星云棋牌官网下载

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                          海上货物运输中火灾事故相关问题探析

                          时间:2018-09-17 来源:中国海商法研究 作者:余妙宏 本文字数:13457字

                            摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 在国际海上运输途中货物发生火灾, 造成船舶与货物的损失, 除非能证明承运人本人有过失, 否则承运人对火灾所致的货物单独海损免除责任, 因火灾所致的共同海损由各受益人分摊, 但承运人能否就火灾给船舶造成的损失向收货人索赔或者主张货物的留置权要根据货方有无责任而定, 行使货物留置权需要严格符合法定条件。当海上运输货物发生火灾危及船货安全时, 船方应及时宣布共同海损, 同时船货双方应本着合作态度尽快明确火灾原因以分清责任, 承运人宜接受担保, 应避免行使货物留置权。

                            关键词: 国际海上货物运输; 火灾; 货物留置权; 适用法律;

                            Abstract: In the event of fire in the cargo causing partial loss of the ship and the cargo, unless it can be proved that the carrier is at fault, he is exempted from liability for the particular damage, the general average will be shared by the beneficiaries.However, whether the carrier can claim damages from the consignee for the damage caused by the fire or claim the lien on the goods depends on the liability of the cargo owner. The right to exercise the lien must strictly meet the statutory conditions.When fire in the cargo jeopardizes the safety of the common adventure, the shipowner shall promptly declare general average, while at the same time, the shipowner and the cargo owner shall promptly find out the cause of fire in order to determine the responsibility. The shipowner shall accept the guarantee and avoid the exercise of lien.

                            Keyword: international carriage of goods by sea; fire; lien on cargo; application of law;

                            2018NIAN3YUE6RI, MASHIJIQIXIAYUNLIGAODA15 262TEUDEJIZHUANGXIANGCHUAN“MASHIJIHAONAN” (Maersk Honam) CONGXINJIAPOQIANWANGDIZHONGHAITUZHONGZAIYINDUYANGFASHENGYANZHONGHUOZAI, DAHUOZAOCHENGSIMINGCHUANYUANSHENWANG, ZAOCHENGGAILUNQIANCANGDESUOYOUJIZHUANGXIANGHUOWUQUANSUN (HUOSUNQINGKUANGBUXIANG) , GAILUNCHUANTIDEQIANBANBUFENYANZHONGSUNHUAI, MUQIANZHEISOUCHUANYIZAIALIANQIUBEIQIEGECHENGLIANGBAN, RANHOUJIHUAZAI2019NIAN2YUEKAISHIYUNWANGHANGUOXIANDAIZHONGGONGCHUANCHANGJINXINGZHONGJIAN。[1]JUBAODAOCHENGCICIHUOZAIYOUKENENGSHIGUOJIBANLUNSHISHANGZUIYANZHONGDEJIZHUANGXIANGCHUANHUOZAI。JIEZHIMUQIAN, BIZHEWEIJIANGAICIHUOZAISHIGUDEBAOGAO, DUIHUOZAIDEFASHENGYUANYINSHANGWUJIELUN, YEWEIJIANHOUXUSHIGUCHULIJIPEICHANGDEXIANGGUANBAODAO。BIZHEJIANSUODAODEYINHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUZHONGFASHENGHUOZAIERYINFADEANLIJIAOSHAO, YIFANGMIANKENENGYINWEIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUZHONGFASHENGHUOZAISHUYUDIGAILVSHIJIAN, LINGYIFANGMIANDALIANGDEJIUFENYEKENENGWEISUZHUFAYUANCAIJUE。DANYINHUOZAIYINFADECHUANHUOSHUANGFANGDEMINSHIZERENJIKENENGSHEJIDAODESUOPEIJIUFENZHIDEWOMENSIKAOYUYANJIU。SHENMESHIHUOZAI?ZAIHAISHANGYUNSHUTUZHONGHUOWUFASHENGLE“HUOZAI”HOURUHEQUEDINGHUOZAIFASHENGYUANYIN?CHUANHUOSHUANGFANGRUHEMINGQUEZEREN?SHOUHUORENKEFOUYINHUOWU“HUOZAI”ZAOCHENGDESUNSHIXIANGCHUANFANGSUOPEI?CHENGYUNRENKEFOUYINHUOWUZHEHUOZAOCHENGDECHUANBOSUNSHIXIANGTUOYUNRENHUOZHESHOUHUORENTICHUSUOPEI?CHENGYUNRENKEFOUDUICHUANSHANGHUOWUXINGSHILIUZHIQUAN?BIZHEZAIYIYOUDEXIANGGUANSIFAANLIJICHUSHANG, YIJU《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOHAISHANGFA》 (JIANCHENG《HAISHANGFA》) DEXIANYOUGUIDING, WEIRAOGUOJIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUZHONGHUOZAISHIGUDESHANGSHUJIGEWENTIJINXINGTANTAO, XIWANGNENGWEIJINHOULEISIDEJIUFENCHULITIGONGYIDINGDEJIEJIANYUCANKAO。

                            一、火灾的界定及原因

                            (一) 火灾界定

                            HEWEI“HUOZAI”?GUOJIHAISHANGYUNSHUGONGYUEJI《HAISHANGFA》JUNWEIDUIQIQUELIDINGYI, ZHISHILONGTONGDIZAICHENGYUNRENMIANZESHIXIANGZHONGGUIDINGLEHUOZAIMIANZE。ZHONGGUODUOSHUHAISHANGFAZHEZUOZAILUNJIHUOZAIMIANZEZHIDUZHISHI, YISHAOYOUDUIHUOZAIDINGYIJINXINGJIEDING, ZHEZHONGDIANDUOWEILUNSHUHUOZAIHOUCHUANHUOSHUANGFANGDANGSHIRENDEZERENRUHEFENDAN。

                            《现代汉语辞典》认为“火灾是指失火造成的灾害”。杨良宜先生认为, “火灾指的是明火的燃烧, 而不包括没有火焰的高温现象。”[2]司玉琢教授认为火灾至少应该满足两个条件:第一, 空间位置上火灾是指火发生在不该发生的地方, 第二, 在物理状态上火灾必然有燃烧而不包括发热。[3]台湾地区张新平教授认为, “火灾包括‘自然之火’, 譬如雷击致生之火灾, 以及‘人为之火’, 譬如船员烟蒂致生火灾。至于灭火造成之损害, 譬如被灭火器撞及、被水溅湿等亦列入火灾损失中, 固不待言。惟火灾系指实际上已燃烧 (flame) , 若仅止于自身发热者 (spontaneous heat) , 不在此限”。[4]
                           

                          海上货物运输中火灾事故相关问题探析
                           

                            ZONGSHANG, BIZHERENWEIHUOZAIKEYIJIEDINGWEIZAISHIJIANHEKONGJIANSHANGSHIQUKONGZHIDERANSHAOSUOZAOCHENGDEZAIHAI。TAYOULIANGGETEZHENG:QIYI, “SHIQUKONGZHI”, SHIHUOZAIBUTONGYUYIBANDE“HUO”DEGENBENQUBIE, “HUO”DEGUIMOCHAOGUOLERENSUONENGLIYONGHEZHANGKONGDECHENGDU, BINGDUISHENGCHANJINGYINGHUODONGZAOCHENGSUNHAIDEZAINAN;QIER, “RANSHAO”, HUOZAIYINGGAISHIYOUMINGHUOCHANSHENGDESHIGU, DANCHUNDEGAOWENFAREERWEIDADAODIANRANCHENGDUDEBUNENGCHENGWEIHUOZAI。[5]

                            (二) 火灾的原因

                          星云棋牌官网下载   QUEDINGHUOZAISHIGUDEYUANYINSHIMINGQUECHUANHUOSHUANGFANGCHENGDANZERENDEQIANTI。CONGSHIJIANFASHENGDEXINGWEIZHUTIJIAODUKEYIJIANGYINQIHUOZAIDEYUANYINFENWEILIANGLEI:RENWEIHUOFEIRENWEI。“RENWEI”DEYUANYINZEYAOQUFENRENDEZHUGUANXINTAI, YOUGUYIHEGUOSHIZHIFEN, GUOSHIYOUYAOQUFENWEIKEMIANZEDEGUOSHIHEBUKEMIANZEDEGUOSHI。ER“FEIRENWEI”DEHUOZAI, CHULETONGCHANGLIJIEDE“TIANZAI”WAI, HAIYAOZUOGUANGFANYIYISHANGDELIJIE, BAOKUOYIWAISHIJIANJIBUKEKANGLIYINQIDEHUOZAI。

                            JUTIERYAN, ZAICHUANBOHAISHANGHANGXINGGUOCHENGZHONGHUOWUFASHENGHUOZAIDEYUANYINZHUYAOYOUYIXIAJIZHONG。

                            1. 人为原因导致的火灾

                            TONGCHANGGUIYINYUTUOYUNRENHUOZHECHENGYUNRENBENREN, HUOZHECHENGYUNRENDESHOUGURENJICHUANZHANGCHUANYUANDEGUOCUO, RUTUOYUNRENHUOWUBAOZHUANGBUDANGDAOZHIDEZIRAN, YINHUOWUZHONGHUNRUYIRANWUPINYINQIDEQIHUO, RUYINCHUANSHANGDIANXIANCHENJIULOUDIANERQIHUO, HUOWEIJINJINSHENYIWUFAXIANCHUANBOBUSHIHANGERZHIHANGXINGTUZHONGFASHENGHUOZAI。GUOCUODEQUFENDUICHENGYUNRENZERENDECHENGDANYOUSHIZHIXINGDEYINGXIANG, GUYIQINGKUANGXIACHENGYUNRENXUYAODUIZAOCHENGDESUNSHICHENGDANQUANBUZEREN, QIEBUSHOUZERENXIANZHIBAOHU;ERZAIGUOSHIQINGKUANGXIA, YIJU《HAIYAGUIZE》JI《HAISHANGFA》DEGUIDING, CHUFEISUOPEIRENNENGZHENGMINGHUOZAIXIYOUYUCHENGYUNRENBENRENDEGUOSHISUODAOZHI, FOUZECHENGYUNRENKEYIMIANZE, JISHIBUNENGMIANZEYEKEYIXIANGSHOUZERENXIANZHI。

                            2. 非人为原因导致的火灾

                            DIYI, YOUYUHUOWUTEXINGYINQIZIRANSUOZHI, RUHUOWUBENXINGRONGYIJIJURENENGYINQIZIRANJINERYINQIHUOZAIZAOCHENGHUOSUN。DANYAOZHUYIDESHI, DUIYINJIZAIBUDANGZAOCHENGDEHUOWUSANREBUSHANYINFADEHUOZAIZEBUNENGGUIRUCIXIANG, JIZAIBUDANGSHUOMINGSHIRENWEIYUANYINDAOZHIDEHUOZAI。

                            DIER, YOUYUZIRANZAIHAI、YIWAISHIJIANHUOBUKEKANGLISUOZHI, RUZAIHAISHANGHANGXINGGUOCHENGZHONGZAOYULEIJIQIHUO、FASHENGCHUANBOPENGZHUANGDAOZHIHUOWUDEBAOZHAJIHUOZAI, RU2018NIAN1YUE6RI, BANAMAJIYOUCHUAN“SANGJI”LUNYUXIANGGANGJISANHUOCHUAN“ZHANGFENGSHUIJING”LUNZAIZHANGJIANGKOUYIDONGYUE160HAILICHUFASHENGPENGZHUANG, DAOZHI“SANGJI”LUNQUANCHUANSHIHUOBINGZUIZHONGCHENMEI。

                            3. 原因不明的火灾

                            HAISHANGYUNSHUZHONGHUOWUFASHENGDEHUOZAIWANGWANGYOUYUQIANGJIUBUGOUJISHI、CHONGFENSHIDEHENDUOZHENGJUCAILIAOBEIFENMIE, ERTONGGUOSHIHOUQUDECAILIAOWUFATUIDUANCHUHUOZAIFASHENGDEZHENZHENGYUANYIN, ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA, ZHINENGYIJU“SHEIZHUZHANG、SHEIJUZHENG”LAIFENDANZEREN。

                            二、“火灾”所致损害的责任规则

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YINHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUTUZHONGFASHENGDEHUOZAI, WANGWANGHUIZAOCHENGCHUANBO、HUOWUDESUNSHI, CONGXINGZHISHANGFENKEYIFENWEIDANDUHAISUNYUGONGTONGHAISUN, QIANZHEZHIYINWEIHUOZAIZHIJIEDAOZHIDECHUANBOYUHUOWUSUNSHI, RUHUOWUBEIHUOSHAOHUIDAOZHIDEQUANSUNHUOBUFENSUNSHI、CHUANBOYINZHEHUOERDAOZHIDECHUANTIDESUNSHI;HOUZHESHIZHICHUANZHANGCHUANYUANWEILEGONGTONGANQUAN (MIEHUO) , YOUYIHEHELIDICAIQU (MIEHUO) CUOSHISUOZHIJIEZAOCHENGDETESHUXISHENG、ZHIFUDETESHUFEIYONG, YINMIEHUOERDAOZHIDEHUOWUDEJINYIBUSUNSHIHUOCHUANTIDEJINYIBUSUNSHIYIJIWEIMIEHUOERFASHENGDEJIUZHUTUODAIDENGFEIYONG。

                            (一) 承运人对火灾造成的货物单独海损免责

                            YOUYUHAIYUNHUODONGKONGJIANDETESHUXING, SHIDEHAISHANGHUOZAIJIUZHUNANDUGENGDAERBEISHIWEIHANGXINGGUOCHENGZHONGDEJUDAWEIXIE。TEBIESHIZAIMUZHICHUANSHIDAI, HUOZAIDEFASHENGJICHUANHUODAILAIDESHIHUIMIEXINGDEDAJI;SUIRANXIANDAICHUANBOCHUANTICAILIAODESHIYONGYIJINGBURONGYISHOUHUOZAIDEHUIMIEXINGDAJI, DANSHICHUANBOHAIYUNSUOXUDEDONGLICAILIAO、HAIYUNHUOWUDENGDEWEIXIANXINGQUEYUELAIYUEGAO, HUOZAIZHAOSHIYINFAJINYIBUDEBAOZHAYEHUIJICHUANHUODAILAIZHIMINGDEDAJI。[6]JIANYUCI, 19SHIJIGUOJISHEHUIJIQUELILEDEHUOZAIMIANZEDEHANGHAIGUANNIAN, RENWEICHUANBOSUOYOURENDUIHANGXINGTUZHONGDECHUANBOQIANQUEGUANLIKONGZHINENGLI, WUFAZHANGKONGCHUANSHANGFASHENGDEHUOZAIDENGZAINANXINGSHIGU, WEIJIANSHAOHANGYUNFENGXIANDUIHANGYUNYEDEYINGXIANG, GUQUELIHUOZAIMIANZEZHIDU。《HAIYAGUIZE》SHOUCIZAIGUOJISHEHUITONGYIGUIDINGCHENGYUNRENDUIFEIBENRENGUOSHIYUANYINDAOZHIDEHUOZAISHIGUMIANZE, YEJIZUOWEI“BUWANQUANGUOCUOZERENZHI”DELIANGXIANGSHIYOUZHIYIDEYIJIANLI。《HAISHANGFA》GUANYUHUOZAIMIANZEDELIFACHENGXILE《HAIYAGUIZE》。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   GENJU《HAISHANGFA》DI51TIAODI2XIANGDEGUIDING, CHENGYUNRENXIANGSHOUHUOZAIMIANZEQUANLIBIXUSHIHUOZAIBINGFEIYINCHENGYUNRENBENRENDEGUOSHISUOZAOCHENG。CHENGYUNRENDUIHUOZAIFASHENGDEZHUGUANGUOCUODERENDINGSHIJUEDINGNENGFOUSHIYONGHUOZAIMIANZEDEGUANJIAN。YINYUNSHUTUZHONGHUOWUFASHENGHUOZAIDAOZHIMIESHIHUOSUNHUAI, CHUFEIHUOFANG (TUOYUNRENHUOSHOUHUOREN) NENGZHENGMINGGAIHUOZAISHIYOUYUCHENGYUNRENBENRENDEGUOSHISUOZHI, FOUZECHENGYUNRENDUICIMIANZE。《HAISHANGFA》XIADE“BENREN”GUOSHIBIXUSHICHENGYUNRENZISHENDE, CHENGYUNRENDESHOUGURENHUODAILIRENDEGUOSHIBUZAIQINEI, JIHUOZAIANJIANZHONGCHENGYUNRENDUIQISHOUGUREN、DAILIRENDEGUOSHIBUFUZEREN。YOUYUCHENGYUNRENWANGWANGSHIHANGYUNGONGSI, SHEISHICHENGYUNREN“BENREN”SHIYIGENANYIPANDUANDEWENTI, SHIJIANZHONGDAZHIYOUXIAYIHEGUANGYILIANGZHONGGUANDIAN:XIAYIGUANDIANRENWEICHENGYUNREN“BENREN”JINZHIGONGSIDEDONGSHIHUICHENGYUANHUOZHEYOUSUOYOUQUANDEJINGLIREN, ERGUANGYIGUANDIANRENWEICHENGYUNREN“BENREN”ZHICANYUGONGSIDEZHUYAOJINGYINGGUANLIDEREN。[7]BIZHERENWEIZAIPANDUANCHENGYUNRENBENRENDEGUOCUOSHIYICAIYONGGUANGYIGUANDIAN。

                            GUANYUHUOZAIFASHENGDEJIEDUANYUDIDIAN, WANGWANGBUJUXIANYUHAISHANGYUNSHUTUZHONG, YEBAOKUOYINYUNSHUXUYAOERFASHENGZAIANSHANGDEHUOZAI。ZAI“ZHONGGUORENMINCAICHANBAOXIANGUFENYOUXIANGONGSIZHEJIANGSHENGFENGONGSI (JIANCHENGCAIBAOZHEJIANGGONGSI) SUSHANGHAIHANHANGJIYUNYOUXIANGONGSIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGHUOWUMIESHIDAIWEIQIUCHANGJIUFENAN”ZHONG, [8]CAIBAOZHEJIANGGONGSIRENWEI, GENJU《HAISHANGFA》DEGUIDING, HAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGDECHENGYUNRENDUIYINHUOZAISHIGUCHANSHENGDEHUOWUSUNSHIMIANZE, SHIZHIDUIZAIHAISHANGYUNSHUHANGXINGGUOCHENGZHONGFASHENGHUOZAISHIGUDAOZHIDEHUOWUSUNSHI, CHENGYUNRENKEYIMIANZE。SHEANHUOWUYINHUOZAISHIGUFASHENGMIESHIDESHISHIFASHENGZAIGANGKOUDEMATOUCANGKU, BINGFEIFASHENGZAIHAISHANGYUNSHUGUOCHENGZHONGDETEYOUFENGXIAN, DUICICHENGYUNRENBUNENGXIANGSHOUMIANZE。DANSHANGHAIHAISHIFAYUANJISHANGHAISHIGAOJIRENMINFAYUANRENWEI《HAISHANGFA》DI51TIAOGUIDINGDEHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUCHENGYUNRENMIANZESHIYOU, BINGFEIWANQUANSHUYUZAIHAISHANGYUNSHUGUOCHENGZHONGFASHENGDEFENGXIAN, DAOZHIHUOWUFASHENGMIESHIDEHUOZAISHIGU, WULUNSHIFASHENGZAIHAISHANGYUNSHUGUOCHENGZHONG, HAISHIFASHENGZAILUSHANG, QIYIWAIXING、WEIHAIXINGDOUSHIYIYANGDE。ZHIYAOHUOZAISHIGUFASHENGZAICHENGYUNRENDEZERENQIJIAN, YIZHAO《HAISHANGFA》DEGUIDING, JUNYINGMIANCHUCHENGYUNRENDUIYUYINHUOZAISHIGUFASHENGDEHUOWUSUNSHIDEPEICHANGZEREN。

                            SUIRANCHENGYUNRENKEYIMIANZE, DANSHIDUIYUYINHUOZAIZAOCHENGDEHUOWUDANDUHAISUN, HUOZHU (TUOYUNRENHUOSHOUHUOREN) KEYIYIJUHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUBAOXIANTIAOKUANXIANGBAOXIANGONGSITICHUSUOPEI。ZHONGGUOMUQIANSHIYONGDEHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUBAOXIANTIAOKUANSHIZHONGGUORENMINBAOXIANGONGSI1981NIAN1YUE1RIXIUDINGDE“HAIYANGYUNSHUHUOWUBAOXIANTIAOKUAN” (Ocean Marine Cargo Cluase 1/1/81) , [9]QIZHONGCHENGBAOFANWEIZUIXIAODEZHUXIAN———PINGANXIANDEDI1TIAO“ZERENFANWEI”ZHONG, CHENGBAOFANWEIGONGYOU9XIANG, QIZHONGDI2XIANGGUIDING:“YOUYUYUNSHUGONGJUZAOSHOUGEQIAN、CHUJIAO、CHENMEI、HUZHUANG、YULIUBINGHUOQITAWUTIPENGZHUANGYIJISHIHUO、BAOZHAYIWAISHIGUZAOCHENGHUOWUDEQUANBUHUOBUFENSUNSHI。”GUOJISHANGLINGYIGEGUANGFANSHIYONGDEBAOXIANTIAOKUANSHIYINGGUOXIEHUIHUOWUBAOXIANTIAOKUAN (Institute Cargo Clause) , QIZHONGDECTIAOKUANDUIYINGZHERENBAOGONGSIDEPINGANXIAN, ZAIQICHENGBAOFANWEIZHONG, BAOKUO“HUOZAIHUOBAOZHA”。YINCI, YOUYUHUOWUZAIYUNSHUTUZHONGZHEHUO、SHIHUODAOZHIDEQUANBUHUOBUFENSUNSHIYOUBAOXIANRENCHENGDANPEICHANGZEREN。

                            (二) 因火灾产生的共同海损由各受益人分摊

                            YINWEIFASHENGHUOZAI, CHUANZHANGCHUANYUANWEILEMIEHUOSUOCHANSHENGDESUNSHIYUFEIYONG, BAOKUOWEILEMIEHUOZAOCHENGCHUANSHANGHUOWUDEJINYIBUSUNSHI, WEILEMIEHUOZAOCHENGCHUANTIDESUNSHI, WEILEANQUANWANCHENGBENHANGCHENG, SHIRUBINANGANGKOU、BINANDIDIANHUOZHESHIHUIZHUANGHUOGANGKOU、ZHUANGHUODIDIANJINXINGBIYAODEXIULI, ZAIGAIGANGKOUHUOZHEDIDIANEWAITINGLIUQIJIANSUOZHIFUDEGANGKOUFEI, CHUANYUANGONGZI、JIYANG, CHUANBOSUOXIAOHAODERANLIAO、WULIAO, WEIXIULIERXIEZAI、CHUCUN、ZHONGZHUANGHUOZHEBANYICHUANSHANGHUOWU、RANLIAO、WULIAOYIJIQITACAICHANSUOZAOCHENGDESUNSHI、ZHIFUDEFEIYONG, ZHEIXIEXISHENGYUFEIYONGWEIGONGTONGHAISUN。YIJU《HAISHANGFA》DI199TIAOGUIDING, GONGTONGHAISUNYINGYOUSHOUYIFANGANZHAOGEZIDEFENTANJIAZHIDEBILIFENTAN。LINGWAI, GENJU《HAISHANGFA》DI87TIAO1, RUGUOSHOUHUORENJUJUEZHIFUGONGTONGHAISUNFENTANYOUMEIYOUTIGONGSHIDANGDANBAODE, CHENGYUNRENKEYIZAIHELIDEXIANDUNEILIUZHIQIHUOWU。

                            HUOZHU (TUOYUNRENHUOSHOUHUOREN) DUIYINGCHENGDANDEGONGTONGHAISUNFENTANBUFENKEYIYIJUHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUBAOXIANTIAOKUANDEYUEDINGXIANGBAOXIANGONGSISUOPEI。PINGANXIANDEDI1TIAO“ZERENFANWEI”GONGCHENGDAN9XIANGFENGXIAN, QIZHONGDI7XIANG“GONGTONGHAISUNDEXISHENG、FENTANHEJIUZHUFEIYONG”, YINGGUOXIEHUIHUOWUBAOXIANTIAOKUANCTIAOKUANYEYOUXIANGTONGDEGUIDING。

                            (三) 货方应否对火灾造成的船舶损失承担责任

                            YINHUOZAISHIGUZHIJIEDAOZHIDECHUANBODANDUHAISUN, CHENGYUNRENNENGFOUYAOQIUHUOZHUCHENGDANSUNHAIPEICHANGZEREN?HANGYUNSHIJIANZHONG, ZAIHENDUOCHENGYUNRENDEGUANNIANLI, ZHIYAOSHIHUOWUZHEHUO (ZIRAN) , ZAOCHENGCHUANBOSUNSHI, LISUODANGRANDEYINGDANGYOUHUOZHUCHENGDANPEICHANGZEREN, DANSHAOYOURENQUFENXIQIZHONGDELILUNYIJUJIFALIYUANYIN。

                            BIZHERENWEI, YAOGENJUYUNSHUZHONGHUOWUDEBUTONGXINGZHIQUFENWEILIANGZHONGQINGKUANG, BUTONGXINGZHIDEHUOWUYUNSHU, TUOYUNRENDEGUIZEYUANZEBUTONG, JUEDINGLEQIZERENCHENGDANDEHOUGUOBUTONG。

                            1. 危险品货物运输:货主承担无过错责任

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZHONGGUOZI2004NIAN1YUE1RIQIKAISHIQIANGZHISHISHIGUOJIHAISHIZUZHIZHIDINGDE《GUOJIHAIYUNWEIXIANHUOWUGUIZE》, WEIXIANHUOWUDESUOYOUBAOZHUANG、BIAOQIAN、DUIZHUANGJIQITASHIXIANGYINGYANGEZUNSHOUJINCHUGANGGUOHEIMDGGUIZEDEXIANGGUANYAOQIU。TUOYUNRONGYIFASHENGBAOZHA、YIRANDENGHUOWUYIJIRONGYISHICHUANBO、SHEBEI、QITAHUOWUZAOSHOURANSHAODENGDEHUOWU, TONGCHENGWEIWEIXIANWUPIN。SUOWEIHAIYUNWEIXIANPINHUOWU, SHIZHIHUOWUBENSHENDEHUAXUE、WULIXINGZHIBUWENDING, RONGYICHANSHENGWEIXIANYINSUDEHUOWU, BAOKUOBAOZHAPIN、YASUO、YEHUAHUOJIAYARONGJIEDEQITI、YIRANYETI、YIRANGUTIHUOWUZHI、YANGHUAJI、YOUJIGUOYANGHUAWU、YOUDUDEWUZHI、YOUGANRANXINGDEWUZHI、FANGSHEXINGWUZHI、FUSHIXINGWUZHIHUOQITAWEIXIANHUOWU, JUTIYOU《GUOJIHAIYUNWEIXIANHUOWUGUIZE》2JINXINGGUIDING。YUPUTONGHUOWUXIANGBI, DUIWEIXIANHUOWUDEYUNSHUANQUANYAOQIUBIJIAOYANGE, DUIWEIXIANHUOWUDEBAOZHUANG、BIAOZHI、BIAOQIAN、JIZAI、GELI、XIAOFANGDENGYOUTESHUYAOQIU。

                            《HAISHANGFA》DI68TIAODI1KUAN3MINGQUELEWEIXIANHUOWUTUOYUNYOUTUOSHANBAOZHUANGYIWU、TONGZHIYIWU、ZUOCHUBIAOZHIBIAOQIANYIWU, DANFANWEIXIANPINHUOWUZAIHAISHANGYUNSHUTUZHONGZHEHUO, TUOYUNRENWEITUOSHANBAOZHUANG, ZUOCHUWEIXIANPINBIAOZHIHEBIAOQIANHUOWEITONGZHIHUOTONGZHIYOUWUDE, BUKAOLVTUOYUNRENSHIFOUYOUGUOCUO, TUOYUNRENJIYINGCHENGDANSUNHAIPEICHANGZEREN。

                            ZAIQINGDAOHAISHIFAYUANPANJUEDE“HANJINHAIYUNGONGSISULIANYUNGANGSHIHUAGONGYIBAOJINCHUKOUGONGSIWEIGAOZHIHEBIAOSHIWEIHUOERTUOYUNZHIYUNSHUZHONGFASHENGHUOZAIZAIGONGTONGHAISUNLISUANHOUYAOQIUPEICHANGAN”ZHONG, [10]FAYUANRENWEI“LIANYUNGANGYIBAOSHIHUOWUDESHIJITUOYUNREN, QIYINGLVXINGTUOYUNRENDEYIWU。ZAIBENANZHONG, LIANYUNGANGYIBAOWEITUOFUXINGLIANBANZUOWEIQICHUYUNHUOWUDEDAILIREN, FUXINGLIANBANYOUJIANGQISHOUTUOSHIXIANGZHUANWEITUOJITAREN, LIANHUANZHUANWEITUOZHONGDEGESHOUTUORENZAISHIJICAOZUOZHONGJIUJINGCUOWUCHUZAINAYIGEHUANJIE, BENANWEICHAQINGCHU, DANZHEIBINGBUYINGXIANGTUOYUNRENDUICHENGYUNRENSUOYINGCHENGDANDEYIWU。QIZUOWEIHUOFANGWEIXIANGCHENGYUNRENSHENBAOWEIXIANPIN, YEWEIDUIWEIXIANPINZUOCHUBIAOZHI, DAOZHIYUANGAODUIGAIHUOWUWEIJIYUYINGYOUDEZHUYI, ZERENBUZAIYUANGAO (CHENGYUNREN) , ERZAIHUOFANG。YIZHAO《HAISHANGFA》DEGUIDING, TUOYUNRENTUOYUNWEIXIANHUOWU, YINGDANGYIZHAOYOUGUANHAISHANGWEIXIANHUOWUYUNSHUDEGUIDING, TUOSHANBAOZHUANG, ZUOCHUWEIXIANPINBIAOZHIHEBIAOQIAN, BINGJIANGQIZHENGSHIMINGCHENGHEXINGZHIYIJIYINGDANGCAIQUDEYUFANGWEIHAICUOSHISHUMIANTONGZHICHENGYUNREN, TUOYUNRENDUICHENGYUNRENYINYUNSHUCILEIHUOWUSUOSHOUDAODESUNHAI, YINGDANGFUPEICHANGZEREN, LIANYUNGANGYIBAOYINGDUICICHENGDANYIQIEZEREN。”

                            2. 非危险品货物运输:货主承担过错责任

                            GENJU《HAISHANGFA》DI70TIAOGUIDING4, CHULE《HAISHANGFA》DI66TIAO、DI67TIAOHEDI68TIAOGUIDINGDEYIWUZHIWAI, DUITUOYUNRENJIQISHOUGUREN、DAILIRENDEZERENGUIZEYUANZESHIXINGDESHIGUOCUOZERENYUANZE, QIETUOYUNRENJIQISHOUGUREN、DAILIRENYOUGUOCUODEJUZHENGZERENYOUCHENGYUNRENCHENGDAN。TUOYUNRENDUICHENGYUNRENCHUANBOYINHUOZAISUOZAOSHOUDESUNSHICHENGDANGUOCUOZEREN, YOUGUOCUOJICHENGDANZEREN, WUGUOCUOJIBUCHENGDANZEREN。[11]ZAICIGUIZEYUANZEXIA, YINGDANGYOUYUANGAO, JICHENGYUNRENZHENGMINGTUOYUNRENDUIHUOZAIDEFASHENGCUNZAIGUOCUO, RUGUOZHENGMINGBULETUOYUNRENYOUGUOCUO, ZEYAOQIUTUOYUNRENCHENGDANPEICHANGZERENQUEFAYIJU。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZAI“YONGSHENGCHUANWUYOUXIANGONGSI (JIANCHENGYONGSHENGGONGSI) YUBANBENZHUSHIHUISHE (JIANCHENGBANBENGONGSI) 、TAIZHOUSHIZHONGHEJINCHUKOUYOUXIANGONGSI (JIANCHENGZHONGHEGONGSI) HAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGJIUFENYIAN”5ZHONG, BEIGAOBANBENGONGSIZUOWEITUOYUNRENJIANGZAHUNJINSHUJIAOYOUYUANGAOCHENGYUNRENYONGSHENGGONGSIDE“ZONGGUWAN”LUNZIRIBENDABANYUNZHITAIZHOUHAIMENGANG, HUOWUQIYUNHOUYINZIRANDAOZHIHUOCANGQIHUO, SHIGUZAOCHENGYUANGAOCHUANBOSUNHAIDENGGEXIANGJINGJISUNSHI。YUANGAOYONGSHENGGONGSIZUOWEICHENGYUNRENJIANGHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGDETUOYUNRENBANBENGONGSIYIJISHOUHUORENZHONGHEGONGSIZUOWEIGONGTONGBEIGAOSUZHIHAISHIFAYUAN, YAOQIUHUOFANGPEICHANGYINHUOWUZIRANZAOCHENGCHUANBOSUNHAIDENGGEXIANGJINGJISUNSHI。FAYUANRENWEI, ZAHUNJINSHUDANGQIANBINGWEIBEILIERUGUOJIHAIYUNWEIXIANHUOWUMULU, SHEANCHUANZAIHUOWUZHENGTISHANGBUZUYIRENDINGWEIGUOJIHAIYUNWEIXIANHUOWU。ZAIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGXIANGXIA, ZHONGHEGONGSIXISHOUHUOREN, ZAISHIGUFASHENGSHISHANGWEISHOUDAOQUANTAOZHENGBENTIDAN, ZAIFALVGUANXIFANGMIAN, ZHONGHEGONGSIBINGFEIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGXIANGXIADEZERENZHUTI, TONGSHIYEWEINENGFANYINGZHONGHEGONGSIDUIYONGSHENGGONGSIDESUNSHICUNZAIXIANGYINGGUOCUO;BANBENGONGSIXISHEANHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGXIANGXIADETUOYUNREN, GENJU《HAISHANGFA》GUIDINGDETUOYUNRENCHENGDANZERENDEGUIZEYUANZE, YONGSHENGGONGSIYAOQIUBANBENGONGSIZUOWEITUOYUNRENCHENGDANZERENXUZHENGMINGTUOYUNRENWEIFANLEBAOZHUANGHUOWUHESHENBAOHUOWUFANGDEYIWUHEZEREN, ZAIHUOWUSHENBAOFANGMIAN, BANBENGONGSIZUOWEIHUOWUMAIFANG, ZHUANGYUNQIANQUDELEZHUANGQIANJIANYANHEGEZHENGSHU;ZAITUOSHANBAOZHUANGHUOWUFANGMIAN, SHEANHUOWUXISANZHUANGHUOWU, YONGZHUADOUZHUANGYUNSHANGCHUAN, CHENGYUNRENZAIJIESHOUHUOWUGUOCHENGZHONGDUIYUHUOWUDEJUTIQINGKUANGYINGDANGJIAOWEIQINGCHUBINGQIEYEKAIJULEDAFUSHOUJUHEQINGJIETIDAN, DUIYUSHEANTONGLEIXINGHUOWU, CHENGYUNRENYEBIAOSHIBINGFEIDIYICICHENGYUNQIEJUNXISANZHUANG, YINCIYOUYUYONGSHENGGONGSIZAITUOYUNRENCUNZAIGUOCUOFANGMIANZHENGJUYULIYOUBUZU, SUIPANJUEBOHUILEYONGSHENGGONGSIDESUSONGQINGQIU。

                            三、承运人可否因火灾造成船舶的损失主张留置权?

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YINHUOWUHUOZAIDAOZHICHUANBODANDUHAISUNHOU, CHENGYUNRENPUBIANYAOQIUHUOZHUCHENGDANPEICHANGZEREN, BINGXUANCHENGRUGUOHUOZHUBUZUEZHIFUPEICHANGKUAN, ZECHENGYUNRENDUICHUANZAIHUOWUXIANGYOULIUZHIQUAN, JUJUEJIAOFUHUOWU。

                            ZAI“NINGBOSHIZHENHAIMINGDINGJINSHUCAILIAOYOUXIANGONGSI (JIANCHENGMINGDINGGONGSI) SUFENGYUANCHUANWUYOUXIANGONGSI (JIANCHENGFENGYUANGONGSI) DENGFEIFALIUZHICHUANZAIHUOWUSUNHAIZERENJIUFEN”YIANZHONG, [12]MINGDINGGONGSIXIANGRIBENDONGSHENGGONGSIJINKOUYIPISANZHUANGDEFEIWUJINDIANQI, RIBENDONGSHENGGONGSIWEITUOFENGYUANGONGSIDE“YONGSHUN”LUNJIANGHUOWUZIRIBENDABANYUNZHININGBOZHENHAI。“YONGSHUN”LUNQIANFALETUOYUNRENWEIRIBENDONGSHENGGONGSI, TONGZHIRENYUSHOUHUORENJUNWEIMINGDINGGONGSIDETIDAN。“YONGSHUN”LUNZAISHIWANGNINGBOGANGDETUZHONG, CHUANCANGMAOYANQIHUO, CHUANYUANCAIQUXIANGYINGMIEHUOCUOSHI, HOUYOUHAISHIBUMENANPAITUOLUNDAODAXIANCHANGXIEZHUMIEHUO。SHIGUFASHENGHOU, FENGYUANGONGSIYIHUOWUZIRANDAOZHICHUANBOQIHUOWEIYOU, FAHANXIANGMINGDINGGONGSISUOPEI, MINGDINGGONGSIHUIHANCHENGCHUANCANGQIHUOYUANYINBUMINGSUNSHIBUQING, BIAOSHIYUANYITIGONGDANBAO, YAOQIUFENGYUANGONGSIXIANJIAOFUHUOWUZAIXIESHANGPEICHANGYISHI, DANBEIFENGYUANGONGSIJUJUE。ZAIBEIFENGYUANGONGSIDUOCIJUJUEZHIHOU, MINGDINGGONGSIXIANGHAISHIFAYUANSHENQINGHAISHIQIANGZHILINGYAOQIUFAYUANZELINGFENGYUANGONGSIJIAOHUO, DANFAYUANYIFENGYUANGONGSIXIANGYOUHUOWULIUZHIQUANWEIYOUBUYUSHOULI。ZAIXIESHANGWUGUOHOU, MINGDINGGONGSIXIANGHAISHIFAYUANTIQISUSONG, YAOQIUFENGYUANGONGSIJICHUANBOGUANLIRENJIAOFUHUOWUBINGPEICHANGFEIFALIUZHIHUOWUDAOZHIDESUNSHI。WEIJIANSHAOHUOWUZHILIUBUDUANKUODADESUNSHI, FAYUANSHOULIZHIHOU, YINGMINGDINGGONGSIDEZAICISHENQING, ZAIQITIGONGYUHUOWUJIAZHIDENGEDEDANBAOQIANTIXIA, ZUOCHULEHAISHIQIANGZHILINGCAIDINGFENGYUANGONGSIJIAOFUHUOWU。DANJIEZHISHIJITIQUHUOWUSHI, SHEANHUOWUZAIGANGQUYIJINGZHILIUZHANGDASANGEYUE, ZAOCHENGLEDUICUNDENGGELEISUNSHIJISHIWANYUAN。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZHEIGEANLILI, HAISHIFAYUANRENWEICHENGYUNRENDUIHUOWUXIANGYOULIUZHIQUANCONGERJUJUELEHUOZHUHAISHIQIANGZHILINGDESHENQING。NEIME, DANGGUOJIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUTUZHONGHUOWUZHEHUOZHICHUANBOSHOUSUNHOU, CHENGYUNRENDANGRANJUYOUHUOWULIUZHIQUANMA?

                            (一) 承运人行使货物留置权的条件

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YIJU《HAISHANGFA》DI87TIAOGUIDING6, CHENGYUNRENXINGSHIHUOWULIUZHIQUANXUFUHEXIALIETIAOJIAN。

                            1. 留置物为产生债权的货物

                            《HAISHANGFA》DI87TIAOSUOLIEJUDE“YUNFEI、GONGTONGHAISUNFENTAN、ZHIQIFEI、CHENGYUNRENWEIHUOWUDIANFUDEBIYAOFEIYONGYIJIYINGDANGXIANGCHENGYUNRENZHIFUDEQITAFEIYONG”, ZHEIJIXIANGFEIYONGYUBIAODEWUDOUYOUMIQIEQIANLIANGUANXI。YUNSHUHEZHIFUYUNFEISHITONGYIFALVGUANXIZHONGSHUANGXIANGDEQUANLIYIWU, YUNFEISHIYINYUNSHULIUZHIWUERCHANSHENG, GONGTONGHAISUNFENTANSHICHENGYUNRENWEIYUNSHUZHONGHUOWUDEANQUANSUOZUODEXISHENGHUOZHESUOZHICHUDEFEIYONG, CHENGYUNRENWEIHUOWUDIANFUDEFEIYONGSHICHENGYUNRENWEILIUZHIDEHUOWUSUOZHICHUDEFEIYONG, ZHIQIFEISHIZAIWANCHENGHUOWUYUNSHUGUOCHENGZHONGSHOUDAODESUNSHI。LINGWAI, CHULEDOUDIDE“YINGDANGXIANGCHENGYUNRENZHIFUDEQITAFEIYONG”WAI, CHENGYUNRENBUDEYINQITAZHAIQUANSHIYOULIUZHIZHAIWURENSUOYOUDEHUOWU。YINCI, RUGUOCHENGYUNRENYIYUNSHUTUZHONGDEHUOWUJICHUANBOZAOCHENGSUNSHIWEIYOUZHUZHANGLIUZHIHUOWU, BIXUYAOZHENGMINGCIXIANGZHAIQUANSHUYU“YUNFEI、GONGTONGHAISUNFENTAN、ZHIQIFEI、WEIHUOWUDIANFUDEFEIYONGYIJIYINGDANGXIANGCHENGYUNRENZHIFUDEQITAFEIYONG”ZHIYI。DUIYUGONGTONGHAISUNFENTANFEIYONGXINGSHILIUZHIQUANMEIYOUYIYI, DANSHIYAOJIUCHUANBODESUNHAIPEICHANGXINGSHILIUZHIQUANKONGPAYAOGUIWEI“YINGDANGXIANGCHENGYUNRENZHIFUDEQITAFEIYONG”。

                            2. 承运人需依合同占有债务人所有的货物

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIGUOJIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUZHONG, CHENGYUNRENZHANYOUZHAIWURENSUOYOUDEHUOWUSHILIUZHIQUANCHENGJIUDEFADINGBIYAOTIAOJIANZHIYI。GENJU2001NIAN7YUE《QUANGUOHAISHIFAYUANYUANZHANGZUOTANHUIJIYAO》DI4TIAO“GUANYULIUZHIQUAN”GUIDING, YANHAI、NEIHEHUOWUYUNSHUZHONG, TUOYUNRENHUOZHESHOUHUORENBUZHIFUYUNFEI、BAOGUANFEIYIJIQITAYUNSHUFEIYONGDE, YIZHAO《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOHETONGFA》DEGUIDING, CHENGYUNRENDUIXIANGYINGDEYUNSHUHUOWUXIANGYOULIUZHIQUAN, CHUFEIDANGSHIRENZHIJIANLINGYOUYUEDING;DANFEIZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGANGKOUZHIJIANDEGUOJIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHU, YIZHAO《HAISHANGFA》DEYOUGUANGUIDING, YINGDANGXIANGCHENGYUNRENZHIFUDEYUNFEI、GONGTONGHAISUNFENTAN、ZHIQIFEIHECHENGYUNRENWEIHUOWUDIANFUDEBIYAOFEIYONGYIJIYINGDANGXIANGCHENGYUNRENZHIFUDEQITAFEIYONGMEIYOUFUQING, YOUMEIYOUTIGONGSHIDANGDANBAODE, CHENGYUNRENKEYIZAIHELIDEXIANDUNEILIUZHIZHAIWURENSUOYOUDEHUOWU。SHENPANSHIJIANZHONGYINGDANGZHUYIBUTONGDEFALVJIULIUZHIQUANDEXINGSHISUOZUODEGUIDINGBUTONG。ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANMINSHISHENPANDISITINGBIANXIEDE《SHEWAISHANGSHIHAISHISHENPANSHIWUWENTIJIEDA (YI) 》DI138TIAODUICIGUIDINGJINXINGLEQUEREN。

                            3. 留置物的价值与债权额应该相当

                          星云棋牌官网下载   CHENGYUNRENYIZHAIWUQINGCHANGWEIMUDELIUZHIHUOWU, YINGFUHECHENGSHIXINYONGDEJIBENYUANZE, LIUZHIYUYINGQINGCHANGZHAIQUANJIAZHIXIANGDENGDEHUOWU, BINGQIEYINGJINLIANGJIANSHAOLIUZHIFEIYONG, JIANGUSHOUHUORENDELIYI。《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOWUQUANFA》DI233TIAOGUIDING:“LIUZHICAICHANWEIKEFENWUDE, LIUZHICAICHANDEJIAZHIYINGDANGXIANGDANGYUZHAIWUDEJINE。”LINGWAI, GENJU《HAISHANGFA》DI87TIAODEGUIDING, ZHIYOUDANG“ (ZHAIWUREN) MEIYOUTIGONGSHIDANGDANBAODE, CHENGYUNRENCAIKEYIZAIHELIDEXIANDUNEILIUZHIQIHUOWU”。

                            (二) 因火灾行使留置权的分析

                          星云棋牌官网下载   GENJUYISHANGHUOWULIUZHIQUANTIAOJIANDEFENXI, CHENGYUNRENNENGFOUYINHUOWUHUOZAIZAOCHENGCHUANBODESUNSHIZHUZHANGXINGSHILIUZHIQUAN, XUYAOKAOCHALIANGGEFANGMIAN。

                            1. 必须先确定货主对火灾所造成船舶损失是否应承担赔偿责任

                            JUQIANSUOSHU, ZAIFEIWEIXIANPINHUOWUYUNSHUZHONG, HUOZHUSHIFOUYINGDUIHUOZAISUOZHICHUANBOSUNSHICHENGDANZERENYAOKANHUOZHUDUIHUOZAISHIGUDEFASHENGSHIFOUCUNYOUGUOCUO, YOUCHENGYUNRENCHENGDANJUZHENGZEREN, ZHENGMINGHUOZHUDUIYUNSHUTUZHONGHUOWUFASHENGHUOZAICUNZAIGUOCUO。ZAIWEIXIANPINHUOWUYUNSHUZHONG, TUOYUNRENDUICHENGYUNRENYINYUNSHUWEIXIANPINHUOWUSUOSHOUDAODESUNHAI, CHENGDANWUGUOCUOZEREN。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIHUOZHUYINGDANGXIANGCHENGYUNRENCHENGDANSUNHAIPEICHANGZERENDEQINGKUANGXIA, YINHUOZHUWEIZHIFUXIANGYINGDEPEICHANG, CHENGYUNRENKEYIYIJU《HAISHANGFA》DI87TIAOGUIDINGZHI“XIANGCHENGYUNRENZHIFUDEQITAFEIYONGMEIYOUFUQINGDE”ZHUZHANGDUIHUOWUXIANGYOULIUZHIQUAN。YINCI, MINGQUEHUOZAIFASHENGYUANYIN, BINGQUEDINGHUOZHUSHIFOUYINGDUIHUOZAIZAOCHENGDECHUANBOSUNSHICHENGDANPEICHANGZEREN, SHICHENGYUNRENDUIHUOWUXINGSHILIUZHIQUANDEQIANTITIAOJIAN。

                            2. 须判断拟留置的货物是否为责任人所有

                          星云棋牌官网下载   GENJU《QUANGUOHAISHIFAYUANYUANZHANGZUOTANHUIJIYAO》DI4TIAO“GUANYULIUZHIQUAN”GUIDING, CHENGYUNRENZHINENGLIUZHIZHAIWURENSUOYOUDEHUOWU。YINCI, CHENGYUNRENZAINILIUZHIHUOWUZHIQIAN, XUYAOPANDUANNILIUZHIDEHUOWUSHIFOUWEIZHAIWURENSUOYOU。YEJI, XUYAOXIANQUEDINGCIZHAIWURENSHITUOYUNRENHAISHISHOUHUOREN?RUGUOSHITUOYUNRENDEZERENDAOZHIHUOZAIDEFASHENG, ZECHENGYUNRENZHINENGLIUZHITUOYUNRENSUOYOUDEHUOWU, ERBUDELIUZHISHOUHUORENSUOYOUDEHUOWU。ZHIYOUDANGSHOUHUORENDEZERENDAOZHIDEHUOZAI, CHENGYUNRENCAINENGLIUZHISHOUHUORENSUOYOUDEHUOWU。ZHEIDUICHENGYUNRENLAISHUO, BUSHIYIJIANRONGYIDESHI。

                            YUNSHUTUZHONGDEHUOWUDESUOYOUQUANGUISHUQUJUEYUGUOJIHUOWUMAIMAIHETONG, ERYUGUOJIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGWUGUAN。《1980NIANLIANHEGUOGUOJIHUOWUMAIMAIHETONGGONGYUE》DUIHUOWUSUOYOUQUANHESHIZHUANYIYIJIHETONGDUISUOYOUQUANKENENGCHANSHENGDEYINGXIANGDENGWENTIJUNWEISHEJI。[13]TONGCHANGQINGKUANGXIA, HUOWUDESUOYOUQUANZHUANYIYUFOUQUJUEYUGUOJIHUOWUMAIMAIHETONGDANGSHIRENDEYUEDING, RUGUOMEIYOUYUEDING, HUOWUSUOYOUQUANZHUANYIQUJUEYUHUOWUSHIFOUJIAOFU。YINCI, TONGCHANGQINGKUANGXIA, CHUFEIDANGSHIRENYOUTEBIEYUEDING, CHENGYUNRENZAIMUDEGANGJIAOHUOSHI, HUOWUDESUOYOUQUANTONGCHANGYIJINGZHUANYIJILESHOUHUOREN。CISHI, RUGUOSHITUOYUNRENDEZERENDAOZHIDEHUOZAI, CHENGYUNRENBIANBUNENGLIUZHIYIJINGSHUYUSHOUHUORENSUOYOUDEHUOWU, FOUZEGOUCHENGFEIFALIUZHI。

                            四、火灾事故的处置策略

                            ZONGSHANG, BIZHERENWEI, DANGGUOJIHAISHANGYUNSHUGUOCHENGZHONGFASHENGHUOZAIHOU, CHENGYUNRENYINGGAILIXINGDUIDAI, YOULIYOUJUYIFAZHUZHANGQUANLI, JINLIANGJIANSHAOCHUANHUOSHUANGFANGGONGTONGDESUNSHI。

                            (一) 火灾构成船货共同危险的, 船方应及时宣布共同海损

                            YOUYUSHOUYIFANGDUIGONGTONGHAISUNANGEZIDEFENTANJIAZHIFENTAN, BINGQIEZHEIBUFENSUNSHIHUOZHUKEYIXIANGBAOXIANGONGSISUOPEI, YINCICHUANFANGJISHIXUANBUGONGTONGHAISUNJIUFEICHANGYOUBIYAO。

                            SUIRAN《YUEKE—ANTEWEIPUGUIZE》JI《HAISHANGFA》ZHONGDUIGONGTONGHAISUNDEXUANBUBINGMEIYOUYANGEDEGUIDING, DAN《BEIJINGLISUANGUIZE》ZHONGDI7TIAO“GONGTONGHAISUNSHIXIAN”DEGUIDINGBIJIAOYANGE———“XUANBUGONGTONGHAISUN:CHUANBOZAIHAISHANGFASHENGSHIGU, BUCHIYUDAODADIYIGEGANGKOUHOUDESISHIBAXIAOSHI;CHUANBOZAIGANGNEIFASHENGSHIGU, BUCHIYUSHIGUFASHENGHOUDESISHIBAXIAOSHI。”ZHIDING《BEIJINGLISUANGUIZE》SHIWEIHERUCIGUIDINGMUQIANYIJINGWUCONGKAOZHENG, KENENGSHIYINWEIDANGSHIZHONGGUOSHIYIGEHUOZHUGUOJIA, SHIGUFASHENGHOUJINKUAIDITONGZHIHUOWUYOUGUANFANGKESHIQILIYIDEDAOZUIDADEBAOHU。

                            CHENGYUNRENZAIXUANBUGONGTONGHAISUNHOU, YINGJISHIXIANGSHOUHUORENFACHUYAOQIUGONGTONGHAISUNFENTANHUOZHETIGONGFENTANZHIDANBAODETONGZHI, BINGWEITUOLISUANSHIJINXINGLISUAN。DUIYUBEIQUEDINGWEIGONGTONGHAISUNDESUNSHIHUOFEIYONG, WULUNSHIYIJUCHUANBOBAOXIANTIAOKUANHAISHIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUBAOXIANTIAOKUAN, CHUANDONGYUHUOZHUDOUNENGCONGGEZIDEBAOXIANGONGSIHUODELIPEI。

                            (二) 及时确定火灾的原因

                          星云棋牌官网下载   MINGQUEHUOZAIYUANYIN, SHIFENQINGZERENDEQIANTI。NEIMEHUOZAISHIGUDEYUANYINGAIRUHEQUEDING?HANGYUNSHIJIANZHONG, CHENGYUNRENWANGWANGWEITUOBAOXIANGONGGUGONGSIJINXINGSHIGUDIAOCHA, BINGCHUJUBAOXIANGONGGUBAOGAO, YICIZUOWEIHUOZAIFASHENGDEYUANYIN, DANSIFASHIJIANZHONG, BAOXIANGONGSIDEGONGGUBAOGAOBUNENGZUOWEIRENDINGHUOZAIYUANYINDEYIJU。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIZUIGAORENMINFAYUANTISHENDE“ZHONGGUOTAIPINGYANGCAICHANBAOXIANGUFENYOUXIANGONGSIYUZHONGYUANHANGYUNGUFENYOUXIANGONGSI、DISANRENHAINANFENGONGSIHAINANYIQIHAIMAQICHEXIAOSHOUYOUXIANGONGSISHUILUHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGHUOSUNPEICHANGJIUFENAN”ZHONG, [14]ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANRENWEI, GENJU《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOXIAOFANGFA》 (JIANCHENG《XIAOFANGFA》) DI51TIAODEGUIDING, YIJIGONGANBUYU2009NIAN4YUEBANFADE《HUOZAISHIGUDIAOCHAGUIDING》DI5TIAODEGUIDING, HUOZAISHIGUDIAOCHAHECHULIDEWEIYIFADINGJIGOUSHIGONGANXIAOFANGJIGOU, CHUCIZHIWAI, QITARENHEDANWEIHEBUMENJUNWUQUAN、WUZIZHI、WUNENGLIDUIHUOZAISHIGUJINXINGDIAOCHAHECHULI。GENJU《HAISHANGJIAOTONGSHIGUDIAOCHACHULITIAOLI》DI9TIAODEGUIDING, YIJI《XIAOFANGFA》DI64TIAODEGUIDING, FASHENGHUOZAIHOU, CHUANZHANGFUYOUBAOGAOHUOZAISHIGUBINGSHENQINGGONGANXIAOFANGJIGOUJINXINGJIANDINGDEFADINGYIWU。

                            GUANYUGONGANXIAOFANGJIGUANSHIHUOZAISHIGUDIAOCHAHECHULIDEWEIYIFADINGJIGOU, YIHUOZHISHICHUJUHUOZAIBAOGAODEYOUQUANJIGOUZHIYI, BINGBUPAICHUQITAJIGOUCHUJUYOUXIAODEBAOGAOZHEIYIWENTIBINGMEIYOUYINWEISHANGSHUZUIGAORENMINFAYUANDEPANJUEERTINGZHIFENZHENG。ZAI“FUJIANSHENGQUANZHOUMENGFENGRANLIAOYOUXIANGONGSI (JIANCHENGMENGFENGGONGSI) YUDALIANCHANGYUANHANGYUNYOUXIANGONGSI (JIANCHENGCHANGYUNGONGSI) SHUILUHUOWUYUNSHUHETONGJIUFENYIAN”7ZHONG, MENGFENGGONGSIRENWEI“GONGANXIAOFANGJIGOUCAISHIHUOZAISHIGUDIAOCHAHECHULIDEWEIYIFADINGJIGOU, GUYUANSHENPANJUEBUYINGCAINAQUANZHOUHAISHIJUDE《SHIGUDIAOCHABAOGAO》”, CHANGYUNGONGSIZEBIANCHENG“GONGANXIAOFANGJIGOUZHISHICHUJUHUOZAIBAOGAODEYIGEYOUQUANJIGOU, ERFEIMENGFENGGONGSISUOCHENGDEWEIYIJIGOU。YIJU《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOHAISHANGJIAOTONGANQUANFA》 (JIANCHENG《HAISHANGJIAOTONGANQUANFA》) 、《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOHAISHANGJIAOTONGSHIGUDIAOCHACHULITIAOLI》DENGXIANGGUANGUIDING, MUQIANDEGANGWUJIANDUJIGOUJIUSHIHAISHIJU, HAISHANGHUOZAISHIGUDEDIAOCHAJIZERENRENDING, YINGYOUHAISHIJUFUZE。”ERSHENFAYUANTIANJINSHIGAOJIRENMINFAYUANRENWEI“SHEANHUOZAISHIGUSHUYUHAISHANGJIAOTONGSHIGU, HAISHIJUYOUQUANDUISHIGUCHAMINGYUANYIN, RENDINGZEREN。GUQUANZHOUHAISHIJUGENJUDIAOCHAJIEGUOCHUJUDE《SHIGUDIAOCHABAOGAO》JUYOUFALVXIAOLI。”BIZHERENWEI, GENJU《HAISHANGJIAOTONGANQUANFA》JI《HAISHANGJIAOTONGSHIGUDIAOCHACHULITIAOJIAN》DEGUIDING, “CHUANBOFASHENGDEJIAOTONGSHIGU, YOUZHUGUANJIGUANCHAMINGYUANYIN, PANMINGZEREN”, DUIYUHAISHANGJIAOTONGSHIGU, HAISHIZHUGUANJIGOUZUOCHUDE《SHIGUDIAOCHABAOGAO》HEFAYOUXIAO, DANGUANYUHUOZAIYUANYINDEJIELUNYINGGAIYOUGONGANXIAOFANGJIGUANCHUJU。YINCIWEILEBIMIANYOUKENENGYINFADEZHENGYI, BIZHEJIANYI, HAISHIZHUGUANJIGUANZAIJIUHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUZHONGFASHENGDEHUOZAISHIGUJINXINGDIAOCHAYUCHULISHI, KEYITONGZHIGONGANXIAOFANGBUMENXIEZHUDIAOCHACHULI, JIUHUOZAIYUANYINYOUGONGANXIAOFANGBUMENCHUJUZUIZHONGBAOGAOWEIYI。RU, ZAI“ZHONGGUORENMINCAICHANBAOXIANGUFENYOUXIANGONGSIGUANGXIZHUANGZUZIZHIQUFENGONGSIYUGUIGANGGANGYUGUOJIWULIUYOUXIANGONGSI、GUIGANGSHIZHENHAICHUANWUYOUXIANZERENGONGSIBAOXIANDAIWEIDAICHANGQUANJIUFENYIAN”8ZHONG, SHEANCHENGYUNCHUANBO“ZHENHAI663”HAOCHUANHANGXINGZHIGUANGDONGFOSHANDONGPINGSHUIDAOSANSHANDUKOUFUJINSHUIYUSHIFASHENGHUOZAISHIGU, JINGXIAOFANGDUIHEHAISHIJUMIEHUOJIQIANGJIU, PUMIELEHUOZAI, DANDABUFENHUOWUYIJINGSHAOHUI。FOSHANNANHAIHAISHICHUFAHANYAOQIUFOSHANSHINANHAIQUGONGANXIAOFANGDADUIXIEZHUDIAOCHA“ZHENHAI663”HAOCHUANHUOZAISHIGUYUANYIN, FOSHANSHINANHAIQUGONGANXIAOFANGDADUIDUIHUOZAISHIGUZUOCHULECHULIYIJIAN。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YIJUZUIGAORENMINFAYUANQUELIDEZHEIYIGUIZE, BIZHEJIANYIDUIYUHAISHANGHUOWUFASHENGHUOZAISHIGUDECHUANBO, YOUTIAOJIANDECHUANBO, BIRUFASHENGHUOZAIHOUKAOBOZHONGGUOGANGKOUDE, CHUANDONGYINGGAILIANXIGANGKOUDEGONGANXIAOFANGBUMENDUIHUOZAIYUANYINJINXINGJIANDING, YOUQICHUJUSHIGUBAOGAO;RUGUOMEIYOUGONGANXIAOFANGBUMENHUOZHEMEIYOUBANFAQUDEGONGANXIAOFANGBUMENDEBAOGAODE, YINGGAIXIANGHAISHIZHUGUANBUMENBAOGAO, QUDE《SHIGUDIAOCHABAOGAO》, TIQINGHAISHIZHUGUANBUMENHUISHANGGONGANXIAOFANGBUMENMINGQUEHUOZAIYUANYIN。LINGWAI, BIZHEJIANYICHUANDONGLIANXIHUOZHUHOU, YEKEYIYOUSHUANGFANGGONGTONGWEITUOJIANDINGBUMENJINXINGJIANDING, HUOZHEKEYISHENQINGGANGKOUSUOSHUDIDEHAISHIFAYUANJINXINGZHENGJUBAOQUAN。

                            (三) 承运人应慎用货物留置权

                            RUSHANGWENSUOSHU, YIJU《HAISHANGFA》DI87TIAOGUIDING, CHENGYUNRENXINGSHIHUOWULIUZHIQUANDEQIANTISHIZHAIWURENSUOYOUDEHUOWU。DANGHUOZAIYUANYINBUMING、ZERENBUQINGDEQINGKUANGXIA, WANGWANGWUFAQUEDINGTUOYUNRENHAISHISHOUHUORENWEIZHAIWUREN, YEBUQINGCHUCHUANSHANGHUOWUDAODISHITUOYUNRENHAISHISHOUHUORENSUOYOU, YINCIRUGUOCHENGYUNRENLANYONGQUANLI, KENENGDAOZHILIUZHICUOWUERMIANLINHUOZHUDESUOPEI。KEXINGDEZUOFASHI:DANGFASHENGHUOZAISHIGUHOU, WEIMINGQUESHIGUYUANYINBINGQUEDINGZERENZHIQIAN, CHENGYUNRENYOUQUANYAOQIUHUOFANGTIGONGXIANGYINGDEDANBAO;RUGUOHUOFANGBUTIGONGDANBAO, CHENGYUNRENNENGQUEDINGHUOZAIXIHUOFANGYUANYINSUOZHI、HUOFANGCHENGDANSHIGUZERENDE, BINGQIENENGQUEDINGHUOWUXIZERENFANGSUOYOU, CHENGYUNRENKEYIXINGSHIHUOWULIUZHIQUAN;RUGUOYOUYUCHUANBOZHOUZHUANYUNYINGXUYAO, HUOZHEMUDEGANGBUJUBEILIUZHITIAOJIANDE, CHENGYUNRENYEKEYISHENQINGHAISHIFAYUANZUOCAICHANBAOQUANKOUYACHUANZAIHUOWU。

                            五、结语

                            ZONGHEZUIGAORENMINFAYUAN、XIANGGUANHAISHIFAYUANJIGAOJIRENMINFAYUANDEYOUGUANHAISHANGYUNSHUHUOZAIANLIDEPANJUE, KEYIMINGQUEHUOZAIYUANYINDERENDINGJIGOUWEIGONGANXIAOFANGJIGOU。FEIWEIXIANHUOWUYINFAHUOZAIZAOCHENGCHUANBOSUNSHISHI, HUOZHUCHENGDANGUOCUOZEREN, YOUCHENGYUNRENCHENGDANJUZHENGZERENZHENGMINGTUOYUNRENHUOZHESHOUHUORENYOUGUOCUO。ZAIGUOJIHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUZHONG, CHENGYUNRENDUIFEIZHAIWURENSUOYOUDEHUOWUJINXINGLIUZHIGOUCHENGFEIFALIUZHIHUOWU, YINGCHENGDANSUNHAIPEICHANGZEREN。

                            LEISIYUMASHIJIHAONANLUNDEHUOZAISHIGU, BIZHEJIANYIJIEJUEFANGANWEI:DIYI, MASHIJIGONGSIKEYIJIUFASHENGDEYANZHONGHUOZAISUOZAOCHENGDESUNSHIXUANBUGONGTONGHAISUN, YAOQIUHUOZHUFENTANQISUNSHI, JUHAISHIWANGBAODAO, MASHIJIZAISHIGUFASHENGHOUYIXUANBULEGONGTONGHAISUN, ZAIHANGCHENGZHONGYOUCAIWULIYIDEGEFANGJIANGANBILIFENDANSHIGUZAOCHENGDESUNSHI。DIER, JIUHUOZAIZAOCHENGDEHUOWUMIESHIHUOSUNHUAI, CHUFEIHUOZHUNENGZHENGMINGXIMASHIJIGONGSIBENRENGUOCUODAOZHI, FOUZEWUQUANXIANGMASHIJIGONGSITICHUSUOPEI;RUGUOGUOJIHUOWUMAIMAIHETONGZHONGMAIMAISHUANGFANGTOUBAOLEHAISHANGHUOWUYUNSHUBAOXIAN, KEYIJIUQIYINHUOZAIDAOZHIDEHUOWUSUNSHIJIGONGTONGHAISUNFENTANBUFENXIANGBAOXIANGONGSISUOPEI。DISAN, MUQIANDAHUOYUANYINSHANGWUGUANFANGJIELUN, JUHAISHIWANGBAODAODEHUOZAIXIANCHANGSHIPINYIJICONGHUOCANGQIHUODENGQINGKUANG, DUOWEIYENEIZISHENRENSHICHUBUFENXI, QIHUOYUANYINJIYOUKENENGYOUSHIYINWEIYIRANWEIXIANPINHUODIANCHILEIHUOPIN。[15]RUGUOYOUZHENGJUZHENGMINGHUOZAIXISHANGSHUYUANYINDAOZHI, NEIMEMASHIJIGONGSIKEYIXIANGMANBAOWEIXIANPINDEHUOZHUTICHUSUOPEI。DANCONGXIANYOUANQINGCHUBUKAN, XIANRANZERENFANGSHITUOYUNRENERFEISHOUHUOREN, YIJU《HAISHANGFA》DEGUIDING, MASHIJIGONGSIBUDEDUISHOUHUORENSUOYOUDEHUOWUSHISHILIUZHIQUAN。

                            参考文献

                            [1] “马士基浩南”将重生!“新光华”轮将承运未损船体到韩国[EB/OL].[2018-01-16].http://www.sohu.com/a/289532511_712251.
                            [2] 杨良宜.租约[M].大连:大连海事大学出版社, 1994:116.
                            [3]司玉琢.海商法专论[M].3版.北京:中国人民大学出版社, 2015:294.
                            [4] 张新平.海商法[M].北京:中国政法大学出版社, 2000:289.
                            [5]吴焕宁.国际海上运输三公约释义[M].北京:中国商务出版社, 2007:53.
                            [6] 温文华.略论海上货物运输承运人火灾免责[EB/OL].[2017-03-12].http://www.xmhsfy.gov.cn/Show List.aspx?nid=24&id=498.
                            [7]郭瑜.海上货物运输法[M].北京:人民法院出版社, 2000:103.
                            [8] 中国人民财产保险股份有限公司浙江省分公司诉上海瀚航集运有限公司海上货物运输合同货物灭失代位求偿纠纷案[EB/OL].[2017-03-12].http://www.pkulaw.com/pfnl/a25051f3312b07f328dade4dd4ada42305b58a6d26c4ac46bdfb.html.
                            [9]汪鹏南.海上保险合同法详论[M].大连:大连海事大学出版社, 2003:220.
                            [10] 韩进海运公司诉连云港市化工医保进出口公司未告知和标识危货而托运致运输中发生火灾在共同海损理算后要求赔偿案[EB/OL].[2017-03-12].http://www.pkulaw.com/pfnl/a25051f3312b07f322c9870dc85d92eed1b996087542b708bdfb.html.
                            [11]司玉琢.海商法[M].4版.北京:法律出版社, 2018:99.
                            [12] 宁波市镇海明鼎金属材料有限公司诉逢原船务有限公司 (FENGYUNSHIPPINGCO) 等非法留置船载货物损害责任纠纷案[EB/OL].[2017-03-12].http://www.pkulaw.com/pfnl/a25051f3312b07f3c93c47f73de327504de263c78ebc708ebdfb.html.
                            [13]余劲松, 吴志攀.国际经济法[M].4版.北京:北京大学出版社, 高等教育出版社, 2014:90.
                            [14] 中国太平洋财产保险股份有限公司与中远航运股份有限公司、第三人海南分公司海南一汽海马汽车销售有限公司水路货物运输合同货损赔偿纠纷案[EB/OL].[2017-03-12].http://www.pkulaw.com/pfnl/a25051f3312b07f3a5e3183b4461d2572bc8e3da756a1d52bdfb.html.
                            [15] 柜在烧!客户在哭!史上最严重集装箱大火让广大货主物流企业心如刀割![EB/OL]. (2017-03-11) [2018-01-12].http://news.ifeng.com/a/20180311/56639726_0.shtml.

                            注释

                            1 《海商法》第87条规定:“应当向承运人支付的运费、共同海损分摊、滞期费和承运人为货物垫付的必要费用以及应当向承运人支付的其他费用没有付清, 又没有提供适当担保的, 承运人可以在合理的限度内留置其货物。”
                            2 国际海事组织海上安全委员会第87次会议通过了《国际海运危险货物规则》第35-10版修正案。根据海上安全委员会第294号决议, 新版《国际海运危险货物规则》于2011年1月1日起自愿实施, 并将于2012年1月1日起强制实施。
                            3 《海商法》第68条第1款规定:“托运人托运危险货物, 应当依照有关海上危险货物运输的规定, 妥善包装, 作出危险品标志和标签, 并将其正式名称和性质以及应当采取的预防危害措施书面通知承运人;托运人未通知或者通知有误的, 承运人可以在任何时间、任何地点根据情况需要将货物卸下、销毁或者使之不能为害, 而不负赔偿责任。托运人对承运人因运输此类货物所受到的损害, 应当负赔偿责任。”
                            4 《海商法》第70条规定:“托运人对承运人、实际承运人所遭受的损失或者船舶所遭受的损坏, 不负赔偿责任;但是, 此种损失或者损坏是由于托运人或者托运人受雇人, 代理人的过失造成的除外。托运人的受雇人、代理人对承运人、实际承运人所遭受的损失或者船舶所遭受的损坏, 不负赔偿责任;但是, 这种损失或者损坏是由于托运人的受雇人、代理人的过失造成的除外。”
                            5 参见宁波海事法院 (2016) 浙72民初2511号民事判决书, 裁判日期2018年9月10日。
                            6 《海商法》第87条规定:“应当向承运人支付的运费、共同海损分摊、滞期费和承运人为货物垫付的必要费用以及应当向承运人支付的其他费用没有付清, 又没有提供适当担保的, 承运人可以在合理的限度内留置其货物。”
                            7 参见天津海事法院 (2011) 津海法商初字第311号, 天津市高级人民法院 (2012) 津高民四终字第0114号, 裁判日期2012年5月16日。
                            8 参见广西壮族自治区高级人民法院 (2010) 桂民四终字第8号, 裁判日期2011年6月1日。

                            余妙宏.国际海上货物运输中“火灾”事故适用法律研究[J].中国海商法研究,2019,30(01):74-81.
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