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                          廉洁违约金条款的特点及其实证分析

                          时间:2019-01-02 来源:法制博览 作者:潘岩 本文字数:3258字

                            摘    要: 为了进一步加强党风廉政建设,建立健全相应的约束机制,民商事领域中包括工程建设等合同中,增加了廉洁违约金条款的内容,以达到防范一方当事人为获得交易机会或竞争优势,而向另一方当事人的工作人员行贿,损害对方当事人的合法利益。然廉洁违约金条款的特点、效力以及在司法实践中的运行,有必要从理论和实证两个方面进行分析。

                            关键词: 廉洁; 违约金; 违约责任; 法律效力;

                            一、廉洁违约金条款概念的界定

                          星云棋牌官网下载   LIANJIEWEIYUEJINTIAOKUANSHIZHISHUANGFANGDANGSHIRENZAIHETONGZHONGYUEDINGDE,QINEIRONGWEIRUOYIFANGWEILEMOUQUJIAOYIJIHUIHUOZHEJINGZHENGYOUSHI,HUILUDUIFANGGONGSHANGRENYUAN,SUNHAIDUIFANGHEFAQUANYIDE,XINGHUIFANGXUZHIFUYUEDINGWEIYUEJINDETIAOKUAN。LIANJIEWEIYUEJINTIAOKUANDECHUXIAN,ZUIZAOKEYIZHUISUDAO1997NIAN5YUE1RISHISHIDE《SHANGHAISHIJIANSHEGONGCHENGCHENGFABAOSHUANGFANGQIANDINGLIANJIEXIEYIDEZANXINGGUIDING》,GAIGUIDINGDISITIAOGUIDING:“CHENGFABAOSHUANGFANGQIANDINGDELIANJIEXIEYI,YINGDANGANZHAOSHIFANWENBENDEJIBENYAOQIU,CAIYONGSHUMIANXINGSHI。”TONGSHIZAIGAITIAOZHONGGUIDINGLESHIERXIANGLIANJIEXIEYIYINGBAOHANDENEIRONG。

                            YUYIBANWEIYUEJINTIAOKUANXIANGBIJIAOERYAN,LIANJIEWEIYUEJINTIAOKUANJUYOURUXIATEDIAN:

                            (一)违约形态的单一性

                            YIBANHETONGDEWEIYUEXINGTAIBIJIAODUOYANG,BAOKUOBUNENGLVXING、CHIYANLVXING、BUWANQUANLVXING、JUJUELVXINGHEZHAIQUANRENCHIYANDENGJIZHONGQINGXING。ZHEIJIZHONGWEIYUEXINGTAI,DOUSHIZHAIWURENZAIHETONGLVXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,BIAOXIANCHUYIZHONGDUOYANGDE、XIAOJIDE、BUZUOWEIDEXINGTAI。ERZAILIANJIEWEIYUEJINTIAOKUANDEHETONGZHONG,DANGSHIRENDEWEIYUEXINGTAIZAI,BIAOXIANWEIYIZHONGDANYIDE、JIJIDE、ZUOWEIDEXINGTAI,JIXIANGHETONGLINGYIFANGDANGSHIRENDEGONGZUORENYUANXINGHUI。

                            (二)违约责任的特定性

                          星云棋牌官网下载   WEIYUEZERENDECHENGDAN,YIBANBAOKUOJIXULVXING、PEICHANGSUNSHIHEZHIFUWEIYUEJINSANZHONGFANGSHI。ERLIANJIEXIEYIDEWEIYUE,QICHENGDANZERENDEFANGSHI,YIBANWEIZHIFUWEIYUEJIN。DANYOUXIEBUFENLIANJIEXIEYIDEQIANDING,BINGBUSHIWEILEYUESHUHUOGUIFANHETONGSHUANGFANGDANGSHIRENDEXINGWEI,ERSHIDANGSHIRENYIFANGYIYUESHUNEIBUGONGZUORENYUANDEXINGWEIGUIFANERCUNZAIDE。ZHEIXIEYIZHIYUENEIBUGONGZUORENYUANWEIMUDEERCUNZAIDELIANJIEXIEYI,RUOWEIYUEXINGWEIFASHENG,TABUSHIYIZHIFUWEIYUEJINWEIMUDE,ERSHIJIANGQIZUOWEIJIECHULAODONGHETONGZHONG,LAODONGZHEGUOCUODELIYOUHUOZHEDUIYUANGONGJINXINGCHENGFADETIAOJIAN。[1]

                            且违约金的数额,不是与损失相关,而是与合同标的相关。《合同法》第114条第2款规定:“约定的违约金低于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以增加约定的违约金过分高于造成的损失的,当事人可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以适当减少。”《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国合同法〉若干问题的解释(二)》第二十八条:“当事人依照合同法第一百一十四条第二款的规定,请求人民法院增加违约金的,增加后的违约金数额以不超过实际损失额为限。增加违约金以后,当事人又请求对方赔偿损失的,人民法院不予支持。”
                           

                          廉洁违约金条款的特点及其实证分析
                           

                            (三)违约主体的特殊性

                          星云棋牌官网下载   JUKAOZHENG,“LIANJIE”YICIZUIZAOCHUXIANYU《CHUCI·ZHAOHUN》:“ZHENYOUQINGYILIANJIEXI,SHENFUYIERWEIMO。”BANGUZAI《HANSHU·GONGYUCHUAN》YUN:“YUYOUYANXIAOWENHUANGDISHIGUILIANJIE,JIANTANWU。”YIJICUILINGQINDE《JIAOFANGJI》:“FUYILIANJIEZHIMEI,ERDAOZHIZHEGUA;JIAOYINZHICHOU,ERXIANZHIZHEZHONG,HEZAI?”YOUCIKEJIAN,ZAIGUSHI“LIANJIE”SHIDUIWEIGUANWEIZHENGZHIRENDEYAOQIU。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZAILIANJIEWEIYUEJINTIAOKUANDEHETONGZHONG,CONGFALVDIWEISHANGLAIKAN,SHUANGFANGDANGSHIRENDEFALVDIWEISHIPINGDENGDE;DANCONGSHUANGFANGSUOCHUDESHIJIDIWEILAIKAN,YIFANGDANGSHIRENSHIZHONGCHUYUYOUSHIDIWEI,JIYIFANGZHANGWOZHESHIFOUNENGJILINGYIFANGDAILAIJIAOYIJIHUIHUOJINGZHENGYOUSHIDEQUANLI。YEZHENGYINWEIRUCI,LIANJIEWEIYUEJINHETONGZHONG,WEIYUEDEZHUTI,YIBANDOUSHIXIANGHUODEJIAOYIJIHUIHUOJINGZHENGYOUSHIDENEIFANGDANGSHIREN。

                            二、学界对廉洁违约金效力的态度

                          星云棋牌官网下载   SHISHISHANG,SUIRANLIANJIEWEIYUEJINTIAOKUANDEDINGLI,YIZAIWOGUOGUANGFANSHIYONG,DANDUIQIXIAOLIDERENDING,BINGMEIYOUYINQIXUEJIEDEZUGOUGUANZHU。BIZHECONGMUQIANNENGSOUJIDAODEZILIAOLAIKAN,YEGEZHONGGUANDIANBUYI,NANYIZONGJIECHUXUEJIEZHULIUSIXIANGDUILIANJIEXIEYIDERENDING。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   XIEHUISHENG、GUANBINRULIANGWEIXIANSHENGRENWEI,LIANJIEXIEYIBENSHENSHIHETONGDEZUCHENGBUFEN,ERHETONGSHIZAISHUANGFANGDANGSHIRENCHONGFENXIESHANGDEJICHUSHANGQIANDINGDE,YINCILIANJIEXIEYIBUNENGBEIRENWEIWEIWUXIAOHUOKECHEXIAODE。DUILIANJIEXIEYIXIAOLIDERENDING,JUTIYOULIANGZHONGFANGSHI,QIYI,JIANGLIANJIEXIEYIRENDINGWEIGESHITIAOKUAN,GENJU《HETONGFA》ZHONGYOUGUANGESHITIAOKUANXIAOLIDERENDINGGUIZELAIPANDINGLIANJIEXIEYIDEXIAOLI;QIER,ZHIJIESHIYONG《HETONGFA》ZHONGGUANYUHETONGTIAOKUANDEXIAOLIYIBANGUIZELAIPANDINGLIANJIEXIEYIDEXIAOLI。[2]

                            ZHUSHENGQUANXIANSHENGSHICONGGENBENSHANGFOUDINGLIANJIEXIEYICUNZAIBIYAOXINGHEHELIXING,YEJIUGENGWUCONGTANQIDUIQIXIAOLIDERENDINGWENTILE。ZHUXIANSHENGRENWEI,“GUANYULIANZHENG,DANGYOUDANGJI,ZHENGYOUZHENGJI,GUOYOUGUOFA。‘LIANZHENGHETONG’NEIRONGRUGUOCHAOGUOLEDANGJIZHENGJIHEGUOFA,ZEXINGTONGXUSHE……ZUOWEIYIMINGGUOJIAJIGUANGONGZUORENYUAN,SHENMEYINGGAIDANGZUOSHENMEBUGAIZUO,YINGDANGSHIRENRENMINGBAIDE。JIRANRUCI,YOUHEXUSHECI‘HETONG’。”[3]

                            XIAOZHILI、HOUWEN、LUZHONGWEIRENWEI:“LIANJIEXIEYIZAIHEZUOSHUANGFANGJIANDAJIANQILEYIZUOGUANLIDEQIAOLIANG。LIANZHENGXIEYIYIBANBAOHANYUESHUXINGTIAOKUAN、FAKUAN、JUBAOFANGSHIDENGNEIRONG,DUISHUANGFANGHEZUOZHONGJINZHICHUXIANDEBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGXINGWEIDEJIEDING,SHUANGFANGZAIKAIZHANLIANJIEHEZUOZHONGJUBEIDEZEREN、QUANLIHEYIWU。LIANZHENGXIEYIJUBEIYIDINGDEFALVXIAOLI”。[4]

                            三、廉洁违约金效力的实证分析

                            CONGMINSHANGSHISHENPANSHIJIANLAIKAN,LIANJIEXIEYIDEQIANDING,YIZAIJIANSHEGONGCHENG、MAIMAIHETONG、LAODONGHETONG、QINQUANJIUFENDENGDUOGELINGYUGUANGFANSHIYONG。

                            BIZHECHAYUELESHEJILIANJIEXIEYIDE137FENMINSHIPANJUESHU,QIZHONGLAODONGHETONGZHAN24%,MAIMAIHETONGZHAN22%,JIANSHEGONGCHENGHETONGZHAN20%,QINQUANJIUFENZHAN10%,JIAGONGCHENGLANHETONGZHAN6%,LAOWUHETONGZHAN1%,QITAZHAN17%。

                            ZAIXUANQUDE137GEYANGBENANLIZHONG,FAYUANRENDINGLIANJIEXIEYIYOUXIAODEYOU82GE;RENDINGWUXIAODEZEJINYOU2GE;WEIYUZHIJIERENDINGDEZEYOU40GE;HOUMIANLIANGXIANGFENBIEWEI“DULISUSONGQINGQIU”YU“ZHENGJUBUZUBUZHICHI”。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   QIZHONG“DULISUSONGQINGQIU”ZHIDESHIFAYUANGAOZHIDANGSHIRENRUOYAOJIULIANJIEXIEYIXIAOLIWENTIQISU,ZEYINGYIDULIDESUSONG,ZHUZHANGQINGQIUFAYUANYUYIRENDING;“ZHENGJUBUZUBUZHICHI”ZEZHIDESHI,ZAIFAYUANRENDINGLIANJIEXIEYIYOUXIAOHOU,YIFANGDANGSHIRENZHUZHANGLIANJIEWEIYUEJINSHI,FAYUANYIGAIDANGSHIRENWUFAJUZHENGZHENGMINGDUIFANGDANGSHIRENSHISHIGUOHUILUXINGWEIWEIYOU,RENDINGZHENGJUBUZUERBUZHICHIZHUZHANGLIANJIEWEIYUEJINYIFANGDANGSHIRENDEQINGQIU。SHISHISHANG,FAYUANSUIRANYI“ZHENGJUBUZU”MEIYOUZHICHIYAOQIULIANJIEWEIYUEJINYIFANGDANGSHIRENDEQINGQIU,DANZAIDUILIANJIEXIEYIDEXIAOLIWENTISHANG,FAYUANHAISHIRENDINGQIYOUXIAODE。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   “WEIYUZHIJIERENDING”DEQINGXINGYOUER:QIYI,ANJIANDEJIAODIANBINGBUSHIQUERENLIANJIEXIEYIDEXIAOLIWENTI。YINCI,SUIYOUQIANDINGLIANJIEXIEYI,DANDANGSHIRENBINGMEIQINGQIUFAYUANYUYIQUEREN,SUOYIBINGBUCUNZAIDUIQIXIAOLIYUYIRENDINGDEWENTI;QIER,DANGSHIRENBALIANJIEXIEYIZUOWEIZHUHETONGDEFUJIAN,XINGZHIXIANGDANGYUCONGHETONG,ZAIZHUHETONGWUXIAOSHIRENDINGQIWUXIAO。

                            “WUXIAO”DEQINGXINGZAIBIZHESOUJIDEYANGBENANLIZHONGJINJINCUNZAI2LI。QIZHONGYILIYEBUWANQUANSHIRENDINGZHENGGELIANJIEXIEYIWUXIAO。GAIANJIUSHIMOUFUWUWAIBAOGUANLIGONGSIYUMOUXINXIJISHUGONGSIFUWUHETONGJIUFENYIAN,FAYUANBINGWEIDUIZHENGGEXIEYIXIAOLIJINXINGRENDING,ERSHIJIUGAIXIEYIDANGETIAOKUANRENDINGWEIGESHITIAOKUANPANDINGCITIAOKUANWEIWUXIAO。

                            四、结语

                          星云棋牌官网下载   TONGGUOSHANGSHUFENXI,WOMENKEYIKANCHUFAYUANDUIYUGELEIANJIANDELIANJIEXIEYI,DADUOHUOYI“SHUANGFANGDANGSHIRENDEZHENSHIYISIBIAOSHIQIENEIRONGBUWEIFANFALV、FAGUIGUIDING”WEIYIJU,HUOSHIWEILEDAJISHANGYEHUILU,ERJIBENSHANGJUNQUEDINGLIANJIEXIEYIYOUXIAO。YOUDEPANJUE,JISHISHIBUZHICHIZHUZHANGLIANJIEWEIYUEJINDEYIFANGDESUSONGQINGQIU,YESHIZAIQUERENXIEYIYOUXIAODETIAOJIANQINGKUANGXIA,YIZHENGJUBUZUDENGLIYOU,LAI“ZUZHI”SHENQINGFANGDEQINGQIUDEDAOMANZU。ZHIYURENDINGWUXIAODEPANJUE,ZESHISHAOZHIYOUSHAO。

                            BIZHEYIWEI,FAYUANDECAIJUESHIYOUQITAFALVYIJUDE。SHOUXIAN,FUHESIFAZIZHI,QIYUEZIYOUDEYUANZE。DEGUOXUEZHEHAIYIN·KECIZHICHU:“SIFAZUIZHONGYAODETEDIANMOGUOYUGERENZIZHIHUOQIZIWOFAZHANDEQUANLI。QIYUEZIYOUWEIYIBANXINGWEIZIYOUDEZUCHENGBUFEN……SHIYIZHONGLINGHUODEGONGJU,TABUDUANJINXINGZIWODIAOJIE,YISHIYONGXINDEMUBIAO。”[5]

                            QICI,FAYUANDECAIJUEJITIXIANLEDUISHOUHAIFANGSUNSHIDEPEICHANG,YETIXIANLEDUIXINGHUIFANGBUFAXINGWEIDECHENGFA。ZAISHOUHAIFANGSUNSHIWUFAJUTILIANGHUADEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHIYAODANGSHIRENYUEDINGDEWEIYUEJIN,YOUDIYUESHIKEYUJIANDEFANWEINEI,QIEFUHESHANGSHIGUANLI,MEIYOUWEIFANFALVDEQIANGZHIXINGGUIDINGHEGONGXULIANGSUDEYUANZE,SIFAYINGYUYIBIYAODEZUNZHONGHEZHICHI。

                            ZAICI,RUGUOWEIYUEFANGRENWEILIANJIEXIEYIYUEDINGDEWEIYUEJIN,YUANYUANDIGAOYUWEIYUESUOZAOCHENGDESUNSHI,ZHUZHANGJIANSHAOWEIYUEJINDE,KEYIQINGQIUBIANGENGHETONG,YOUWEIYUEFANGFUJUZHENGZEREN,JIWEIYUEFANGXUZHENGMINGLIANJIEXIESHANGYUEDINGDEWEIYUEJINYUANYUANGAOYUWEIYUESUOZAOCHENGDESUNSHI,FOUZE,WEIYUEFANGJIANGCHENGDANYUJIBULIDEFALVHOUGUO。DAOZHIHETONGBIANGENGDEWEIYUEJINGUOGAOCHENGDANJUZHENGZEREN。SUNSHISHUYUPANDUANWEIYUEJINGUOGAODESHISHIZUCHENGBUFEN,YEYINGDANGYOUWEIYUEFANGCHENGDANJUZHENGZEREN。

                            参考文献

                            [1] 江苏省无锡市中级人民法院(2018)苏02民终2791民事判决书.
                            [2]谢会生,管彬儒.廉洁协议在民商事适用中的泛化与应对[J].中国律师,2016(5).
                            [3]朱生全.反腐何需“合同”[J].四川监察,1997. 10.
                            [4]肖志立,侯文,卢中伟.发挥廉政协议在治理商业贿赂中的作用[J].中国监察,2010(23).
                          星云棋牌官网下载   [5][德]罗伯特·霍恩,等着.德国民商法导论[M].中国大百科全书出版社,1996. 90.

                            潘岩.廉洁违约金条款效力之探析[J].法制博览,2019(34):235-236.
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