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                从词源学角度认识意大利语词汇

                时间:2014-06-27 来源:未知 作者:学术堂 本文字数:4384字
                摘要

                  0. YINYAN

                  2011 NIANSHIYIDALIGUOJIATONGYI 150 ZHOUNIAN。ZUOWEIYIGEKEYIHEZHONGGUOXIANGTIBINGLUNDEYOUYOUGUGUO,YIDALIZAILISHISHANGJINGLILEDUIWAIKUOZHANG、WAIDIRUQIN、SIFENWULIEZHIZHIZUIZHONGTONGYIDEGEGEJIEDUAN,JIYOUGULUOMABUKEYISHIDEHUIHUANGGUOQU,YEYOU 1861NIANGUOJIATONGYIQIANGEGEXIAOGUOZHIJIANDEFENZHENG。ERZHEIGEGUOJIADEYUYAN---YIDALIYU ---YEJINGLIZHEBIANQIAN,CONGGUDIANLADINGYUDAOTONGSULADINGYU,ZAIDAOYIFOLUOLUNSAFANGYANWEIJICHUDEXIANDAIYIDALIYU,KEYISHUOJINTIANYIDALIRENYONGYUKOUTOUHESHUMIANJIAOLIUDE、WOMENZUOWEIYIMENWAIYULAIXUEXIDEYIDALIYUBINGMEIYOUFEICHANGYOUJIUDELISHI。BUGUO,SUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYI,YIDALIYUZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGYIRANBAOLIUZHEZUICHUDEYIXIECIHUIHEYUFAXINGTAI,XIANDAISUOYINSHENCHUDEGEZHONGCIHUIYIRANKEYICONGGULAODEYUYANZHONGZHAODAOQIZONGJI;YUCITONGSHI,OUZHOUGEYUYANJIANDEHUNHEHEJIEYONG,YOUSHIDEYIDALIYUYUQITAOUZHOUYUYAN---LIRUXIANZAISHIYONGLVGENGGAODEYINGYU---FASHENGLEQIANSIWANLVDELIANXI。YINCI,CONGCIYUANXUEDEJIAODUCHUFA,LAIGENGHAODEJIESHIYIDALIYUCIHUI,SHIXUESHENGNENGGOUGENGKUAI、GENGXINGXIANGDIXUEXICIHUI,SHIYIDALIYUJIAOXUEZHONGYIGEKEYICHANGSHIDEFANGXIANG。

                星云棋牌官网下载   1. YIDALIYUDEQIYUANJIFAZHAN

                星云棋牌官网下载   GONGYUANQIAN 5 SHIJIDEOUZHOU,YINWEIDIYUJIZUQUNDEYINGXIANG,RENMENSHUOZHEGEZHONGGEYANGDEYUYAN,ZAIDANGJINYIDALIDEZHEIPIANDILIQUYUNEI,JIUCUNZAIZHEJINSHIZHONGYUYAN。ERZAIJINTIANDEYIDALISHOUDOULUOMADEZHOUWEI,DANGSHIDERENMENZAISHUOZHEYIZHONGJIAOZUOLADINGYUDEYUYAN。ZHEIYUANBENBUBEITAIDUORENSUOSHUZHIDEYUYAN,QUEYINWEIGULUOMADIGUODEKUAISUKUOZHANGERXIANGOUZHOUGEDICHUANBO。DAOLEGONGYUAN 5 SHIJI,ZAICHULEBEIOUYIWAIDEDABUFENOUZHOUDIQU,LADINGYUCHENGWEILEGONGTONGDESHUMIANYUYANYIJIJIAOHUI、GUIZU、WENRENSUOJIAOLIUDEYUYAN。

                星云棋牌官网下载   BUGUO,SUIZHEXILUOMADIGUODEMIEWANG,SUIRANDIGUOGESHENGDEGEZHONGGONGWEN、JIAOHUIWENJIAN、WENRENZUOPINRENGCAIYONGLADINGYULAISHUXIE,DANMINZHONGZHIJIANYONGYUJIAOTANDEKOUYUYIJINGZHUJIANDIDIFANGHUA、TONGSUHUA。ZHEIZHONGKOUTOUYUYANZAIYIDALIBEICHENGWEI“SUYU”( volgare) ,TAZAIBUTONGDEDIQUXINGCHENGLEGEZHONGFANGYAN。( Igliorini,2004) DAOLE 13SHIJI,ZHUJIANYOUWENRENBINGQILADINGYU,KAISHIYONGGEDIFANGYANSUYUJINXINGWENXUECHUANGZUO,ZHEIQIZHONGZUIYOUYINGXIANGLIDEDANGSHUDANDING( Dante) 、BIDELAKE( Petrarca) HEBOJIAQIU( Boccaccio) ZHEISANWEIWENYIFUXINGSHIQIDEDASHI。( Ostler,2009) ZHENGSHITAMENDEWENXUEJUZHU,SHIDEFOLUOLUNSAFANGYANCHENGWEILEXIANDAIYIDALIYUDECHUXING。

                星云棋牌官网下载   ERSUIZHE 15 SHIJIYINSHUAYEDEFAZHANHELIUXING,ZHEIYITONGSUYUDEDAOLEJIDADECHUANBO,BINGQIEWENZIDESHUXIEYEDEDAOLETONGYI。QIHOUYIDUANSHIJIAN,SUIRANYIDALIYUSUYUZHUJIANQUDAILELADINGYUZAISHUMIANYUZHONGDEDIWEI,DANSHIRENMENSHENGHUOZHONGDEFANGYANKOUYUHESHUMIANYIDALIYURENGRANCUNZAIZHEJIDADETUOJIE,ZHIZHI 19 SHIJIXIABANYE,ZAIZHUMINGZUOJIAMANZUONI( Manzoni) DENULIXIA,MINZHONGCAIJIANJIANZAIFANGYANZHIWAI,ZHANGWOLEBIAOZHUNDEYIDALIKOUYU。JINTIAN,YIDALIYUYIJINGBIANCHENGQUANMINZURICHANGSHENGHUODEGONGTONGYUYAN,KOUYUHESHUMIANYUZHONGYUJIAOHAODIDEDAOLETONGYI。( ZHAOXIUYING,2001)2. CONGLADINGYUDAOYIDALIYU: XUNZHAOCIHUIDEGENYUAN。

                星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIOUZHOUYUYANDEFAZHANSHIZHONG,LADINGYUZHANJULESHIFENZHONGYAODEWEIZHI。ZAIXIBOLAIYU、FAYU、YIDALIYU、DEYUDENGDIFANGYUYANSHIDEYANJIUZHONG,JINGCHANGHUISHIYONG“CIYUAN”YICI,ZHEISHIYINWEIOUZHOUDUOGUOYUYANDOUSHIZAITONGYICIYUANDEJICHUSHANGZHUJIANYANBIANHEFAZHANGUOLAIDE。JIUYIDALIYULAISHUOYESHIRUCI。FOLUOLUNSADEPIYEERFULANGQIESIKE·ZHANBULALI( Pierfrancesco Giambullari)BAYIDALIYUCHENGZUO“BUTONGYUYANDEHUNHEWU”,QIZHONGBAOKUOYITELULIYAYU、XILAYU、LADINGYU、DEYUHEFAYU。( Burke,2007) ZAIZHEIXIEYUYANZHIZHONG,DUIXIANDAIYIDALIYUYINGXIANGZUIDADEDANGSHULADINGYU。LADINGYUZAIOUZHOUBEICHENGWEIGONGTONGTIYUYAN,SUIRANTAZAIZUIWAN 9 SHIJIYIJINGBUSHIRENHEMINZUDEMUYULE,DANSHITADEYINGXIANGLIBIANBULEZHENGGEOUZHOU,SHENZHISHIQUANSHIJIEDEJIAOHUIFANWEI。

                  LADINGYUBEIYUWEIFAYU、XIBANYAYUHEYIDALIYUDEMUQIN,ERZHEIQIZHONGZUIZHIJIEDEJICHENGRENDANGSHUYIDALIYU。MUQIAN,ZAIYIDALIDEGEGEZHONGXUELI,LADINGYUHEXILAYUSHIXUESHENGBIXIUDEKEMU。

                星云棋牌官网下载   DANGRAN,YANJIULADINGYUYUYIDALIYUZHIJIANDEGUANXIJIYINGXIANGSHIYIGEHENSHENRUDEKETI,BENWENZAICIBINGBUXIANGZHANKAIGUODUODETAOLUN。DANSHI,ZAIYIDALIYUDEJIAOXUEZHONG,TEBIESHIDUIYUCIHUIBUFENDEJIAOXUE,BUFANGCHANGSHICONGCIYUANXUEDEJIAODUQIERU,ZHAOCHUCIHUIDELADINGYUHUOXILAYUDECIGEN,LEJIETAMENDELAIYUANYIJITAMENDEYUANSHIYIYI,KEYISHIXUESHENGGENGJIASHENRUDILEJIEZHEIGECIHUI,BINGQIEKEYIZAICICIGENSHANGKUOZHANCHUDUOGEXIANGSIDECIHUI,JINXINGTONGSHIJIYI。

                  XIAMIANWOMENLAIKANYIXIELIZI:

                星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIYIDALIYUZHONG,“JIA,FANGZI”ZHEIGECISHI“casa”,TALAIYUANYULADINGYUCI“cas”.ZAICIXINGSHANG,BINGMEIYOUFASHENGFEICHANGDADEBIANHUA; BUGUOZAIYISISHANG,LADINGYUDE“cas”YUANXIANBINGBUSHIZHIJIALIZHUDEFANGZI,ERSHIYIXIELINSHIDEBISUO,ERZAIXIANDAIYIDALIYUZHONGDE“casupola”ZHEIGEDANCISHI“XIAOMAOWU”DEYISI,QIAQIASHIYUANZILADINGYUDECIGEN。ZAILADINGYUZHONG,BIAOSHI“JIA”DEDANCISHI“doms”,ZHEIYEFEICHANGHAODEJIESHILEWEISHENMEYIDALIYUZHONGDEYIXIE“dom”KAITOUDECIHUIDOUHANYOU“JIA,JIATINGDE”DEYISI,LIRUdomestico( JIATINGDE,JIAPU) 、domicilio( ZHUZHAI,HUJI) ,SHENZHIYIDALIYUZHONG duomo( DAJIAOTANG) YICI,YESHIYUANZIZHEIGECIGEN,ZHIDESHI“doms dei vescovi( ZHUJIAOJUZHUDI) ”.ZAIBIRU,“telefono”ZHEIGECIDEYISISHI“DIANHUA”,CIDEQIANYIBAN“tele”ZAIXILAYUZHONGDEYISISHI“YUANDE”,YINCIZHEIGECIDEZIMIANYISIKEYILIJIEWEI“SHENGYINDEYUANJULIDECHUANBO”,YEJIUSHIDIANHUADEZUOYONG。YICILEITUI,YIDALIYUZHONGLINGYIXIEYI“tele”KAITOUDEDANCI,RU telecomando( YAOKONG) 、telegrafia( DIANBAO) 、telescopio( WANGYUANJING) DENG,DOUBIAOXIANCHUYUANJULIZHEIYIYISI。TONGGUOZHEILIANGGELIZI,WOMENKEYIKANDAO,ZAICIHUIDEXUEXIZHONG,RUGUOXUESHENGMENZHIDAOLEZHEIXIEDANCIDELADINGYUHUOXILAYUCIGEN,BIANKEYIJUYIFANSANDEJIZHUYUZHIYOUGUANLIANDEYIXIECIHUI。

                  HAIYOUYIXIECIHUI,TONGGUOLEJIESUOYUANZIDELADINGYUDEBENLAIYISI,KEYISHIZHEIXIECIHUIBIANDEGENGJIADESHENGDONG、YOUQU。LIRU“studio( XUEXI) ”ZHEIGEDANCI,LAIYUANYULADINGYU“studium”.ZAILADINGYUZHONG,ZHEIGEDANCIDEYISISHI“DUIMOUZHONGSHIWUBAOYOUKEWANGJIREQING,BINGWEIZHIFUCHUNULI”.ZHEIYIJIESHI,QIAQIASHUOMINGLEXUEXIZHEIYIXINGWEIDEBENZHI,ERZHEIZHONGBENZHIZHENGSHICONGGULAODEYUYANZHONGSUOLIUCHUANXIALAIDE。ZAILAIKAN“scuola( XUEXIAO) ”ZHEIGECI,TAYUANZILADINGYU“schola”,ERZHEIYILADINGYUCIYOULAIZIYUXILAYU,YINWEILADINGYUYECONGXILAWENMINGZHONGXIQULEXIANGDANGDUODECIHUI。

                  ZAIZUIGENYUANDEXILAYUZHONG,“XUEXIAO”ZHEIGECIDEYISISHI“KONGYUSHIJIAN”,ZHEIYEFANYINGCHULEDANGSHIGUXILADESHEHUIXINGTAI: ZHIYOUBUXUYAOTONGGUOLAOZUOYANGHUOZIJI、YOUKONGYUSHIJIANDEYIXIERENCAINENGGOUJINXINGXITONGDEXUEXI。SHIJIESHANGZUIGULAODEDAXUECHANSHENGZAIYIDALI,ER“DA XUE”ZHEI GE DAN CI“università”YUAN ZI LA DING YU“universisi”,TADEYISISHI“SUOYOUDEDONGXI,SUOYOUDERENZAIYIQI”,ZHEISHIYINWEIZUICHUDE“DAXUE”DEYIYIZAIYU“XUESHENGDETUANTI”.CONGSHANGSHUZHEIJIGELIZIKEYIKANCHU,RANGXUESHENGLEJIECIHUIDEQIYUANYIFANGMIANSHIWEILEGENGHAODEJIZHUDANCI,ERLINGYIFANGMIANGENGZHONGYAODESHIRANGXUESHENGJIECILEJIEDAOGUANYUWENHUA、WENMINGDEYIXIEZHISHI。

                星云棋牌官网下载   ZAILAIKANYIGEYOUQUDEXIANXIANG。ZAIYIDALIYUZHONG,YOUSHIHUICHUXIANYIGECIYOULIANGGEWANQUANBUTONGDEYISI,ZHEIKENENGSHIYINWEITALAIYUANYULIANGZHONGBUTONGDEYUYAN。LIRU“canto”ZHEIGECI,TAYOULIANGGEJIERANBUTONGDEYISI,FENBIESHI“GESHENG”HE“GUAIJIAO”.ZHEISHIYINWEI“canto”JISHIYIGEYUANZILADINGYUDECI,TONGSHIYESHIYIGEYUANZIXILAYUDECI。ZAILADINGYUZHONG“cantus”YIWEICHANGGEZHEIYIXINGWEI,ERZAIXILAYUZHONG“canchus”DEYISISHIJIAOLUO。( Balboni,1998) ZHEILIANGZHONGYUYANDEZHEIYIDANCIZAIYIDALIYUZHONGHUICHENGLETONGYIGECI,ERTADEYISIRENGSHILIANGZHONGYUYANSUOLIUCHUANXIALAIDE。

                星云棋牌官网下载   3. CONGYIDALIYUDAOYINGYU: LIANGZHONGYUYANDEXIANGHUYINGXIANG

                星云棋牌官网下载   RUGUOTONGSHISHUXIOUZHOUDEJIGUOYUYAN,RENMENHUIFAXIANGEYUYANJIANDEYIXIEDANCIZAICIXINGHECIYISHANGDOUCUNZAIZHEXIANGSIXING,ZHEISHIYOUYUYANHUNHEZHEIYIXIANXIANGSUOJUEDINGDE。QISHI,YUYANHUNHEZHEIYIGUOCHENGZAIHENZAOYIQIANDEOUZHOUNEIBUJIUKAISHILE: LADINGYUHUNHEZHEXILAYU,GUYINGYU、FAYU、LADINGYUHUXIANGYINGXIANGZHE。SUIZHESHIDAIDEJINZHAN,OUZHOUGEZHONGYUYANZHIJIANHUXIANGJIEYONG、YINGXIANG、YANBIANDEXIANXIANGYEBIANDEYUELAIYUEMINGXIAN。( WUANQI,2006) ZAIYIDALIYUFANGMIAN,TABUJINHETONGYUANYULADINGYUDEFAYU、XIBANYADENGYUYANBAOCHIZHEMIQIEDELIANXI,JIULIANDEYU、YINGYUZHEIXIEFEILADINGYUXIDEYUYANYEZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGXISHOULEYIDALIYUDECIHUI,ZHEIXIECIHUIZHUYAOCHUXIANZAISHANGYE、JIANZHU、YINLEDENGLINGYUNEI。LIRU“banca”ZAIYIDALIYUZHONGDEYISIWEI“YINXING”,ERZAIYINGYU、XIBANYAYU、DEYU、FAYUZHONGZHEIYIYISIDECIFENBIEWEI“bank”、“banco”、“bank”、“banque”,KEJIANDOUSHOUDAOLEYIDALIYUCIHUIDEYINGXIANG。

                  LIYONGOUZHOUYUYANDEHUNHEXIANXIANG,KEYIDUIXIYUJIAOXUE,TEBIESHISHUANGYUHUOSANYUDEJIAOXUECHANSHENGJIJIDEYINGXIANG。DUIYUJUEDABUFENXUEXIYIDALIYUDEZHONGGUOXUESHENGLAISHUO,ZUIWEIZHONGYAODEHAISHIYIDALIYUHEYINGYUZHIJIANDELIANXI。YINWEIJIHUSUOYOUDEXUESHENGZAIJIECHUYIDALIYUZHIQIANDOUYOUJIAOWEIZHASHIDEYINGYUJICHU,ZHANGWOZHEDALIANGDEYINGYUCIHUI,ERZHEIXIEYINGYUCIHUIZHONGDEHENDAYIBUFENDOUYUYIDALIYUCIHUIXIANGSI。JIUQIYUANYIN,ZHUYAOYOUSANGEFANGMIAN: YISHIYINWEIYINGYUZHONGYOUDALIANGDEDANCILAIZIYULADINGYUHEFAYU,ERYOUYUFAYUHEYIDALIYUDOUYUANZILADINGYU,SHIDEZHEISANZHONGYUYANYOUZHEDALIANGXIANGTONGCIGENDECIHUI; LINGYIFANGMIANYINGYUYEZHIJIECONGYIDALIYUZHONGJIEYONGLEYIXIECIHUI,YOUYANJIUTONGJI,CONG 16 SHIJIZHI 20 SHIJI,YINGYUJIEZIYIDALIYUDEDANCIJIANGJINYIQIANGE; ( HANSHIHUI,1994) ZUIHOUYIGEYUANYIN,CONG 18、19 SHIJIQI,YIDALIYUYEKAISHIJIEYONGYINGYUZAIZHENGZHIDENGLINGYUDEXINCIHUI,BUGUOZHEIXIEXINCIHUIYINDADUODOUCAIYONGLADINGYUSHI,RENGKEYIZAIBAOLIUDABUFENCIGENDEJICHUSHANGCHENGWEIYIDALIYUDANCI。( DENGTING,2009) ZHENGSHIYINWEISHANGSHUDEJIDIANYUANYIN,SHIDEYIDALIYUHEYINGYUZHIJIANZAICIHUISHANGYOUZHEJINMIDELIANXI,ERZAIJIAOXUEZHONG,TONGGUOZHEILIANGZHONGYUYANCIHUIJIANDELEIBI,KEYISHIXUESHENGGENGHAODEZHANGWOZHEILIANGMENYUYAN。XIAMIANDEBIAOGESHICHOUQUCHUDEYIXIELIANGZHONGYUYANXIANGSIDECIHUI:

                  ZAIDIYIZHANGBIAOZHONG,KEYIKANDAOSUOXUANDELIANGZHONGYUYANDEDANCICIXINGJIBENYIZHI,WEIYIDEQUBIEZAIYUYIDALIYUDANCIDEJIEWEICHUBIYINGYUDANCIDUOLEYIGEYUANYIN,ZHEIZHUYAOSHIYOUYUYIDALIYUZISHENDEYUYINTEDIANJUEDINGDE---YIDALIYUDANCIJIBENSHANGDOUSHIYIYUANYINFAYINJIEWEI; ZAIDIERZHANGBIAOZHONG,WOMENKANDAOLELIANGZHONGYUYANJIANYOUGUILVDECIXINGBIANHUA,RUYINGYUZHONGYI-tion JIEWEIDEDANCI,ZAIYIDALIYUZHONGJIBENDOUBIANWEI-zione,TONGYANGDE-tial JIEWEIYEBIANWEI-ziale; ZAIBIRUYINGYUZHONGDE ph ZAIYIDALIYUZHONGSHIYIFAYINXIANGTONGDEZIMU f TIHUAN; DISANZHANGBIAOXIANSHIDESHILIANGZHONGYUYANZHIJIANQIANZHUIYUHOUZHUIDEGONGTONGXING: YINGYUHEYIDALIYUDEQIANZHUIHOUZHUIDADUODOUYUANZILADINGYU,YINCIZAIBIAOSHIRU“ri/re( ZAIYICI) ”、“inter( ZAI……ZHIJIAN) ”ZHEIYANGDEQIANZHUI,YOUHUOBIAOSHIXINGRONGCIXINGSHIDE“ible/ibile”、“sive/sivo”DENGHOUZHUIDESHIHOU,LIANGZHONGYUYANDEGOUCIJIBENYIZHI。

                  4. JIEYU

                  ZONGGUANXIANDAIYIDALIYUCIXINGHECIYIDECHUANCHENGJIYANBIANGUOCHENG,QIZHONGBUFAYIXIEYOUGUANLISHIDE、WENHUADEYOUQUXIANXIANG。ZHEISHIWOMENBUJINFANSI: WOMENZAIJIANGJIEYIDALIYUCIHUIDESHIHOU,CHULEDANYIDIJIESHIYISIYIWAI,SHIFOUKEYICONGCIYUANXUEDEJIAODUZHAOCHUCIHUIDEGENYUAN,CONGERSUIZHETADECIXINGHECIYIDEFAZHAN,GENGWEISHENRUDILEJIEDANCIBEIHOUDEYIGEGEGUSHI,CONGERYEKEYIGENGHAODILEJIEZHEIGEGUOJIAJIQIYUYANDEWENHUA。LINGYIFANGMIAN,YIDALIYUYUOUZHOUGEYUZHONGZHIJIANDELIANXI,TEBIESHIYUYINGYUZHIJIANDELIANXIYEYOULIYUSHUANGYUDEJIAOXUE,ZHANGWOLEYINGYUHEYIDALIYUCIHUIXIANGHUGUANLIANHEBIANHUADEGUILV,JIANGKEDUIZHEILIANGMENWAIYUDEXUEXIQIDAOXIANGHUCUJINDEZUOYONG。

                  CANKAOWENXIAN

                星云棋牌官网下载   [1 ] Balboni,Paolo E. Tecniche Didattiche per L'educazioneLinguistica[M]. Torino: UTET Libreria,1998.

                  [2]Burke,Peter ﹝YING﹞ZHU、LIXIAOXIANGDENGYI。 YUYANDEWENHUASHI[M].BEIJING: BEIJINGDAXUECHUBANSHE,2007.

                星云棋牌官网下载   [3]Igliorini,B. M. Storia della Lingua Ita liana[M]. Milano:Bompiani,2004.

                  [4]Ostler,Nicholas ﹝YING﹞ZHU、ZHANGLUDENGYI。 YUYANDIGUO---SHIJIEYUYANSHI[M]. SHANGHAI: RENMINCHUBANSHE,2009.

                  [5]DENGTING。 TANSHIBA、SHIJIUSHIJIYINGYUCIHUIZAIYIDALIYUZHONGDESHENTOU[J]. SHANDONGJIAOYUXUEYUANXUEBAO,2009( 1) : 51-54.

                  [6]HANSHIHUI。 LUNLADINGYUDUIYINGYUCIHUIDEYINGXIANG[J]. NEIMENGGUGONGYEDAXUEXUEBAO,1994( 2) : 48-54.

                星云棋牌官网下载   [7]WUANQI。 LISHIYUYANXUE[M]. SHANGHAI: SHANGHAIJIAOYUCHUBANSHE,2006.

                  [8]ZHAOXIUYING。 YIDALIYUDEQIYUAN、XINGCHENGHEYANBIAN[J]. WAIYUYUWAIYUJIAOXUE,2001( 5) : 31-33.

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