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                    学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 语言学论文 > 意大利语论文

                    意大利语“吐字归音”的难点与克服方法

                    时间:2014-08-28 来源:未知 作者:傻傻地鱼 本文字数:3060字
                    摘要

                      MEISHENGCHANGFADEYIDALIWENSHI Bel Canto,ZHIYIWEI"MEILIDESHENGYIN".ZUOWEIYIZHONGQIYUANYUYIDALIDEGULAOGECHANGFANGFA,QIJINYIYOU300 DUONIANDELISHI。YOUYUMEISHENGCHANGFAZHONGDEYISHUGEQUYUGEJUTICAIDUOWEIYIDALIYU,DUIYUMEIYOUYUJINGDEZHONGGUOYANCHANGZHELAIJIANG,NENGGOUZHENGQUEDIFAYIN、LIJIEGEJUYISHUDEYUYANMEILIJIUXIANDEYOUWEIZHONGYAO。BENWENZHENDUIGUONEIYANCHANGZHEZAIYANCHANGYIDALIGEJUSHICHANGYUDAODENANDIANWENTIZHUYIJIAYIFENXI。

                      一、"吐字归音"的难点

                      (YI) FAYINXIGUAN

                      SHUOHUASHIKOUQIANGDEXIGUANDONGZUOHUIZHIJIEYINGXIANGGECHANG。YIDALIYUFAYINZHUANGTAISHISHUXIANGDE,KOUQIANGNEIDAKAIWEIZHIHENGAO,PINGSHISHUOHUASHIJIUNENGGOUCHANSHENGYIDINGDEMIANZHAOGONGMINGHETOUQIANGGONGMING,SUOYIYIDALIRENZAICHANGMEISHENGDESHIHOUXIANTIANJIUJUYOUJIDADEFAYINYOUSHI。ERZHONGGUORENPINGSHISHUOHUASHIFAYINJIAOBIAN,KOUQIANGDEFAYINZHUANGTAISHIHENGXIANGDE,GECHANGFAYINDESHIHOUHUODUOHUOSHAOHUIDAIYOUYIXIEFAYINBIANDEXIGUAN,SHENGYINBUNENGZIRANTONGCHANGBINGSHUNLIDIDAODAGAOWEIZHI,YINFAZUGOUDEMIANZHAOGONGMINGHETOUQIANGGONGMING,YINCIHENNANDADAOMEISHENGCHANGFADEYANGEYAOQIU。ZHEIJIUYAOQIUWOMENZHONGGUODESHENGLEXUEXIZHEYAONULIGAIBIANPINGSHISHENGHUOZHONGDEFAYINXIGUAN,YOUYISHIDIZAISHUOHUASHIBAOCHIHOUBUSONGCHI,LADAKOUQIANGKONGJIAN,JINLIANGZAIGECHANGDEWEIZHISHANGFAYIN。ZHEIYANGJIKEYIPEIYANGLIANGHAODESHUOHUAXIGUAN,YOUKEYIDUOSHIYONGGONGMINGDADAOJIESHENGSHENGDAIDEXIAOGUO。

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                      YOUYUWENHUAHEMINZUXINGGEDEGUANXI,YIDALIRENTIANXINGHUOPOKAILANG,XIHUANKAIWANXIAO,SHUOHUASHIMIANBUBIAOQINGSHENGDONGFENGFU,SHANGKOUGAIJIJITAIQI,HOUTOUZIRANXIAJIANG,YIJINGJUBEILEGECHANGDEZHUANGTAI。ERZHONGGUORENZHENGTISHANGJIAOCHENJINGCHUANTONG,MIANBUBIAOQINGDUOSHUSHIJIANCHUYUANJINGZHUANGTAI,KOUQIANGSONGCHI,FACHULAIDEYINYEBIJIAORUAN。YOUYUSHANGKOUGAIMEIYOUJIJIDETAIQI,SHENGYINBUHUIDAODAWEIYUBIQIANGHOUMIANDEWEIZHI,DAOZHIQUEFAMIANZHAOHETOUQIANGGONGMING。YINCI,GUONEIHENDUOSHENGLEXUEXIZHEZAIYANCHANGSHIDOUYOU"GUASANGZI"XIANXIANG,CHUXIANHOUYIN,SHENGYINMEIYOUGONGMING、PIANDI,ERQIEYUESHISHIJINGYUEMEIYOUSHENGYIN、YUEMEIYOUGONGMING。JIUQIYUANYINZHUYAOJIUSHIGONGMINGQIANGTIMEIYOUCHONGFENDAKAI。SUOYI,YANCHANGZHEPINGSHIYINGGAIZAIZHEIFANGMIANDUOJIALIANXI,SHUOHUAFAYINDENEIYIKEBAOCHIZUIBUJIROUDEJINZHANGGAN,SHIDEFACHULAIDEYUYINQINGXICHUNZHENG。

                      (三) 发音的归韵
                      
                      每个民族之所以会产生出本民族特有的唱法和唱腔,这和本民族的语言有着直接关系。美声唱法之所以在意大利发源是因为意大利语语音归韵里已经包含了美声唱法的重要元素。在意大利语中,元音是拖长的,辅音则一带而过,变化不多。也就是说,意大利语主要是由通过持续元音发音和简化辅音发音而构成的一种语言,所以演唱不仅成了嗓音的调准,还成了元音音响的延长和持续。此外,除去外来词汇外,所有的意大利语单词都是由 16 个辅音和 5 个元音结合而成,而且元音结尾。

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                      ZAIYOU,ZHONGWENFAYINYOUPINGJUANSHEZHIFEN,YIDALIWENMEIYOU。ZAIZHONGWENFAYINLIMIANFAPINGSHEYINDEZIYOU:ZI (Z)I,CI (C)I,JI(J)I,QI (Q)I,XI (X)I DENG,FAJUANSHEYINDEZIYOU:ZHI(ZH)I,SHI (SH)I,CHI (CH)I DENG。PINGSHEYINHEJUANSHEYINHUISHISHETOUYUNDONG,ZAOCHENGKOUQIANGNEIJIROUBUWENDING。HAIYOUERHUAYIN:YIHUIER(HUI'ER),NAER (NA'ER),YOUQUER (QU'ER) DENGDENG,YEHUIZAIFAYINSHIZAOCHENGKOUQIANGNEIXIANGGUANJIROUDEBIANHUA。ZHONGWENLIYOUYUANYINAI (AI,HAI,HUAI) HE EI (HEI,WEI,LEI),YUYIDALIWENDE EYUANYINXIANGJIN,SUOYIYIDALIWENDEZHEIGE E YUANYINJINGCHANGHUIBEIZHONGGUODESHENGLEXUEXIZHECHANGCHENGZHONGWENDE AI YUANYINHE EI YUANYIN,BIRU:AVE-MARIA ZHONGDE AVE HUIBEICHANGCHENG AVEI, AFFETTO HUIBEICHANGCHENGAFFEITTO,QUESTO HUIBEICHANGCHENG QUAISTO DENGDENG。QIZHONGDEBIANHUASUIRANBUSHIHENDA,DANSHIYIJINGBIANCHENGZHONGSHIDEYIDALIWENFAYINLE。

                      ZHONGWENLIYOUYUANYIN O (WO,PO,MO),DANSHIZHONGWENLIMIANDE O YUANYINBINGBUXIANGYIDALIWENDE O YUANYINSHICHUNYUANYIN,ZHONGWENDE O YUANYINSHIJISHANGSHIBAOHAN U HE O LIANGGEYUANYINDEZITOUHEZHONGWEN E YUANYINDEZIWEI,FAYINZHESHIYOUXIEFUZA,YOUYUZHONGWENHEYIWENDE O YUANYINXIEFAYIYANG,DANGZHONGGUODESHENGLEXUEXIZHEKANDAOYIDALIWENDE O YUANYINSHIGENGRONGYIHUNXIAOTADEFAYIN。SHANGSHUZHONGZHONGZHONGWENFAYINGUIYUNDEGUILV,YESHIZAIYANCHANGYIDALIYUMEISHENGZUOPINSHIRONGYIDAOZHICHUXIAN"ZHONGGUOWEI"DEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。

                      二、克服难点的方法

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                      实际上,我们现在所听到的美声唱法和 300 年前的美声唱法在声音概念上是有很大变化的。我们今天所听到的美声唱法是广义上的美声唱法,它要求声音在歌唱时保持连贯、音色甜美、集中、明亮,声音音色在低声区和高声区要保持统一,要求声音非常灵活,最主要的一点是对声音的掌控要完全建立在对呼吸掌控的基础上。而狭义的美声唱法是指从 1805 年到 1840 年期间演唱歌剧所使用的歌唱技巧。"美声时期"涉及到的作曲家是三个意大利作曲家,他们是罗西尼、贝里尼、唐尼采蒂。"美声时期"的美声唱法比后来的广义美声唱法更多的使用半声和混声,更加柔和甜美,表达的感情更加细腻和含蓄。
                      
                      意大利作曲家威尔第的出现彻底颠覆了这种狭义的美声唱法。由于特定的历史原因和社会因素,威尔第早期的多部歌剧中表现出来的英雄主义非常强烈,和他之前的意大利作曲家相比,他在配器上更多的使用了管乐,歌剧剧情也更加的曲折跌宕,所以要求歌唱家用更有表现力和感染力的声音来诠释人物性格。和"美声时期"的美声唱法相比,后来的美声唱法加入了更多的胸声,声音更加明亮,音量变得更大更有穿透力,这样可以保证声音在有表现力的同时穿过交响乐队到达观众席的最后一排。虽然在 1861 年意大利完成了统一,但是这种更有表现力的"美声唱法"却因为它强大的感染力被观众所喜爱和推崇,因此一直延续了到了今天。

                      RANER,WULUNSHI"MEISHENGSHIQI"DEMEISHENGCHANGFAHAISHIHOULAIJINGGUOYANBIANDEMEISHENGCHANGFA,TAMENZAIJISHUHESHENGYINGUIGESHANGDEYAOQIUSHIJIBENYIZHIDE,RU:HUXITONGCHANG、SHENGYINMINGLIANG、SHENGYINJIZHONG、YINQUTONGYIHEYAOZIQINGXIDENG。

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