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                          学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 语言学论文 > 意大利语论文

                          新标准意大利语的形成和主要特点分析

                          时间:2018-08-12 来源:广东外语外贸大学学报 作者:彭倩 本文字数:15372字

                            XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDECHENGYINJITEZHENGTANXI

                            摘要星云棋牌官网下载:从20世纪80年代起, 在全意大利范围内产生了一种与传统语法相别的新标准意大利语, 其使用语域从口语体逐渐延伸至半正式与正式书面语体中。新标准意大利语产生与发展的原因可从三个方面分析:语言本身的内在驱动力和灵活度是新标准意大利语产生的内因;战后意大利特殊的历史及政治文化背景成为推动其发展的外因;早期被排除在规范语之外的古意大利语口语特征是新标准意大利语产生的根基。新标准意大利语的主要特征可从语音、词汇、句法与形态四个层面进行分析, 句法形态层是意大利语变革的重要领域, 标记系统的改变导致了左右移位、悬置话题、分裂结构与ci呈现句等现象的扩张, 时态语态系统及代词系统均出现了重构。新标准意大利语正处在融汇与形成的过程中, 探究其形成原因与具体表现, 对开展国内意大利语教学工作具有重要意义。

                            GUANJIANCI:YIDALIYU; XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYU; YUYINCIHUI; JUFAXINGTAI;

                            ZUOZHEJIANJIE: PENGQIAN (1988-) , NV, HUNANLOUDIREN, BOSHI, BEIJINGDAXUEWAIGUOYUXUEYUANJIANGSHI, YANJIUFANGXIANGWEIYIDALIYUYANJIWENXUE。;

                            SHOUGAORIQI:2017-08-23

                            An Analysis of the Causes and Characteristics of the New Standard Italian

                            PENG Qian

                            College of Foreign Languages, Peking University

                            Abstract:From the 1980 s onwards, a new variation of Italian different from the traditional one was produced in the whole of Italy, whose use extended from the oral register to the semi-formal and formal written register. The origin and development of the new standard Italian can be analyzed from three aspects. First, the intrinsic driving force and flexibility of the language itself are the internal causes of the new standard language. Secondly, the historical, political and cultural background in Italy was the external cause. Finally, the ancient Italian spoken language, which was excluded from the normative one, became the foundation of the new standard Italian. The new standard Italian has 24 main features analyzed from the phonetic, lexical, syntax and morphological layers. The morphological layer is the important field of changes which include the alteration of mark system leading to the expansion of left-right dislocation, hanging topic, split phrase and presentation structure and the reconstruction of tense and pronoun system. The study of the causes and specific characteristics of the new standard Italian is helpful to understand the main development of Italian and to the teaching of Italian in China as well.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Italian; new standard Italian; phonetic; lexical; morphosyntax;

                            Received: 2017-08-23

                            一、引言

                          星云棋牌官网下载   20SHIJI80NIANDAIQI, BUSHAOYUYANXUEJIAKAISHIZHUYIDAOZAIQUANYIDALIFANWEINEICHUXIANLEYIZHONGYUBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUYOUSUOQUBIEDERICHANGKOUYU。AERBEIERTUO·MIAONI (Alberto Mioni) (1983) SHIZUIZAOYISHIDAOCIXIANXIANGDEXUEZHEZHIYI, TAZAI1983NIANBIANTICHULE“QUSHIYIDALIYU”DEGAINIAN (Italiano tendenziale) 。1985NIAN, FULANGQIESIKE·SABATINI (Francesco Sabatini) (1985) JIANGCIXINYUYANMINGMINGWEI“PINGJUNYIDALIYU” (Italiano d’uso medio) 。1987NIAN, YUYANXUEJIAJIAAITANUO·BEILUTUO (Gaetano Berruto) (1987: 62) ZHUZHANGJIANGSABATINITICHUDE“PINGJUNYIDALIYU”ZHUANCHENGWEI“XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYU” (Italiano neo-standard) 。CIHOU, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHEIYIMINGCHENGZHUJIANBEIYUYANXUEJIASUOJIESHOU, ZHUYAOZHIYUANZIYABIAOZHUNYU, BEIGUANGFANQUNTISUOJIESHOUBINGSHIYONGDEYIXILIEYUYANTEZHENG, YOUFEIBIAOZHUNYU (RUDAZHONGYIDALIYU、DIFANGYIDALIYU、HUIHUAYIDALIYUDENG) KOUYUTIRUQINBIAOZHUNYUGUIFANBINGZHUJIANGUHUAERXINGCHENGDEYIZHONGXINYUYANBIANTI。

                            20SHIJI80NIANDAIZHIJIN, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUCONGKOUYUTIYUYUZHUJIANKUOSANZHISHUMIANTIZHONG, DALIANGYUYANXUEJIAKAISHICHENGRENXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYU。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUBINGFEITANHUAYIXIAN, ZUIZHONGJIANGJINRUBIAOZHUNYIDALIYU, BINGGAIBIANQIBIAOZHUNGUIZE。XINYUYANDETEZHENGZAIXIAOSHUO、SHIGEDENGWENXUEZUOPINZHONGYUJIACHANGJIAN, JIULIANYIYANJINZHECHENGDEXINWENBAODAODENGZHENGSHISHUMIANYUTIZHONGYESUICHUKEJIANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEBIAODAFANGSHI。2015NIAN, BEINIYAMING·CHALUPINSIJI (Beniamin Chalupinski) (2015) DUIYIDALIBAOZHIZHONGDEXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUTEZHENGJINXINGLEDINGLIANGFENXI。2017NIANCHU, 《ZOUXIANGYIZHONGXINBIAOZHUN:YIDALIYUZHONGXINBIAOZHUNHUADELILUNYUJINGYANYANJIU》JIJIEDUOMINGQUANWEIYUYANXUEJIA, SHULIYIDALI30YUNIANDUIXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEYANJIUQINGKUANG, DUIYIDALIYUZHONGXINBIAOZHUNHUAJINXINGLEXITONGFENXI (Cerruti, et al, 2017) 。KEYISHUO, JIN40NIANLAIXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUYIJINGCHENGWEIYIZHONGBEIGUANGFANJIESHOUBINGSHIYONGDEXINYUYAN。

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                            二、新标准意大利语形成原因与发展过程

                          星云棋牌官网下载   XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEXINGCHENGYUANYINYOUYUYANNEIZAIQUDONGLI、SHEHUIBEIJINGHUANJINGYUYUYANFAZHANLISHISANGEFANGMIAN。YIDALIYUJIAOWEICHUANTONGBAOSHOU, DANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDECHANSHENGZHENGMINGLETADELINGHUODUYUSHENGMINGLI。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUFAZHANGUOCHENGWEICONGKOUYUTIZHISHUMIANTIDEFANXIANGFAZHANQUSHI。YUYANNEIZAIQUDONGLISHIXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUCHANSHENGDEYUANDONGLI, ERERZHANHOUYIDALITESHUDESHIDAIBEIJINGDADAJIAKUAILEXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEXINGCHENGYUFAZHAN。CONGYIDALIYUYANSHIJIAODULAIKAN, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDECHANSHENGSHIBIRANJIEGUO, QIXINGCHENGZHICHUJIANGGUYIDALIYUZHONGDEKOUYUTEZHENGPAICHUZAIWAI, RANERTAMENYOUZAIXINSHIDAIDAZHONGYUYANZHONGZHAODAOLEFUXINGDETURANG。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEFAZHANZUNXUNZIXIAERSHANGDENIXINGFAZHANXIANLU, BIANGESHIYUJIAODICENGJIDEKOUYUTI, ZHUBUKUOZHANZHIGAOCENGJISHUMIANYU。

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                            三、新标准意大利语的特征

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                          星云棋牌官网下载   (YI) YUYINTEZHENG

                            JINGUANYIDALIYUHENDACHENGDUSHANGBAOLIULEGUFOLUOLUNSAFANGYANDEYUYINJIXINGTAITEZHENG, DANXIANDAIYIDALIYUYUZHONGSHIJIFOLUOLUNSAYUYIJINGCHUXIANLEHENDACHABIE。20SHIJI80NIANDAIYILAI, ZHENGTONGGUIFANYUZHUJIANSANGSHIQIYINGXIANGLI, BUSHAOBIAOZHUNYUYINXIANXIANGJINTINGLIUZAIFOLUOLUNSAZHOUBIAN。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEYUYINTEZHENGYIJIANHUAWEIZHU, ZHUYAOBAOKUOKAIBIKOUYUANYINJIEXIANMOHU、QINGZHUOFUYINJIEXIANMOHU、YINSUZHONGFUXIANXIANGJIANSHAOYU“d”XIEYUNYONGFAJIANSHAOZHEISIZHONGTEZHENG。

                            1.KAIBIKOUYUANYINJIEXIANMOHU

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YIDALIYUYUANYINJUYOU4ZHONGKAIHEDU, YINCISHIJICUNZAI7GEYUANYIN, FENBIEWEI2GEBIKOUYIN[i]HE[u]、2GEBANBIKOUYIN[e]HE[o]、2GEBANKAIKOUYIN[?]HE[?]YIJI1GEKAIKOUYIN[a], YUANYINeYUoTONGSHICUNZAIKAIBIKOULIANGZHONGDUFA。BIAOZHUNYUGUIDINGBIXUDUIKAIBIKOUYUANYINJINXINGYANGEQUFEN, YINWEIPINFAYIYANGDEDANCIHUIYOUYUKAIBIKOUYUANYINERCHANSHENGLIANGGEYIYIWANQUANBUTONGDEDANCI, RUpèscaYUpésca, QIANZHEWEIKAIKOUYIN, ZHISHUIGUO“TAOZI”, ERHOUZHEWEIBIKOUYIN, ZHI“BUYU”。DANZAISHIJIKOUYUZHONG, CIYUFAGUIDINGJIAONANSHISHI, YIZHIKAIBIKOUYUANYINJIEXIANZHUJIANMOHU, XIANZAIRENGNENGZHENGQUEQUFENKAIBIKOUYUANYINDERENQUNJINXIANYUFOLUOLUNSARENYIJILUOMARENYIJIDUIDUYINYAOQIUJIAOWEIYANGEDETEDINGXINGYERENQUN, RUBOYINZHUCHIREN、YANYUANDENG (Perini, 2012: 76) 。PUTONGDAZHONG, BAOKUOSHOUJIAOYUCHENGDUJIAOGAODERENQUNDUICIBUZAIJIAYIMINGQUEQUFEN, CHANGHUICHUXIANZHURUJIANGperché (YINWEI) ZHONGDEBIKOUYUANYINeDUCHENGBIKOUYUANYINperchèDENGDEDUYINCUOWU。

                            2.QINGZHUOFUYINJIEXIANMOHU

                            YUANYINJIANFUYINDEZHUOHUAZHIWEIYULIANGGEYUANYINZHIJIANDEQINGFUYINYINGFAZHUOYIN。YUANYINJIANFUYINZHUOHUASHILUOMANYUYANYANBIANGUOCHENGDEZHONGYAOZHUANBIAN, LADINGYUZHONGDEsJIHUQUANWEIQINGYIN, ERYIDALIYUZHONGDEsZEFENHUACHENGQINGZHUOFUYINLIANGZHONG。FUYIN“s”ZAIYIDALIBIAOZHUNYUZHONGJUYOUQINGXIDEDILIFENBU, SHIQUFENBEIBUYUZHONGNANBUFANGYANDEZHONGYAOTEZHENG。YUANYINJIAN“s”DEZHUOHUAXIANXIANGZAIYIDALIBEIBUSHIFENMINGXIAN, ERZHONGNANBUZEGENGDUODIBAOLIULEYUANSHUYULADINGYUDEYUANYINJIANQINGFUYIN“s”, RUcasaZAINANBEIDIFANGDEFAYINFENBIEWEI/kaza/YU/kasa/。

                            DANXIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONG, YUANYINJIANQINGFUYIN“s”DEZHUOHUAXIANXIANGYICONGBEIBUDIQUKUOSANZHILEQUANYIDALI, [s]QINGYINYU[z]ZHIJIANDEJIEXIANZHUJIANMOHU。TUOSIKANAWEIYUYIDALIZHONGBU, SHINANBEIFANGYANZHONGDEDIAOHEJI。TUOSIKANAFANGYANZUICHUBINGMEIYOUMINGXIANDEYUANYINJIANFUYINZHUOHUADEXIANXIANG, DANYUYANXUEJIASELIANNI (Serianni, 1998: 66) ZHICHU, FOLUOLUNSADIQUYIJIANGDABUFENSIYIN (sibilante) ZHUOHUA, RENGFAQINGYINDEDANCIJINYOUcasa, cosa, cosìJIYI-osoWEIHOUZHUIDEDANCI。CIWAI, FUYIN“z”ZAICISHOUSHI, TONGYANGHUIZHUOHUA, RUzio。ZHEIBIAOMING, ZUICHUXIANYONGYUDIFANGYIDALIYUZHONGDETEDINGQUYUKOUYUTEZHENGYIYANBIANCHENGLEQUANGUOPUBIANCUNZAIDEYUYANXIANXIANG。

                            3.YINSUXINGTAIZHONGFUXIANXIANGJIANSHAO

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YINSUXINGTAIZHONGFUZUICHUZHIYIDALIYUJIMOUXIEXIRIERMANYUXIDEYIZHONGTEYOUDEYUYINXIANXIANG, ZHILIANGGETESHUDEDANCIZUHEZAIYIQISHI, DIERGEDANCICISHOUDEFUYINYINGYANZHANGFAYIN, RUa ccasa, dove vvai, ho ffameDENG。YIDALIYUZAILISHIFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONG, YINSUZHONGFUXIANXIANGCONGYUYINCENGKUODADAOXINGTAICENG, XINGCHENGFUYINZHONGFU (geminata) DANCI, RUsennò, vabbèDENG。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, YINSUXINGTAIZHONGFUXIANXIANGZHUJIANJIANSHAO, RUBEIBU (KOUYUZHONG) YUSADINGDAODENGNANBUDIQUBINGMEIYOUCIXIANXIANG (Sabatini, 1985: 156) 。

                            4.“d”XIEYUNYONGFAJIANSHAO

                            “d”XIEYUNZHIPINXIEHUOPINDUXIANGLINDELIANGGEYUANYINSHI, XUYONGdJIANGQIGEKAI, YIBIMIANCHUXIANYINYUNBUHEXIEDEXIANXIANG, ZHUYAOBAOKUOad (aWEIJIECISHI) 、ed (eBIAOLIANJIESHI) YUod (oBIAOLIANJIESHI) SANZHONGXIEYUN。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYU“d”XIEYUNYONGFAJIANSHAOTIXIANZAIdXIEYUNJINXIANYULIANGGEXIANGTONGYUANYINZHIJIANYU“od”XIEYUNMIANLINXIAOSHIZHEILIANGGECENGMIAN。XINYIDALIBIAOZHUNYUZHONG, CHUGUDINGDEXIGUANYONGFA, RUad esempio, ad eccezioneDENG, JINZAITONGYUANYINZHONGFUSHIYONGdLAIXIEYUN, RUad andare, e anche, ed ecco, ad ascoltareDENG。ER“od”XIEYUNYONGFAZHUJIANXIAOSHI, RUieri o oggiDENG。XIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONG, dXIEYUNYONGFADEJIANSHAOTIXIANLEYIDALIYUDEJIANHUAGUOCHENG。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (ER) CIHUITEZHENG

                          星云棋牌官网下载   CIHUIWEIYUYUYANXITONGDEZUIWAIWEI, ZUIYIJIESHOUDAOLAIZIYUYANNEIBUYUWAIBUDEYINGXIANG。JISHIXIANGLADINGYUZHEIYANGDEGONGREN “SIYUYAN”, TONGYANGYEZAIXISHOUZHEXINDECIHUI。CIHUIWANGWANGSHIYUYANNEIZUIXIANFASHENGGAIBIANDEBUFEN, YESHIZUIRONGYIBEIFAJUEDEBUFEN。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUXISHOULEDIFANGFANGYAN、LIYU、KEJISHUYUYUWAILAIYUYAN (YINGYU、FAYUDENG) DENGXINCIHUI, ZAOCIFANGSHIYECHUXIANLEBIANHUA, MOUXIETEDINGQIANZHUIJIHOUZHUIDESHIYONGZHUJIANKUOSAN。

                            1.YINGYUHUAXIANXIANG

                            CIHUIDEBIANHUATIXIANLESHEHUIWENHUADUIYUYANDEYINGXIANG, YINGYUZAIJINRONG、KEJI、YULE、LIUXINGYINLE、SHISHANG、TIYU、ZHENGZHI、MEITIWANGLUODENGLINGYUDESHENTOUXIANXIANGFANYINGLEYIDALIZAIQUANQIUHUABEIJINGXIADEGUOJIRONGHEQUSHI。SHIYONGYINGYUSHENZHIYANBIANCHENGLETIXIAN“SHANGLIU”“XIANDAI”HUO“GANSHIMAO”DEMOUZHONGFANGSHI。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YIDALIYUYINGYUHUAXIANXIANGTONGCHANGYOUSANZHONGBIAOXIANXINGSHI:1) ZHIJIEXISHOUXINCIHUI, RUSport, film, jazz, iceberg, stress, virusDENG。2) GAIBIANYINGYUCIXING, RU“GESHIHUA”formattare (MINGCIBIANWEIYIDALIYUDONGCI) ;3) ANZHAOYINGYUYINSUXINGTAIZAOCHUXINDEYIDALIYUDANCI, RUBi-stecca (NIUPAI) DUIYINGYINGYUZHONGDEbeef-steakDENG。GENGWEICHANGJIANDESHIXINSHIDAIYILAIDE“e-” (DIANZI) QIANZHUI, RUe-commercio (DIANZISHANGWU) DENG。

                            YIDALIYUYINGYUHUABUJINTIXIANZAICIHUICENGMIAN, ZAIJUFASHENZHIYUYICENGYECHANSHENGLEYINGXIANG, RUXUSHUCIJIAZUIGAOJIDEBIAOSHUFANGSHIZEWANQUANQUZIYINGYU, 20SHIJI80NIANDAIHOUCAIZAIYIDALIYUZHONGCHUXIAN, RU“la Russia è il sesto mercato più grande d’Europa.” (ELUOSISHIOUZHOUDILIUDASHICHANG) CILEIBIAOSHUBEIPUBIANJIESHOUBINGWUYUFACUOWU (Cerruti, et al, 2017: 48) 。

                            2.FANGYANSHENTOU

                            XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUCIHUICENGDEDIFANGHUAJIFANGYANHUAXIANXIANGJIAOTUCHU。YIDALIYUZUOWEIGUOJIATONGYIDEGUANFANGYUYANLISHIJIAODUAN, DIFANGFANGYANDEYINGXIANGLIRENGJIAOQIANG。JINNIANLAI, BEIFANGFANGYANZAIQUANYIDALIFANWEINEIDEKUOSANJIAOMINGXIAN, RU“DOUJIAO”, GENGQINGXIANGYUSHIYONGcornetti (BEIFANGFANGYAN) , ERFEIfagiolini (BIAOZHUNYU) DENG。

                            LUOMAFANGYANDEYINGXIANGYEJIAODA, RUD’AchilleCENGZHICHUQINGNIANRENKOUYUJIAOLIUZHONGPINFANSHIYONGLUOMAFANGYAN, CONGERXINGCHENGXINCIHUI, RU“piotta”ZAILUOMAFANGYANZHONGBENZHIMIANZHIWEI100LILADEHUOBI, FANZHISHUZI100, YEKEYONGYUZHIMIANZHI1OUYUANDEHUOBI, DANSUIHOU“piotta”ZHUJIANZHENGSHIHUA, YANSHENGCHUDONGCI“piottà (re) ”, ZHI“BENPAO”, CONGSHUZI100ZHONGZHUANHUACHUMEIXIAOSHI100GONGLISHISUDEGAINIAN, TIQUCHU“KUAISU”ZHEIYIXIANGZHENGYIYI (Lubello, 2016: 360) 。

                            3.TEDINGQIANZHUIJIHOUZHUIYONGFADEKUOSAN

                          星云棋牌官网下载   XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, MOUXIETEDINGQIANZHUIYUHOUZHUISHIYONGPINLVZENGJIA, XINGCHENGYIZHONGXINDEZAOCIFANGSHI。JIAOWEICHANGJIANDE“QIANZHUI”BAOKUO:super-, mega-, maxi-, para-, inter-, euro-DENG。MOUXIEZUIGAOJIQIANZHUI, RUiperKEDANDUZUOXINGRONGCIHUOMINGCI, WUXUGOUCHENGHECHENGCI, RU“il finalone iper”ZHONGiperZUOXINGRONGCIBIAO“CHAOJI”, HUO“iper”ZUOMINGCIBIAO“CHAOJISHICHANG” (Berruto, 2013: 67) , 2014NIANMUOUYIAO (Muoio, 2014: 101) CENGTIJIBIAOZUIGAOJIQIANZHUIDIEYONGDEXIANXIANG, RU“l’iper-giga-super-maxi-megascreen” (CHAOJI-JUDA-CHAOJI-JU-DAPINGMU) YONGFAZHUJIANZENGJIADEHOUZHUISHEJIMINGCI、DONGCIYUXINGRONGCI, MINGCIHOUZHUIZHUYAOBAOKUO:-ismo, -ista, -zione, -eria, -aroDENG, DONGCIHOUZHUIBAOKUO-zzare, -eggiareDENG, XINGRONGCIHOUZHUIZHUYAOZHI-aleDENG。ERBIAO“QINGGAN”DEAICHENGSHISUOXIAOHUAXIANXIANGTONGYANGCHUXIANFANLAN, RUattimino, regalino, pensierino, momentino, pullmino, filinoDENG。

                            CIWAI, ZUIGAOJIHOUZHUI“-issimo”DEYONGFAYEDAWEIKUOSAN (YOUYIMILANDIQUJIAOWEITUCHU) 。ZAIBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, BIAOKUAZHANGHUOQIANGDIAODEZUIGAOJIHOUZHUI“-issimo”YUANBENJINYONGYUXINGRONGCI, DANZAIXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGYIJINGKUOSANZHIMINGCI, RUvado d’accordissimo, SHENZHIJINGUOQUSHITAIZHONGDEGUOQUFENCIYECHANGYONGZUIGAOJIBIAOQIANGDIAO, RU“Lo spettacolo è stato applauditissimo.” (JIEMUSHIFENSHOUHUANYING) (Lubello, 2016: 180) 。

                            (SAN) JUFATEZHENG

                            XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEJUFATEZHENGZHUYAOZHIJUZIBIAOJIJIEGOUHUOBIAOJICISHUNXUFASHENGGAIBIANDEQINGKUANG, JUTIBAOKUOZUO—YOUYIWEIJIEGOU、XUANZHIHUATI、FENLIEJIEGOU、ciCHENGXIANXINGJIEGOUYUcheDUOZHIXIANXIANG。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, JUZICENGJIJINGLIZHONGXINGUIHUA, SHUJU (rema) HUOZHUJU (tema) DOUKEYIBEIJIAODIANHUA。JUFACENGDEGAIBIANTIXIANCHUXINJIAOLIUHUANJINGZHONGDUIXINXIGOUTONGBIANJIEXINGYUKUAISUXINGDEXUQIU。

                            1.ZUOYIWEIJIEGOU

                            ZUOYIWEIJIEGOUZHIJUFAHUATI (tema) HOUJIEYIGEWANZHENGSHUJU (rema) , SHUJUZHONGCUNZAIYIGEFUZHIGAIJUFAHUATIDEYUYANCHENGFEN, TONGCHANGWEITONGYANGYIWEIZHIZUOCEDEJIECIHUO (FEIZIFAN) FUZHUIDAICI (clitico) 。CHENGFENYIWEISHENGCHENGHUATI, JIANGQIQIANYIZHIJUZIZUOYUAN。JUZICHENGFENDESHUNXUBIANDONGBIAOJICHUJUZIDEXINXIJIEGOU, JIYUZHUYUBUTONGDEMOUCHENGFEN (TONGCHANGWEIBINYU) SHIXIANLEHUATIHUA, HUATIYUSHUJUZHONGDEMOUGEJIEGOUYOUWEIZHIXIANGGUANXING, KETONGGUOFUZHIDAICIHUOJUFAKONGQUE (DANGHUATIWEIJIANJIEBINYUHUOQITACHENGFENSHI) YUSHUJUSHIXIANJUFALIANXI。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YIWEIJIEGOUZHUYAOZUOYONGWEIQIANGDIAOHUATI, YUBIAOZHUNDESVOJIEGOUXIANGBI, ZUOYIWEIJIEGOUJUYOUSANZHONG“JUJIAO”XING (Focalizzazione) 。HUATICHENGFENQIANZHI, WEIYUJUSHOU, HUATICHENGFENZAISHUJUZHONGYOUFUZHIDAICIJINXINGZHONGFU, HUATIYUSHUJUJIANTONGCHANGHUIYOUDOUHAOJINXINGGEKAI, TONGYANGJIAQIANGLEHUATIDEJIAODIANXIAOYING。ZUOYIWEIJIEGOUZHONGDEHUATICHENGFENKEWEIZHIJIEBINYU、JIANJIEBUYU、DIDIANBUYUJIQITABUYU。RUGUOBEIYIWEICHENGFENZAIYUANJUZHONGWEIZHIJIEBINYU, ZEFUZHIDAICIBIXUQIANGZHISHIYONG。RUGUOBEIYIWEICHENGFENWEIJIANJIEBINYU, ZEBUQIANGZHISHIYONGFUZHIDAICI, YINWEIBEIYIWEICHENGFENZHONGYIJINGCHUXIANLEJIECI, BIAOJICHULECHENGFENZHIJIANDEJUFALIANXI。

                            I soldi, li hai sprecati ieri? (ZHIJIEBINYU) 1

                            (QIAN, NIZUOTIANHUALEMA?)

                            Di questo, che cosa (ne) pensi? (JIANJIEBUYU)

                            (ZHEIGE, NIZENMEKAN?)

                            A Pisa, ci vado spesso. (DIDIANBUYU)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (BISA, WOCHANGQU。)

                            2.YOUYIWEIJIEGOU

                            YOUYIWEIJIEGOUYUZUOYIWEILEISI, HUATICHENGFENYIWEIZHIJUZIYOUYUANQUYU, QIJUFAGONGNENGZEYOUQIANMIANDEFUZHUIDAICIBIAOSHI。YOUYIWEIJIEGOUDEGONGNENGKEWEIJIAQIANGCHANSHISHUOMING, YANHUANJUZIDEBIAODAYUJIANGDIHANHUNDENG。YUZUOYIWEIJIEGOUXIANGFAN, YOUYIWEIJUZIDEYUYONG-XINXIJIEGOUWEI“SHUJU-HUATI” (rema-tema) 。CHUZHIJIEBINYU、JIANJIEBUYU、DIDIANBUYUDENGBUYUWAI, YOUYIWEIJIEGOUDEHUATICHENGFENHAIKEWEIZHUYU。RU:

                            ? andata via Maria.

                            (ZOULE, MALIYA)

                            3.XUANZHIHUATI

                            XUANZHIHUATIYEKECHENGWEIZIYOUHUATI (tema libero) HUOJUEDUIHUATI (tema assoluto) 。YUZUO—YOUYIWEIJIEGOULEISI, XUANZHIHUATITONGYANGBIAOJICHUSHUYUJIEGOUDEBIANHUA, HUATICHENGFENHUOQIANGDIAOCHENGFENWEIYIZHIJUSHOU。XUANZHIHUATITONGCHANGWEIDULIJIEGOU, YUSHUJUZAIJUFAXINGTAICENGDELIANJIESHIFENSONGSAN, JINJUYOUYUYILIANXI, MINGCIXINGYUDUAN (SN) YUQIHOUCHENGFENZHIJIANDETINGDUNJIAOZHANG。ERZUOYIWEIJIEGOUZHONGHUATIYUSHUJUDEJUFALIANJIESHIQIANGZHIXINGDE, HUIYOUJIECIHUODAICIFUZHICHULAI, ZHEISHIXUANZHIHUATIYUYIWEIJIEGOUZUIDADEQUBIE。“XUANZHI”YICIZHENGSHIZHIGAIHUATICHENGFENWURENHEJUFAGONGNENGZHICHENG, ZHIDE“XUANZHIZAIKONGZHONG”。CIWAI, XUANZHIHUATITONGCHANGJINNENGWEIYUJUZIDEZUOYUANQUYU, ERYIWEIJIEGOUZHONGHUATICHENGFENYEKEWEIYUYOUYUAN (YOUYIWEI) 。ZUOYIWEIHUATITONGCHANGWEIYIZHIXINXI, ERXUANZHIHUATIDEZHUYAOZUOYONGWEIQIANGDIAOYIGE“YIWAIHUATI” (Vanelli, 1986: 265) 。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Mario, è responsabltà sua prendere i libri.

                            (MALIAO, NASHUSHITADEZEREN。)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   XUANZHIHUATIKENENGZAISHOUJIAOYUCHENGDUBUGAODEJIAOLIUZHEZHONGCHUXIAN, TAMENYOUYUZHISHIDEKUIFA, WUFAZHENGQUEZHANGWOGUIFANYUFAERCUOWUDIGUIHUAJUZIBUJU。CIWAI, SHIYONGXUANZHIHUATIYEYOUKENENGSHIDANCHUNWEILEGENGTUCHUCHENSHUDEHUATI。XIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGXUANZHIHUATIDECHUXIANYUYUYUHUOWENBENLEIXINGWUGUAN, BUJINXIANYONGYUKOUYUZHONG, SHUMIANYUZHONGYEYUELAIYUECHANGJIAN。XUJIUJIU (2010:447) ZAI《XIANDAIHANYUPIANZHANGYUYANXUE》ZHONGTIDAO, XUANZHIHUATIZAIYINGYUDENGOUZHOUZHUYAOYUYANZHONGDESHUMIANYUHUOZHENGSHIKOUYUZHONGHENSHAOCHUXIAN。DANYIDALIWENXUEJIAZAIZUOPINZHONGSHIYONGXUANZHIHUATIBINGBUSHAOJIAN, ZUOJIAHUIYOUYISHIDIPOHUAIJUFAYIZHIXING, RANGWENXUEYUYANHUODEKOUYUTILIUCHANGZIRANDETEDIAN。RUMANZUONIDE《YUEHUNFUFU》ZHONG:

                            Questo signore, Dio gli ha toccato il cuore. (《YUEHUNFUFU》DI24ZHANG) (Manzoni, 1845: 280)

                            (ZHEIWEIXIANSHENG, SHANGDICENGCHUMOQILINGHUN。)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   XUANZHIHUATIZAIYIDALIYANYUZHONGYECHANGYOUCHUXIAN, RU:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Chi si fa pecora, il lupo se lo mangia.

                            (RUOROUQIANGSHI)

                            4.FENLIEJIEGOU

                            FENLIEJIEGOUZHIJIANGJUZIFENLIECHENGZHUJUYUCONGJULIANGGEBUFEN, DIYIBUFENQIANGDIAOMOUGETESHUDEYUFA/JUFACHENGFEN, JI“XINXINXI”, DIERBUFENZEWEI“YIZHIXINXI”。BEIFENLIECHUQUDECHENGFENBEIYIWEIZHIJUSHOU, TONGYANGSHIXIANLEJIAODIANHUA, YOUbeDONGCIEssereYINCHU, ERDIERBUFENWEIYOULIANJIECIcheYINCHUDE“WEIGUANXICONGJU” (Pseudorelativa) 。LUOJIA (Roggia, 2009: 23) ZAI《YIDALIFENLIEJU》ZHONGZHICHU, FENLIEJUSHIXIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGBIAODAXINXIJIAODIAN (focus informativo) DEZHONGYAOFANGSHI, SHUZHEKETONGGUOFENLIEJUXIANGTINGZHECHUANDIQIRENWEIZUIZHONGYAODEXINXI。YOUYUFENLIEJUDEQIANGDIAOGONGNENG, CHANGYONGYUFOUDINGJUYUYIWENJUZHONG, YITUCHUMOUGEFOUDINGHUOXUNWENDEXINXI。

                            Era lui che e’ arrivato prima.

                            (SHITAZUIZAODAODE。)

                            Chi è che non è ancora arrivato?

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (SHISHEIHAIMEIDAO?)

                            Non è per questo che lui è andato via.

                            (TABUSHIYINWEIZHEIGEERZOUDE。)

                            5.“Che” DUOZHIXIANXIANG

                          星云棋牌官网下载   CheDUOZHIXIANXIANGZHIcheDESHIYONGFANWEIBEIDADAKUODA, JIHUCHENGDANLEKOUYUTIZHONGDABUFENGONGNENGDEGUANXIDAICI。CHUANTONGYUFAZHONG, cheJINYONGZUOJIESHILIANCIJIBIAOZHUYUHUOJIANJIEBINYUDEGUANXICI, DANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGcheHAIKEZUOSHIJIAN、MUDE、JIEGUOYUYUANYINDENGLIANCI。CheDUOZHIXIANXIANGBINGFEICHUANGXIN, XIANDANGDAIYIDALIYU (FEIZHENGSHICHANGHESHI) ZUIJIEJIN16SHIJIWENXUEYUYANDEDAIBIAO。cheDUOZHITIXIANLEYIDALIYUZHONGXINQUELIBIAOZHUNDEGUOCHENG, SHIXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEZHONGYAOZHIBIAO。YONGcheLAILIANJIEZHUJUYUCONGJU, SHIYABIAOZHUN (substandard) YIDALIYUJIDICENGYIDALIYUZUIDIANXINGTEZHENGZHIYI。CHUYUJINGJIHESHENGLIDEKAOLV, cheDUOZHIZAIXIANDAIYIDALIYUKOUYUTIZHONGSHIFENCHANGJIAN, CheDUOZHIXIANXIANGZHUYAOTIXIANZAIcheZUOSHIJIANLIANCI、GUANXIDAICI、YUANYIN、MUDEYUJIEGUOLIANCIZHONG。

                            1) CheDAITIin cui, nel momento in cuiZUOSHIJIANLIANCI, JUYOULEXINDE“SHIJIANJIAZHI”。CheDESHIJIANJIAZHISHIZUIDIANXINGDEYIDALIYUFAYONGFA, YESHIZUINENGBEIRONGRENDEYUFAXIANXIANG (D’Achille, 1990: 220, 238) 。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ? un ora che ti aspetto.

                            (WODENGLENIYIGEXIAOSHILE)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   2) CheQUDAIGUANXIDAICIcui, il quale, ZAIGUANXICONGJUZHONGZUOLIANCI。BIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, cheJINNENGZHIDAIZHUYUYUZHIJIEBINYUXIANXINGCI, JIANJIEBINYUXIANXINGCIBIXUYONGJIECIJIAcuiHUOil quale。DANXIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONG, cheKEDAITIERZHE, RU:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   La ragazza che ho parlato era Maria.

                            (GENWOSHUOGUOHUADENVHAISHIMALIYA。)

                            3) CheZAIYUANYIN、MUDE、JIEGUOCONGJUZHONGZUOLIANCI,

                            Vieni, che te lo spiego. (JIEGUO)

                            (NILAI, WOGENNIJIESHI。)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Mangia, che ti fa bene. (MUDE)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (CHIBA, DUISHENTIHAO。)

                            Vai a letto che è tardi (YUANYIN)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (QUSHUIBA, HENWANLE。)

                            6.Ci CHENGXIANXINGJIEGOU

                            YIDALIYUCiDEDUOZHONGGONGNENGSHIYIDALIYUYANXUEJIADEZHONGDIANYANJIUDUIXIANG, LISHIFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGLEZHONGDUOBUTONGDELILUNJIESHI, PUBIANRENTONGDESHIciJUYOUCUNZAIXING (esistenziale) YUCHENGXIANXING (presentativo) ZHEILIANGZHONGGOUSHI (D’Achille, 2001; Berruto, 1986) 。QIZHONGciCHENGXIANXINGJIEGOUTONGCHANGYOUYIGEXUCI (espletivo) HUOYIGEXUZHUYU (soggetto nullo) 、CUNZAIDONGCIessereYUDONGHOUYU (postverbale) LUOJIZHUYUSANGEBUFENGOUCHENG。CiCHENGXIANXINGJIEGOUYOUc’è (DANSHUXINGSHI) HUOci sono (FUSHUXINGSHI) YINCHU, BIAOCUNZAIHUOWEIYU (esistere/trovarsi) DEHANYI。CiCHENGXIANJUSHIYIZHONGGENGWEIBIANJIEJINGJIDEJIAOLIUFANGSHI, JUZICENGJIBUJUJIANDAN, QIEJIAODIANMINGQUE。BEILUTUO (Berruto, 1987: 67) ZHICHUCiCHENGXIANJUZHIJIANGYIGEDUOSHUJUJIEGOU (polirema) FENCHENGLIANGGEDANSHUJU (monorema) JIEGOU, TONGCHANGXUQIANGDIAODIYIGEDANSHUJUZHONGDEXINXI。CiCHENGXIANXINGJIEGOUJIANGXINXIDASAN, FENGECHENGDUOGEXINXIDANYUAN, KEGENGHAODIQIANGDIAOXINXINXI。DANCONGYUYONGJIAODULAIKAN, YIDALIYUCiGOUSHIDEDONGCIHOUMINGCIXINGDUANYU (postverbal NP) ZHINENGCHUANDIDUIHUAYULAISHUOXINDEXINXI, ERDUIQIANZAITINGZHE/DUZHELAISHUOSHIFOUSHIXINXINXIWUGUANJINYAO。

                            C’è il cane che sta abbaiando.

                            (YOUZHIZHENGZAIFEIDEGOU。)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (SI) XINGTAITEZHENG

                            XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEXINGTAITEZHENGBAOKUODONGCIDESHITAIYUYUTAIZHONGGOU、DAICIXITONGZHONGGOU、XIAOPINCIciDEDONGCIHUAYUCIHUIHUAQUSHI、LIANJIECIDEGAIBIANDENG。YIDALIYUZAIXINGTAICENGDEBIANHUATIXIANCHUYUYANDELIANGJIQUSHI, JIJIANHUA (semplificazione) YURONGYUHUA (pleonasmo) 。WEILESHIYINGBUDUANGAIBIANDEJIAOLIUXUYAO, YIZHONGYUYANHUICHAOZHEZHEILIANGGEWANQUANMAODUNDEXIANGFANFANGXIANGFAZHAN。SHITAIYUYUTAIDEZHONGGOUTIGONGLEYIGEJIBENDEJIANHUAKUANGJIA, XIANDAIYIDALIYUGENGQINGXIANGYUSHIYONGGENGJIANDANZHIJIEDEYUTAIHUOSHITAI (RUZHICHENSHI、XIANZAISHI、ZHUDONGSHIDENG) 。ERciDEDONGCIHUAYUCIHUIHUA、DONGCIDAICIHUA (ZENGJIAZIFANXINGSHI) 、LIANCIXITONGBIANHUADENGFANYINGLEYIDALIYUDERONGYUQUSHI。

                            1.DONGCISHITAITIXIZHONGGOU

                            1) JINGUOQUSHIQUDAIYUANGUOQUSHI

                            XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, JINGUOQUSHI (passato prossimo) ZAIQUANYIDALIFANWEINEIJUNGUANGFANSHIYONG, ZAIYIDALIBEIBUDIQUJIHUWANQUANQUDAIYUANGUOQUSHI (passato remoto) 。YIDALIZHONGNANBUDIQUYUANGUOQUSHIDESHIYONGPINLVYUANBENYUANYUANGAOYUJINGUOQUSHI, DANRUJINYEYUJIAQINGXIANGYUZAIJIANGSHUYIGEJIUYUANSHIQINGSHI, XUANZEYONGJIAOJINDESHITAI。JINGUOQUSHIZAIFEIZHENGSHIKOUYUZHONGSHENZHINENGDAITIXIANJIANGLAISHI (anteriore futuro) , RUAppena l’hai fatto, esco io. (NIWANCHENGZHIHOU, WOJIUCHUMEN) 。

                            2) WEIWANCHENGSHIYONGFAFANLAN

                          星云棋牌官网下载   XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, WEIWANCHENGSHITAI (imperfetto) DEGONGNENGZENGJIA。BIAOZHUNYUZHONGWEIWANCHENGSHIZHIGUOQUDEYIGECHIXUXINGDONGZUO, YEKEYUJINGUOQUSHIHUOYUANGUOQUSHIHEYONGZAIFUHEJUZHONG, BIAODALINGYIGEDONGZUOFASHENGDEBEIJING。DANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, WEIWANCHENGSHITAIJUYOUDUOZHONGGONGNENG, JUYOU“FANSHISHIXING” (controfattuali) YUBUQUEDINGXING, KEYONGYUJIASHEJUZHONG, TIDAICONGJUZHONGDEXUNISHIHUOZHUJUZHONGDETIAOJIANSHI, BIAOBUKENENGFASHENGDESHIQING, YEKEZAI“MENGYAN”“YOUXI”DENGCHANGJINGZHONGBIAOBUQUEDING (Lori, 2005: 86) , KEDAITIWEILAISHIBIAOJIANGLAIFASHENG, BIAODALIMAOKOUWENDENG。

                            3) ZHICHENSHIQUDAIXUNISHI

                            XUNISHI (Congiuntivo) RANGWEIYUZHICHENSHI (Indicativo) DEXIANXIANGZHUYAOSHEJIKOUYUTIJIBUFENSHUMIANYUTI (ZHUYAOWEIMEITIYUYAN) , ZAISIWEIDONGCICONGJU、TIAOJIANCONGJU、JIANJIEYIWENJUYUXIANZHIGUANXICONGJUZHEISIZHONGCONGJUBIAOXIANZUIWEIMINGXIAN。RU:

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Credo che loro devono venire.

                            (WORENWEITAMENHUILAI)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   Se vieni/verrai, mi fai/farai piacere.

                            (RUGUONINENGLAI, WOJIANGHUIHENGAOXING。)

                            Non so come hanno fatto.

                            (WOBUZHIDAOTAMENSHIRUHEZUODAODE。)

                            Cerco una ragazza che parla il cinese.

                            (WOZAIZHAOYIGEHUISHUOZHONGWENDENVHAI。)

                            4) XIANZAISHIBIAOWEILAI

                            XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGXINZENGLEDUOZHONGBIAODAWEILAIDEFANGSHI, RUKEYONGXIANZAISHIJIASHIJIANFUCI (RUpoi, domaniDENG) , RU“Domani vado al mare. (MINGTIANWOQUHAIBIAN) ”;“Stare per”HOUJIEDONGCIYUANXING, BIAO“ZHENGYAOZUOMOUSHI”, RU“Sto per uscire. (WOZHENGYAOCHUMEN。) ”;“Andare/stare/venire”DENGDONGCIHOUJIEJIECIaYUDONGCIYUANXINGBIAOJIANGYAOFASHENGDEDONGZUO, RU“Vado a comprare un libro. (WOQUMAIBENSHU。) ”

                            5) Stare+FUDONGCIDEYONGFAFANLAN

                            XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, StareYUFUDONGCIHEYONGSHOUDAOLEYINGYUYINGXIANG, BIAOJIANJINXINGDEYONGFAZHUJIANZENGJIA。DONGCI“Stare (ZAI) ”YUFUDONGCI (gerundio) HEYONGJUYOULIANGZHONGGONGNENG, JIKEBIAOSHICHIXUXINGDONGZUO (durativi) , YEKEBIAODAJIANJINXINGDONGZUO (progressivi) 。BIAOCHIXUXINGSHI, JIKEZHIXIGUANDONGZUO, YEKEZHIYICIXINGSHIJIANZAIMOUGEJIAOZHANGSHIJIANFANWEINEIDECHIXUFASHENG, RU“Su questo progetto sto lavorando per tre anni (ZHEIGEXIANGMUWOYIJINGZUOLESANNIAN) ”。BIAOJIANJINXINGSHI, ZHIDONGCIZHUANGTAIDEGAIBIAN, RU“Sto andando (WOZHENGZAIQU) ”。CHUJIANJINXINGYONGFAZENGJIAWAI, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG“-ando”DESHIYONGFANWEIZHUJIANKUODA, BUJINKEYONGYUSHANGWEIDONGCIHUADEMINGCI, RU“pizza-pizzando (ZHENGZAICHIBISA) ”, WEIYUJUSHOUBIAOSHI“JIESHU”, RU“concludendo”DENG, YEKEYONGZAIBEIDONGJUZHONGBIAOZHUDONGYI, RU“Era stato convocato dichiarando la sua estraneità ai fatti. (TABEICHUANZHAO, SHENGCHENGCISHIYUZIJIWUGUAN。) ” (Lubello, 2016: 181)

                          星云棋牌官网下载   2.DAICITIXIZHONGGOU

                            1) Lui/lei/loroQUDAIegli/ella/essiZUOZHUGERENCHENGDAICI

                            XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGDAICIXITONGDEZHONGYAOBIANHUAWEIDISANRENCHENGZHONGDUZHUGEDAICIZHUJIANBEIFEIZHONGDUBUGE/BINGEDAICIDAITI。20SHIJI20~90NIANDAIDEBIAOZHUNYUFAGUIDINGDISANRENCHENGZHUGEDAICIWEIEgli (DANSHUYANGXING) 、ella (DANSHUYINXING) 、esso (DANSHUYANGXING) 、essi (FUSHUYANGXING) , ERLui, lei, loroZEWEIBUGEDAICI (complemento) HUOBINGEDAICI, YINCI“Lei parla (TASHUO) ”BEIRENWEISHICUOWUDEXINGSHI。DANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, ZHONGDUZHUGEDAICIegli/ella/essi/esso, BEIRENWEISHIGUOSHIDELAOGUDONG, JINXIANYUJIQIZHENGSHIDEWENJIANHUOQITASHUMIANYUZHONG。luiJIKEZHIREN, YEKEZHIDONGWU, ERCIQIANZHIWUDEDAICIessoJIHUBUZAISHIYONG, WANQUANBEIquelloDAITI。Lui, lei, loroZAOYICHENGWEIYIDALIYUBUTONGCENGMIANBIANTIDEZHUGEDAICITONGYONGGUIFAN,

                            2) GliQUDAIle/loroZUOJIANJIEBINYURENCHENGDAICI

                            XIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGYIZHUJIANSHIYONGgli (DONGCIQIAN) LAITIDAIloro (DONGCIHOU) ZUOYUGERENCHENGDAICI, RU“Gli ho detto= ho detto (a) loro. (WOGAOSULETAMEN) ”。GliSHIloroDEFEIZHONGDUXINGSHI, ZUOYUGERENCHENGDAICISHI, BUCUNZAIDANFUSHUHUOYINYANGXINGDEBIANHUA, KEYIBIAOSHIloro, a loro, a essi, a esse。GliQUDAIloroDEYONGFAZAIKOUYUZHONG, YOUQISHIJIATINGKOUYUZHONGSHIFENCHANGJIAN。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI, JINGUANYUGEgliDAITIa loroYICHENGWEIGONGSHI, DANgliQUDAIYINXINGDANSHUYUGEleDEYONGFARENGBEISHIWEIYANZHONGCUOWU。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   3) TeQUDAItuZUOZHUGERENCHENGDAICI

                            XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGDIERRENCHENGDANSHUBINGE (te) DEYONGFAZHUJIANKUOZHAN, DAITIZHUGERENCHENGDAICI (Tu) CHUXIANZAIZHUYUWEIZHI, QIZHONGYOUYI“Io e te (WOHENI) ”ZUIWEICHANGJIAN。DIYIRENCHENGDANSHUYUDIERRENCHENGDANSHURENCHENGDAICIBINGLIESHI, QIZHENGQUEDEXINGSHIYINGWEI“tu ed io”HUO“Io e tu”, DANYIDALIZHONGBEIBUJISADINGDAOFANGYANZHONG, YONGBINGEteQUDAIZHUGEtuDEXIANXIANGSHIFENCHANGJIAN, YIZHI“Io e tu”CHANGBEI“Io e te”DAITI。ZUICHU“Io e te”BINGBUBEIYUYANXUEJIAJIESHOU, SHENZHIBEIBIANWEIYIZHONGNANYIRENSHOUDETUOSIKANASHIYONGFA。DANCONG20SHIJI90NIANDAIHOU, DABUFENBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUYUFASHUKAISHICHENGREN“Io e te”DEHEFADIWEI。YUYANXUEJIAWALE (Valle) (2011: 99) ZAI《YUFAWANSUI》YISHUZHONG, GENGSHIJIANGIo e teLIEWEIQIANGZHISHIYONGBINGEDEQINGKUANG。SHIJIKOUYUZHONG, TeZUOZHUYUDAICIDEQINGKUANGBUJINJUXIANYUCIYONGFA, DANDUYONGZUOZHUYUDEQINGKUANGYEJIAOCHANGJIAN, RU“Vieni anche te. (NIYELAI) ”。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   4) ZHISHIDAICIDEJIANHUA

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YIDALIYUZHONGZUICHANGJIANDEZHISHIDAICIZHONGWEISANZHONG:questo/codesto/quello, BIAO“ZHEIGE”HUO“NEIGE”。SANZHEDEQUBIEZAIYUquestoBIAOSHIYUSHUOZHEGENGJIEJIN, codestoBIAOSHIYUTINGZHEGENGJIEJIN, ERquelloBIAOSHIYUSHUOZHEJITINGZHEJUNJIAOYUAN。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGZHISHIDAICIcodestoDEYONGFAZHUJIANJIANSHAO, JINXIANYUTUOSIKANADAQU, ZAIYIDALIQITADIQUZEGUANGFANBEIquelloDAITI。YUcodestoLEISIDEFUCIcosti, costàYEJIANJIANXIAOSHI, ERZHONGXINGDAICIciòZHENGZAIBEIquestoYUquelloQUDAI。

                            5) ZIFANDAICIZENGJIA

                          星云棋牌官网下载   XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGYIXIEBENBUCUNZAIZIFANYONGFADEJIWUDONGCICHUXIANLE“QINGGANZIFANDAICI”JIEGOU, RU“Mi guardo un film (WOKANCHANGDIANYING) ”, HUO“Mi bevo un tè (WOHEBEICHA) ”。YUBIAOZHUNYUZHONGZHENGQUEDEZIFANDONGCIBUTONG, CILEIZIFANDAICITONGCHANGWEIJIANJIEBINYU。CISHIDEFEIZHONGDURENCHENGDAICIWANQUANSHIRONGYU, QICUNZAIDEYIYIJINWEIQIANGDIAOZHUYUSHIDONGCIDEJUEDUICANYUZHE, ERFEIZHIDAIDONGCILUNYUAN。JIWUDONGCIZIFANXINGSHIDAIYOUQIANGLIEDEQINGGAN, YEKEYIQIANGDIAODONGZUOXINGWEIBENSHEN, YINCIYECHANGBEICHENGWEI“QINGGANDAICIJIEGOU”。DONGCIDAICIHUAXINGSHIJIAQIANGLEZHUYUDUIZHENGGESHIJIANHUODONGZUOCANYUCHENGDU。

                            3.Ci DEGAOPINSHIYONG

                            XIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGXIAOPINCI“ci”CHUXIANLEDONGCIHUAYUCIHUIHUADEQUSHI。CiZAIBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGKEZUODIDIANFUCI, ZHI“ZHEILI/NEILI”, RU“Ci vado spesso (WOCHANGQUNEI) ”。DANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, ciHAIKEYONGYUQIANGDIAOQIHOUDONGCIDEYUYIJIYUYINGONGNENG。RENCHENGFUZHECIciKEZUOWEIBIAOBUYU, JUYOUXIANGDONGCIKUOSANDEQUSHI, CHANGZUOYUGESHIYONG, RU“pensarci (KAOLV) ”、“tenerci (ZHONGSHI) ”DENG。CIWAI, XIAOPINCIciJUYOUCIHUIHUAQUSHI, ZUICHANGJIANDEBIAODAWEIciYUZHUDONGCIavereHEYONG, RU“ci ho fame. (WOELE) ”

                          星云棋牌官网下载   4.LIANCIDEBIANHUA

                          星云棋牌官网下载   XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGBUSHAOLIANCIDEYONGFAJUNFASHENGLEGAIBIAN。RUSHIJIANLIANCI“Mentre”YONGFAKUODA, mentreZUICHUJINZHI“TONGSHI”, DANZAIXIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGYEKEBIAOZHUANZHE。LIANCImentreCHANGYUFUCIinveceLIANYONG, JINGUANERZHEZAIYUFACENGMIANBINGBUYIZHI, DANinveceKEZENGJIAmentreDEZHUANZHEYUYIJIAZHI;YIWENDAICI“che cosa (SHENME) ”BEIJIANHUACHENGBEIFANGFANGYANZHONGDEcosaHUOSHINANFANGFANGYANZHONGDEche;CIWAI, “Per cui”KEZUOYINGUOLIANJIECI, “anche”KEZUORANGBULIANCIDENG。

                            四、结语

                          星云棋牌官网下载   20SHIJI80NIANDAIYILAI, YIDALIYUJINGLILEJUDABIANGE, DAZHONGYUTI、JIATINGJIAOLIUYUYAN、DIFANGYUTIZHONGJUNCHUXIANLEYIXILIEXINTEZHENG。ER21SHIJIYILAI, SHUMIANYUTIYEKAISHIXINACIQIANBEIRENWEISHIYA-BIAOZHUNYUHUOJINNENGCHUXIANZAIKOUYUZHONGDEYUYANTEZHENG, YIZHONGZAIQUANYIDALIFANWEINEIDEXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUYANZHENGZAIZHUJIANXINGCHENG。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZUNXUNZIXIAERSHANGDENIXIANGFAZHANDAOLU, TIXIANLEYUYANBENSHENDESHENGMINGLIYULINGHUOXING。BENWENZONGJIELEXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEXINTEZHENG, CONGYUYIN、CIHUI、JUFAYUXINGTAIZHEISIGECENGJIDUIXIANDAIYIDALIYUDEBIANHUAJINXINGLESHENRUJIEDU, JUFAXINGTAICENGSHIYIDALIYUBIANGEDEZHONGYAOLINGYU, BIAOJIXITONGDEGAIBIANDAOZHILEZUOYOUYIWEI、XUANZHIHUATI、FENLIEJIEGOUYUciCHENGXIANJUDENGXIANXIANGDEKUOZHANG。CIWAI, DONGCIDESHITAIYUTAIXITONGJIDAICIXITONGJINGLILEZHONGZU, CHUXIANLEJIANHUAQUSHI。YANJIUXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUCHANSHENGYUANYINYUJUTITEZHENGDUIBAWOYIDALIYUZUIXINFAZHANDONGTAIJIKAIZHANGUONEIYIDALIYUJIAOXUEGONGZUOJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。

                            CANKAOWENXIAN

                            []XUJIUJIU.2010.XIANDAIHANYUPIANZHANGYUYANXUE[M].BEIJING:SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ASOR R.1994.Storia della Lingua Itaiana:Scritto e Parlato. (Vol.Ⅱ) [M].Torino:Einaudi.

                            BECCARIA G L.1985.Italiano, Lingua Selvaggia [J].Sipra (18) :5-16.

                            BECCARIA G L, PREGLIASCO M.2014.Competenze linguistiche [M].Milano:Le Monnier scuola.

                            BERRUTO G.1986.Un Tratto Sintattico dell’Italiano Parlato:Il C’è Presentativo [C]//KLAUS L, EDITH M, KNALLER S (eds.) .Parallela 2:Aspetti della Sintassi dell’Italiano Contemporaneo.Tübingen:Narr:61-73.

                            BERRUTO G.1987.Sociolinguistica dell’italiano Contemporaneo [M].Roma:Carocci.

                            BERRUTO G.2013.Ma Che Lingua Fa?Alcune Riflessioni Sullo Standard e Sul Neo-Standard [C]//BOMBI R (ed.) .Manuale Di Comunicazione Istituzionale e Internazionale, Roma:Il Calamo:45-67.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   CERRUTI M, CROCCO C, MARZO S.2017.Towards a New Standard:Theoretical and Empirical Studies on the Restandardization of Italian [M].Berlin:Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   CHALUPINSKI B.2015.L’italiano Neostandard:un’analisi Linguistica Attraverso la Stampa Sportiva [M].Firenze:Franco Cesati Editore.

                            D’ACHILLE P.1990.Sintassi del Parlato e Tradizione Scritta della Lingua Italiana [M].Roma:Bonacci.

                            D’ACHILLE P.2001.Breve Grammatica Storica dell’Italiano [M].Roma:Carocci.

                            LORI B.2005.L’italiano e le Altre Lingue:Apprendimento della Seconda Lingua e Bilinguismo dei Bambini e dei Ragazzi Immigrati [M].Milano:Francesco Angeli.

                            LUBELLO S.2016.Manuale di Linguistica Italiana [M].Berlin:Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.

                            MANZONI A.1845.I Promessi Sposi:Storia Milanese del Secolo XVII [M].Milano:Redaelli.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   MIONI A.1983.Italiano Tendenziale:Osservazioni su Alcuni Aspetti della Standardizzazione [C]//BENINC? P (ed.) .Scritti Linguistici in Onore di Giovan Battista Pellegrini Volume I.Pisa:Pacini:495-517.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   MUOIO C.2014.Tendenze Dell’Italiano Neo-Standard nel Linguaggio Giornalistico [M].Torino:Università Degli Studi MA Thesis.

                            PERINI E.2012.Scrivere Bene (o Quasi) [M].Firenze:Giunti editore.

                            ROGGIA C E.2009.Le Frasi Scisse in Italiano:Struttura Informativa e Funzioni Discorsive [M].Geneve:Editions Slatkine.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   SABATINI F.1985.L’Italiano dell’uso Medio:una Realtà tra le Varietà Linguistiche Italiane [C]//HOLTU G, RADTKE E (eds.) .Gesprochenes Italienisch In Geschichte und Gegenwart.Tübingen:Gunter Narr Verlag:154-184.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   SABATINI F.1990.Una lingua ritrovata:l’italiano parlato [J].Studi Latini e Italiani (4) :215-234.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   SERIANNI L.1998.Lezioni di Grammatica Storica Italiana [M].Roma:Bulzoni.

                          星云棋牌官网下载   TAVONI M.2002.Caratteristiche dell’Italiano Contemporaneo e Insegnamento della Scrittura [C]//BRUNI F, RASO T (eds.) .Manuale dell’Italiano Professionale.Bologna:Zanichelli:139-152.

                            Valle D V, Patota G.2011.Viva la Grammatica! [M].Milano:Sperling & kupfer.

                            VANELLI L.1986.Strutture Tematiche in Italiano Antico [C]//STAMMERJOHANN H (ed.) .Tema-Rema in Italiano:Symposium, Frankfurt Am Main.Tübingen:Gunter Narr Verlag:249-274.

                            ZHUSHI

                            1 BENWENZHONGSUOYOUYIDALIYUJUZIJUNWEIZUOZHEGENJUYIDALIKOUYUTI (DIANSHI、GUANGBO、HUIHUA) ZILIAOBIANXIE。

                           

                            彭倩.新标准意大利语的成因及特征探析[J].广东外语外贸大学学报,2019,30(03):34-44.
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