUGUOANJICAOKONGRENYUANYOUNENGLIXIUFUXITONGGUZHANGERWEIXIUFU, ZECHUANBOSUOYOURENXUYAOCHENGDANZEREN;RUGUOANJICAOKONGRENYUANWEIANCAOZUOSHUOMINGZHENGCHANGSHIYONG, ZECHUANBOSUOYOURENXUYAOCHENGDANZEREN;RUGUOXITONGKAIFAZHEWEIJISHIGENGXINXIUBUXITONGLOUDONGQIEGAILOUDONGYUSHIGUZHIJIANCUNZAIYINGUOLIANXI, ZEKAIFAZHEXUYAOCHENGDANXIANGYINGZERENDENG) 。

                              3.1.2、 第三人原因

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YOUKAIFAZHEKAIFADEWURENCHUANKONGZHIXITONGYUSUOYOUJISUANJIXITONGHUOCHENGXUYIYANG, DOUKENENGCUNZAIANQUANLOUDONG。KAOLVDAOCHUANBOBENSHENJICHUANSHANGHUOWUJIAZHIGAOANG, HENKENENGYOUDISANRENFEIFAQINRUWURENCHUANKONGZHIXITONG, JINERQUDEWURENCHUANKONGZHIQUANMOUQUCHUANHUOCAICHAN, HUOZHELIYONGQUDEWURENCHUANKONGZHIQUANDEJIANXIPOHUAIWURENCHUANKONGZHIXITONGJICHUANSHANGSHEBEIYIDADAOSUNHUITARENCAICHANDEMUDE。RUOKEYIZHENGMINGCHUANBOPENGZHUANGSHIYOUDISANRENZAOCHENGDE, GENJU《QINQUANZERENFA》DI28TIAODEGUIDING, GAIDISANRENYINGDANGCHENGDANPENGZHUANGZEREN。

                              3.1.3、 肇事船舶的识别

                              DANGWURENCHUANYUCHANGGUICHUANHUOWURENCHUANZHIJIANFASHENGPENGZHUANGSHI, RUGUOYOUYUWURENCHUANBUPEIBEIJIUSHENGSHEBEIERBUNENGSHIJIU, HUOZHESUIRANWURENCHUANYOUTIAOJIANTIGONGJIUSHENGSHEBEIQUEBUZUYIZHICHENGTACHUANCHUANYUANSHENGCUNDAOHUODEZHENGSHIJIUYUANWEIZHI, CONGERDAOZHISHIGUCHUANBOCHUANYUANSHIZONGHUOSIWANG, ZEZHAOSHICHUANBODESHIBIEHUICUNZAIKUNNAN。DANGRAN, SHIJIANZHONGKEYITONGGUOCHUANBOHANGJIJINXINGPANDUAN, RU:SO-LASDIⅤZHANGDI19TIAODI2.5.5KUANGUIDINGDEZIDONGGENZONGYIDUICHUANBOWEIZHIJINXINGBIAOZHUJILUDENG。RUGUOLIANGCHUANZAITONGYISHIJIANCHUYUXIANGTONGWEIZHI, YEJISHUXUEYIYISHANGLIANGDIAN (DAIZHICHUANBO) JIANDEJULIWEILING, ZERENWEITAMENFASHENGLEPENGZHUANG。

                              3.2、 救助责任

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIGUOQUYIBAINIANLI, CHUANZHANGCENGFUYOUJIEDAI、MAIMAIHUOWU、GUYONGCHUANYUANDENGDALIANGZHIZE。SUIZHEZIBENJIEGOU、HANGHAIHETONGXINJISHUDENGDEFAZHANBIANHUA, CHUANZHANGZHIZEZHENGXUNSUWEISUO[13], DANYOUYIXIANGZHIZEZAIKEYUJIANDEWEILAIBUHUIQINGYIBEIMIANCHU———WEIHAISHANGYUXIANRENYUANTIGONGJIUZHUDEZEREN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIGUOJITIAOYUECENGMIAN:UNCLOSDI98TIAODI1KUANDI3XIANGGUIDING, ZAICHUANBOFASHENGPENGZHUANGHOU, ZAIBUYANZHONGWEIJIBENCHUANDEQINGKUANGXIA, CHUANZHANGYINGDUILINGYISOUCHUAN、CHUANYUANHECHENGKEJIYUJIUZHU;SOLASDIⅤZHANGDI33TIAODI1KUANGUIDING, CHUYUNENGGOUTIGONGYUANZHUWEIZHIDECHUANZHANGZAISHOUDAOYUXIANXINXIHOUYOUYIWUXUNSUQIANWANGJIUYUAN。ZAIGEGUOGUONEIFACENGMIAN:YINGGUO《1995NIANSHANGCHUANHANGYUNFA》DI92TIAO、XINJIAPO《1996NIANSHANGCHUANHANGYUNFA》DI106TIAO、AODALIYA《2012NIANHANGHAIFA》DI181TIAODENGJUNYOUGUIDING, CHUANZHANGZAIFASHENGCHUANBOPENGZHUANGHOUYOUYIWUJINLITIGONGJIUZHU;WOGUO《HAISHANGFA》DI174TIAOSUIWEIMINGQUESHUOMINGCHUANBOFASHENGPENGZHUANGHOUCHUANZHANGDEJIUZHUZEREN, DANYEYAOQIUCHUANZHANGJINLIJIUZHURENMING。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIXIANXINGZHIDUXIA, ZUOWEICHUANZHANGJIAOSETIDAIZHEDEANJICAOKONGRENYUANZAIFASHENGCHUANBOPENGZHUANGHOUSHIFOUYOUTIGONGJIUZHUDEYIWU?BIZHERENWEIQUJUEYULIANGGETIAOJIAN。SHOUXIANQUJUEYUANJICAOKONGRENYUANYUFALVYIYISHANGDECHUANZHANGJIAOSEZHIJIANDELIANXICHENGDU。[7]330XINJIAPO《1996NIANSHANGCHUANHANGYUNFA》DI2TIAOHEYINGGUO《1995NIANSHANGCHUANHANGYUNFA》DI313TIAOJUNDINGYICHUANZHANGSHICHUYINHANGYUANYIWAIKONGZHI (having command[of]) HUOZHUGUAN ([having]charge of) CHUANBODEREN。CIWAI, GENJUWOGUODE《CHUANYUANTIAOLI》DI35TIAO“CHUANZHANG, SHIZHIYIZHAOBENTIAOLIDEGUIDINGQUDECHUANZHANGRENZHIZIGE, FUZEGUANLIHEZHIHUICHUANBODERENYUAN”, WOGUOBINGWEIPAICHUANJICAOKONGRENYUANCHENGWEICHUANZHANGDEKENENGXING。ZHEISHIYINWEI, RUGUOANJICAOKONGRENYUANQUDECHUANZHANGRENZHIZIGEBINGQUESHIFUZEZHIHUIHEGUANLIWURENCHUAN, JIUFUHEGAITIAODUICHUANZHANGDEDINGYI。CIYAOTIAOJIANSHIWURENCHUANYINGNENGGOUQUESHITIGONGHAISHANGJIUZHU, JIWURENCHUANYINGANZHAOSOLASDEYAOQIUPEIZHISHIDANGDEJIUSHENGSHEBEI。GENJUJIAOTONGYUNSHUBUBANBUDE《CHUANBOZUIDIANQUANPEIYUANGUIZE》DI9TIAODEGUIDING“……CHUANSHANGZONGRENSHUBUDECHAOGUO……JIUSHENGSHEBEIDINGYUANBIAOZHUN”, WURENCHUANJIANGBUZAIPEIBEICHUANYUAN, WURENCHUANZIRANYEBUHUIZAIPEIZHIJIUSHENGSHEBEI。[2]147WEILAIWEISHIYINGWURENCHUANFAZHANJINXINGZHIDUGENGXINSHI, YINGSHIDANGKAOLVWURENCHUANWEIJIUZHUTARENERPEIZHIJIUSHENGSHEBEIDEXUYAO。

                              3.3、 刑事责任

                              CHUANBOPENGZHUANGSHIGUYEKENENGSHEJIXINGSHIZERENWENTI。SHIJUYILI:ZAIGUOJIHAISHITIAOYUEWEIYAOQIUWURENCHUANPEIZHIJIUSHENGSHESHIDEBEIJINGXIA, 1SOUWURENCHUANYU1SOUCHANGGUICHUANZAIGONGHAIFASHENGPENGZHUANG, PENGZHUANGSHIGUZAOCHENGCHANGGUICHUANYICEFASHENGSUNSHANGQIEYOUCHENMEIDEWEIXIAN, CHUANYUANSUITIAOSHUITAOSHENG。WURENCHUANJIESHOUANJICAOKONGRENYUANZHILINGYUNXUTAOSHENGCHUANYUANSHANGCHUAN, DANBUFENSHOUSHANGCHUANYUANYINWURENCHUANSHANGWEIPEIBEIDANSHUI、SHIWUHEYILIAOSHESHIERSIWANG。

                              3.3.1、 责任主体

                              CHANGGUICHUANFASHENGZHONGDAHAISHANGJIAOTONGSHIGUHOU, YINGYOUZERENZHECHENGDANXIANGYINGDEXINGSHIZEREN。ZERENZHEBAOKUOCHUANZHANG、JIASHIYUANYIJIQITAXIANGGUANRENYUAN。RUGUOWURENCHUANYOUANJICAOKONGRENYUANCAOKONG, ZAIFUHEWOGUO《XINGFA》DI133TIAOYOUGUANJIAOTONGZHAOSHIZUIGOUCHENGYAOJIANDEQIANTIXIA, ANJICAOKONGRENYUANYOUKENENGHUIBEIZHUIJIUXINGSHIZEREN。RANER, WANQUANZIZHUCAOKONGDEWURENCHUANSUOZAOCHENGDEZHONGDAHAISHANGJIAOTONGSHIGUDEXINGSHIZERENZENANYIQUEDING。YIFANGMIANCILEIWURENCHUANMEIYOURENLEIJIASHIYUAN, ZHUIJIUBUJUYOURENGEDEKONGZHIXITONGDEXINGSHIZERENKENENGBUFUHEYIBANFALI。LINGYIFANGMIAN“JIAOTONGZHAOSHIZUI”BINGBUSHIDANWEIFANZUI, JISHIYOUGUANDANWEIYUGAIJIAOTONGSHIGUDEFASHENGCUNZAIZHIJIEYINGUOGUANXI, YENANYIZHUIJIUDANWEIDEXINGSHIZEREN。ZHIYOUXIANGWURENCHUANKONGZHIXITONGFACHUHANGXINGMUBIAOZHILINGDERENYUANCAIYOUCHENGDANXINGSHIZERENDEKENENGXING, DANGAILEIRENYUANFACHUHANGXINGMUBIAOZHILINGDEXINGWEISHIFOUYUJIAOTONGSHIGUCUNZAIZHIJIEYINGUOGUANXIYOUDAISHANGQUE。CIWAI, KAOLVDAOKONGZHIXITONGKAIFAZHEBUZHIJIECANYUWURENCHUANDEJIASHI, KENENGBUYIANZHAOWOGUO《XINGFA》DI133TIAODEGUIDINGZHUIJIUQI“JIAOTONGZHAOSHIZUI”。

                              3.3.2、 司法管辖权

                              DANGCHANGGUICHUANFASHENGPENGZHUANGSHEJIXINGSHICHENGXUSHI, JUYOUXINGSHISIFAGUANXIAQUANDEGUOJIAFENWEIYIXIALIANGLEI: (1) ZAIGONGHAISHANGFASHENGDECHUANBOPENGZHUANGSHIGU, GENJUUNCLOSDI97TIAODEGUIDINGYOUCHUANQIGUOHUOFANZUIXIANYIRENGUOJIGUOXINGSHIGUANXIAQUAN; (2) ZAIYIGUOLINGHAIFASHENGDECHUANBOPENGZHUANGSHIGU, GENJUSHUDIGUANXIAYUANZE, PENGZHUANGXINGWEIDIFASHENGGUOYOUQUANGUANXIA。

                              WURENCHUANDUIXINGSHISIFAGUANXIAQUANTONGYANGJUYOUYIDINGYINGXIANG, LIRU: (1) ANJICAOKONGRENYUANBUZAICHUANSHANG, BUNENGJISHIYUYIKONGZHI, QIEDUIWURENCHUANXINGDONGKONGZHICUOSHIDEQUEDINGCUNZAIYIDINGNANDU; (2) GENJUWOGUO《XINGFA》DI6~8TIAODEGUIDING, ZHENDUIYOUGUANWURENCHUANFANZUIDEGUANXIAQUANLIANJIEDIANJIAODUO, BAOHANANJICAOKONGRENYUANGUOJIGUO、PENGZHUANGXINGWEIDIGUO、FANZUIXIANYIRENGUOJIGUO、SHOUHAIRENGUOJIGUODENG。RUOPENGZHUANGFASHENGDIWEIYUGONGHAIQIEWURENCHUANDEGUOJIGUOSHISIFAGUANXIANENGLIHEQUDONGLIJIAORUODEFANGBIANQIGUOJIA, FANZUIXIANYIRENKENENGJIEZHUCHUANBOSUOYOURENZAIGAIGUODEYINGXIANGLIGUIBICHENGFA, BINGBULIYUSHOUHAIRENDEQUANYIBAOHU。

                              4、 相关责任的应对建议

                              4.1、 明确“船员”和“船舶”相应法律地位

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YINGDUIWURENCHUANPENGZHUANGXIANGGUANZERENDEGUANJIANSHIYAOJIEJUE“CHUAN”YU“REN”DEWENTI, JIWURENCHUANHEANJICAOKONGRENYUANDEFALVDIWEIWENTI。QIANZHESHICOLREGDESHIYONGDIAOZHENGDUIXIANG, HOUZHESHICOLREGDENGGUOJIHAISHITIAOYUEDEZHIXINGZHUTI。

                              4.1.1、 明确岸基操控人员的法律地位

                            星云棋牌官网下载   MINGQUESHEISHIWURENCHUANDE“CHUANZHANG”SHIYINGDUIWURENCHUANPENGZHUANGXIANGGUANZERENDEHEXINWENTIZHIYI。JISHISHICHANGGUICHUANDECHUANZHANGYEBUYIDINGSHIKEDOUZAIJIASHITAISHANG。[7]329ZHENGRUGEGUOFALVDUICHUANZHANGDEDINGYI, CHUANZHANGSHIFUZECHUANBOANQUANHANGXINGDECHUANSHANGZHIJIZUIGAODERENYUAN, ZHEIYIJIAOSEDEHEXINZAIYUDUICHUANBODEKONGZHINENGLI。WEILAI, YOUGUOJIHAISHITIAOYUE、GUONEIFALVHUOXIGUANFAQUEDINGDECHUANZHANGZHIZEHEYIWUSHIBIYAOFENSANDAOQITARENYUANDESHENSHANG, RU:ANJICAOKONGRENYUANKENENGJIANGCHENGDANCHUANZHANGDEZHIHUIZHIZE、HAISHANGJIUZHUZERENDENG。CIWAI, KAOLVDAOANJICAOKONGRENYUANYUCHUANTONGCHUANZHANGJIAOSEGONGZUODIDIANDEQUBIE, TAMENCHENGDANFENGXIAN、GUIBIFENGXIANHECONGSHIGONGZUODETIAOJIANYEBUXIANGTONG。HUANYANZHI, ANJICAOKONGRENYUANXIANGYOUDEQUANLIHEBIXUCHENGDANDEYIWUYEYINGYOUSUOQUBIE。[4]

                              4.1.2、 明确无人船的法律地位

                            星云棋牌官网下载   JIEHEBENWENDUIWURENCHUANSHIYONGCOLREGZERENDENGJIZHIDUDELUNSHU, BIZHERENWEIYIDAOQIEDIBAWURENCHUANSHIWEISHIKONGCHUANHUOCAOXIANCHUANDEZUOFA, CUNZAIJIAODUOBUZUZHICHU, ERQIEHUIYUHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUFALVZHIDUCHANSHENGMINGXIANCHONGTU。GENJU《1924NIANTONGYITIDANDERUOGANFALVGUIZEDEGUOJIGONGYUE》 (JIANCHENG《HAIYAGUIZE》) DI3TIAODI1KUANDEGUIDING, CHUANBOZAIKAIHANGQIANHEKAIHANGSHIBIXUCHUYUSHIHANGZHUANGTAI。YIJIANGWURENCHUANSHIWEISHIKONGCHUANWEILI:YINWEISHIKONGCHUANZHIDESHICUNZAIMOUZHONGYICHANGERBUNENGANZHAOCOL-REGDEGETIAOGUIZECAOKONGYIBIRANGTACHUANDECHUANBO, SUOYICHUANBOSUOYOURENKENENGLIYONGWURENCHUANDESHIKONGCHUANDIWEI, DAIYULVXINGCHUANBOSHIHANGYIWU, BUZAIKAIHANGSHIHUOKAIHANGQIANPAICHUYIJINGZHENSHICUNZAIDE“YICHANG”, ZHEIJIANGZHIJIEDAOZHIZAIHAISHANGHANGXINGRIQUANQUANKEKAODEXINGSHIXIA, CHUANBOSUOYOURENQUEBAOCHUANBOSHIHANGDEZERENBUDUANJIANQING, HUOWUSUOYOURENDEFENGXIANZEBUJIANFANZENG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CONGCUJINWURENCHUANFAZHANDEJIAODUCHUFA, BIZHERENWEIKEYIWEIWURENCHUANSHEJIYIZHONGJIAOWEITESHUDEZHIDU:ZAICOLREGDEKUANGJIAXIA, LINGHUOGUIDINGWURENCHUANDEFALVDIWEI, JIGUIDINGQIZAIKAIHANGSHIHUOKAIHANGQIANSHUYUJIDONGCHUAN, ERZAIBAOYU、BAOXUEDENGJIDUANTESHUQINGKUANGXIASHUYUSHIKONGCHUANHUOCAOXIANCHUAN。DANGRAN, ZAIZAOYUJIDUANTESHUQINGKUANGSHI, WURENCHUANBENSHENYINGYOUNENGLIBIAOMINGQISHIKONGCHUANHUOCAOXIANCHUANSHENFEN。[7]317

                              4.2、 调整国际海事条约的规定

                              GUOJITIAOYUEDEZHIDINGHUOXIUGAIYIBANXUYAOJINGGUOGEGUODUOCICUOSHANGHEBOYI, RANHOUWANCHENGGEDIYUEGUOGUONEIFALVCHENGXUCAINENGDUIGAIGUOSHENGXIAO。ZHEIYIGUOCHENGWANGWANGXUYAOHAOFEIDALIANGSHIJIAN。XIANGBIZHIXIA, GUOJIHAISHITIAOYUEDEMOSHIJIESHOUZHIDUWEIGUIZEDEKUAISUXIUZHENGTIGONGLEBIANLI。

                              MOSHIJIESHOUZHIDUZAIIMOKUANGJIAXIADEGUOJIHAISHITIAOYUEZHONGYOUGUANGFANDEDINGLIJICHU, RU《1978NIANHAIYUANPEIXUN、FAZHENGHEZHIBANBIAOZHUNGONGYUE》DI12TIAODI1KUAN、SOLASDI8TIAODI2KUAN、COLREGDI6TIAODI4KUANDENG。COLREGDI6TIAODI4KUANGUIDING:“GAIXIANGXIUZHENGANYINGZAIDAHUITONGGUOSHISUOJUEDINGDERIQISHENGXIAO, CHUFEI……YOUSANFENZHIYIYISHANGDEDIYUEFANGTONGZHIBENZUZHIFANDUIGAIXIUZHENGAN……”ZHEIZHONGZHIDUKEYIKEFUFALVZHIHOUYUJISHUFAZHANDEWENTI, ZAIJIAODUANSHIJIANNEIWANCHENGGUOJIHAISHITIAOYUEDEJISHUGUIZEDEXIUZHENGHUODIAOZHENG。ZHIYAOGEGUOZHENGFUZAIIMOKUANGJIANEIJIURUOGANJISHUGUIZEDEXIUDINGXINGCHENGYIZHIYIJIAN, ZHEIXIEXIUDINGJIUKEYIKUAISUDUIGEGUOCHANSHENGXIAOLI。

                              BIZHERENWEI, KEYILIYONGCOLREGDENGGUOJIHAISHITIAOYUEZHONGGUIDINGDEMOSHIJIESHOUZHIDU, YICHENGSHUDEWURENCHUANJISHUWEIJICHU, DUIZHENGGUILEWANG、CHUANBODINGYI、JIUZHUYIWU、COLREGZERENDENGJI (FALVDIWEILINGHUOBIANHUADEWURENCHUAN) 、ANJICAOKONGRENYUANPEIXUN、JIUSHENGSHEBEIDENGFANGMIANDEGUIDINGZUOSHIYINGWURENCHUANFAZHANDEXIUDING。

                              4.3、 建立针对无人船的约束机制

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CHANGGUICHUANFASHENGPENGZHUANGSHIGUHOU, XIANGGUANGUOJIAZHUGUANBUMENKENENGHUICAIYONGKOUYACHUANBODENGFANGSHIKONGZHISHESHICHUANHECHUANSHANGRENYUANYIBIANHOUXUDIAOCHA。DUIYUCHANGGUISHESHICHUAN, ZHUGUANJIGUANCAIQUQIANGZHICUOSHIHOUWANGWANGKEYIQUDEJIAOHAODEXIAOGUO, QIYUANYINZAIYUCHANGGUICHUANDECAOKONGYOUCHUANSHANGRENYUANFUZE, KONGZHILECHUANYUANDEXINGDONGJIUXIANGDANGYUKONGZHILECHUANBODEXINGDONG。

                              WURENCHUANZEKENENGYOUCHUANSHANGKONGZHIXITONGFUZECAOKONGHUOYOUANJICAOKONGRENYUANYUANCHENGCAOKONG。RUGUOCAIYONGDUANDIANDENGJIDUANCUOSHITINGZHIWURENCHUANDEXINGDONG, YOUKENENGCHANSHENGSUNHUAICHUANZAIHUOWUDENGHOUGUO。WEIJINYIBUDUCUWEILAIWURENCHUANDEANJICAOKONGRENYUAN、CHUANBOSUOYOURENDENGJINSHENJIANKONGWURENCHUANDEXINGDONG, BIZHERENWEIKEYITONGGUOIMOKUANGJIAGOUJIANZHENDUIWURENCHUANDEYUESHUJIZHI。YOUGUANJIZHIDESHISHIFANGANJIANYIRUXIA:ZAISOLASZHONGZENGJIA“JINJIQINGKUANGXIAHUOQUWURENCHUANDECAOKONGQUANXIAN”DEGUIZE。GAIGUIZEBAOKUOCAOKONGQUANXIANDEHUOQUHEJUJUEYIJIAOCAOKONGQUANXIANDEFANZHICUOSHILIANGGEBUFEN:ZAIFASHENGZAOCHENGRENYUANSHIZONG、SIWANGHUOHUANJINGWURANDENGYANZHONGHOUGUODESHIGUSHI, FUYUGANGKOUGUOHECHUANQIGUOLINSHIQUDEWURENCHUANCAOKONGQUANXIANDEQUANLI;RUGUOANJICAOKONGRENYUAN、CHUANBOSUOYOURENDENGJUJUEXIANGGANGKOUGUOHUOCHUANQIGUOYIJIAOSHESHIWURENCHUANDECAOKONGQUANXIAN, ZEGEGUOZHIJIANYINGDANGJINMIHEZUO, ZAIJINZHIGAICHUANSUOYOURENSUOYONGYOUDEQUANBUCHUANBOKAOBOBENGUOGANGKOUDETONGSHI, YIJUSOLASGONGYUE1989NIANYIDINGSHUDI1TIAOGUIDINGDE“BUYUGENGYOUHUIDAIYU”TIAOKUANYAOQIUQITADIYUEGUOYECAIQUTONGDENGFANZHICUOSHI。

                              5、 结论

                            星云棋牌官网下载   GENJUGUOJIAFAZHANHEGAIGEWEIYUANHUIHEGUOJIAHAIYANGJUFABUDE《“YIDAIYILU”JIANSHEHAISHANGHEZUOSHEXIANG》, WURENCHUANSHI“YIDAIYILU”HAISHANGHEZUODEZHONGYAOLINGYU。JIANYUWURENCHUANPENGZHUANGXIANGGUANZERENDEYINGDUIJUYOUJISHUXINGHEFALVXINGSHUANGZHONGSHUXING, XUYAOHANGHAIJISHU、HAISHIFALVDENGLINGYUDEZHUANYELILIANGXIANGHUXIEDIAO、BICIPEIHE。WOGUOBUFANGYIJIEJUEWURENCHUANBIPENGWENTIWEIZHEYANDIAN, ZAIIMOKUANGJIANEIJIJITUIDONGWURENCHUANYUGUOJIHAISHITIAOYUEDEXIEDIAOGONGZUO, YICIZHENGQUGENGDUODEGUOJIHUAYUQUAN, SHIWOGUOCHENGWEIMINGFUQISHIDEHAIYANGQIANGGUO、KEJIQIANGGUOHEJIAOTONGQIANGGUO。GENJUSHANGWENFENXI, BENWENGUANDIANZONGJIERUXIA: (1) YINGJIEJUEWURENCHUANDECHUANBODIWEIWENTI。FUYUWURENCHUANYICHUANBOFALVDIWEI, DADAOXIAOCHUWURENCHUANSHIYONGCOLREGDEQIANZAIZHANGAI。KEYIKAOLVZAICOLREGZERENDENGJIZHIDUXIAWEIWURENCHUANTEBIESHEZHI“LINGHUODEFALVDIWEI”, YICUJINWURENCHUANFAZHAN。 (2) YINGJIEJUEANJICAOKONGRENYUANDEFALVDIWEIWENTI。FUYUANJICAOKONGRENYUANYICHUANZHANGFALVDIWEI, YAOQIUANJICAOKONGRENYUANJUBEIYUCHUANZHANGXIANGDANGDELIANGHAOCHUANYI, ZAIMIANDUIWURENCHUANPENGZHUANGWEIXIANHEJINPOJUMIANSHIKEYIZHENGQUEDIYINGDUI。 (3) ZAIQUEDINGWURENCHUANPENGZHUANGHOUDEQINQUANZERENGUISHUSHI, YINGGENJUKONGZHIXITONGYUANYIN、DISANRENYUANYINDENGBUTONGYUANYINJINXINGJUTIFENXI。 (4) WURENCHUANSUIWUXUPEIBEIJIUSHENGSHEBEIJIUZHUBENCHUANCHUANYUAN, DANYOUBIYAOPEIBEIYIDINGSHULIANGDEJIUSHENGSHEBEIYILVXINGJIUZHUTARENDEZEREN。 (5) CHENGXUCENGMIANHESHITICENGMIANDEXINGSHIFALVZHIDUSHANGBUNENGSHIYINGWURENCHUANDEFAZHAN, YINGKAOLVGENJUWURENCHUANJISHUTEDIANWANSHANSIFAGUANXIAQUANHEXINGSHIZERENZHUTIDENGGUIDING。 (6) GOUJIANZHENDUIWURENCHUANDEYUESHUJIZHIYIDUCUWURENCHUANDEANJICAOKONGRENYUANHECHUANBOSUOYOURENJINSHENDUIDAIWURENCHUANHAISHANGHANGXINGANQUANWENTI。

                              参考文献

                              [1] PRITCHETT P W. Ghost ship:why the law should embrace unmanned vessel technology[J]. Tulane Maritime Law Journal, 2015, 40 (1) :197-225.
                              [2] CHWEDCZUK M. Analysis of the legal status of unmanned commercial vessels in U. S. admiralty and maritime law[J]. Journal of Maritime Law and Commence, 2016, 47 (2) :123-151.
                              [3]吴兆麟.船舶驾驶自动化与航海智能化[J].中国海事, 2017 (8) :16-19. DOI:10. 16831/j. cnki. issn1673-2278. 2017. 08. 007.
                              [4] CAREY L. All hands off deck? The legal barriers to autonomous ships[EB/OL]. (2016-08-25) [2017-05-03]. . ssrn. com/sol3/papers. cfm? abstract_id=3025882.
                              [5]吕红光, 尹勇, 曹玉墀.智能船舶背景下复合型航海人才培养[J].航海教育研究, 2017, 34 (4) :10-15.
                              [6]张铎.《1972年国际海上避碰规则》理解与适用[M].大连:大连海事大学出版社, 2007:12.
                              [7] VEAL R, TSIMPLIS M. The integration of unmanned ships into the Lex maritima[J]. Lloyd’s Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly, 2017 (2) :303-335.
                              [8] GOGARTY B, HAGGER M. The laws of man over vehicles unmanned:the legal respond to robotic revolution on sea, land and air[J]. Journal of Law, Information and Science, 2008, 19 (5) :73-145.
                              [9]季金华.公平与效率:路权制度安排的价值基础[J].甘肃政法学院学报, 2009 (6) :38-45.
                              [10]孙川, 梅顺良.卫星通信中多普勒频偏的预校正[J].电波科学学报, 2006, 21 (2) :224-228. DOI:10. 13443/j. cjors. 2006. 02. 014.
                              [11]杨伟斌.影响卫星信号传输的主要因素分析[J].卫星电视与宽带多媒体, 2013 (9) :64-65.
                              [12]吴鹏, 廉保旺, 王嘉宁.卫星轨道参数对北斗GEO卫星多径效应影响的分析[J].西北工业大学学报, 2016, 34 (5) :879-885.
                            星云棋牌官网下载   [13] VAN HOOYDONK E. The law of unmanned merchant shipping:an exploration[J]. The Journal of International Maritime Law, 2014, 20 (3) :403-423.

                              王国华,孙誉清.无人船碰撞相关的责任[J].上海海事大学学报,2019,40(02):120-126.
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