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                            学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 语言学论文 > 意大利语论文

                            新标准意大利语的形成和主要特点分析

                            时间:2018-08-12 来源:广东外语外贸大学学报 作者:彭倩 本文字数:15372字

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDECHENGYINJITEZHENGTANXI

                              摘要:从20世纪80年代起, 在全意大利范围内产生了一种与传统语法相别的新标准意大利语, 其使用语域从口语体逐渐延伸至半正式与正式书面语体中。新标准意大利语产生与发展的原因可从三个方面分析:语言本身的内在驱动力和灵活度是新标准意大利语产生的内因;战后意大利特殊的历史及政治文化背景成为推动其发展的外因;早期被排除在规范语之外的古意大利语口语特征是新标准意大利语产生的根基。新标准意大利语的主要特征可从语音、词汇、句法与形态四个层面进行分析, 句法形态层是意大利语变革的重要领域, 标记系统的改变导致了左右移位、悬置话题、分裂结构与ci呈现句等现象的扩张, 时态语态系统及代词系统均出现了重构。新标准意大利语正处在融汇与形成的过程中, 探究其形成原因与具体表现, 对开展国内意大利语教学工作具有重要意义。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   GUANJIANCI:YIDALIYU; XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYU; YUYINCIHUI; JUFAXINGTAI;

                              ZUOZHEJIANJIE: PENGQIAN (1988-) , NV, HUNANLOUDIREN, BOSHI, BEIJINGDAXUEWAIGUOYUXUEYUANJIANGSHI, YANJIUFANGXIANGWEIYIDALIYUYANJIWENXUE。;

                              SHOUGAORIQI:2017-08-23

                              An Analysis of the Causes and Characteristics of the New Standard Italian

                            星云棋牌官网下载   PENG Qian

                              College of Foreign Languages, Peking University

                              Abstract:From the 1980 s onwards, a new variation of Italian different from the traditional one was produced in the whole of Italy, whose use extended from the oral register to the semi-formal and formal written register. The origin and development of the new standard Italian can be analyzed from three aspects. First, the intrinsic driving force and flexibility of the language itself are the internal causes of the new standard language. Secondly, the historical, political and cultural background in Italy was the external cause. Finally, the ancient Italian spoken language, which was excluded from the normative one, became the foundation of the new standard Italian. The new standard Italian has 24 main features analyzed from the phonetic, lexical, syntax and morphological layers. The morphological layer is the important field of changes which include the alteration of mark system leading to the expansion of left-right dislocation, hanging topic, split phrase and presentation structure and the reconstruction of tense and pronoun system. The study of the causes and specific characteristics of the new standard Italian is helpful to understand the main development of Italian and to the teaching of Italian in China as well.

                              Italian; new standard Italian; phonetic; lexical; morphosyntax;

                            星云棋牌官网下载   Received: 2017-08-23

                              一、引言

                            星云棋牌官网下载   20SHIJI80NIANDAIQI, BUSHAOYUYANXUEJIAKAISHIZHUYIDAOZAIQUANYIDALIFANWEINEICHUXIANLEYIZHONGYUBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUYOUSUOQUBIEDERICHANGKOUYU。AERBEIERTUO·MIAONI (Alberto Mioni) (1983) SHIZUIZAOYISHIDAOCIXIANXIANGDEXUEZHEZHIYI, TAZAI1983NIANBIANTICHULE“QUSHIYIDALIYU”DEGAINIAN (Italiano tendenziale) 。1985NIAN, FULANGQIESIKE·SABATINI (Francesco Sabatini) (1985) JIANGCIXINYUYANMINGMINGWEI“PINGJUNYIDALIYU” (Italiano d’uso medio) 。1987NIAN, YUYANXUEJIAJIAAITANUO·BEILUTUO (Gaetano Berruto) (1987: 62) ZHUZHANGJIANGSABATINITICHUDE“PINGJUNYIDALIYU”ZHUANCHENGWEI“XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYU” (Italiano neo-standard) 。CIHOU, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHEIYIMINGCHENGZHUJIANBEIYUYANXUEJIASUOJIESHOU, ZHUYAOZHIYUANZIYABIAOZHUNYU, BEIGUANGFANQUNTISUOJIESHOUBINGSHIYONGDEYIXILIEYUYANTEZHENG, YOUFEIBIAOZHUNYU (RUDAZHONGYIDALIYU、DIFANGYIDALIYU、HUIHUAYIDALIYUDENG) KOUYUTIRUQINBIAOZHUNYUGUIFANBINGZHUJIANGUHUAERXINGCHENGDEYIZHONGXINYUYANBIANTI。

                              20SHIJI80NIANDAIZHIJIN, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUCONGKOUYUTIYUYUZHUJIANKUOSANZHISHUMIANTIZHONG, DALIANGYUYANXUEJIAKAISHICHENGRENXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYU。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUBINGFEITANHUAYIXIAN, ZUIZHONGJIANGJINRUBIAOZHUNYIDALIYU, BINGGAIBIANQIBIAOZHUNGUIZE。XINYUYANDETEZHENGZAIXIAOSHUO、SHIGEDENGWENXUEZUOPINZHONGYUJIACHANGJIAN, JIULIANYIYANJINZHECHENGDEXINWENBAODAODENGZHENGSHISHUMIANYUTIZHONGYESUICHUKEJIANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEBIAODAFANGSHI。2015NIAN, BEINIYAMING·CHALUPINSIJI (Beniamin Chalupinski) (2015) DUIYIDALIBAOZHIZHONGDEXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUTEZHENGJINXINGLEDINGLIANGFENXI。2017NIANCHU, 《ZOUXIANGYIZHONGXINBIAOZHUN:YIDALIYUZHONGXINBIAOZHUNHUADELILUNYUJINGYANYANJIU》JIJIEDUOMINGQUANWEIYUYANXUEJIA, SHULIYIDALI30YUNIANDUIXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEYANJIUQINGKUANG, DUIYIDALIYUZHONGXINBIAOZHUNHUAJINXINGLEXITONGFENXI (Cerruti, et al, 2017) 。KEYISHUO, JIN40NIANLAIXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUYIJINGCHENGWEIYIZHONGBEIGUANGFANJIESHOUBINGSHIYONGDEXINYUYAN。

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                              二、新标准意大利语形成原因与发展过程

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEXINGCHENGYUANYINYOUYUYANNEIZAIQUDONGLI、SHEHUIBEIJINGHUANJINGYUYUYANFAZHANLISHISANGEFANGMIAN。YIDALIYUJIAOWEICHUANTONGBAOSHOU, DANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDECHANSHENGZHENGMINGLETADELINGHUODUYUSHENGMINGLI。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUFAZHANGUOCHENGWEICONGKOUYUTIZHISHUMIANTIDEFANXIANGFAZHANQUSHI。YUYANNEIZAIQUDONGLISHIXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUCHANSHENGDEYUANDONGLI, ERERZHANHOUYIDALITESHUDESHIDAIBEIJINGDADAJIAKUAILEXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEXINGCHENGYUFAZHAN。CONGYIDALIYUYANSHIJIAODULAIKAN, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDECHANSHENGSHIBIRANJIEGUO, QIXINGCHENGZHICHUJIANGGUYIDALIYUZHONGDEKOUYUTEZHENGPAICHUZAIWAI, RANERTAMENYOUZAIXINSHIDAIDAZHONGYUYANZHONGZHAODAOLEFUXINGDETURANG。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEFAZHANZUNXUNZIXIAERSHANGDENIXINGFAZHANXIANLU, BIANGESHIYUJIAODICENGJIDEKOUYUTI, ZHUBUKUOZHANZHIGAOCENGJISHUMIANYU。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   1.XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUCHANSHENGDEBENZHIYUANYINWEIYUYANDENEIZAIQUDONGLI。BIAOZHUNYUYANTONGCHANGSHIYOUYUFASHUJIZIDIANLAIQUELI, QIZUIHEXINDEGAINIANSHI“GUIZE”。DANRENHEBIAOZHUNDEQUELITONGSHIYEYIWEIZHEJIANGSHIQUYIBUFENGEXINGHUA、ZIYOUDU、YUANCHUANGXINGYUGETIDEBIAODALI。ZONGGUANRENLEIYUYANSHI, BIAOZHUNYUYANPANGZONGHUICHUXIANYIZHONGGENGSHENGDONGLINGHUODEDAZHONGYUYAN。TADAIBIAOLEGENGGUANGFANRENQUNDEJIAOLIUXUQIU, GENGNENGBEIGUANGFANJIESHOUHESHIYONG, HUITIAOZHANBIAOZHUNYUDEQUANWEIDIWEI, SHICHUANGXINYUBIANGEDETURANG。BIAOZHUNYIDALIYUSHIYIZHONGBEISUOYOUSHUOHUAZHEHUOXIEZUOZHEDANGCHENGMOFANGDEYUYAN, YESHIJIAOXUEZHONGYIXUNDEGUIFAN, SHIWENREN、KEXUEJIA、ZUOJIA、ZHENGFUJIGOUDENGSHIYONGDEGUANFANGYUYAN。BIAOZHUNYIDALIYUTONGCHANGBEIRENWEISHIGENG“GAOGUI”DEYUYAN, DANTAYEDIUSHILEDIFANGFANGYANDEBANLANSECAI。ZAISHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONG, BIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZAROUSHANGKOUYUDEBUZHENGSHIJISHEHUIHUATEDIAN, RANSHANGLENONGHOUDEDIFANGTESE, BUDUANKUODAQIBIANJIE, XINGCHENGLEXINDEYUYAN。

                              2.KEJIFAZHAN、DAZHONGMEITIDEXINGQI、WENHUADARONGHEYUSHEHUIJIECENGDEGAIBIANDENGSHEHUIYINSUJIASULEDIFANGKOUYUTIYUBIAOZHUNYUDERONGHUIGUOCHENG, CUJINLEXINYUYANDEFAZHAN。YIDALIYUBIAOZHUNHUALISHIBINGBUZHANG, YIDALIZAIERZHANHOUCAISHIXIANZHENGZHITONGYI, WEIWENHUAJIYUYANDEBIAOZHUNTONGYIHUATIGONGJIANSHIDEJICHU。ERYIDALIFANGYANLAIYUANGULAO, LISHIYOUJIU, SHULIANGZHONGDUO, YINGXIANGLIJIDA, JISHIGUOJIATUIXINGYIWUJIAOYU, QIANGZHIJIANGBIAOZHUNYUDINGWEIGUANFANGGUIFANYUYAN, DANRENMENZAIRICHANGSHENGHUOHUOJIATINGHUANJINGZHONGRENGZHUYAOYIDIFANGFANGYANWEIZHUYAOJIAOLIUGONGJU。ERXINSHIQISHOUYINJI、DIANYINGYUDIANSHIDENGDAZHONGCHUANMEIGONGJUDECHUANBORANGRENMENDEJIAOLIURIYIJINMI, ZHEIYEJIASULEDIFANGKOUYUZAIBIAOZHUNGUANFANGYUYANZHONGDESHENTOU。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUSHIFANGYANYUDIFANGYIDALIYUYUGUIFANYUJINXINGRONGHEYUJIAOHUIDECHANWU, FANYINGCHUYIDALISHEHUITONGZHIHUADEZOUXIANGYUQUSHI。

                              3.XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDECHANSHENGSHIGUYIDALIYUDEFUXING, TIXIANLEYIDALIYUYANSHIZHONGDEYIDUANQUZHEYUHUIGUOCHENG。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUBINGFEIPINGKONGCHUXIAN, ERSHIJIYUGUYIDALIYUCHANSHENG。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUYUBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZUIDADEQUBIEZAIYUQIANZHEXISHOULEKOUYUTEZHENG, ERCILEITEZHENGZAOJIUCUNZAIYUGUYIDALIWENXUEZUOPINZHONG, ZHEIYESHIYUYANXUEJIAGENGYUANYIJIANGCISHIWEIYIZHONG“FUXING”DEYUANYIN。RUYIDALIYUZHIFUDANDINGZAI《SHENQU》ZHONGCHANGYONGKOUYUHUABIAODAJIAQIANGSHIGEDEZIRANLIUCHANGXING, ERDUIYIDALIYUTONGYIZUOCHUZHONGYAOGONGXIANDEWENHAOMANZUONIZAIQI《YUEHUNFUFU》ZHONGTONGYANGSHIYONGLETUOSIKANAWENXUEYUYANYULUNBADIFANGYANDEZAROUXINGSHI, YISHIDUIBAIGENGFUHERENWUSHENFENTEZHENG。ZAIYIDALIYUBIAOZHUNHUAGUOCHENGZHONG, GUYIDALIYUZHONGDEKOUYUXIANXIANGBEIPAICHUZAIXIANDAIGUIFANZHIWAI, HUOSHIBEISHIWEIGENGDICENGJIDEDAZHONGYIDALIYUJIFANGYAN。DANGUYIDALIYUDEMOUXIETEZHENGZAIXINSHIQIDEDAOLEHUIFU, BUJINTINGLIUZAIDIFANGCENGMIAN, RUFANGYANHUODIFANGYIDALIYUZHONG, YERUQINLEBANZHENGSHIYUZHENGSHISHUMIANTIZHONG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   BIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHIGENYUSHUMIANYU, YIKAOGUOJIAQIANGZHITUIXINGDEJIAOYUCAIDEYITONGYI, SHIYIZHONGYOUSHUMIANYUTUIJIKOUYUDEZISHANGERXIADEBIAOZHUNHUAJINCHENG。ERXINSHIQIYIDALIYUDEGAIBIANZHILUZEQIAQIAXIANGFAN, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUSHIDIFANGFANGYANYUKOUYURUQINSHUMIANYUDEZIXIAERSHANGJINXINGDEGUOCHENG。SHUMIANYUJINANFASHENGBIANGE, ZHIYOUYANGZHANGJUYOUHUOLIDEKOUYUCAINENGWEIYIDALIYUDAILAIXINXIANXUEYE。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDANSHENGDEYUANYINZAIYUZAOQISHIYONGFANGYANZUOWEIDANYIJIAOLIUGONGJUDEDICENGMINZHONGNULICHANGSHISHIYONGBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZUOWEIGONGJU, YINCI, JIYUSHUMIANYUYUWENXUEYUYANDECHUANTONGYUFAGUIZEJIANGBUZAISHIYONG。YIDALIYUCONGDANSHENGZHIRIQIBIANSHENSHENDIDASHANGLEYANGCHUNBAIXUEDELUOYIN, SHANGCENGZHISHIFENZIDEYUYAN, ZHANGQIYILAIYIZHIBEIGEJUEZAIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHIWAI。DANXIANDAISHEHUIZHONG, YIDALIYUKOUYUTIYUSHUMIANYUTIZHIJIANDEHONGGOUZHENGZAIZHUJIANXIAOSHI。DANGSHUMIANYIDALIYUYANBIANCHENGRENMENDEKOUTOUYUYAN, GUHUATIXIZHONGKAISHIJIENADIFANGFANGYAN, TAYESUIZHIYINGLAILEXINSHENG。

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEXINGCHENGFANYINGCHUYIDALIYUDELINGHUOXINGYUSHENGMINGLI, TIXIANLEYIDALIYUZAIBUDUANYUFUZADESHEHUIHUANJINGXIANGSHIYINGBINGNULIMANZUSHIYONGZHERIJIANTIGAODEJIAOLIUXUYAO。YIDALIYUZHANGJIUYILAIBEIKANCHENGSHIBAOSHOUDEDAIMINGCI, YUCHUANTONGYOUZHEGENSHENDIGUDELIANXI。XIANGBIYINGYU、FAYU、DEYUDENGQITAXIFANGYUYAN, YIDALIYUDEXIANDAIYUYUGUDAIYUZHIJIANQUBIEJIAOXIAO。XIANDAIRENKEYIHAOBUFEILIDILIJIEYIPIANWENYIFUXINGSHIQIDESANWEN, SHENZHIKEYIKANDONGYIQIANDUONIANQIANBIAOZHIYIDALIYUDANSHENGDENEIFENKAPUYANUOPANJUESHU (GONGYUAN960NIAN) 。ZHENGRU《YIDALIYUYANSHI:SHUMIANYUYUKOUYU》ZHONGQIANGDIAODE“JINGUANYIDALIYUJINNIANLAIZHUJIANJIANQINGLETANEICHENZHONGDECHUANTONGBAOFU, DANYUQITALUOMANYUXIANGBI, TARENGSHIYIMENBAOSHOUDEYUYAN” (Asor, 1994: 405) 。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDECHANSHENGBIAOMINGYIDALIYUKAISHICHUANGXIN, CHANGSHICHENGWEIYIZHONGQUANSHEHUIDEJIAOLIUYUYAN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEFAZHANSHIJIANNANTUIBIANDEGUOCHENG, XIANDAIYIDALIYUZIXIAERSHANGDENIXIANGFAZHANDAOLUBIRANHUIBANSUIJUDADEZULI, XUJINGLIBEIPIPAN、BEIDAZHONGJIESHOUNAIZHIBEIZHENGTONGYUFASUORENKEDESANDAJIEDUAN。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDANSHENGZHICHUCENGZAODAOYUYANXUEJIADEMENGLIEPENGJI, RU1985NIANYUYANXUEJIABEIKALIYA (Beccaria, 1985) JIUCENGYANLIDICHIZELEYIDALIXINYIDAISUOSHIYONGDEYUYAN, SHENZHIFENNUDIJIANGQICHENGWEI“YEMANYIDALIYU”。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGDETEZHENGYIDUBEISHIWEIYANZHONGCUOWU, JINNENGCHUXIANZAIDICENGRENMINDEKOUYUHUOSHUMIANYUZHONG (JIDAZHONGYIDALIYU) , HUOSHIJIAOYUCHENGDUJIAOGAORENQUNDEKOUYUTIZHONG (JIHUIHUAYIDALIYU) 。DANZHEIXIEYONGFARUJINZHENGZAIQIAORANBEIDAZHONGSUOXIGUANYUJIESHOU, BIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHUJIANSHANGSHENGZHIQUANMINFANWEI, BEIGUANGFANJIESHOUHERENKE。“BUGUIFAN”DEYONGFAZHENGPINFANCHUXIANZAIMEITIYUYANSHENZHIJIAOYUCHANGHEZHONG, YIDALIYUZAIJINGLIZHENGTIXINGDEBIANGE。CHUANTONGYUFASHUDEDIWEIYEXIANDEPOWEIGANGA, YUFAGUIZEGEXINDEXUQIURIYIPOQIE。ZUIXINDEYIDALIYUFASHUXIANSHI, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEMOUXIE“CUOWU”BIAODAYIJINGBEIQUANWEISUOJIENA, RU2014NIANDEGAOZHONGYIDALIYUYUFASHUZHONGBIANCHENGRENLE“lui/lei/loro”ZUOWEIZHUYURENCHENGDAICIDEHELIXING (Beccaria, et al, 2014) 。

                              三、新标准意大利语的特征

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUFAZHANZAOQI, YUYANXUEJIADUIQITEZHENGFENXIJINTINGLIUZAIZUIWAIWEIDECIHUICENG, BINGBUSHEJIJUFAXINGTAIDENGWENTI。SUIZHEXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHUJIANFAZHAN, YUYIN、YINYUN、YUNLV、JUFAXINGTAIDENGFANGMIANDETEZHENGKAISHIBEIZHONGSHI, RU1985NIANSABATINIZONGJIECHU“PINGJUNYIDALIYU” (Sabatini, 1985: 156-171) DE35GETEZHENG, SUIHOUZAI1990NIANTAJIANGQISHANJIANWEI14GEJUFAXINGTAIFANGMIANDETEZHENG (Sabatini, 1990) 。2002NIANTAWONIJIANGXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUCHENGWEI“YUNDONGZHONGDEYIDALIYU”, GONGLIEJUCHU51GEJUFA、XINGTAIYUCIHUITEZHENG (Tavoni, 2002: 139-52) 。

                              YIDALIYURENGZAIBUDUANBIANHUAZHONG, GUOQUYUYANXUEJIAFAXIANDEXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUTEZHENGZHONG, BUSHAOYIJINGBEIGUANGFANJIESHOU, BUZAIBEISHIWEICUOWU。21SHIJIYILAI, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUFANWEINEIXINZENGLEYIXIEXINTEZHENG, TONGYANGZHIDEBEIZHONGSHI。BENWENJIEHEXINSHIQIYIDALIYUFASHENGDESHIJIBIANGE, FENSIGECENGMIANZONGJIECHUXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDETEZHENG, FENBIECONGYUYINCENG、CIHUICENG、JUFACENGJIXINGTAICENGSIGEJIAODUJINXINGCHANSHI。

                              (YI) YUYINTEZHENG

                              JINGUANYIDALIYUHENDACHENGDUSHANGBAOLIULEGUFOLUOLUNSAFANGYANDEYUYINJIXINGTAITEZHENG, DANXIANDAIYIDALIYUYUZHONGSHIJIFOLUOLUNSAYUYIJINGCHUXIANLEHENDACHABIE。20SHIJI80NIANDAIYILAI, ZHENGTONGGUIFANYUZHUJIANSANGSHIQIYINGXIANGLI, BUSHAOBIAOZHUNYUYINXIANXIANGJINTINGLIUZAIFOLUOLUNSAZHOUBIAN。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEYUYINTEZHENGYIJIANHUAWEIZHU, ZHUYAOBAOKUOKAIBIKOUYUANYINJIEXIANMOHU、QINGZHUOFUYINJIEXIANMOHU、YINSUZHONGFUXIANXIANGJIANSHAOYU“d”XIEYUNYONGFAJIANSHAOZHEISIZHONGTEZHENG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   1.KAIBIKOUYUANYINJIEXIANMOHU

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YIDALIYUYUANYINJUYOU4ZHONGKAIHEDU, YINCISHIJICUNZAI7GEYUANYIN, FENBIEWEI2GEBIKOUYIN[i]HE[u]、2GEBANBIKOUYIN[e]HE[o]、2GEBANKAIKOUYIN[?]HE[?]YIJI1GEKAIKOUYIN[a], YUANYINeYUoTONGSHICUNZAIKAIBIKOULIANGZHONGDUFA。BIAOZHUNYUGUIDINGBIXUDUIKAIBIKOUYUANYINJINXINGYANGEQUFEN, YINWEIPINFAYIYANGDEDANCIHUIYOUYUKAIBIKOUYUANYINERCHANSHENGLIANGGEYIYIWANQUANBUTONGDEDANCI, RUpèscaYUpésca, QIANZHEWEIKAIKOUYIN, ZHISHUIGUO“TAOZI”, ERHOUZHEWEIBIKOUYIN, ZHI“BUYU”。DANZAISHIJIKOUYUZHONG, CIYUFAGUIDINGJIAONANSHISHI, YIZHIKAIBIKOUYUANYINJIEXIANZHUJIANMOHU, XIANZAIRENGNENGZHENGQUEQUFENKAIBIKOUYUANYINDERENQUNJINXIANYUFOLUOLUNSARENYIJILUOMARENYIJIDUIDUYINYAOQIUJIAOWEIYANGEDETEDINGXINGYERENQUN, RUBOYINZHUCHIREN、YANYUANDENG (Perini, 2012: 76) 。PUTONGDAZHONG, BAOKUOSHOUJIAOYUCHENGDUJIAOGAODERENQUNDUICIBUZAIJIAYIMINGQUEQUFEN, CHANGHUICHUXIANZHURUJIANGperché (YINWEI) ZHONGDEBIKOUYUANYINeDUCHENGBIKOUYUANYINperchèDENGDEDUYINCUOWU。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   2.QINGZHUOFUYINJIEXIANMOHU

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YUANYINJIANFUYINDEZHUOHUAZHIWEIYULIANGGEYUANYINZHIJIANDEQINGFUYINYINGFAZHUOYIN。YUANYINJIANFUYINZHUOHUASHILUOMANYUYANYANBIANGUOCHENGDEZHONGYAOZHUANBIAN, LADINGYUZHONGDEsJIHUQUANWEIQINGYIN, ERYIDALIYUZHONGDEsZEFENHUACHENGQINGZHUOFUYINLIANGZHONG。FUYIN“s”ZAIYIDALIBIAOZHUNYUZHONGJUYOUQINGXIDEDILIFENBU, SHIQUFENBEIBUYUZHONGNANBUFANGYANDEZHONGYAOTEZHENG。YUANYINJIAN“s”DEZHUOHUAXIANXIANGZAIYIDALIBEIBUSHIFENMINGXIAN, ERZHONGNANBUZEGENGDUODIBAOLIULEYUANSHUYULADINGYUDEYUANYINJIANQINGFUYIN“s”, RUcasaZAINANBEIDIFANGDEFAYINFENBIEWEI/kaza/YU/kasa/。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DANXIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONG, YUANYINJIANQINGFUYIN“s”DEZHUOHUAXIANXIANGYICONGBEIBUDIQUKUOSANZHILEQUANYIDALI, [s]QINGYINYU[z]ZHIJIANDEJIEXIANZHUJIANMOHU。TUOSIKANAWEIYUYIDALIZHONGBU, SHINANBEIFANGYANZHONGDEDIAOHEJI。TUOSIKANAFANGYANZUICHUBINGMEIYOUMINGXIANDEYUANYINJIANFUYINZHUOHUADEXIANXIANG, DANYUYANXUEJIASELIANNI (Serianni, 1998: 66) ZHICHU, FOLUOLUNSADIQUYIJIANGDABUFENSIYIN (sibilante) ZHUOHUA, RENGFAQINGYINDEDANCIJINYOUcasa, cosa, cosìJIYI-osoWEIHOUZHUIDEDANCI。CIWAI, FUYIN“z”ZAICISHOUSHI, TONGYANGHUIZHUOHUA, RUzio。ZHEIBIAOMING, ZUICHUXIANYONGYUDIFANGYIDALIYUZHONGDETEDINGQUYUKOUYUTEZHENGYIYANBIANCHENGLEQUANGUOPUBIANCUNZAIDEYUYANXIANXIANG。

                              3.YINSUXINGTAIZHONGFUXIANXIANGJIANSHAO

                              YINSUXINGTAIZHONGFUZUICHUZHIYIDALIYUJIMOUXIEXIRIERMANYUXIDEYIZHONGTEYOUDEYUYINXIANXIANG, ZHILIANGGETESHUDEDANCIZUHEZAIYIQISHI, DIERGEDANCICISHOUDEFUYINYINGYANZHANGFAYIN, RUa ccasa, dove vvai, ho ffameDENG。YIDALIYUZAILISHIFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONG, YINSUZHONGFUXIANXIANGCONGYUYINCENGKUODADAOXINGTAICENG, XINGCHENGFUYINZHONGFU (geminata) DANCI, RUsennò, vabbèDENG。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, YINSUXINGTAIZHONGFUXIANXIANGZHUJIANJIANSHAO, RUBEIBU (KOUYUZHONG) YUSADINGDAODENGNANBUDIQUBINGMEIYOUCIXIANXIANG (Sabatini, 1985: 156) 。

                              4.“d”XIEYUNYONGFAJIANSHAO

                            星云棋牌官网下载   “d”XIEYUNZHIPINXIEHUOPINDUXIANGLINDELIANGGEYUANYINSHI, XUYONGdJIANGQIGEKAI, YIBIMIANCHUXIANYINYUNBUHEXIEDEXIANXIANG, ZHUYAOBAOKUOad (aWEIJIECISHI) 、ed (eBIAOLIANJIESHI) YUod (oBIAOLIANJIESHI) SANZHONGXIEYUN。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYU“d”XIEYUNYONGFAJIANSHAOTIXIANZAIdXIEYUNJINXIANYULIANGGEXIANGTONGYUANYINZHIJIANYU“od”XIEYUNMIANLINXIAOSHIZHEILIANGGECENGMIAN。XINYIDALIBIAOZHUNYUZHONG, CHUGUDINGDEXIGUANYONGFA, RUad esempio, ad eccezioneDENG, JINZAITONGYUANYINZHONGFUSHIYONGdLAIXIEYUN, RUad andare, e anche, ed ecco, ad ascoltareDENG。ER“od”XIEYUNYONGFAZHUJIANXIAOSHI, RUieri o oggiDENG。XIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONG, dXIEYUNYONGFADEJIANSHAOTIXIANLEYIDALIYUDEJIANHUAGUOCHENG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   (ER) CIHUITEZHENG

                              CIHUIWEIYUYUYANXITONGDEZUIWAIWEI, ZUIYIJIESHOUDAOLAIZIYUYANNEIBUYUWAIBUDEYINGXIANG。JISHIXIANGLADINGYUZHEIYANGDEGONGREN “SIYUYAN”, TONGYANGYEZAIXISHOUZHEXINDECIHUI。CIHUIWANGWANGSHIYUYANNEIZUIXIANFASHENGGAIBIANDEBUFEN, YESHIZUIRONGYIBEIFAJUEDEBUFEN。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUXISHOULEDIFANGFANGYAN、LIYU、KEJISHUYUYUWAILAIYUYAN (YINGYU、FAYUDENG) DENGXINCIHUI, ZAOCIFANGSHIYECHUXIANLEBIANHUA, MOUXIETEDINGQIANZHUIJIHOUZHUIDESHIYONGZHUJIANKUOSAN。

                              1.YINGYUHUAXIANXIANG

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CIHUIDEBIANHUATIXIANLESHEHUIWENHUADUIYUYANDEYINGXIANG, YINGYUZAIJINRONG、KEJI、YULE、LIUXINGYINLE、SHISHANG、TIYU、ZHENGZHI、MEITIWANGLUODENGLINGYUDESHENTOUXIANXIANGFANYINGLEYIDALIZAIQUANQIUHUABEIJINGXIADEGUOJIRONGHEQUSHI。SHIYONGYINGYUSHENZHIYANBIANCHENGLETIXIAN“SHANGLIU”“XIANDAI”HUO“GANSHIMAO”DEMOUZHONGFANGSHI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YIDALIYUYINGYUHUAXIANXIANGTONGCHANGYOUSANZHONGBIAOXIANXINGSHI:1) ZHIJIEXISHOUXINCIHUI, RUSport, film, jazz, iceberg, stress, virusDENG。2) GAIBIANYINGYUCIXING, RU“GESHIHUA”formattare (MINGCIBIANWEIYIDALIYUDONGCI) ;3) ANZHAOYINGYUYINSUXINGTAIZAOCHUXINDEYIDALIYUDANCI, RUBi-stecca (NIUPAI) DUIYINGYINGYUZHONGDEbeef-steakDENG。GENGWEICHANGJIANDESHIXINSHIDAIYILAIDE“e-” (DIANZI) QIANZHUI, RUe-commercio (DIANZISHANGWU) DENG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YIDALIYUYINGYUHUABUJINTIXIANZAICIHUICENGMIAN, ZAIJUFASHENZHIYUYICENGYECHANSHENGLEYINGXIANG, RUXUSHUCIJIAZUIGAOJIDEBIAOSHUFANGSHIZEWANQUANQUZIYINGYU, 20SHIJI80NIANDAIHOUCAIZAIYIDALIYUZHONGCHUXIAN, RU“la Russia è il sesto mercato più grande d’Europa.” (ELUOSISHIOUZHOUDILIUDASHICHANG) CILEIBIAOSHUBEIPUBIANJIESHOUBINGWUYUFACUOWU (Cerruti, et al, 2017: 48) 。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   2.FANGYANSHENTOU

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUCIHUICENGDEDIFANGHUAJIFANGYANHUAXIANXIANGJIAOTUCHU。YIDALIYUZUOWEIGUOJIATONGYIDEGUANFANGYUYANLISHIJIAODUAN, DIFANGFANGYANDEYINGXIANGLIRENGJIAOQIANG。JINNIANLAI, BEIFANGFANGYANZAIQUANYIDALIFANWEINEIDEKUOSANJIAOMINGXIAN, RU“DOUJIAO”, GENGQINGXIANGYUSHIYONGcornetti (BEIFANGFANGYAN) , ERFEIfagiolini (BIAOZHUNYU) DENG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   LUOMAFANGYANDEYINGXIANGYEJIAODA, RUD’AchilleCENGZHICHUQINGNIANRENKOUYUJIAOLIUZHONGPINFANSHIYONGLUOMAFANGYAN, CONGERXINGCHENGXINCIHUI, RU“piotta”ZAILUOMAFANGYANZHONGBENZHIMIANZHIWEI100LILADEHUOBI, FANZHISHUZI100, YEKEYONGYUZHIMIANZHI1OUYUANDEHUOBI, DANSUIHOU“piotta”ZHUJIANZHENGSHIHUA, YANSHENGCHUDONGCI“piottà (re) ”, ZHI“BENPAO”, CONGSHUZI100ZHONGZHUANHUACHUMEIXIAOSHI100GONGLISHISUDEGAINIAN, TIQUCHU“KUAISU”ZHEIYIXIANGZHENGYIYI (Lubello, 2016: 360) 。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   3.TEDINGQIANZHUIJIHOUZHUIYONGFADEKUOSAN

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, MOUXIETEDINGQIANZHUIYUHOUZHUISHIYONGPINLVZENGJIA, XINGCHENGYIZHONGXINDEZAOCIFANGSHI。JIAOWEICHANGJIANDE“QIANZHUI”BAOKUO:super-, mega-, maxi-, para-, inter-, euro-DENG。MOUXIEZUIGAOJIQIANZHUI, RUiperKEDANDUZUOXINGRONGCIHUOMINGCI, WUXUGOUCHENGHECHENGCI, RU“il finalone iper”ZHONGiperZUOXINGRONGCIBIAO“CHAOJI”, HUO“iper”ZUOMINGCIBIAO“CHAOJISHICHANG” (Berruto, 2013: 67) , 2014NIANMUOUYIAO (Muoio, 2014: 101) CENGTIJIBIAOZUIGAOJIQIANZHUIDIEYONGDEXIANXIANG, RU“l’iper-giga-super-maxi-megascreen” (CHAOJI-JUDA-CHAOJI-JU-DAPINGMU) YONGFAZHUJIANZENGJIADEHOUZHUISHEJIMINGCI、DONGCIYUXINGRONGCI, MINGCIHOUZHUIZHUYAOBAOKUO:-ismo, -ista, -zione, -eria, -aroDENG, DONGCIHOUZHUIBAOKUO-zzare, -eggiareDENG, XINGRONGCIHOUZHUIZHUYAOZHI-aleDENG。ERBIAO“QINGGAN”DEAICHENGSHISUOXIAOHUAXIANXIANGTONGYANGCHUXIANFANLAN, RUattimino, regalino, pensierino, momentino, pullmino, filinoDENG。

                              CIWAI, ZUIGAOJIHOUZHUI“-issimo”DEYONGFAYEDAWEIKUOSAN (YOUYIMILANDIQUJIAOWEITUCHU) 。ZAIBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, BIAOKUAZHANGHUOQIANGDIAODEZUIGAOJIHOUZHUI“-issimo”YUANBENJINYONGYUXINGRONGCI, DANZAIXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGYIJINGKUOSANZHIMINGCI, RUvado d’accordissimo, SHENZHIJINGUOQUSHITAIZHONGDEGUOQUFENCIYECHANGYONGZUIGAOJIBIAOQIANGDIAO, RU“Lo spettacolo è stato applauditissimo.” (JIEMUSHIFENSHOUHUANYING) (Lubello, 2016: 180) 。

                              (SAN) JUFATEZHENG

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEJUFATEZHENGZHUYAOZHIJUZIBIAOJIJIEGOUHUOBIAOJICISHUNXUFASHENGGAIBIANDEQINGKUANG, JUTIBAOKUOZUO—YOUYIWEIJIEGOU、XUANZHIHUATI、FENLIEJIEGOU、ciCHENGXIANXINGJIEGOUYUcheDUOZHIXIANXIANG。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, JUZICENGJIJINGLIZHONGXINGUIHUA, SHUJU (rema) HUOZHUJU (tema) DOUKEYIBEIJIAODIANHUA。JUFACENGDEGAIBIANTIXIANCHUXINJIAOLIUHUANJINGZHONGDUIXINXIGOUTONGBIANJIEXINGYUKUAISUXINGDEXUQIU。

                              1.ZUOYIWEIJIEGOU

                              ZUOYIWEIJIEGOUZHIJUFAHUATI (tema) HOUJIEYIGEWANZHENGSHUJU (rema) , SHUJUZHONGCUNZAIYIGEFUZHIGAIJUFAHUATIDEYUYANCHENGFEN, TONGCHANGWEITONGYANGYIWEIZHIZUOCEDEJIECIHUO (FEIZIFAN) FUZHUIDAICI (clitico) 。CHENGFENYIWEISHENGCHENGHUATI, JIANGQIQIANYIZHIJUZIZUOYUAN。JUZICHENGFENDESHUNXUBIANDONGBIAOJICHUJUZIDEXINXIJIEGOU, JIYUZHUYUBUTONGDEMOUCHENGFEN (TONGCHANGWEIBINYU) SHIXIANLEHUATIHUA, HUATIYUSHUJUZHONGDEMOUGEJIEGOUYOUWEIZHIXIANGGUANXING, KETONGGUOFUZHIDAICIHUOJUFAKONGQUE (DANGHUATIWEIJIANJIEBINYUHUOQITACHENGFENSHI) YUSHUJUSHIXIANJUFALIANXI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YIWEIJIEGOUZHUYAOZUOYONGWEIQIANGDIAOHUATI, YUBIAOZHUNDESVOJIEGOUXIANGBI, ZUOYIWEIJIEGOUJUYOUSANZHONG“JUJIAO”XING (Focalizzazione) 。HUATICHENGFENQIANZHI, WEIYUJUSHOU, HUATICHENGFENZAISHUJUZHONGYOUFUZHIDAICIJINXINGZHONGFU, HUATIYUSHUJUJIANTONGCHANGHUIYOUDOUHAOJINXINGGEKAI, TONGYANGJIAQIANGLEHUATIDEJIAODIANXIAOYING。ZUOYIWEIJIEGOUZHONGDEHUATICHENGFENKEWEIZHIJIEBINYU、JIANJIEBUYU、DIDIANBUYUJIQITABUYU。RUGUOBEIYIWEICHENGFENZAIYUANJUZHONGWEIZHIJIEBINYU, ZEFUZHIDAICIBIXUQIANGZHISHIYONG。RUGUOBEIYIWEICHENGFENWEIJIANJIEBINYU, ZEBUQIANGZHISHIYONGFUZHIDAICI, YINWEIBEIYIWEICHENGFENZHONGYIJINGCHUXIANLEJIECI, BIAOJICHULECHENGFENZHIJIANDEJUFALIANXI。

                              I soldi, li hai sprecati ieri? (ZHIJIEBINYU) 1

                            星云棋牌官网下载   (QIAN, NIZUOTIANHUALEMA?)

                              Di questo, che cosa (ne) pensi? (JIANJIEBUYU)

                              (ZHEIGE, NIZENMEKAN?)

                              A Pisa, ci vado spesso. (DIDIANBUYU)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   (BISA, WOCHANGQU。)

                              2.YOUYIWEIJIEGOU

                              YOUYIWEIJIEGOUYUZUOYIWEILEISI, HUATICHENGFENYIWEIZHIJUZIYOUYUANQUYU, QIJUFAGONGNENGZEYOUQIANMIANDEFUZHUIDAICIBIAOSHI。YOUYIWEIJIEGOUDEGONGNENGKEWEIJIAQIANGCHANSHISHUOMING, YANHUANJUZIDEBIAODAYUJIANGDIHANHUNDENG。YUZUOYIWEIJIEGOUXIANGFAN, YOUYIWEIJUZIDEYUYONG-XINXIJIEGOUWEI“SHUJU-HUATI” (rema-tema) 。CHUZHIJIEBINYU、JIANJIEBUYU、DIDIANBUYUDENGBUYUWAI, YOUYIWEIJIEGOUDEHUATICHENGFENHAIKEWEIZHUYU。RU:

                              ? andata via Maria.

                              (ZOULE, MALIYA)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   3.XUANZHIHUATI

                              XUANZHIHUATIYEKECHENGWEIZIYOUHUATI (tema libero) HUOJUEDUIHUATI (tema assoluto) 。YUZUO—YOUYIWEIJIEGOULEISI, XUANZHIHUATITONGYANGBIAOJICHUSHUYUJIEGOUDEBIANHUA, HUATICHENGFENHUOQIANGDIAOCHENGFENWEIYIZHIJUSHOU。XUANZHIHUATITONGCHANGWEIDULIJIEGOU, YUSHUJUZAIJUFAXINGTAICENGDELIANJIESHIFENSONGSAN, JINJUYOUYUYILIANXI, MINGCIXINGYUDUAN (SN) YUQIHOUCHENGFENZHIJIANDETINGDUNJIAOZHANG。ERZUOYIWEIJIEGOUZHONGHUATIYUSHUJUDEJUFALIANJIESHIQIANGZHIXINGDE, HUIYOUJIECIHUODAICIFUZHICHULAI, ZHEISHIXUANZHIHUATIYUYIWEIJIEGOUZUIDADEQUBIE。“XUANZHI”YICIZHENGSHIZHIGAIHUATICHENGFENWURENHEJUFAGONGNENGZHICHENG, ZHIDE“XUANZHIZAIKONGZHONG”。CIWAI, XUANZHIHUATITONGCHANGJINNENGWEIYUJUZIDEZUOYUANQUYU, ERYIWEIJIEGOUZHONGHUATICHENGFENYEKEWEIYUYOUYUAN (YOUYIWEI) 。ZUOYIWEIHUATITONGCHANGWEIYIZHIXINXI, ERXUANZHIHUATIDEZHUYAOZUOYONGWEIQIANGDIAOYIGE“YIWAIHUATI” (Vanelli, 1986: 265) 。

                              Mario, è responsabltà sua prendere i libri.

                              (MALIAO, NASHUSHITADEZEREN。)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   XUANZHIHUATIKENENGZAISHOUJIAOYUCHENGDUBUGAODEJIAOLIUZHEZHONGCHUXIAN, TAMENYOUYUZHISHIDEKUIFA, WUFAZHENGQUEZHANGWOGUIFANYUFAERCUOWUDIGUIHUAJUZIBUJU。CIWAI, SHIYONGXUANZHIHUATIYEYOUKENENGSHIDANCHUNWEILEGENGTUCHUCHENSHUDEHUATI。XIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGXUANZHIHUATIDECHUXIANYUYUYUHUOWENBENLEIXINGWUGUAN, BUJINXIANYONGYUKOUYUZHONG, SHUMIANYUZHONGYEYUELAIYUECHANGJIAN。XUJIUJIU (2010:447) ZAI《XIANDAIHANYUPIANZHANGYUYANXUE》ZHONGTIDAO, XUANZHIHUATIZAIYINGYUDENGOUZHOUZHUYAOYUYANZHONGDESHUMIANYUHUOZHENGSHIKOUYUZHONGHENSHAOCHUXIAN。DANYIDALIWENXUEJIAZAIZUOPINZHONGSHIYONGXUANZHIHUATIBINGBUSHAOJIAN, ZUOJIAHUIYOUYISHIDIPOHUAIJUFAYIZHIXING, RANGWENXUEYUYANHUODEKOUYUTILIUCHANGZIRANDETEDIAN。RUMANZUONIDE《YUEHUNFUFU》ZHONG:

                              Questo signore, Dio gli ha toccato il cuore. (《YUEHUNFUFU》DI24ZHANG) (Manzoni, 1845: 280)

                              (ZHEIWEIXIANSHENG, SHANGDICENGCHUMOQILINGHUN。)

                              XUANZHIHUATIZAIYIDALIYANYUZHONGYECHANGYOUCHUXIAN, RU:

                              Chi si fa pecora, il lupo se lo mangia.

                              (RUOROUQIANGSHI)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   4.FENLIEJIEGOU

                              FENLIEJIEGOUZHIJIANGJUZIFENLIECHENGZHUJUYUCONGJULIANGGEBUFEN, DIYIBUFENQIANGDIAOMOUGETESHUDEYUFA/JUFACHENGFEN, JI“XINXINXI”, DIERBUFENZEWEI“YIZHIXINXI”。BEIFENLIECHUQUDECHENGFENBEIYIWEIZHIJUSHOU, TONGYANGSHIXIANLEJIAODIANHUA, YOUbeDONGCIEssereYINCHU, ERDIERBUFENWEIYOULIANJIECIcheYINCHUDE“WEIGUANXICONGJU” (Pseudorelativa) 。LUOJIA (Roggia, 2009: 23) ZAI《YIDALIFENLIEJU》ZHONGZHICHU, FENLIEJUSHIXIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGBIAODAXINXIJIAODIAN (focus informativo) DEZHONGYAOFANGSHI, SHUZHEKETONGGUOFENLIEJUXIANGTINGZHECHUANDIQIRENWEIZUIZHONGYAODEXINXI。YOUYUFENLIEJUDEQIANGDIAOGONGNENG, CHANGYONGYUFOUDINGJUYUYIWENJUZHONG, YITUCHUMOUGEFOUDINGHUOXUNWENDEXINXI。

                              Era lui che e’ arrivato prima.

                              (SHITAZUIZAODAODE。)

                              Chi è che non è ancora arrivato?

                            星云棋牌官网下载   (SHISHEIHAIMEIDAO?)

                              Non è per questo che lui è andato via.

                              (TABUSHIYINWEIZHEIGEERZOUDE。)

                              5.“Che” DUOZHIXIANXIANG

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CheDUOZHIXIANXIANGZHIcheDESHIYONGFANWEIBEIDADAKUODA, JIHUCHENGDANLEKOUYUTIZHONGDABUFENGONGNENGDEGUANXIDAICI。CHUANTONGYUFAZHONG, cheJINYONGZUOJIESHILIANCIJIBIAOZHUYUHUOJIANJIEBINYUDEGUANXICI, DANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGcheHAIKEZUOSHIJIAN、MUDE、JIEGUOYUYUANYINDENGLIANCI。CheDUOZHIXIANXIANGBINGFEICHUANGXIN, XIANDANGDAIYIDALIYU (FEIZHENGSHICHANGHESHI) ZUIJIEJIN16SHIJIWENXUEYUYANDEDAIBIAO。cheDUOZHITIXIANLEYIDALIYUZHONGXINQUELIBIAOZHUNDEGUOCHENG, SHIXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEZHONGYAOZHIBIAO。YONGcheLAILIANJIEZHUJUYUCONGJU, SHIYABIAOZHUN (substandard) YIDALIYUJIDICENGYIDALIYUZUIDIANXINGTEZHENGZHIYI。CHUYUJINGJIHESHENGLIDEKAOLV, cheDUOZHIZAIXIANDAIYIDALIYUKOUYUTIZHONGSHIFENCHANGJIAN, CheDUOZHIXIANXIANGZHUYAOTIXIANZAIcheZUOSHIJIANLIANCI、GUANXIDAICI、YUANYIN、MUDEYUJIEGUOLIANCIZHONG。

                              1) CheDAITIin cui, nel momento in cuiZUOSHIJIANLIANCI, JUYOULEXINDE“SHIJIANJIAZHI”。CheDESHIJIANJIAZHISHIZUIDIANXINGDEYIDALIYUFAYONGFA, YESHIZUINENGBEIRONGRENDEYUFAXIANXIANG (D’Achille, 1990: 220, 238) 。

                              ? un ora che ti aspetto.

                              (WODENGLENIYIGEXIAOSHILE)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   2) CheQUDAIGUANXIDAICIcui, il quale, ZAIGUANXICONGJUZHONGZUOLIANCI。BIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, cheJINNENGZHIDAIZHUYUYUZHIJIEBINYUXIANXINGCI, JIANJIEBINYUXIANXINGCIBIXUYONGJIECIJIAcuiHUOil quale。DANXIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONG, cheKEDAITIERZHE, RU:

                            星云棋牌官网下载   La ragazza che ho parlato era Maria.

                              (GENWOSHUOGUOHUADENVHAISHIMALIYA。)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   3) CheZAIYUANYIN、MUDE、JIEGUOCONGJUZHONGZUOLIANCI,

                            星云棋牌官网下载   Vieni, che te lo spiego. (JIEGUO)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   (NILAI, WOGENNIJIESHI。)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   Mangia, che ti fa bene. (MUDE)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   (CHIBA, DUISHENTIHAO。)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   Vai a letto che è tardi (YUANYIN)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   (QUSHUIBA, HENWANLE。)

                              6.Ci CHENGXIANXINGJIEGOU

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YIDALIYUCiDEDUOZHONGGONGNENGSHIYIDALIYUYANXUEJIADEZHONGDIANYANJIUDUIXIANG, LISHIFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGLEZHONGDUOBUTONGDELILUNJIESHI, PUBIANRENTONGDESHIciJUYOUCUNZAIXING (esistenziale) YUCHENGXIANXING (presentativo) ZHEILIANGZHONGGOUSHI (D’Achille, 2001; Berruto, 1986) 。QIZHONGciCHENGXIANXINGJIEGOUTONGCHANGYOUYIGEXUCI (espletivo) HUOYIGEXUZHUYU (soggetto nullo) 、CUNZAIDONGCIessereYUDONGHOUYU (postverbale) LUOJIZHUYUSANGEBUFENGOUCHENG。CiCHENGXIANXINGJIEGOUYOUc’è (DANSHUXINGSHI) HUOci sono (FUSHUXINGSHI) YINCHU, BIAOCUNZAIHUOWEIYU (esistere/trovarsi) DEHANYI。CiCHENGXIANJUSHIYIZHONGGENGWEIBIANJIEJINGJIDEJIAOLIUFANGSHI, JUZICENGJIBUJUJIANDAN, QIEJIAODIANMINGQUE。BEILUTUO (Berruto, 1987: 67) ZHICHUCiCHENGXIANJUZHIJIANGYIGEDUOSHUJUJIEGOU (polirema) FENCHENGLIANGGEDANSHUJU (monorema) JIEGOU, TONGCHANGXUQIANGDIAODIYIGEDANSHUJUZHONGDEXINXI。CiCHENGXIANXINGJIEGOUJIANGXINXIDASAN, FENGECHENGDUOGEXINXIDANYUAN, KEGENGHAODIQIANGDIAOXINXINXI。DANCONGYUYONGJIAODULAIKAN, YIDALIYUCiGOUSHIDEDONGCIHOUMINGCIXINGDUANYU (postverbal NP) ZHINENGCHUANDIDUIHUAYULAISHUOXINDEXINXI, ERDUIQIANZAITINGZHE/DUZHELAISHUOSHIFOUSHIXINXINXIWUGUANJINYAO。

                              C’è il cane che sta abbaiando.

                              (YOUZHIZHENGZAIFEIDEGOU。)

                              (SI) XINGTAITEZHENG

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEXINGTAITEZHENGBAOKUODONGCIDESHITAIYUYUTAIZHONGGOU、DAICIXITONGZHONGGOU、XIAOPINCIciDEDONGCIHUAYUCIHUIHUAQUSHI、LIANJIECIDEGAIBIANDENG。YIDALIYUZAIXINGTAICENGDEBIANHUATIXIANCHUYUYANDELIANGJIQUSHI, JIJIANHUA (semplificazione) YURONGYUHUA (pleonasmo) 。WEILESHIYINGBUDUANGAIBIANDEJIAOLIUXUYAO, YIZHONGYUYANHUICHAOZHEZHEILIANGGEWANQUANMAODUNDEXIANGFANFANGXIANGFAZHAN。SHITAIYUYUTAIDEZHONGGOUTIGONGLEYIGEJIBENDEJIANHUAKUANGJIA, XIANDAIYIDALIYUGENGQINGXIANGYUSHIYONGGENGJIANDANZHIJIEDEYUTAIHUOSHITAI (RUZHICHENSHI、XIANZAISHI、ZHUDONGSHIDENG) 。ERciDEDONGCIHUAYUCIHUIHUA、DONGCIDAICIHUA (ZENGJIAZIFANXINGSHI) 、LIANCIXITONGBIANHUADENGFANYINGLEYIDALIYUDERONGYUQUSHI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   1.DONGCISHITAITIXIZHONGGOU

                            星云棋牌官网下载   1) JINGUOQUSHIQUDAIYUANGUOQUSHI

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, JINGUOQUSHI (passato prossimo) ZAIQUANYIDALIFANWEINEIJUNGUANGFANSHIYONG, ZAIYIDALIBEIBUDIQUJIHUWANQUANQUDAIYUANGUOQUSHI (passato remoto) 。YIDALIZHONGNANBUDIQUYUANGUOQUSHIDESHIYONGPINLVYUANBENYUANYUANGAOYUJINGUOQUSHI, DANRUJINYEYUJIAQINGXIANGYUZAIJIANGSHUYIGEJIUYUANSHIQINGSHI, XUANZEYONGJIAOJINDESHITAI。JINGUOQUSHIZAIFEIZHENGSHIKOUYUZHONGSHENZHINENGDAITIXIANJIANGLAISHI (anteriore futuro) , RUAppena l’hai fatto, esco io. (NIWANCHENGZHIHOU, WOJIUCHUMEN) 。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   2) WEIWANCHENGSHIYONGFAFANLAN

                            星云棋牌官网下载   XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, WEIWANCHENGSHITAI (imperfetto) DEGONGNENGZENGJIA。BIAOZHUNYUZHONGWEIWANCHENGSHIZHIGUOQUDEYIGECHIXUXINGDONGZUO, YEKEYUJINGUOQUSHIHUOYUANGUOQUSHIHEYONGZAIFUHEJUZHONG, BIAODALINGYIGEDONGZUOFASHENGDEBEIJING。DANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, WEIWANCHENGSHITAIJUYOUDUOZHONGGONGNENG, JUYOU“FANSHISHIXING” (controfattuali) YUBUQUEDINGXING, KEYONGYUJIASHEJUZHONG, TIDAICONGJUZHONGDEXUNISHIHUOZHUJUZHONGDETIAOJIANSHI, BIAOBUKENENGFASHENGDESHIQING, YEKEZAI“MENGYAN”“YOUXI”DENGCHANGJINGZHONGBIAOBUQUEDING (Lori, 2005: 86) , KEDAITIWEILAISHIBIAOJIANGLAIFASHENG, BIAODALIMAOKOUWENDENG。

                              3) ZHICHENSHIQUDAIXUNISHI

                              XUNISHI (Congiuntivo) RANGWEIYUZHICHENSHI (Indicativo) DEXIANXIANGZHUYAOSHEJIKOUYUTIJIBUFENSHUMIANYUTI (ZHUYAOWEIMEITIYUYAN) , ZAISIWEIDONGCICONGJU、TIAOJIANCONGJU、JIANJIEYIWENJUYUXIANZHIGUANXICONGJUZHEISIZHONGCONGJUBIAOXIANZUIWEIMINGXIAN。RU:

                              Credo che loro devono venire.

                              (WORENWEITAMENHUILAI)

                              Se vieni/verrai, mi fai/farai piacere.

                              (RUGUONINENGLAI, WOJIANGHUIHENGAOXING。)

                              Non so come hanno fatto.

                            星云棋牌官网下载   (WOBUZHIDAOTAMENSHIRUHEZUODAODE。)

                              Cerco una ragazza che parla il cinese.

                              (WOZAIZHAOYIGEHUISHUOZHONGWENDENVHAI。)

                            星云棋牌官网下载   4) XIANZAISHIBIAOWEILAI

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGXINZENGLEDUOZHONGBIAODAWEILAIDEFANGSHI, RUKEYONGXIANZAISHIJIASHIJIANFUCI (RUpoi, domaniDENG) , RU“Domani vado al mare. (MINGTIANWOQUHAIBIAN) ”;“Stare per”HOUJIEDONGCIYUANXING, BIAO“ZHENGYAOZUOMOUSHI”, RU“Sto per uscire. (WOZHENGYAOCHUMEN。) ”;“Andare/stare/venire”DENGDONGCIHOUJIEJIECIaYUDONGCIYUANXINGBIAOJIANGYAOFASHENGDEDONGZUO, RU“Vado a comprare un libro. (WOQUMAIBENSHU。) ”

                              5) Stare+FUDONGCIDEYONGFAFANLAN

                            星云棋牌官网下载   XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, StareYUFUDONGCIHEYONGSHOUDAOLEYINGYUYINGXIANG, BIAOJIANJINXINGDEYONGFAZHUJIANZENGJIA。DONGCI“Stare (ZAI) ”YUFUDONGCI (gerundio) HEYONGJUYOULIANGZHONGGONGNENG, JIKEBIAOSHICHIXUXINGDONGZUO (durativi) , YEKEBIAODAJIANJINXINGDONGZUO (progressivi) 。BIAOCHIXUXINGSHI, JIKEZHIXIGUANDONGZUO, YEKEZHIYICIXINGSHIJIANZAIMOUGEJIAOZHANGSHIJIANFANWEINEIDECHIXUFASHENG, RU“Su questo progetto sto lavorando per tre anni (ZHEIGEXIANGMUWOYIJINGZUOLESANNIAN) ”。BIAOJIANJINXINGSHI, ZHIDONGCIZHUANGTAIDEGAIBIAN, RU“Sto andando (WOZHENGZAIQU) ”。CHUJIANJINXINGYONGFAZENGJIAWAI, XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG“-ando”DESHIYONGFANWEIZHUJIANKUODA, BUJINKEYONGYUSHANGWEIDONGCIHUADEMINGCI, RU“pizza-pizzando (ZHENGZAICHIBISA) ”, WEIYUJUSHOUBIAOSHI“JIESHU”, RU“concludendo”DENG, YEKEYONGZAIBEIDONGJUZHONGBIAOZHUDONGYI, RU“Era stato convocato dichiarando la sua estraneità ai fatti. (TABEICHUANZHAO, SHENGCHENGCISHIYUZIJIWUGUAN。) ” (Lubello, 2016: 181)

                              2.DAICITIXIZHONGGOU

                              1) Lui/lei/loroQUDAIegli/ella/essiZUOZHUGERENCHENGDAICI

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGDAICIXITONGDEZHONGYAOBIANHUAWEIDISANRENCHENGZHONGDUZHUGEDAICIZHUJIANBEIFEIZHONGDUBUGE/BINGEDAICIDAITI。20SHIJI20~90NIANDAIDEBIAOZHUNYUFAGUIDINGDISANRENCHENGZHUGEDAICIWEIEgli (DANSHUYANGXING) 、ella (DANSHUYINXING) 、esso (DANSHUYANGXING) 、essi (FUSHUYANGXING) , ERLui, lei, loroZEWEIBUGEDAICI (complemento) HUOBINGEDAICI, YINCI“Lei parla (TASHUO) ”BEIRENWEISHICUOWUDEXINGSHI。DANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, ZHONGDUZHUGEDAICIegli/ella/essi/esso, BEIRENWEISHIGUOSHIDELAOGUDONG, JINXIANYUJIQIZHENGSHIDEWENJIANHUOQITASHUMIANYUZHONG。luiJIKEZHIREN, YEKEZHIDONGWU, ERCIQIANZHIWUDEDAICIessoJIHUBUZAISHIYONG, WANQUANBEIquelloDAITI。Lui, lei, loroZAOYICHENGWEIYIDALIYUBUTONGCENGMIANBIANTIDEZHUGEDAICITONGYONGGUIFAN,

                            星云棋牌官网下载   2) GliQUDAIle/loroZUOJIANJIEBINYURENCHENGDAICI

                            星云棋牌官网下载   XIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGYIZHUJIANSHIYONGgli (DONGCIQIAN) LAITIDAIloro (DONGCIHOU) ZUOYUGERENCHENGDAICI, RU“Gli ho detto= ho detto (a) loro. (WOGAOSULETAMEN) ”。GliSHIloroDEFEIZHONGDUXINGSHI, ZUOYUGERENCHENGDAICISHI, BUCUNZAIDANFUSHUHUOYINYANGXINGDEBIANHUA, KEYIBIAOSHIloro, a loro, a essi, a esse。GliQUDAIloroDEYONGFAZAIKOUYUZHONG, YOUQISHIJIATINGKOUYUZHONGSHIFENCHANGJIAN。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI, JINGUANYUGEgliDAITIa loroYICHENGWEIGONGSHI, DANgliQUDAIYINXINGDANSHUYUGEleDEYONGFARENGBEISHIWEIYANZHONGCUOWU。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   3) TeQUDAItuZUOZHUGERENCHENGDAICI

                            星云棋牌官网下载   XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGDIERRENCHENGDANSHUBINGE (te) DEYONGFAZHUJIANKUOZHAN, DAITIZHUGERENCHENGDAICI (Tu) CHUXIANZAIZHUYUWEIZHI, QIZHONGYOUYI“Io e te (WOHENI) ”ZUIWEICHANGJIAN。DIYIRENCHENGDANSHUYUDIERRENCHENGDANSHURENCHENGDAICIBINGLIESHI, QIZHENGQUEDEXINGSHIYINGWEI“tu ed io”HUO“Io e tu”, DANYIDALIZHONGBEIBUJISADINGDAOFANGYANZHONG, YONGBINGEteQUDAIZHUGEtuDEXIANXIANGSHIFENCHANGJIAN, YIZHI“Io e tu”CHANGBEI“Io e te”DAITI。ZUICHU“Io e te”BINGBUBEIYUYANXUEJIAJIESHOU, SHENZHIBEIBIANWEIYIZHONGNANYIRENSHOUDETUOSIKANASHIYONGFA。DANCONG20SHIJI90NIANDAIHOU, DABUFENBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUYUFASHUKAISHICHENGREN“Io e te”DEHEFADIWEI。YUYANXUEJIAWALE (Valle) (2011: 99) ZAI《YUFAWANSUI》YISHUZHONG, GENGSHIJIANGIo e teLIEWEIQIANGZHISHIYONGBINGEDEQINGKUANG。SHIJIKOUYUZHONG, TeZUOZHUYUDAICIDEQINGKUANGBUJINJUXIANYUCIYONGFA, DANDUYONGZUOZHUYUDEQINGKUANGYEJIAOCHANGJIAN, RU“Vieni anche te. (NIYELAI) ”。

                              4) ZHISHIDAICIDEJIANHUA

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YIDALIYUZHONGZUICHANGJIANDEZHISHIDAICIZHONGWEISANZHONG:questo/codesto/quello, BIAO“ZHEIGE”HUO“NEIGE”。SANZHEDEQUBIEZAIYUquestoBIAOSHIYUSHUOZHEGENGJIEJIN, codestoBIAOSHIYUTINGZHEGENGJIEJIN, ERquelloBIAOSHIYUSHUOZHEJITINGZHEJUNJIAOYUAN。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGZHISHIDAICIcodestoDEYONGFAZHUJIANJIANSHAO, JINXIANYUTUOSIKANADAQU, ZAIYIDALIQITADIQUZEGUANGFANBEIquelloDAITI。YUcodestoLEISIDEFUCIcosti, costàYEJIANJIANXIAOSHI, ERZHONGXINGDAICIciòZHENGZAIBEIquestoYUquelloQUDAI。

                              5) ZIFANDAICIZENGJIA

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGYIXIEBENBUCUNZAIZIFANYONGFADEJIWUDONGCICHUXIANLE“QINGGANZIFANDAICI”JIEGOU, RU“Mi guardo un film (WOKANCHANGDIANYING) ”, HUO“Mi bevo un tè (WOHEBEICHA) ”。YUBIAOZHUNYUZHONGZHENGQUEDEZIFANDONGCIBUTONG, CILEIZIFANDAICITONGCHANGWEIJIANJIEBINYU。CISHIDEFEIZHONGDURENCHENGDAICIWANQUANSHIRONGYU, QICUNZAIDEYIYIJINWEIQIANGDIAOZHUYUSHIDONGCIDEJUEDUICANYUZHE, ERFEIZHIDAIDONGCILUNYUAN。JIWUDONGCIZIFANXINGSHIDAIYOUQIANGLIEDEQINGGAN, YEKEYIQIANGDIAODONGZUOXINGWEIBENSHEN, YINCIYECHANGBEICHENGWEI“QINGGANDAICIJIEGOU”。DONGCIDAICIHUAXINGSHIJIAQIANGLEZHUYUDUIZHENGGESHIJIANHUODONGZUOCANYUCHENGDU。

                              3.Ci DEGAOPINSHIYONG

                              XIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGXIAOPINCI“ci”CHUXIANLEDONGCIHUAYUCIHUIHUADEQUSHI。CiZAIBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGKEZUODIDIANFUCI, ZHI“ZHEILI/NEILI”, RU“Ci vado spesso (WOCHANGQUNEI) ”。DANXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONG, ciHAIKEYONGYUQIANGDIAOQIHOUDONGCIDEYUYIJIYUYINGONGNENG。RENCHENGFUZHECIciKEZUOWEIBIAOBUYU, JUYOUXIANGDONGCIKUOSANDEQUSHI, CHANGZUOYUGESHIYONG, RU“pensarci (KAOLV) ”、“tenerci (ZHONGSHI) ”DENG。CIWAI, XIAOPINCIciJUYOUCIHUIHUAQUSHI, ZUICHANGJIANDEBIAODAWEIciYUZHUDONGCIavereHEYONG, RU“ci ho fame. (WOELE) ”

                              4.LIANCIDEBIANHUA

                              XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZHONGBUSHAOLIANCIDEYONGFAJUNFASHENGLEGAIBIAN。RUSHIJIANLIANCI“Mentre”YONGFAKUODA, mentreZUICHUJINZHI“TONGSHI”, DANZAIXIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGYEKEBIAOZHUANZHE。LIANCImentreCHANGYUFUCIinveceLIANYONG, JINGUANERZHEZAIYUFACENGMIANBINGBUYIZHI, DANinveceKEZENGJIAmentreDEZHUANZHEYUYIJIAZHI;YIWENDAICI“che cosa (SHENME) ”BEIJIANHUACHENGBEIFANGFANGYANZHONGDEcosaHUOSHINANFANGFANGYANZHONGDEche;CIWAI, “Per cui”KEZUOYINGUOLIANJIECI, “anche”KEZUORANGBULIANCIDENG。

                              四、结语

                              20SHIJI80NIANDAIYILAI, YIDALIYUJINGLILEJUDABIANGE, DAZHONGYUTI、JIATINGJIAOLIUYUYAN、DIFANGYUTIZHONGJUNCHUXIANLEYIXILIEXINTEZHENG。ER21SHIJIYILAI, SHUMIANYUTIYEKAISHIXINACIQIANBEIRENWEISHIYA-BIAOZHUNYUHUOJINNENGCHUXIANZAIKOUYUZHONGDEYUYANTEZHENG, YIZHONGZAIQUANYIDALIFANWEINEIDEXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUYANZHENGZAIZHUJIANXINGCHENG。XINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUZUNXUNZIXIAERSHANGDENIXIANGFAZHANDAOLU, TIXIANLEYUYANBENSHENDESHENGMINGLIYULINGHUOXING。BENWENZONGJIELEXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUDEXINTEZHENG, CONGYUYIN、CIHUI、JUFAYUXINGTAIZHEISIGECENGJIDUIXIANDAIYIDALIYUDEBIANHUAJINXINGLESHENRUJIEDU, JUFAXINGTAICENGSHIYIDALIYUBIANGEDEZHONGYAOLINGYU, BIAOJIXITONGDEGAIBIANDAOZHILEZUOYOUYIWEI、XUANZHIHUATI、FENLIEJIEGOUYUciCHENGXIANJUDENGXIANXIANGDEKUOZHANG。CIWAI, DONGCIDESHITAIYUTAIXITONGJIDAICIXITONGJINGLILEZHONGZU, CHUXIANLEJIANHUAQUSHI。YANJIUXINBIAOZHUNYIDALIYUCHANSHENGYUANYINYUJUTITEZHENGDUIBAWOYIDALIYUZUIXINFAZHANDONGTAIJIKAIZHANGUONEIYIDALIYUJIAOXUEGONGZUOJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。

                              CANKAOWENXIAN

                            星云棋牌官网下载   []XUJIUJIU.2010.XIANDAIHANYUPIANZHANGYUYANXUE[M].BEIJING:SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN.

                              ASOR R.1994.Storia della Lingua Itaiana:Scritto e Parlato. (Vol.Ⅱ) [M].Torino:Einaudi.

                              BECCARIA G L.1985.Italiano, Lingua Selvaggia [J].Sipra (18) :5-16.

                              BECCARIA G L, PREGLIASCO M.2014.Competenze linguistiche [M].Milano:Le Monnier scuola.

                              BERRUTO G.1986.Un Tratto Sintattico dell’Italiano Parlato:Il C’è Presentativo [C]//KLAUS L, EDITH M, KNALLER S (eds.) .Parallela 2:Aspetti della Sintassi dell’Italiano Contemporaneo.Tübingen:Narr:61-73.

                              BERRUTO G.1987.Sociolinguistica dell’italiano Contemporaneo [M].Roma:Carocci.

                            星云棋牌官网下载   BERRUTO G.2013.Ma Che Lingua Fa?Alcune Riflessioni Sullo Standard e Sul Neo-Standard [C]//BOMBI R (ed.) .Manuale Di Comunicazione Istituzionale e Internazionale, Roma:Il Calamo:45-67.

                              CERRUTI M, CROCCO C, MARZO S.2017.Towards a New Standard:Theoretical and Empirical Studies on the Restandardization of Italian [M].Berlin:Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.

                              CHALUPINSKI B.2015.L’italiano Neostandard:un’analisi Linguistica Attraverso la Stampa Sportiva [M].Firenze:Franco Cesati Editore.

                              D’ACHILLE P.1990.Sintassi del Parlato e Tradizione Scritta della Lingua Italiana [M].Roma:Bonacci.

                              D’ACHILLE P.2001.Breve Grammatica Storica dell’Italiano [M].Roma:Carocci.

                            星云棋牌官网下载   LORI B.2005.L’italiano e le Altre Lingue:Apprendimento della Seconda Lingua e Bilinguismo dei Bambini e dei Ragazzi Immigrati [M].Milano:Francesco Angeli.

                              LUBELLO S.2016.Manuale di Linguistica Italiana [M].Berlin:Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.

                              MANZONI A.1845.I Promessi Sposi:Storia Milanese del Secolo XVII [M].Milano:Redaelli.

                            星云棋牌官网下载   MIONI A.1983.Italiano Tendenziale:Osservazioni su Alcuni Aspetti della Standardizzazione [C]//BENINC? P (ed.) .Scritti Linguistici in Onore di Giovan Battista Pellegrini Volume I.Pisa:Pacini:495-517.

                              MUOIO C.2014.Tendenze Dell’Italiano Neo-Standard nel Linguaggio Giornalistico [M].Torino:Università Degli Studi MA Thesis.

                              PERINI E.2012.Scrivere Bene (o Quasi) [M].Firenze:Giunti editore.

                              ROGGIA C E.2009.Le Frasi Scisse in Italiano:Struttura Informativa e Funzioni Discorsive [M].Geneve:Editions Slatkine.

                              SABATINI F.1985.L’Italiano dell’uso Medio:una Realtà tra le Varietà Linguistiche Italiane [C]//HOLTU G, RADTKE E (eds.) .Gesprochenes Italienisch In Geschichte und Gegenwart.Tübingen:Gunter Narr Verlag:154-184.

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                              彭倩.新标准意大利语的成因及特征探析[J].广东外语外贸大学学报,2019,30(03):34-44.
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