星云棋牌官网下载

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                          意大利语和汉语动结式的模式特征

                          时间:2018-05-24 来源:现代语文 作者:吴菡 本文字数:7654字

                            摘    要: 本文分别对意大利语和汉语动结式的句法构成、语义关系和语义限制等方面进行考察, 比较两种语言动结式的结构模式, 分析其在语意限制、语序、句法构成和语义指向方面的差异, 以期对意汉两种语言的动结式的结构特点有更详尽的认知, 从应用角度来看可以帮助第二外语习得学生避免因母语习惯的迁移造成动结式的误用。

                            关键词: 星云棋牌官网下载动结式; 意大利语; 汉语; 类型学;

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DONGJIESHIYIZHISHIXUEJIEGUANXINDEREDIANWENTI, YOUGUANDONGJIESHIDETAOLUNBAOKUOQILUNYUANJIEGOU (GUORUI, 2002;SHICHUNHONG, 2005) 、YUYIZHIXIANG (LIXIAODONG, 2008) 、RENZHIGONGNENGFENXI (SONGWENHUI, 2003) DENGDUOGEFANGMIAN, SUOSHEJIDELILUNFANGFAYESHIDUOZHONGDUOYANG, RUJUFAXUEZHONGDEXIAOJULILUN (PENGGUOZHEN, 2011、2012) 、GOUSHIYUFALILUN (TANGYIPING, 2011、2012) SHUANGDONGCIXITONG (SHENYANG, 2010) YIJICIHUIYUYIBIAODAFANGMIANDESHIJIANYUYIXUE (GAOMINGLE, 2011) DENG。WAIYUDONGJIESHIDEXITONGYANJIUZUIZAOKEYIZHUISUDAOJespersen (1909-1949) , MUQIAN, XUEZHEMENJIYUBUTONGLILUNCONGBUTONGJIAODUDECHULEXUDUOYOUJIAZHIDEYANJIUCHENGGUO, HUOCONGSHIJIANJIEGOUJIAODU (Tenny, 1994) , HUOCONGCIHUIYUYIJIAODU (Jackendoff, 1990;Levin, 1993) , HUOCONGJUFAJIEGOU (Hoekstra, 1988;Levin&Rappapot Havov, 1995;Van Valin, 1990) HUOCONGGOUSHIJIAODU (Goldberg, 1995;Goldberg&Jackendoff, 2004) , HUOYIYULIAOKUWEIYITUOCONGRENZHIHEYUYONGJIAODU (Boas, 2003) YANJIUDONGJIESHI。CIWAI, GUONEIXUEJIEHAIJIAODUODITAOLUNLEYINGHANDONGJIESHIDUIBIYANJIU (ZHAOQI, 2008、2009;LUOSIMING, 2009;LUYANPING, 2012DENG) ERCHUYINGYUYIWAIDEHANWAIDONGJIEJIEGOUDEDUIBIJIQITAKUAYUYANDELEIXINGXUEKAOCHASUOJIANBUDUO, YINCIBENWENZAICANKAOGUOWAIWENXIANDEJICHUSHANGCONG“JUFA—YUYI”JIEMIANZONGJIEBIJIAOHANYUJIYIDALIYUDEDONGJIESHIJIEGOUMOSHI, YIQIDUIYIHANLIANGZHONGYUYANDEDONGJIESHIDEJIEGOUTEDIANYOUGENGXIANGJINDERENZHI, CONGYINGYONGJIAODULAIKANKEYIBANGZHUDIERWAIYUXIDEXUESHENGBIMIANYINMUYUXIGUANDEQIANYIZAOCHENGDONGJIESHIDEWUYONG。

                            一、意大利语动结式的模式特征

                            Washio (1997) , Ingrid Kaufmann&Dieter Wunderlich (1998) GENJUDIYIGEWEICIHOU“NP”HEDIERGEWEICIZHIJIANDEGUANXITONGGUOLEIXINGXUEDEKAOCHAFAXIANBUTONGYUYANZHONGDONGJIESHIDEBUTONGJIEGOUMOSHISHOUXIANQUJUEYUSHIFOUYUNXUTIANJIADULIDEJIWUXINGWEIQUFENSANLEIDONGJIESHI:DIYILEI, QIANGDONGJIESHI (strong resultatives) :QIDONGCIYIYIYURDEYIYIXIANGHUWANQUANDULI, CISHI, WOMENWUFACONGDONGCIYIYIYUCECHUDONGCIHOUNPZAIDONGCIXINGWEIGANYUXIAHUICHUYUHEZHONGZHUANGTAIBIANHUA, RUYINGYU、DEYU、HELANYU;DIERLEI, RUODONGJIESHI (weak resultatives) :QIDONGCIYIYIYURDEYIYIBUXIANGHUWANQUANDULI, DONGCIBIAOSHIZHISHISHIJIAN, BUYIDINGYINFAMOUZHONGBIANHUA, DANYOU“MOUXIEZHUANGTAIQINGXIANG”SHUXING (a dispositiontowards certain states) , BIAOSHIYIZHONGQIANZAIDEZHISHIBIANHUA, CONGDONGCIYIYIKEYIYUCECHUJIEGUOZHUANGTAI, RUYIDALIYU、RIYU;DISANLEI, JIADONGJIESHI (spurious resultatives) , JIFEIZUOGEDONGCI (unergative verbs) DAIJIABINYUGOUCHENGDEDONGJIESHI。CIWAIBUTONGYUYANDEDONGJIESHIGOUCHENGDONGCIYUDONGCILEIXING (JIWU/BUJIWUDONGCI;FEIBINGE/FEIZUOGEDONGCI) YOUGUAN。RUXIAMIANBUTONGZHONGLEIDEDONGJIESHIDEYINGYULIJU:

                          意大利语和汉语动结式的模式特征

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (1) a.The cook cut the meat into small pieces.

                            b.The waiter wiped the table clean.

                            c.The joggers ran the lawn flat.

                            d.The baby cried herself to sleep.

                            e.The butter melted soft.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   f.The vase broke into many pieces.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YIDALIYUZHIYOU“1a”HE“1f”CUNZAIDONGJIESHIJIEGOU, YINWEIAPDUANYUSHOUDAOLEYANGEXIANZHI, ERDEYUZEDUIYINGYONGYOU“1e”YIWAISUOYOUZHONGLEIDEDONGJIESHIJIEGOU (“1e”ZHONGZHUYAODONGCIWEIFEIBINGEDONGCI) 。XUEJIEZAIYANJIUDONGJIESHISHIPUBIANJIANGYINGYUZUOWEISUOWEIDE“BIAOZHUN”, Legendre (1997) RENWEILUOMANYUZUDEYUYANBUTONGYUYINGYU, BUNENGTUOZHANDONGCICIHUIGAINIANJIEGOU。Napoli (1992) ZEJIANGYIDALIYUDEDONGJIESHITONGYINGYUDEDONGJIESHIJINXINGLEDUIBI, CHANSHULEYIDALIYUDONGJIESHILUNYUANJIEGOUHEYUFAGONGNENGYUYINGYUDEBUTONG。SHIJISHANGYIDALIYUZHONGZHIYUNXUCIFANCHOULUNYUANWEIJIECIDUANYU (PP) JIEGOUGOUCHENGDONGJIESHI。XINGRONGCIDUANYU (AP) DEDONGJIESHIZEZHINENGCHUXIANZAISHOUXIANDETIAOJIANXIA。GENJU (Merlo, 1988;Demonte, 1989;Napoli, 1991;Mallén, 1991;Fong&Poulin, 1996) YIDALIYUXIANGQITALUOMANYUZUDEYUYANYIYANGZAIDONGJIESHIDEGOUCHENGSHANGSHIFENSHOUXIAN, DANYIRANCUNZAICONGSHUXINGDEWEICI。RUMIAOXIEXINGXINGRONGCIKEYIGOUCHENGDONGJIESHI:

                            (2) a.Gianni mangia la carne cruda.

                            (GianniSHENGCHIROU。)

                            Gianni eats the meat raw.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   b.Gianni lascia la stanza vuota.

                            (GianniKONGCHULAIFANGJIAN。)

                            Gianni leaves the room empty.

                            (Merlo, 1988:338)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   JIWUDONGCIBINGJIECIDUANYUZHIPEIDEZHIJIEBINYUKEYIGOUCHENGDONGJIESHI。RU:

                            (3) a.Ho tagliato la carne in piccoli pezzi.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (WOBAROUQIECHENGXIAOKUAI。)

                            I cut the meat in little pieces.

                            b.La cuoca ha pressato la carne a fettine sottili.

                            (CHUSHIBAROUYACHENGXISI。)

                            The cook pressed the meat to thin slices.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   RUGUOJIWUDONGCIBINGXINGRONGCIDUANYUZHIPEIZHIJIEBINYUZEKEJIESHOUXINGBUGAO。RU:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (4) a.?Ha dipinto la macchina rossa.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ?TABACHETUCHENGHONGSE。

                            He painted the car red.

                            b.*Ha strappato la lettera fine.

                            (*TABAXINSICHENGSUIPIAN。)

                            He ripped up the letter fine.

                            (in small pieces)

                            Napoli (1992:75-77) ZHICHUZHIYOUDANGXINGRONGCIDUANYUMANZUYIXIASANZHONGQINGKUANGSHICAIKEYITIGAOQIZUODONGJIESHIDEKEJIESHOUDU。

                            1.BIAOJIEGUODEXINGRONGCISHIZHONGDIEXINGSHI。RU:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (5) a.??Ho stirato la camicia piatta.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (WOYUNPINGYIFU。)

                            I ironed the shirt flat.

                            b.Ho stirato la camicia piatta piatta.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (WOBACUNSHANYUNDEPINGPINGDE。)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (I) have ironed the shirt flat flat.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   2.RUGUOQINGJINGZHONGYOULINGYIGEKEYITONGXINGRONGCIDUANYUJINXINGDUIBIDEJIEGUO。RU:

                            (6) a.??Li abbiamo scoloriti bianchi.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (WOMENBATAMENPIAOBAILE。)

                            We bleached them white.

                            b.Li abbiamo scoloriti quasi, ma no perfettamente, bianchi.

                            (WOMENBATAMENJIHU, DANBUWANQUAN, DOUPIAOBAILE。)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   We bleached them almost, but not perfectly, white.

                            3.ZAIQISHIJUZHONGNENGJIANLIQIZHONGDIANJIEGUODEQINGKUANG。RU:

                            (7) a.*Maria sbatte le uova cremose.

                            (MALIYADAJIDANCHENGHU。)

                            Mara is beating the eggs creamy.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   b.Sbatti le uova cremose!

                            (BAJIDANDACHENGHU!)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Beat the eggs creamy!

                            CIWAI, NapoliHAIZHICHU, YIDALIYUXINGRONGCIDUANYUNENGFOUHEDANGEDONGCIGONGXIANGOUCHENGDONGJIESHI, HAIYUBINYUDEWULIXINGZHIZAOCHENGDEJISHIXIAOYINGYOUGUAN, YIBANLAISHUOSHUNSHIHUODONGDEXIAOGUOGOUCHENGDONGJIESHIQIKEJIESHOUDUGAOYUCHIXUXINGHUODONG。RUYINGYUZHONG“Gianni hammered the metal flat”SHIHEHUYUFADE。ERTONGYANGYUYIDEJUZIZAIYIDALIYUZHONGZHIJIEDUIYINGCHENGDONGJIESHIZEKEJIESHOUCHENGDUHENCHA, DANRUGUOWOMENJIANGCHUIDESHOUSHIYOUJINSHUBIANCHENGBOPIANZEQIKEJIESHOUDUHUIDEDAOTISHENG, YUANYINJIUSHIJIANGJINSHUKUAICHUIPINGYIBANXUYAODUOCI, ERBOPIANYIBANCHUIYICIJIUKEYI。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (8) Gianni ha martellato*il metallo piatto/?la carta stagnola piatta.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Gianni hammered the metal flat/the tin foil flat. (Napoli, 1992:77)

                            Woshio (1997) ZHENDUINapoli (1992) DEYOUGUANYIDALIYUDONGJIESHIDEGUANCHATICHULEYIYI, RENWEINapoliSUOLIEDEMIAOXIEXINGXINGRONGCIGOUCHENGDEDONGJIESHISHI“JIADONGJIESHI” (spurious) 。RU:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (9) a.Quel macellaio taglia la carne sottile/grossa.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   That butcher cuts the meat thin/thick.

                            TUFUBAROUQIEXI/CULE;TUFUXIXI/CUCUDEQIEROU。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   b.Mia figlia ha cucito la gonna troppo stretta/larga.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   My daughter sewed the skirt too tight/wide.

                            WONVERBAQUNZIFENGTAIZHAI/KUAN;NVERJINJINDE/SONGSONGDEFENGQUNZI。

                            c.Quell’anatra, l’hai cucinata saporita/insipida.

                            That duck, you cooked it tasty/tasteless.

                            NEIYAZINISHAODEHENYOUWEIDAO/MEIYOUWEIDAO;*NEIYAZINIYOUWEIDAODESHAO。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   d.Macinateli fini/grossi.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Grind them fine/coarse.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   BATAMENMOXI/CU;??BATAMENXIXI/CUCUMO。

                            Woshio (1997:17) RENWEI“JIADONGJIESHI”YOU4GETEZHENG:1.YIZHONGTESHUDEXINGWEIZHIJIEDAOZHITEBIEDEZHUANGTAI;2.WULUNSHIKANZUOXIUSHIJIEGUOZHUANGTAIHAISHIDONGZUOXINGWEIYIYISHANGDOUMEIYOUHENDADECHABIE, XINGRONGCIKEYIHUANCHENGXIANGDUIYINGDEFUCIERYIYIBUBIAN;3.XINGRONGCIDOUCUNZAIDUIYINGDEFANYICI;4.RUGUOSHIYONGFANYIDEXINGRONGCIZEBIAOZHUNDEYUYIBUNENGCIKEYIHUANCHENGXIANGDUIYINGDEFUCIERYIYIBUBIAN;3.XINGRONGCIDOUCUNZAIDUIYINGDEFANYICI;4.RUGUOSHIYONGFANYIDEXINGRONGCIZEBIAOZHUNDEYUYIBUNENGSHIYIWEIXSHIDEYBIANCHENGZ。YEJIUSHIJUZHONGDEXINGRONGCIDEYUYIDEZHIXIANGDAODISHIZHIXIANGDONGZUOXINGWEI, HAISHIZHIXIANGBINYUZHUANGTAISHICUNZAIZHENGYIDE。RUGUOXINGRONGCIDUANYUSHIZHIMINGDONGZUODESHISHIFANGSHI, ZEBUYINGZAIKAOLVKAOZHEIYANGDE“JIADONGJIESHI”。

                            CONGYUYISHANGLAIKAN, DANDUDEMIAOSHUXINGXINGRONGCIRU“crude” (SHENGDE) , “piatta” (PINGDE) DOUBIAODADESHIYIGELINSHIDEZHUANGTAIERJIECIDUANYU“in piccoli pezzi” (CHENGXIAOKUAI) BIAODADESHIZHUANGTAIDEBIANHUA, JIBINYUJINGGUOLEYOUDADAOXIAODEZHUANGTAIDEGAIBIAN, ZUIHOUJIEGUOBIANCHENGLEXIAOKUAI, TONGSHIJIECIDUANYUYIBANHAIJUYOUFANGXIANGXING, XIANSHIDONGTAIYIYI, CONGERXINGCHENGLEZHENZHENGYIYISHANGDEDONGJIESHI。ERYIBANQINGKUANGXIA, MIAOSHUXINGXINGRONGCIZHIJIEGENZAIBINYUHOUMEIYOU“SHICHENG”YI, QIERUGUOXIUSHIDONGCIYIBANYINGYOUYANGEDEFUCIBIAOJI, BUYINGKAOLVWEIDONGJIESHI。DANZHEIXIEXINGRONGCIZAITEDINGQINGXINGXIAHUOZHEZAITEDINGDEJUSHIZHONG, CONGRENLEIPUBIANRENZHIMOSHILAIKANYINGLIJIEWEIDONGZUOCHANSHENGDEJIEGUO, JIJINGLILEBIANHUADEGUOCHENG, RULI (2) ZHONGDEbJU, LI (9) ZHONGDEcJU, LI (9) ZHONGDEdJU。YINWEIYANJIUZHEPUBIANRENWEIJIEGUODUANYUSHIBUNENGHEJINGTAIDONGCIGONGXIANDE (Hoekstra 1988) , SUOYIQIXIANGGUANDEXIANZHIYINGGAIMIAOSHUWEIZHUANGTAIBIANHUABIXUHEDONGCISUOBIAOSHIDEDONGCIJIESHUSHITONGSHIFASHENG。ZHEIYIXIANZHIKEYIPAICHUZAIDONGCISUOBIAOSHIDEDONGZUOHESUIHOUFASHENGDEZHUANGTAIBIANHUAJIANCUNZAISHIJIANYANWUDEBIAODA。ZHEIYIDIANZAIGoldberg (1995:8.6.2) DUIDONGJIESHIGOUSHIDEXIANZHITIAOJIANZHONGYEDEDAOLEYINZHENG, TONGNapoli (1992) YOUGUANWUPINSHUXINGDEGUANCHAYESHIYIZHIDE, SHIJISHANGWULUNSHISHANGSHUDEXINGRONGCIZHONGDIESHOUDUAN、YIYIDUIBIDESHOUDUANYIJIQISHIJUJUSHIYIDEZUOYONG, BENZHISHANGDOUSHITONGGUOCHUANGZAOTEDINGDEZHONGJIEDIANLAIQIANGZHIBIAODARANGWUTICHANSHENGMOUZHONGBIANHUA。SUOYI, JIBIANSHIMIAOSHUXINGXINGRONGDUANYU, YIRANJUYOUDONGJIESHIDEYIYI, XINGRONGCIDUANYUZAIZHEIYANGDEQINGKUANGXIASHIJIJINGLILEYUYISHANGDEZHONGXINJIESHI。

                            RUGUOJINYIBUGUANCHANAXIEQINGKUANGBUNENGGOUCHENGYIDALIYUDEDONGJIESHI, JIUKEYIFAXIAN, FEICIFANCHOULUNYUAN (FEIZUOWEINEILUNYUANDEQINGKUANGXIA) BUGUANSHIJUZHONGZHUDONGCISHIJIWUDONGCIHAISHIBUJIWUDONGCI, HUOZHESHIJIECIDUANYUHUOZHESHIXINGRONGCIDUANYUQIKEJIESHOUXINGDOUHENCHA。RU:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (10) a.*Ha guidato la macchina a pezzi.

                            TABACHEKAICHENGSUIPIANLE。 (JIWUDONGCIguidareKAICHE)

                            He drove the car to pieces.

                            b.*Corre le sue scarpe a brandelli.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   TABAXIEZIPAOCHENGSUIPIANLE。 (FEIZUOGEDONGCIcorrePAO)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   He runs his shoes to pieces.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   c.*Lo urla sordo.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   TABAZIJIHANLONGLE。 (BUJIWUDONGCIurlaHAN)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   He shouts him deaf.

                            CIWAI, YIDALIYUZHONGBINGBUPAICHIFEIBINGEDONGCITONGJIECIDUANYUGOUCHENGDONGJIESHI, YINWEIFEIBINGEDONGCIBENSHENJIUDAIYOUZHUANGTAIBIANHUADEYIYI, DANFEIBINGEDONGCITONGXINGRONGCIDUANYUZEBUKEYI。RU:

                            (11) a.La montagna di rifiuti cresce in altezza.

                            (LAJISHIPINGAODUBUDUANZENGZHANG。)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   The trash heap is growing into the air.

                            b.La lastra di cristallo si è rotta in cinque pezzi.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (SHUIJINGZHOUDUANCHENGLEWUKUAI。)

                            The sheet of crystal broke in five pieces.

                            c.*Il fiume è ghiacciato solido.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (*HESHUIJIEBINGJIANGU。)

                            The river froze solid.

                            GENJUBierwisch (1989) CIDEYIYIYOULIANGGECENGCI:YISHIYUYIXINGSHI (semantic form, SF) , TASHIYUYIBUFENYUYUFAXIANGGUANDEYIYIBUFEN, FANYINGFUZAWEICIDEGOUCHENGHEJUDINGLUNYUANDEYUYICENGJI, BUBAOKUOYIXIEKEYIYINHANDEYIYI。LINGYIGESHIGAINIANJIEGOU (Conceptual Structure, CS) GAINIANJIEGOUDEYUYIGENGWEIZONGHE, TAYOUGAINIANCHENGFENZUCHENGBINGSHUYUBUTONGDEBENTIFANCHOU, RU“Thing, Event, State, Action, Plate, Path, PropertyJIAmount”DENG。MEIGEJUFACHENGFEN (CHULEWUNEIRONGDE“it”HE“there”) DOUDUIYINGYIGEGAINIANCHENGFEN。DANBINGBUSHIMEIGEGAINIANCHENGFENZAIJUZHONGDOUYOUYIGEDUIYINGDEJUFACHENGFEN。ZHEIKEYIJIESHITONGYIGEDONGCIZAIBUTONGDEJUZIYOUBUTONGSHULIANGDELUNYUAN。ZAI“SF”ZHONG, “A&B”LIRUGUO“AA”SHIZHONGXINDONGCIKAIQILEYIGEKENENGDEYIYIKONGJIANZE“B”JIUSHIYIGEZHEIGEYIYIKONGJIANLEIDEJUTIXUANXIANG, “A&B”BUKENENGBUXIANGGUAN。JIASHEDONGCIDEYIYIKONGJIANSHIYOUDONGCIBENSHENJIBEITAJIHUODELUNYUANDE“XINGZHI”SUOJUEDING, NEIMEBIANYOULEKENENGDONGCI (possible verb) DEGAINIAN:ZAIYIGEFENJIEDEDONGCIYUYIXINGSHILI, MEIGEGENGSHENCENGCIQIANRUDEWEICIBIXUNENGZHIMINGGENGGAOCENGCIDEWEICIHUOZHEYOUGENGGAOCENGCIWEICIJIHUODE“XINGZHI”。

                            YOUYUFEIBINGEDONGCIBENSHENJIUHANYOUZHUANGTAIBIANHUADEYIYI, JIECIDUANYU“in altezza” (BIANGAO) SHIBIANDADECILEI, “CHENGWUPIAN”SHIBIANXIAODECILEI, YINCISHILIANGGECHENGFENGOUCHENGYIZHONGBIANHUA, FUHEKENENGDONGCIDEGUIZE。DONGJIESHIDEWEICINENGZHIMINGQIEBAOHANZHUYAODONGCIDEBIANHUA, YINCIYIDALIYUZHONGDEFEIBINGEDONGCIKEYIGOUCHENGDONGJIESHI。SHISHISHANG, GENJUIngrid Kaufmann&Dieter Wunderlich (1998) XIASHUYUYANDOUKEYITONGGUOFEIBINGEDONGCIGOUCHENGDONGJIESHI, CIWAIZUOZHEHAIZHENGMINGLERIYUHEYIDALIYUZAIGOUCHENGDONGJIESHIFANGMIANSHIXIANGLEISIDEZHUANGKUANG, SHUYURUODONGJIESHIMOSHI。

                            摘    要: 本文分别对意大利语和汉语动结式的句法构成、语义关系和语义限制等方面进行考察, 比较两种语言动结式的结构模式, 分析其在语意限制、语序、句法构成和语义指向方面的差异, 以期对意汉两种语言的动结式的结构特点有更详尽的认知, 从应用角度来看可以帮助第二外语习得学生避免因母语习惯的迁移造成动结式的误用。

                            二、汉语动结式的模式特征

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIMIAOSHUHANYUDONGJIESHIDETEZHENGQIAN, WOMENXIANYINYONGQIANRENDEYIXIELUNSHULAIXIANKANYIXIASHUYUDIANXINGQIANGDONGJIESHIMOSHIDEYINGYUDEDONGJIESHIDEQINGKUANG。ZHISUOYIJIANGYINGYUGUIRUQIANGDONGJIESHIMOSHISHIYINWEIYINGYUDONGJIESHIZHONGHAIHANYOUYIDALIYUZHONGBUNENGCHUXIANDEFEIZIYULEIBINYU (subcategorized object) HEJIABINYU (fake object) XIANXIANG。RU:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (13) a.He hammered the metal flat.

                            b.He cried himself hoarse.

                            c.He drank the pub dry.

                            d.The joggers ran the pavement thin.

                            Goldberg (1995) JIUYINGYONGGOUSHIYUFALILUNDUISHANGSHULIJUJINXINGLEYOULIDEJIESHI。RULI (13) ZHONG, “run”ZUOWEI“PAODONG”YISHIBUJIWUDONGCI, BUNENGZHIPAISHOUSHIZHEIYANGDEYUYIJIAOSE (semantic role) , SHOUSHI“pavement”YOUGOUSHITIGONG, “drink”JIKEYIJIWUYEKEYIBUJIWU, DANTAZUOJIWUDONGCISHIDEZIYULEIBINYUYINGGAISHISHOUSHI, JIBEIHEDEDONGXI, RU“water、coffee”ZHILEI, ERJINGLIZHUANGTAIBIANHUADE“pub”BUSHUCILEI, SHOUSHILUNYUANTONGYANGZHINENGYOUDONGJIEGOUSHITIGONG。ZAIKANYOUFANSHENDAICICHONGDANGJIABINYUDEQINGKUANG, RULI (13) bJUZHONGDE“cry”SHIBUJIWUDONGCI, BUTIGONGSHOUSHIYUYIJIAOSE, FASHENGZHUANGTAIBIANHUADESHOUSHI“himself”YOUGOUSHITIGONG, BINGQIEYINWEIQIYUZHUYU“he”GONGZHI, YAOQIUZHEIGESHOUSHIBIXUYIZHUYUDEFANSHENDAICIXINGSHICHUXIANZAIDONGJIESHIBINYUKONGWEI。Ingrid Kaufmann&Dieter Wunderlich (1998) HAIJIUDONGJIESHIDENENGCHANDEQIANGRUOJINXINGLECESHI。

                            YOUCILAIKAN, HANYUDONGJIESHIDENENGCHANXINGHENGAO, BIAOXIANCHULEQIANGDONGJIESHIMOSHI。SHIJISHANGHANYUDONGJIESHISHIDONGJIESHIZHONGDEYILEI, LINGYILEISHIDONGQUSHI。DONGJIESHIYINWEIYUYITEZHENGBUMINGXIANERYIQIJUFATEZHENGMINGMING (DONGCI+BUYU) , DONGJIESHI (DONGZUO+JIEGUO) HEDONGQUSHI (DONGZUO+FANGWEIQUXIANG) FENBIEYIQIDULIDEYUYITEZHENGERXIANGHUQUFEN。WOMENFAXIANYIDALIYUDONGJIESHIDEQINGKUANGYUHANYUXIANGSI, YESHIYOUBIAODONGZUODEDONGCIHEBIAOJIEGUODEBUYUGOUCHENG。YIDALIDONGJIESHIBEIRENWEISHIBIAOSHIWEIYIDESHIDONGJIEGOU (caused to motionXIANGDANGYUHANYUDEDONGQUSHI) DEYINYUKUOZHAN (ZHUANGTAIDEGAIBIANXIANGDANGYUKONGJIANCHUSUODEGAIBIAN) , TONGCHANGYUSHIDONGJIEGOUTONGCHENGWEIGUANGYIDEDONGJIESHI (XIANGDANGYUHANYUDEDONGJIESHI) 。DANJINRUYIDALIYUHANDONGJIESHIBUYUWEIZHIDEJUFACHENGFENBUTONGYUHANYU, YIDALIYUYOUXINGRONGCIHUOJIECIDUANYUCHENGDAN, ERHANYUDEBUYUYOUDONGCICHENGDAN。TONGSHIHANYUDONGJIESHIYUNXUJIWUDONGCIHEJIEGUOBUYUXIANGRONGHE, ZHIJIEZHIXIANGZHUYUERFEIBINYU, ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIADEDONGJIESHIBUTONGYUQITAHENDUOYUYANDEDONGJIESHI。RU:

                            摘    要: 本文分别对意大利语和汉语动结式的句法构成、语义关系和语义限制等方面进行考察, 比较两种语言动结式的结构模式, 分析其在语意限制、语序、句法构成和语义指向方面的差异, 以期对意汉两种语言的动结式的结构特点有更详尽的认知, 从应用角度来看可以帮助第二外语习得学生避免因母语习惯的迁移造成动结式的误用。

                            (14) a.HAIZIKUHONGLEYANJING。

                            b.LISIZHUILEILEZHANGSAN。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   LI (14) aJUZHONG, XINGRONGCIBUYUZHIXIANGYANJING, ERLI (14) bJUZHONG, XINGRONGCIBUYUKEYIZHIXIANGZHUYULISIYEKEYIZHIXIANGZHANGSAN。

                            CIWAI, JIEGUOBUYUZHIXIANGDONGZUODESHOUSHIYUDONGZUODESHISHIXIANGBI, DONGZUODESHOUSHIZAIJUZIZHONGDEWEIZHIBIJIAOZIYOU, JIKEYICHUXIANZAIDONGCIQIANMIAN, YEKEYICHUXIANZAIDONGCIHOUMIAN。JUFASHANG, DONGZUODESHOUSHIYESHIFENLINGHUO, NENGZUODONGJIESHIDEZHUYUHUOBINYU, BINGQIEHAIYUNXUCHUXIANZAIDONGCIQIANZUO“BA”DEBINYUHUO“BEI”ZIJUDEZHUYU。CONGSHOUSHICHENGFENCHUXIANDEJUFAWEIZHILAIKAN, KEYISHIZHUYUHUOBINYU, YEKEYISHI“BA”ZIJUZHONG“BA”DEBINYU。RU:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (15) a.ZUOTIANWODALANQIUSHI, YANJINGBEIDAHUAILE。

                            b.TABAGANGXIHAODEYIFULIANGDAOYANGTAIQULE。

                            JIEGUOBUYUZHIXIANGDONGZUOXINGWEIBENSHEN, DUIDONGZUOJINXINGMIAOXIE、SHUOMING、PINGJIA, SHUOMINGSHUYUDONGCIDEXINGZHUANG、CHENGDUDENG。YIXIEDONGJIESHIKEDAIBINYU, SUOYIBUYUYOUSHIKEYIYONGLAISHUOMINGDONGZUOXINGWEIBENSHENSUODADAODEJIEGUOHUOMOUZHONGZHUANGTAI, HAIKEYIBIAOSHIDONGZUOZUOYONGYUSHOUSHI, SHISHOUSHICHANSHENGDEMOUZHONGBIANHUA。RU:

                            (16) a.NIXIEMANYIDIANER, ZUIHAOYIBIYIHUADIXIE。

                            b.DENGNIXUEWANLEJIBENYUFA, ZAIQUDUDUANWENJIURONGYIDUOLE。

                            JIEXIALAIWOMENZAICONGQITAJIGEFANGMIANBIJIAOYIHANDONGJIESHIDEYITONG:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   SHOUXIANCONGGOUCHENGCHENGFENHEYUXUKAN, XIANDAIHANYUZHONGDONGJIESHIJIEGOUFUZAYUXULEIXINGDUOYANG。GENJULUOSIMING (2009) HANYUDONGJIESHIGENJUGOUCHENGCHENGFENHEYUXUZHUYAOYOURUXIABALEIJIBENJUFAJIEGOU, MEIGEDALEIGENJUDICENGCIYUYIGUANXI、RHEODEJUFAXINGSHIKEYIJINYIBUXIFEN:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DIYILEI, SVRO, JIEHEDICENGCIYUYIGUANXIHERJUFAXINGSHIKEYIXIFEN (KUOHAOZHONGWENZIBIAOMINGBIAOJIXINGCHENGFEN) , RU:TATUIKAICHUANGHU, SHENSHENDIXILEYIKOUXINXIANKONGQI。 (SHISHIZHUYU)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DIERLEI, SVR, RU:FANZHUSHULE。 (SHOUSHIZHUYU)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DISANLEI, “BA”ZIJUDONGJIESHI, RU:TABAHUAPINGDAPOLE。

                            DISILEI, SVRO1O2, RU:LILAOSHIJIAOHUILEWOYINBIAO。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DIWULEI, SOVR, RU:NIJIUHEDUOLE。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DILIULEI, SVOR, RU:WODANIBUSI。

                            DIQILEI, SV1OV2R, RU:WOCHIROUCHINILE。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DIBALEI, SV1O1V2RO2GENJUODEBUTONGXINGSHIKEYIFENWEISANGEXIAOLEI:a.WOXIEXINXIELUOLEYIGEZI;b.WOXIEZIXIELUOLEYIGE;c.WOCHIHETAOCHIHUAILEYIKEYA。

                            YIDALIYUDEYUXUZHIYOUSVOR, SVROHESVR。QIEYIDALIYUDONGJIESHIDEJIBENJUFAYUXUSHI:SVORHESVR。SVROYOUHENDADEXIANZHI, CHUXIANPINLVBIJIAODI。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   QICI, CONGJUFAPINGMIANSHANGKANXIANDAIHANYUZHONGDONGJIESHIJIEGOUFUZA。HANDONGJIESHIDEDUANYUZUICHANGJIANDECHONGDANGDEJUFACHENGFENSHIWEIYU, QICIHAIKEYICHONGDANGDINGYU、ZHUANGYU、ZHUYUHEBINYUDENG。DONGJIESHIZUOWEIYUHUOWEIYUZHONGXINCHONGDANGJUZIDEWEIYUHUOWEIYUZHONGXIN, QIHOUKEYIBUDAIBINYU, YEKEYIDAITICIXINGBINYU。ERYIDALIYUZHONGJIBENZHIYOUJIWUDONGCIHEFEIBINGEDONGCILIANGLEIKEYIGOUCHENGDONGJIESHI。RU:

                            (15) a.ZHONGWUDEFANZHUDUOLE, LIUZHEHUITOUCHI。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   b.TAYUANZILIZHONGMANLEGEZHONGHUA。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZAICI, CONGYUYIXIANZHISHANGLAIKANYIDALIYUDONGJIESHIJIAOZHIHANYUCUNZAIGENGDUODEYUYIXIANZHI。DUIYUYIDALIYUDONGJIESHILAISHUODONGZUOYUDONGZUODAILAIDEJIEGUOZHIJIANMEIYOUSHIJIANJIANGE, BIANHUAZAIDONGZUOJIESHUDESHUNJIANSHIXIAN, ERDUIYUHANYUDONGJIESHILAISHUO, DONGZUOHEJIEGUOZHIJIANCUNZAISHIJIANJIANGEDEKENENG, JIYOULIANGZHONGQINGKUANG。RU:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (16) a.TAHETULE。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   b.TAGEDUANLESHENGZI。

                            (17) a.WOMENCHIHUAILEDUZI。

                            b.WOMENCHANGHONGLENEISHOUGE。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   LI (16) MIAOSHUBIANHUAZAIDONGZUOJIESHUSHIYIJINGFASHENG, DONGZUOYUJIEGUOZHIJIANMEIYOUSHIJIANJIANGE。LI (16) aBIAOSHI“TAYIZHIHE”, ZHIDAO“TULE”, QIANGDIAODESHIDONGZUODEGUOLIANGHUOGUODU, LI (16) bYINGLIJIEWEI“TAGANGGANGGEWANSHENGZI, SHENGZIJIUYIFENWEIERLE”, WULUNGEDEDONGZUOSHIFANFUJINXINGDEHAISHISHUNSHISHIXIANDE。ERLI (17) aZEBUYIDINGBIAOSHI“WOMENYIZHICHIZHIDAOCHILADU” (WUJIANGE) , GENGCHANGJIANDELIJIESHI“WOMENCHIDUOLE”, HUO“CHILESHENMEBUGANJINGDEDONGXI”, HUOSHI“CHILEBUDUIWEIKOUDEDONGXI”, DAOZHIWOMEN“HOULAILADUZILE” (YOUJIANGE) 。XIANGSIDI, LI (17) bKEYIJIESHIWEI“WOMENYIZHINULICHANGZHIDAOCHENGGONG” (WUJIANGE) , YEKEYIJIESHIWEI“WOMENCHUSEDEBIAOYANSHINEISHOUGEZAIWOMENBIAOYANGUOHOULIUXINGQILAI” (YOUJIANGE) 。HANYUDONGJIEGOUSHIZHONGDUIXIANGHESHOUSHIDEFENLI, TIXIANZAIYUYANXINGSHISHANGJIUSHIHANYUGOUSHIZHONGDONGCIYUBINYUZHIJIANYOUJULIJIANGE, ERZAIYIDALIYUZHONGLIANGZHEJINLIN, ZHEIYICHABIEJUEDINGLEHANYUDONGJIESHIYUANGAOYUYIDALIYUDENENGCHANXING、DUOYANGXINGHEFUZAXING。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZUIHOU, CONGYUYIGUANXISHANGLAIKAN, YIDALIYUDEDONGJIESHIZHISHIYIDANYI, ERHANYUZHEIZHONGZHISHIQINGJINGBAOHANDUOZHONGGUANXI, RUSHIYINSHIJIAN, ZHIGUOSHIJIAN。SHIYINSHIJIANBIAOSHIHUODONG, ZHIGUOSHIJIANBIAOSHIZHUANGTAI, ZHEILIANGGESHIJIANZHIJIANYOUYIZHONGZHISHIGUANXI。HENDUOKEYIYONGHANYUDONGJIESHIBIAODADEJUSHIZAIYIDALIYUZHONGDOUNANYIZHAODAODUIYINGDEFANYI。FANZHI, ZAIERYUXIDEDEGUOCHENGZHONG, WOMENYINGBIMIANSHOUHANYUMUYUDEYINGXIANGERZAOCHENGYIDALIYUDONGJIESHISHIYONGDEPIANWU。

                            参考文献

                            [1]郭锐.动结式的论元结构[A].汉语语法研究的新拓展 (一) ——21世纪首届现代汉语语法国际研讨会论文集[C].浙江教育出版社, 2002.
                            [2]赵琪.英汉动结构式的论元实现[D].复旦大学博士学位论文, 2009.
                            [3]代尊峰.英汉动结结构对比研究[D].曲阜师范大学硕士学位论文, 2005.
                            [4]赵琪.英汉动结式的共性与个性[J].外语教学与研究, 2009, (4) .
                            [5]彭国珍.结果补语小句理论与现代汉语动结式相关问题研究[J].杭州:浙江大学出版社, 2011.
                            [6]高明乐.事件语义学与动词语义表达式[J].外语学刊, 2011, (2) .
                            [7] Goldberg, A.Constructions:A Construction Grammar App roach to Argument Structure[M].Chicago:The University of Chicago Press, 1995.
                          星云棋牌官网下载   [8]Lambrecht, K.Information Structure and Sentence Form:A Theory of Topic, Focus, and the Mental Representation of Discourse Referents[M].Cambridge:CUP, 1994.

                            吴菡.意汉动结式结构模式对比研究[J].现代语文(语言研究版),2016(03):148-152.
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