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                              意大利语人称代词的起源与发展探究

                              时间:2018-05-24 来源:黑河学刊 作者:朱玉寒 本文字数:2989字

                                摘    要: 意大利语脱胎于历史悠久的拉丁语, 至今已有一千余年的发展史。在从古典拉丁语演进到今天的意大利语的过程中, 意大利语既较为完整地保存了拉丁语的基本特征, 也在其基础上进一步发展, 产生许多意大利语独有的崭新特征, 这在意大利语人称代词的发展史上表现得尤为明显。探究意大利语人称代词的起源与发展, 既有利于理顺意大利语词汇演变的源流脉络, 也有助于学习者更有效地理解现代意大利语中人称代词的作用。

                                关键词: 意大利语; 拉丁语; 人称代词; 发展历程;

                                LADINGYUZAIZHUBUYANBIANWEIJINTIANDEYIDALIYUDEGUOCHENGZHONGJINGLILESIGEJIEDUAN:GUDIANLADINGYU (GONGYUANQIAN1SHIJIZHIGONGYUAN2SHIJI) , SHILUOMADIGUODEGUANFANGYUYANYUBIAOZHUNYU;TONGSULADINGYU (GONGYUAN2SHIJIZHIYUE9SHIJI) , SHIGUDIANLADINGYUZAIJINFAGUO、YIBILIYABANDAO、YIDALIHELUOMANIYADENGDIDEMINJIANTONGSUBIANTI;ZAOQILUOMANYU (9SHIJIZHI12SHIJI) SHITONGSULADINGYUGEDIFANGYANJIXUFAZHANDECHANWU, JINTIANZHULUOMANYUDEQIANSHEN, GUYIDALIYUSHIZAOQILUOMANYUZAIYIDALIDEFANGYANXINGSHI;XIANDAIYIDALIYU (12SHIJIZHIJIN) SHIWENYIFUXINGHOUZHUJIANXINGCHENGDEYITUOSIKANAFANGYANWEIJICHUDEYIDALIYUBIAOZHUNYU。

                              意大利语人称代词的起源与发展探究

                                一、从拉丁语到罗曼语

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZAILADINGYUXIANGLUOMANYUYANHUADEGUOCHENGZHONG, SANGULILIANGZHONGSULELADINGYUDERENCHENGDAICIXITONG, SHIZHIZAIYUANYOUTIXIDEJICHUSHANGYANHUA。QIYISHIZHONGDUYUFEIZHONGDURENCHENGDAICIDEFENHUA:CHULADINGYUYUANYOUDEKEDANDUSHIYONGDEZHONGDUDAICIWAI, LUOMANYULINGXINGCHENGYITAOBUNENGDUZISHIYONGDEFEIZHONGDUDAICI, TAMENZHINENGYUDONGCIGONGTONGCHUXIAN;QIERSHIDAICIBIANGEDEBENGKUI:LADINGYUDEDAICITONGMINGCI、XINGRONGCIYIYANG, DANFUSHUGEYOULIUZHONGBIANGEXINGSHI, ERZAIZAOQILUOMANYUZHONG, ZHEIXIEDAICIDECIXINGBIANHUAWANGWANGTAXIANCHENGZHISHENGZHUBINLIANGGEGE, JINZAIDISANRENCHENGDAICIZHONGHAICANCUNZHEDANDUDEYUGE。ZUIHOUSHIXINDAICIDECHANSHENG:YUANBENDEZHISHIDAICIilleZHUBUJIETILEDISANRENCHENGDAICIisDEWEIZHI, XINGCHENGXINDEDISANRENCHENGDAICI。YISHANGSANGULILIANGGONGTONGSUZAOLEZAOQILUOMANYUDEDAICIXITONG, BINGZAICIJICHUSHANGJINYIBUYANBIANXINGCHENGXIANDAIYIDALIYUDERENCHENGDAICIXITONG。

                                二、第一人称、第二人称代词的发展

                                表一拉丁语的第一、第二人称代词
                              表一拉丁语的第一、第二人称代词

                                LADINGYUZHIYONGYOUDIYIRENCHENGHEDIERRENCHENGDERENCHENGDAICI, ERMEIYOUZHUANMENDEDISANRENCHENGDAICI。ZAILADINGYUYANHUAWEIYIDALIYUDEGUOCHENGZHONG, ZHEITAODAICIYEBEIJICHENGLEXIALAI。XIANDAIYIDALIYUDEZHONGDUYI、ERRENCHENGDAICISHIWANQUANGUIZEDE:ego>io, mē>me, nōs>noi, tū>tu, tē>te, vōs>voi。QIZHONGegoDEYANHUAJIAOWEIFUZA, TASHOUXIANJINGLILEZHUOFUYINgDETUOLUOCHENGWEIeo, ZAIYIDALIYUZHONGZHEIYIXINGSHIZHISHAOWEICHIDAO13、14SHIJI, SUIHOUZHONGDUYUANYINeZAIYUANYINQIANGAOHUAXINGCHENGLEio (KEBIJIAO:deo>dio“SHEN”, meo>mio“WODE”) 。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   YOUYUYIDALIYUZHONGTONGGUODONGCIBIANWEIYIBANKEYIMINGQUEDIKANCHUZHUYUDERENCHENG, SUOYIZHUGERENCHENGDAICIJINGCHANGBEISHENGLVE, ZHIBEIYONGZAIXUYAOQIANGDIAOZHUYUDEQINGKUANGZHONG。YINCI, XIANGJIAOYUBINGE, YIDALIYUDEYI、ERRENCHENGDAICIDANSHUZHUGEBIANMEIYOUFENHUACHUXIANGYINGDEFEIZHONGDUXINGSHI。FUSHUDEciHEviSHIYIDALIYUDUYOUDECHUANGXIN, TAMENFENBIELAIZIYU (ec) ce hīc“ZHEI”HEibi“NEI”。GUYIDALIYUSUIRANYOULAIZIYUnōsHEvōsDEnoHEvo (JINGLILEFEIZHONGDUWEIZHISHANG[os]>[oj]>[o]DEYANBIAN) , DANYUYIXIANGJINDEciHEviYUTAMENJINGZHENGBINGZUIZHONGQUDAILETAMEN。FEIZHONGDUDEmēHEtēDEYUANYIN[e]ZAIZHONGDUYINJIEQIANGAOHUAWEI[i], YINCICHANSHENGLEYUmeHEteXIANGDUIYINGDEmiHEti.

                                三、第三人称代词的发展

                              星云棋牌官网下载   LADINGYUMEIYOUZHUANMENDEDISANRENCHENGDAICI, GUDIANLADINGYUZHONGQIYIYITONGCHANGYONGYUQIJIAORUODEZHISHIDAICIis, ea, id“ZHEI/NEI”LAIBIAOSHI。ZHIGONGYUANYISHIJISHI, TAMENXIANRANYICONGTONGSUKOUYUZHONGXIAOSHI, BEILINGYIGEZHISHIDAICIille, illa, illud“NEI”TIDAI。

                                表二ille在古典拉丁语和通俗拉丁语中的变格
                              表二ille在古典拉丁语和通俗拉丁语中的变格

                                表三illa在古典拉丁语和通俗拉丁语中的变格
                              表三illa在古典拉丁语和通俗拉丁语中的变格

                                表四ille的复数与第一、第二变格法复数词尾的比较
                              表四ille的复数与第一、第二变格法复数词尾的比较

                                GUDIANLADINGYUZHONGilleHEQITAJIGECHANGYONGCIDUYOUYIZHONGBIANGEXINGSHI, QIZHONGDETESHUXINGSHIZAITONGSULADINGYUZHONGSHOUDAOLEITUIZUOYONGERFASHENGLEBIANHUA。IlleDEYANGXINGDANSHUXINGSHIQUXIANGYUSHOUYIWEN/GUANXIDAICIquīDEGEXINGSHIDETONGHUA。TAMENFUSHUXINGSHIDEXIANGSIXINGDAOZHILEDANSHUXINGSHIDEXIANGSI:YINWEIquī=illīDANquī≠ille, SUOYIille>illī;YINWEIquōrum=illōrumDANcuius≠illīus, SUOYIillīus>illui us.XINSHENGDEDANSHUSHUGEYOUYITONGYANGDEFANGSHIDUIYUGESHIJIAYINGXIANG:YINWEIcuius=illuiusDANcui≠illī, SUOYIillī>illui.IlleDEYINXINGDANSHUZEQUYUSHOUMINGCIDIYIBIANGEFACIWEIDETONGHUA, ZAICIZUOYONGDEYINGXIANGXIA, SHUGEHEYUGEDEillīusHEillīYANHUACHENGXIANGTONGDEillae, SUIHOUYOUYIZAIYANGXINGDANSHUXINGSHIDELEITUIZUOYONGXIAFENHUAWEIillaeiusHEillaeī.IlleDEFUSHUXINGSHIHEDIYI、ERBIANGEFAGONGYONGTONGYANGDECIWEI, YINCITADEGEZHONGXINGSHIZAITONGSULADINGYUZHONGDEDAOLEBAOCUN。

                                TONGSULADINGYUDISANRENCHENGDAICIDEZHUGEZAIGUYIDALIYUZHONGZUOWEIZHONGDUDAICIDEZHUGEBEIJICHENGLEXIALAI。TONGSULADINGYUDEillī, illaHEillaeFENBIEYANHUAWEIGUYIDALIYUDEelli, ellaHEelle.IlleSUIHOUZAIYUANYINQIANDEWEIZHISHANGEHUAWEIegli, GAIBIANHUASUIHOUKUOZHANDAOSUOYOUWEIZHISHANG。YOUYUillīYEBIAOSHIYANGXINGFUSHU“TAMEN”DEHANYI, WEIQINGCHUQUFENDANFUSHU, CIZHUI-no (QUZIDONGCIZHICHENSHIDISANRENCHENGFUSHU) BEITIANJIADAOTADECIWEICHU:eglino“TAMEN”。ZHEIYICIWEISUIHOUKUOZHANDAOYINXINGFUSHUCHANSHENGLEelleno.

                                LINGYITAOGENGCHENGGONGDEZHONGDUDISANRENCHENGDAICILAIZIGUYIDALIYUDEYUGE, TAYOUZUIZHONGLAIZIYULADINGYUDEYUGEHEBINGE。DANSHUYUGELAIZIYUTONGSULADINGYUDEDANSHUYUGE (illuī>lui, illeī>lei) , FUSHUYUGEZELAIZIYUTONGSULADINGYUDEFUSHUYANGXINGSHUGE (illōrum>loro) 。ZHEISANZHONGYUGEXINGSHIZAIGUYIDALIYUZHONGDOUYONGYOUSHUGEHEYUGESHUANGZHONGHANYI, DANZAODAODANDINGSHIQI, TAMENJIUYISANGSHIYUGEDEHANYI, KEYIZAISUOYOUDEYUJINGZHONGZUOWEIFEIZHUGESHIYONG。

                                YIDALIYULINGYOUYITAOZHONGDUDISANRENCHENGDAICIesso, essa, essiYUesse.TAMENLAIZIYULADINGYUQIANGDIAODAICIipse“ZIJI;BENREN”DEGEZHONGXINGSHI。IpseZAIGUDIANLADINGYUZHONGKEYIDUYONGZUOBIAOSHIDISANRENCHENGDEQIANGDIAODAICI, TAZAITONGSULADINGYUZHONGFAZHANCHENGFUHEDIYI、ERBIANGEFADEipsu, ipsa, ipsī, ipsaeDENGXINGSHI, ZUIZHONGFAZHANWEIesso, essa, essiHEesse.TAMENYULAIZIilleGEZHONGXINGSHIDEZHONGDUDAICIGONGCUN, DANBEIXIANDINGZAIZHINENGZHIWU, YUBEIXIANZHIZAIZHINENGZHIRENDEegliGEXINGSHIHUWEIBUCHONG。SHIJIUSHIJISHI, essi, esseKAISHIQUDAIeglinoYUelleno, SHAOHOUessaYEQUDAILEella, ZHIYOUegliHEessoJIXUGONGCUN。EgliZHUANZHIREN, essoZHUANZHIWU。RANERZUIZHONGZHEILIANGGEDAICIDOUCHENGWEILElui, leiHEloroKUOZHANGDESHOUHAIZHE。JIUZAISHIJIUSHIJI, egliZHIRENDEGONGNENGYIJINGBEIlui, leiHEloroXIANGDANGCHEDIDIQUDAILE, ERZAIZHIWUHUOZHIDONGWUSHI, essoDEGEXINGSHIRENGRANHUIOUERDIZUOWEIZHONGDUDAICICHUXIAN。

                                FEIZHONGDUDAICIlo, la, li, leDELISHIZHANXIANLEDIYI、ERBIANGEFAMINGCIHEXINGRONGCIDEFAZHANLICHENG。FEIZHONGDUJIANJIEBINGEDAICIgli, le, loroFENBIECONGillī, illae, illōrumGUIZEDIFAZHANERLAI。HEegliXIANGSI, illīTONGYANGXIANFAZHANWEIli, SUIHOUZAIYUANYINQIANEHUAWEIgli, BINGZUIZHONGKUOZHANDAOSUOYOUWEIZHISHANG。

                                表五意大利语第三人称代词与通俗拉丁语的对应关系
                              表五意大利语第三人称代词与通俗拉丁语的对应关系

                              星云棋牌官网下载   YINXINGDISANRENCHENGDAICIleiBEIYONGZUODIERRENCHENGDEZUNCHENGLeiDELISHIKEYIZHUISUZHIWENYIFUXINGSHIQI。ZAIXIBANYAYUDEYINGXIANGXIA, TABEIGUANGFANYONGLAIZHIDAIVostra Signoria“GEXIA”, Eminenza“GEXIA;ZUIKEJINGDESHUJI”, Maestà“BIXIA”DENGZUNCHENG, BINGZAIJIEXIALAIDESHUSHIJIZHONGBEIYONGLAIBIAOSHIBIvoiGENGGAODEJINGYI, CHENGWEIBIAOZHUNYUDEYIBUFEN。XIANGJIAOYUlei, voiDELISHIZEYOUJIUDEDUO, TAZHIJIELAIZIYULADINGYUDIERRENCHENGFUSHUDAICIvōsBIAOSHIZUNJINGDEYONGFA。ZHEIYIYONGFAZUIZAOKEYIZHUISUDAOGONGYUANSISHIJIDELUOMADIGUO, YONGYIZHIDAIGONGTONGGUANXIADIGUODELIANGWEIHUANGDI。ZAISHIERDAOSHISISHIJIQIJIAN, YONGFUSHUBIAOSHIZUNCHENGDEYONGFAYIJINGGUDINGXIALAI。VoiSHIYIDALIYUGEFANGYANCHUANTONGDEDIERRENCHENGDANSHUDELIMAOXINGSHI:DANDINGZAI《SHENQU》ZHONGBIAODAGEWAIDEJINGYISHISHIYONGDERENGSHIvoi.JINGUANvoiZAIHOULAIDESHUBAINIANJIANBUDUANBEILeiJIZHANSHIYONGKONGJIAN, SHIZHIJINRITARENGHUOYUEZAIYIDALIYUDANGZHONG。

                                参考文献

                                [1]Ti Alkire, Carol Rosen, Romance Languages, New York, Cambridge University Press.2010.
                                [2]顾枝鹰, 杨志城等.拉丁语语法新编[M].上海, 华东师范大学出版社, 2017.
                                [3]王军.意大利语语法[M].北京, 外语教学与研究出版社, 2006.
                                [4]Brown Roger, Gilman Albert, The Pronouns Of Power And Solidarity, Boston, MIT Press, 1960.

                                朱玉寒.浅谈意大利语人称代词的发展史[J].黑河学刊,2019(02):57-58.
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