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                      学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 语言学论文 > 意大利语论文

                      意大利语人称代词的起源与发展探究

                      时间:2018-05-24 来源:黑河学刊 作者:朱玉寒 本文字数:2989字

                        摘    要: 星云棋牌官网下载意大利语脱胎于历史悠久的拉丁语, 至今已有一千余年的发展史。在从古典拉丁语演进到今天的意大利语的过程中, 意大利语既较为完整地保存了拉丁语的基本特征, 也在其基础上进一步发展, 产生许多意大利语独有的崭新特征, 这在意大利语人称代词的发展史上表现得尤为明显。探究意大利语人称代词的起源与发展, 既有利于理顺意大利语词汇演变的源流脉络, 也有助于学习者更有效地理解现代意大利语中人称代词的作用。

                        关键词: 意大利语; 拉丁语; 人称代词; 发展历程;

                      星云棋牌官网下载   LADINGYUZAIZHUBUYANBIANWEIJINTIANDEYIDALIYUDEGUOCHENGZHONGJINGLILESIGEJIEDUAN:GUDIANLADINGYU (GONGYUANQIAN1SHIJIZHIGONGYUAN2SHIJI) , SHILUOMADIGUODEGUANFANGYUYANYUBIAOZHUNYU;TONGSULADINGYU (GONGYUAN2SHIJIZHIYUE9SHIJI) , SHIGUDIANLADINGYUZAIJINFAGUO、YIBILIYABANDAO、YIDALIHELUOMANIYADENGDIDEMINJIANTONGSUBIANTI;ZAOQILUOMANYU (9SHIJIZHI12SHIJI) SHITONGSULADINGYUGEDIFANGYANJIXUFAZHANDECHANWU, JINTIANZHULUOMANYUDEQIANSHEN, GUYIDALIYUSHIZAOQILUOMANYUZAIYIDALIDEFANGYANXINGSHI;XIANDAIYIDALIYU (12SHIJIZHIJIN) SHIWENYIFUXINGHOUZHUJIANXINGCHENGDEYITUOSIKANAFANGYANWEIJICHUDEYIDALIYUBIAOZHUNYU。

                      意大利语人称代词的起源与发展探究

                        一、从拉丁语到罗曼语

                        ZAILADINGYUXIANGLUOMANYUYANHUADEGUOCHENGZHONG, SANGULILIANGZHONGSULELADINGYUDERENCHENGDAICIXITONG, SHIZHIZAIYUANYOUTIXIDEJICHUSHANGYANHUA。QIYISHIZHONGDUYUFEIZHONGDURENCHENGDAICIDEFENHUA:CHULADINGYUYUANYOUDEKEDANDUSHIYONGDEZHONGDUDAICIWAI, LUOMANYULINGXINGCHENGYITAOBUNENGDUZISHIYONGDEFEIZHONGDUDAICI, TAMENZHINENGYUDONGCIGONGTONGCHUXIAN;QIERSHIDAICIBIANGEDEBENGKUI:LADINGYUDEDAICITONGMINGCI、XINGRONGCIYIYANG, DANFUSHUGEYOULIUZHONGBIANGEXINGSHI, ERZAIZAOQILUOMANYUZHONG, ZHEIXIEDAICIDECIXINGBIANHUAWANGWANGTAXIANCHENGZHISHENGZHUBINLIANGGEGE, JINZAIDISANRENCHENGDAICIZHONGHAICANCUNZHEDANDUDEYUGE。ZUIHOUSHIXINDAICIDECHANSHENG:YUANBENDEZHISHIDAICIilleZHUBUJIETILEDISANRENCHENGDAICIisDEWEIZHI, XINGCHENGXINDEDISANRENCHENGDAICI。YISHANGSANGULILIANGGONGTONGSUZAOLEZAOQILUOMANYUDEDAICIXITONG, BINGZAICIJICHUSHANGJINYIBUYANBIANXINGCHENGXIANDAIYIDALIYUDERENCHENGDAICIXITONG。

                        二、第一人称、第二人称代词的发展

                        表一拉丁语的第一、第二人称代词
                      表一拉丁语的第一、第二人称代词

                        LADINGYUZHIYONGYOUDIYIRENCHENGHEDIERRENCHENGDERENCHENGDAICI, ERMEIYOUZHUANMENDEDISANRENCHENGDAICI。ZAILADINGYUYANHUAWEIYIDALIYUDEGUOCHENGZHONG, ZHEITAODAICIYEBEIJICHENGLEXIALAI。XIANDAIYIDALIYUDEZHONGDUYI、ERRENCHENGDAICISHIWANQUANGUIZEDE:ego>io, mē>me, nōs>noi, tū>tu, tē>te, vōs>voi。QIZHONGegoDEYANHUAJIAOWEIFUZA, TASHOUXIANJINGLILEZHUOFUYINgDETUOLUOCHENGWEIeo, ZAIYIDALIYUZHONGZHEIYIXINGSHIZHISHAOWEICHIDAO13、14SHIJI, SUIHOUZHONGDUYUANYINeZAIYUANYINQIANGAOHUAXINGCHENGLEio (KEBIJIAO:deo>dio“SHEN”, meo>mio“WODE”) 。

                        YOUYUYIDALIYUZHONGTONGGUODONGCIBIANWEIYIBANKEYIMINGQUEDIKANCHUZHUYUDERENCHENG, SUOYIZHUGERENCHENGDAICIJINGCHANGBEISHENGLVE, ZHIBEIYONGZAIXUYAOQIANGDIAOZHUYUDEQINGKUANGZHONG。YINCI, XIANGJIAOYUBINGE, YIDALIYUDEYI、ERRENCHENGDAICIDANSHUZHUGEBIANMEIYOUFENHUACHUXIANGYINGDEFEIZHONGDUXINGSHI。FUSHUDEciHEviSHIYIDALIYUDUYOUDECHUANGXIN, TAMENFENBIELAIZIYU (ec) ce hīc“ZHEI”HEibi“NEI”。GUYIDALIYUSUIRANYOULAIZIYUnōsHEvōsDEnoHEvo (JINGLILEFEIZHONGDUWEIZHISHANG[os]>[oj]>[o]DEYANBIAN) , DANYUYIXIANGJINDEciHEviYUTAMENJINGZHENGBINGZUIZHONGQUDAILETAMEN。FEIZHONGDUDEmēHEtēDEYUANYIN[e]ZAIZHONGDUYINJIEQIANGAOHUAWEI[i], YINCICHANSHENGLEYUmeHEteXIANGDUIYINGDEmiHEti.

                        三、第三人称代词的发展

                        LADINGYUMEIYOUZHUANMENDEDISANRENCHENGDAICI, GUDIANLADINGYUZHONGQIYIYITONGCHANGYONGYUQIJIAORUODEZHISHIDAICIis, ea, id“ZHEI/NEI”LAIBIAOSHI。ZHIGONGYUANYISHIJISHI, TAMENXIANRANYICONGTONGSUKOUYUZHONGXIAOSHI, BEILINGYIGEZHISHIDAICIille, illa, illud“NEI”TIDAI。

                        表二ille在古典拉丁语和通俗拉丁语中的变格
                      表二ille在古典拉丁语和通俗拉丁语中的变格

                        表三illa在古典拉丁语和通俗拉丁语中的变格
                      表三illa在古典拉丁语和通俗拉丁语中的变格

                        表四ille的复数与第一、第二变格法复数词尾的比较
                      表四ille的复数与第一、第二变格法复数词尾的比较

                        GUDIANLADINGYUZHONGilleHEQITAJIGECHANGYONGCIDUYOUYIZHONGBIANGEXINGSHI, QIZHONGDETESHUXINGSHIZAITONGSULADINGYUZHONGSHOUDAOLEITUIZUOYONGERFASHENGLEBIANHUA。IlleDEYANGXINGDANSHUXINGSHIQUXIANGYUSHOUYIWEN/GUANXIDAICIquīDEGEXINGSHIDETONGHUA。TAMENFUSHUXINGSHIDEXIANGSIXINGDAOZHILEDANSHUXINGSHIDEXIANGSI:YINWEIquī=illīDANquī≠ille, SUOYIille>illī;YINWEIquōrum=illōrumDANcuius≠illīus, SUOYIillīus>illui us.XINSHENGDEDANSHUSHUGEYOUYITONGYANGDEFANGSHIDUIYUGESHIJIAYINGXIANG:YINWEIcuius=illuiusDANcui≠illī, SUOYIillī>illui.IlleDEYINXINGDANSHUZEQUYUSHOUMINGCIDIYIBIANGEFACIWEIDETONGHUA, ZAICIZUOYONGDEYINGXIANGXIA, SHUGEHEYUGEDEillīusHEillīYANHUACHENGXIANGTONGDEillae, SUIHOUYOUYIZAIYANGXINGDANSHUXINGSHIDELEITUIZUOYONGXIAFENHUAWEIillaeiusHEillaeī.IlleDEFUSHUXINGSHIHEDIYI、ERBIANGEFAGONGYONGTONGYANGDECIWEI, YINCITADEGEZHONGXINGSHIZAITONGSULADINGYUZHONGDEDAOLEBAOCUN。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   TONGSULADINGYUDISANRENCHENGDAICIDEZHUGEZAIGUYIDALIYUZHONGZUOWEIZHONGDUDAICIDEZHUGEBEIJICHENGLEXIALAI。TONGSULADINGYUDEillī, illaHEillaeFENBIEYANHUAWEIGUYIDALIYUDEelli, ellaHEelle.IlleSUIHOUZAIYUANYINQIANDEWEIZHISHANGEHUAWEIegli, GAIBIANHUASUIHOUKUOZHANDAOSUOYOUWEIZHISHANG。YOUYUillīYEBIAOSHIYANGXINGFUSHU“TAMEN”DEHANYI, WEIQINGCHUQUFENDANFUSHU, CIZHUI-no (QUZIDONGCIZHICHENSHIDISANRENCHENGFUSHU) BEITIANJIADAOTADECIWEICHU:eglino“TAMEN”。ZHEIYICIWEISUIHOUKUOZHANDAOYINXINGFUSHUCHANSHENGLEelleno.

                        LINGYITAOGENGCHENGGONGDEZHONGDUDISANRENCHENGDAICILAIZIGUYIDALIYUDEYUGE, TAYOUZUIZHONGLAIZIYULADINGYUDEYUGEHEBINGE。DANSHUYUGELAIZIYUTONGSULADINGYUDEDANSHUYUGE (illuī>lui, illeī>lei) , FUSHUYUGEZELAIZIYUTONGSULADINGYUDEFUSHUYANGXINGSHUGE (illōrum>loro) 。ZHEISANZHONGYUGEXINGSHIZAIGUYIDALIYUZHONGDOUYONGYOUSHUGEHEYUGESHUANGZHONGHANYI, DANZAODAODANDINGSHIQI, TAMENJIUYISANGSHIYUGEDEHANYI, KEYIZAISUOYOUDEYUJINGZHONGZUOWEIFEIZHUGESHIYONG。

                        YIDALIYULINGYOUYITAOZHONGDUDISANRENCHENGDAICIesso, essa, essiYUesse.TAMENLAIZIYULADINGYUQIANGDIAODAICIipse“ZIJI;BENREN”DEGEZHONGXINGSHI。IpseZAIGUDIANLADINGYUZHONGKEYIDUYONGZUOBIAOSHIDISANRENCHENGDEQIANGDIAODAICI, TAZAITONGSULADINGYUZHONGFAZHANCHENGFUHEDIYI、ERBIANGEFADEipsu, ipsa, ipsī, ipsaeDENGXINGSHI, ZUIZHONGFAZHANWEIesso, essa, essiHEesse.TAMENYULAIZIilleGEZHONGXINGSHIDEZHONGDUDAICIGONGCUN, DANBEIXIANDINGZAIZHINENGZHIWU, YUBEIXIANZHIZAIZHINENGZHIRENDEegliGEXINGSHIHUWEIBUCHONG。SHIJIUSHIJISHI, essi, esseKAISHIQUDAIeglinoYUelleno, SHAOHOUessaYEQUDAILEella, ZHIYOUegliHEessoJIXUGONGCUN。EgliZHUANZHIREN, essoZHUANZHIWU。RANERZUIZHONGZHEILIANGGEDAICIDOUCHENGWEILElui, leiHEloroKUOZHANGDESHOUHAIZHE。JIUZAISHIJIUSHIJI, egliZHIRENDEGONGNENGYIJINGBEIlui, leiHEloroXIANGDANGCHEDIDIQUDAILE, ERZAIZHIWUHUOZHIDONGWUSHI, essoDEGEXINGSHIRENGRANHUIOUERDIZUOWEIZHONGDUDAICICHUXIAN。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   FEIZHONGDUDAICIlo, la, li, leDELISHIZHANXIANLEDIYI、ERBIANGEFAMINGCIHEXINGRONGCIDEFAZHANLICHENG。FEIZHONGDUJIANJIEBINGEDAICIgli, le, loroFENBIECONGillī, illae, illōrumGUIZEDIFAZHANERLAI。HEegliXIANGSI, illīTONGYANGXIANFAZHANWEIli, SUIHOUZAIYUANYINQIANEHUAWEIgli, BINGZUIZHONGKUOZHANDAOSUOYOUWEIZHISHANG。

                        表五意大利语第三人称代词与通俗拉丁语的对应关系
                      表五意大利语第三人称代词与通俗拉丁语的对应关系

                        YINXINGDISANRENCHENGDAICIleiBEIYONGZUODIERRENCHENGDEZUNCHENGLeiDELISHIKEYIZHUISUZHIWENYIFUXINGSHIQI。ZAIXIBANYAYUDEYINGXIANGXIA, TABEIGUANGFANYONGLAIZHIDAIVostra Signoria“GEXIA”, Eminenza“GEXIA;ZUIKEJINGDESHUJI”, Maestà“BIXIA”DENGZUNCHENG, BINGZAIJIEXIALAIDESHUSHIJIZHONGBEIYONGLAIBIAOSHIBIvoiGENGGAODEJINGYI, CHENGWEIBIAOZHUNYUDEYIBUFEN。XIANGJIAOYUlei, voiDELISHIZEYOUJIUDEDUO, TAZHIJIELAIZIYULADINGYUDIERRENCHENGFUSHUDAICIvōsBIAOSHIZUNJINGDEYONGFA。ZHEIYIYONGFAZUIZAOKEYIZHUISUDAOGONGYUANSISHIJIDELUOMADIGUO, YONGYIZHIDAIGONGTONGGUANXIADIGUODELIANGWEIHUANGDI。ZAISHIERDAOSHISISHIJIQIJIAN, YONGFUSHUBIAOSHIZUNCHENGDEYONGFAYIJINGGUDINGXIALAI。VoiSHIYIDALIYUGEFANGYANCHUANTONGDEDIERRENCHENGDANSHUDELIMAOXINGSHI:DANDINGZAI《SHENQU》ZHONGBIAODAGEWAIDEJINGYISHISHIYONGDERENGSHIvoi.JINGUANvoiZAIHOULAIDESHUBAINIANJIANBUDUANBEILeiJIZHANSHIYONGKONGJIAN, SHIZHIJINRITARENGHUOYUEZAIYIDALIYUDANGZHONG。

                        参考文献

                        [1]Ti Alkire, Carol Rosen, Romance Languages, New York, Cambridge University Press.2010.
                        [2]顾枝鹰, 杨志城等.拉丁语语法新编[M].上海, 华东师范大学出版社, 2017.
                        [3]王军.意大利语语法[M].北京, 外语教学与研究出版社, 2006.
                        [4]Brown Roger, Gilman Albert, The Pronouns Of Power And Solidarity, Boston, MIT Press, 1960.

                        朱玉寒.浅谈意大利语人称代词的发展史[J].黑河学刊,2019(02):57-58.
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