星云棋牌官网下载

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                            风险预防原则在我国生态环境立法中的应用

                            时间:2018-09-23 来源:吉林大学社会科学学报 作者:于文轩 本文字数:11102字

                              摘    要: 星云棋牌官网下载预防原则经由国际环境法普遍认可后, 在国家立法层面逐步得到确立。目前在环境保护的一些领域内, 正在经历从预防原则到风险预防原则的理路转向过程。新中国成立70年以来, 我国环境法的基本原则也经历了这样的变化, 这在土壤污染防治法等领域体现得尤为明显。在程序法层面, 预防性环境公益诉讼备受关注, 也体现了风险预防原则适用领域的延展。风险预防原则在国家立法和司法裁判领域的逐步确立和展开, 内在地要求生态环境保护采用协同治理模式, 推动生态环境治理模式由单一维度的管理控制模式, 向多元主体共同参与的互动模式和多区域联合治理的模式转变。

                              关键词: 生态文明; 风险预防原则; 环境治理; 预防性诉讼; 协同治理;

                              Abstract: The principle of prevention has been gradually established at the national legislative level after universal recognition by international environmental law. This development also happened in China in the past seventy years, especially in some areas of environmental protection, we are currently experiencing a rational shift form the principle of prevention to the precautionary principle, which is particularly evident in the field of Soil Pollution Prevention and Control Law of the People's Republic of China. At the procedural level, preventive environmental public interest litigation has received much attention in recent years, and it also reflects the extension of the application of precautionary principles.The precautionary principle has been gradually established and launched in the field of national legislation and judicial adjudication, which requires that the protection of the rule of law by the ecological environment adopt a collaborative governance model, and promote the transformation of the ecological environment governance model from a single dimensional management control model to a multi-regional joint governance model.

                              Keyword:星云棋牌官网下载 precautionary principle; environmental governance; preventive litigation; collaborative governance;

                              ZONGGUANHUANJINGFAZHIFAZHANSHI,HUANJINGZHILILINIANDEBIANQIANZAIJIDACHENGDUSHANGYINGXIANGZHEHUANJINGZHILIFANGSHI。CONG“YINZHIFA,QIHUIYUGONGDAOZHEDUANQISHOU”[1]329SUOTIXIANDEYANGEDEJINZHIXINGGUIFAN,DAOGONGYEGEMINGYIHOUPUBIANSHIXINGDEBUJIUXINGHUANJINGGUIZHISHOUDUAN,ZAIDAO20SHIJI60NIANDAIYILAIYUELAIYUEDUODIYINRUYUFANGLINIAN,CHENGJIULEYITIAOLINIANYANBIANYIJIZAIQIYINGXIANGXIAZHIDUYANJINDEXIANSUO。XINZHONGGUOCHENGLI70NIANYILAI,WOGUOHUANJINGFAZHIZAITANSUOZHONGQIANJIN,QIMUBIAOTIXIYISUIZHIYANJIN。CONGZUICHUDEQIANGDIAOSHIHOUZHILIDAOYUFANGSIXIANGZHUBUQUELIWEIFALVYUANZE,ZHIJINXIENIANLAIYOUYUFANGYUANZEXIANGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEZHUANXIANG,YIRANCHENGWEIWOGUOHUANJINGFAFAZHANDEYIGEQUXIANG。2018NIAN5YUE,XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZAIQUANGUOSHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUDAHUISHANGTICHU“YOUXIAOFANGFANSHENGTAIHUANJINGFENGXIAN”DEMUBIAOJIXIANGYINGDECUOSHI,JIANGSHENGTAIHUANJINGFENGXIANFANGFANWENTIZHIYUZHONGYAODEDIWEI,YUSHIZHEFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEJIANGZAIGUOJIASHENGTAIWENMINGZHANLVECENGMIANFAHUIYUELAIYUEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。

                              一、七十年之变迁:从末端治理到风险预防

                            星云棋牌官网下载   GUOJIALIFACENGDEYUFANGYUANZE,SHIZAIYINGDUIHUANJINGWURANDEGUOJIFAXINGDONGJICHUSHANGZHUBUQUELIQILAIDE。HUANJINGFAMUBIAOTIXIDEBIANQIAN,DAOZHIYUFANGYUANZEZAIMOUXIELINGYUNEIXIANGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEJIANJINSHIYANHUA。ZAIXINZHONGGUO70NIANDEHUANJINGFAZHIFAZHANLICHENGZHONG,YETIXIANCHUZHEIYIYANJINMAILUO。ZAIFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEZHONG,YIGEHEXINDEGUANNIANKEYIYOUXIAODIYINGDUIJUYOUKEGUANXINGHEBUQUEDINGXINGTEZHENGDESHENGTAIHUANJINGFENGXIAN。

                              (一) 预防原则及其地位

                              环境法上的预防原则肇始于应对环境污染的国际法努力。由1941年“特雷尔冶炼厂仲裁案”和1949年“哥甫海峡案”确立“任何国家皆需对其境内活动所造成的跨国界环境危害,以及可预见的环境风险负起防治或预防的责任”原则为发端,到1992年《里约宣言》明确“国家应依据其能力广泛地采取预防性策略,以保护环境”1,以及《保护与使用跨国水道与国际湖泊公约》明确规定预防原则和《奥斯陆巴黎保护东北大西洋海洋环境公约》等国际条约对预防原则的承继,预防原则在国际法层面逐步确立。在判例法层面,1995年“核子试爆案二”、1997年“匈牙利/斯洛伐克水坝案”、1999年“南方黑鲉案”、2001年“MOX核废料加工厂案”等,为预防原则在国际环境争端中提供了国家实践的范例。[2]
                             

                            风险预防原则在我国生态环境立法中的应用
                             

                            星云棋牌官网下载   HUANJINGFASHANGDEYUFANGYUANZE,SHIZHIDUIHUANJINGKAIFAYULIYONGXINGWEICHANSHENGDEHUANJINGWURANHUOHUANJINGPOHUAIDENGWENTISHIXIANCAIQUYUCE、FENXIHEFANGFANCUOSHI,YIBIMIAN、XIAOCHUYOUCIKENENGZAOCHENGDESUNHAI。[3]49YUFANGYUANZEZUOWEIYIGEXUELIGAINIAN,ZAIXUEJIEYOUBUTONGDECHENGWEI,RU“YUFANGWEIZHUYUANZE”[4]612、“YUFANGWEIZHU、FANGZHIJIEHEYUANZE”[5]126、“YUFANGWEIZHU、FANGZHIJIEHE、ZONGHEZHILIYUANZE”[6]86[7]399[8]34[9]71,DENGDENG。

                              ZAIWOGUO,ZI1949NIANZHI20SHIJI70NIANDAICHU,HUANJINGFAZHIFAZHANBINGWEISHOUDAOZUGOUDEZHONGSHI。[10]1973NIAN8YUE,GUOWUYUANZHAOKAIDIYICIQUANGUOHUANJINGBAOHUHUIYI,SHENYITONGGUOLE《GUANYUBAOHUHEGAISHANHUANJINGDERUOGANGUIDING (SHIXINGCAOAN) 》,ZHEIYESHIXINZHONGGUODIYIXIANGHUANJINGBAOHUZHUANMENWENJIAN。TONGSHI,WOGUOKAISHILEDUI“SANTONGSHI”ZHIDU、PAIWUXUKEZHIDU、HUANJINGYINGXIANGPINGJIAZHIDUDENGZHONGYAOZHIDUDETANSUO。WOGUO1978NIAN《XIANFA》DI1TIAOGUIDING:“GUOJIABAOHUHUANJINGHEZIRANZIYUAN,FANGZHIWURANHEQITAGONGHAI。”YOUCIJIANGHUANJINGBAOHUDEMUBIAOSHANGSHENGDAOGENBENDAFADECENGMIAN。1979NIAN,WOGUOBANBU《HUANJINGBAOHUFA (SHIXING) 》,CIHOULUXUBANXINGLE《HAIYANGHUANJINGBAOHUFA》DENGHUANJINGDANXINGFA。1989NIANDE《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》DI1TIAOQUELILE“FANGZHIJIEHE”DEYUANZE,BINGZAICIJICHUSHANGXIUDINGLE《SHUIWURANFANGZHIFA》,ZHIDINGLE《ZAOSHENGWURANFANGZHIFA》DENGYIXILIEWURANFANGZHILIFA,DANCONGNEIRONGKAN,ZHEIXIELIFAZHONG“ZHI”DETEZHENGXIANYU“FANG”。[11]

                              ZI20SHIJI90NIANDAICHUZHI20SHIJIMO,“QUANGUOCHENGGUANLI”ZHUJIANCHENGWEIHUANJINGLIFADEZHONGYAOTEZHENG,“YUFANGWEIZHU”CHENGWEIGUANGSHOURENKEDEHUANJINGFAYUANZE。1993NIANQUANGUODIERCIGONGYEWURANFANGZHIGONGZUOHUIYITICHU“CONGMODUANZHILIXIANGSHENGCHANQUANGUOCHENGKONGZHIZHUANBIAN”[12],TIXIANLEWOGUODEHUANJINGBAOHUCONGSHIHOUZHILIDAOQUANGUOCHENGFANGZHIJIEHEDEZHUANBIAN。1994NIAN,WOGUOFABU《21SHIJIYICHENG》,JIANGRENKOU、HUANJINGYUFAZHANTONGCHOUKAOLV,TICHULEZHONGGUOSHIDEKECHIXUFAZHANZONGTIZHANLVEYUSHIXIANLUJING。ZAICITUIDONGXIA,WOGUOKAISHILEDUI《DAQIWURANFANGZHIFA》《SHUIWURANFANGZHIFA》DENGYIXILIEDANXINGLIFAXIUDINGHUOZHEZHIDINGDELANGCHAO。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CONGHUANJINGFADEMUDETIXIKAN,HUANJINGFADEJIBENYUANZEKEYIHUAFENWEIMUBIAOXINGYUANZEHESHOUDUANXINGYUANZELIANGLEI。MUBIAOXINGYUANZE,SHIZHIZHIZAIQUELIHUANJINGFAMUBIAOHEZONGZHIDEYUANZE,TASHIHUANJINGFAZHIDUANPAIDEDAOXIANG;SHOUDUANXINGYUANZE,SHIZHIZHIZAISHIXIANHUANJINGFADEMUBIAOXINGYUANZEDEYAOQIU,BINGWEIHUANJINGFAMUDEDEGUANCHETIGONGSHITIXINGYIJUDEYUANZE。YUFANGYUANZEYUSUNHAIDANZEYUANZE (3) 、GONGZHONGCANYUYUANZEGONGTONGGOUCHENGLEHUANJINGFADESHOUDUANXINGYUANZE;ERXIEDIAOFAZHANYUANZE,ZESHUYUHUANJINGFADEMUBIAOXINGYUANZE,QIZHIJIEZHIYINBINGSHENKEYINGXIANGZHEBAOKUOYUFANGYUANZEZAINEIDESHOUDUANXINGYUANZENEIRONGJIQIZHIDUSHIXIAN。

                              (二) 体系性目标之嬗变

                            星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUOHUANJINGFASHANGXIEDIAOFAZHANYUANZEDENEIHANJINGLILEYIGESHANBIANDEGUOCHENG。ZAI1989NIANDE《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》ZHONG,XIEDIAOFAZHANYUANZEBEIBIAOSHUWEI“GUOJIACAIQUYOULIYUHUANJINGBAOHUDEJINGJIJISHUZHENGCEHECUOSHI,SHIHUANJINGBAOHUGONGZUOTONGJINGJIJIANSHEHESHEHUIFAZHANXIANGXIEDIAO” (1) 。ZAICI,“JINGJIJIANSHEHESHEHUIFAZHAN”BEIZUOWEICANZHAOXI,HUANJINGBAOHUGONGZUOXUYAOJUCIDIAOZHENGHESHIYING。ZHEIYESHITONGCHANGBEIPINGJIAWEI“HUANJINGBAOHUYIJINGJIJIANSHEWEIZHONGXIN”DEYUANYIN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   SUIZHESHENGTAIHUANJINGWENTIDERIYITUCHUYIJIHUANJINGGUANLINEIZAIGUILVXINGYAOQIUDEBUDUANTUXIAN,ZHEIZHONGYIJINGJIJIANSHEWEIZHONGXINDELINIANZAOYUJUDATIAOZHAN。ZHEIZHONGTIAOZHANBUJINLAIZIYUXUELICENGMIANDUIYUFANGYUANZEZHUANZHUYUSUNHAIJIEGUODETAOLUN,YELAIZIYUSHIJIANBUMENZAIZHIFAGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDEYUELAIYUEDUODEWENTI。ZHEIYIQINGXINGZAI2005NIAN《GUOWUYUANGUANYULUOSHIKEXUEFAZHANGUANJIAQIANGHUANJINGBAOHUDEJUEDING》ZHONGYOULEGAIBIAN。GAI《JUEDING》YAOQIU“CUJINDIQUJINGJIYUHUANJINGXIEDIAOFAZHAN”,“ZAISHENGTAIHUANJINGCUIRUODEDIQUHEZHONGYAOSHENGTAIGONGNENGBAOHUQUSHIXINGXIANZHIKAIFA,ZAIJIANCHIBAOHUYOUXIANDEQIANTIXIA,HELIXUANZEFAZHANFANGXIANG”。2006NIAN,《GUOMINJINGJIHESHEHUIFAZHANDISHIYIGEWUNIANGUIHUAGANGYAO》JINYIBUYAOQIU“JIAKUAIJIANSHEZIYUANJIEYUEXING、HUANJINGYOUHAOXINGSHEHUI,CUJINJINGJIFAZHANYURENKOU、ZIYUAN、HUANJINGXIANGXIEDIAO”。2014NIAN《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》YOUZAICIJICHUSHANGZUOCHUGENGJIAMINGQUEDEGUIDING,YAOQIU“SHIJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANYUHUANJINGBAOHUXIANGXIEDIAO”3。

                              BUNANFAXIAN,25NIANJIAN,ZAI“XIEDIAOFAZHANYUANZE”KUANGJIAXIA,HUANJINGBAOHUYUJINGJIFAZHANZHIJIANDEGUANXICHANSHENGLESHENKEBIANHUA。ZAIXIANXINGGUOJIASHENGTAIHUANJINGZHENGCEHEHUANJINGJIBENFADESHIYEXIA,HUANJINGBAOHUZHUJIANCHENGWEISHEHUIJINGJIFAZHANXUYAOKANQIDE“BIAOGAN”。XIEDIAOFAZHANYUANZEZHEIYI“ZHANWEI”DEBIANHUADUIYUFANGYUANZECHANSHENGLESHENKEDEYINGXIANG,SHIYUFANGYUANZEXIANGYINGDILIANDONGFANYING。4YIGETUCHUDEBIAOXIANSHI,ZAIYIXIELINGYUZHONG,CONGYIBANDEYUFANGYUANZEYANBIANWEIGENGJIAYANGEDEFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZE。YIBANRENWEI,ZHEIZHONGYANBIANTIXIANZHEYUFANGDEDUIXIANGCONG“SUNHAI”ZHUANBIANWEI“FENGXIAN”。

                              (三) 风险预防原则之引入

                              ZAIGUOJIFALINGYU,FENGXIANYUFANGYUANZE (Precautionary Principle5) SHOUXIANZAIBEIDAXIYANGDEQUYUXINGHAIYANGHUANJINGBAOHULINGYUYINRU。ZAICIZHIHOU,XIANHOUYOUQITAGUOJITIAOYUEDUIFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEZUOCHULEGUIDING,QIZUICHUDESHIYONGFANWEIYECONGHAIYANGHUANJINGBAOHUZHUBUKUOZHANDAOQITALINGYU,RUYINGDUIQIHOUBIANHUA、WEIXIANWUPINGUANZHI、SHENGWUDUOYANGXINGBAOHUDENG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   GENJU1992NIAN《LIYUEXUANYAN》DECHANSHI,FENGXIANYUFANGYUANZESHIZHIWEILEBAOHUHUANJING,ANZHAOBENGUODENENGLI,CAIQUYUFANGCUOSHI,YUYOUYANZHONGHUOBUKENIZHUANSUNHAIDEWEIXIESHI,BUDEYIQUEFAKEXUECHONGFENQUESHIZHENGJUWEILIYOU,YANCHICAIQUCUOSHIFANGZHIHUANJINGEHUA。1992NIANDE《LIANHEGUOQIHOUBIANHUAKUANGJIAGONGYUE》YEZUOCHULELEISIBIAOSHU。6FENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEDESHIYONGTIAOJIANZHUYAOBAOKUO:CUNZAIDUISHENGTAIHUANJINGSUNHAIDEWEIXIE,JIHUANJINGFENGXIAN;CIZHONGSUNHAIBEIGUJIWEISHIYANZHONGDEHUOZHESHIBUKEWANHUIDE;KENENG (DANFEIBIRAN) QUEFAKEXUESHANGDEQUEDINGXING。

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                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZI21SHIJICHUQI,WOGUOSHENGTAIHUANJINGLIFAYEYUELAIYUEDUODICHENGXIANCHUDUIFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEDEZHONGSHI。2001NIANZHIDINGDE《NONGYEZHUANJIYINSHENGWUANQUANGUANLITIAOLI》MINGQUETICHU,YAO“FANGFANNONGYEZHUANJIYINSHENGWUDUIRENLEI、DONGZHIWU、WEISHENGWUHESHENGTAIHUANJINGGOUCHENGDEWEIXIANHUOZHEQIANZAIFENGXIAN”8。2003NIAN“FEIDIAN”DEBAOFA,KEGUANSHANGCONGWEISHENGFANGYIDEJIAODUTUIDONGLEYUFANGXINGCUOSHIFAZHIHUADEBUFA。ZAICIJICHUSHANG,WOGUOYOULUXUZHIDING《QINGJIESHENGCHANCUJINFA》《HUANJINGYINGXIANGPINGJIAFA》DENGFALV,SHENGTAIHUANJINGWENTIZHILISIXIANGCONGQUANGUOCHENGZHILIFAZHANDAOYUANTOUZHILI,YOUQISHIZHUZHONGSHIQIANPINGGUYIGUIBIDUIHUANJINGKENENGZAOCHENGDESUNHAI,CONGERWEIYUFANGWEIZHUXIANGFENGXIANYUFANGDEZHUANXIANGTIGONGLEJICHU。2013NIANBAOFADEQUANGUOXINGDEZHONGDUWUMAITIANQI,YINFALEQUANGUOFANWEIDEGUANGFANGUANZHU。[19]ZHEIXIEZHONGDAHUANJINGSHIJIANCHENGWEITUIDONGYOUYUFANGYUANZEXIANGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEFAZHANDEYIGEZHONGYAODONGYIN。2014NIANXIUDINGDE《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》YIFANGMIANZAILIFAMUDESHANGZENGJIALEGONGZHONGJIANKANGDENEIRONG9,LINGYIFANGMIANZENGJIALEGUANYUHUANJINGYUJIANKANGJIANCE、DIAOCHAHEFENGXIANPINGGUZHIDUHEYUFANGKONGZHIYUHUANJINGWURANYOUGUANDEJIBINGDEGUIDING10,CONGERZAIHUANJINGBAOHUJIBENFADECENGMIAN,ZAIHUANJINGJIANKANGLINGYUXIANGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEZHUANXIANG。

                              二、实体法的理路转向:以土壤污染防治为例

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIWOGUO,《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》HEDANXINGHUANJINGFACHUANTONGSHANGZUNXINGYUFANGYUANZE,DANZAIMOUXIELINGYUNEI,MUQIANZHENGZAIJINGLIZHEYIGECONGYUFANGYUANZEDAOFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEDELILUZHUANXIANG。ZHEIYIZHUANXIANGBUJINTIXIANWEIGUOJIHUANJINGFAZAIYIXIELINGYUDEJINZHAN,TONGSHIYETIXIANZAIYIXIELINGYUNEIDUIZHEIYIZHUANXIANGDEKENDINGYUQUEREN。ZAIYIXIEGUOJIAGUANYUTURANGWURANFANGZHIDELIFAZHONG,FENGXIANYUFANGLINIANYIDUOYOUTIXIAN。ZAIWOGUOJINXIENIANLAIXIUDINGHUANJINGDANXINGFADEGUOCHENGZHONG,LILUNJIEHESHIWUJIEDUICIYIZHIYOUSUOQIDAI,DANSHIZHIXINGDETUPOQUEZHIDAO2018NIAN1YUESHISHIDE《TURANGWURANFANGZHIFA》ZHONGFANGDEXIANXIAN。

                              (一) 国别法考察

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIMEIGUOZONGSEDIKUAIZHILICHENGXUZHONG,DUIDIKUAIDEWURANFENGXIANJINXINGPINGGUSHIZHONGYAODEBUZHOU。MEIGUOCAIYONG“WEIXIANPINGJIXITONG” (Hazard Ranking System) ,KAOCHAYOUHAIWUZHIJINGYOUBAOLUTUJINGCHANSHENGDEWEIXIANXING,DUIGEZHONGTUJINGCHANSHENGDETURANGWURANDUIRENTIJIANKANGHEHUANJINGCHANSHENGDEWEIXIANFUYUYIDINGDELIANGZHI,ZUIHOUJISUANDECHUCHANGZHIDEWEIXIANXISHU。WEIXIANXISHUJIAOGAODEDIKUAILIERUGUOJIAYOUXIANXIUFUZHILICHANGDIMINGDAN,ZHILIXIUFUJIJINJIANGBEIFENPEIJIDUISHEHUIHEHUANJINGWEIHAIZUIYANZHONGDECHANGDI。[20]29

                              YINGGUO1990NIANDE《HUANJINGBAOHUFAAN》 (Environmental Protection Act 1990) SHIWURANCHANGDIGUANLIDEHEXINLIFA,GAIFAMINGQUENARULEFENGXIANPINGGUSIXIANG。11YINGGUODETURANGWURANFANGZHICAIYONGFENGXIANGUANLIDEFANGFA。SHOUXIAN,JIYUGAINIANMOXING,QUEDINGWURANWU、SHOUTIHETUJINGZHIJIANDEGUANLIANXING;QIHOU,JIYUWURANCHANGDIBAOLUPINGGUMOXING,JISUANGEBAOLUCANSHUZONGTIDEFENGXIANGAILVHETURANGZHIDAOZHI,DUIWURANCHANGDIJINXINGYOUXIANCIXUPAILIE;ZUIHOU,JIYUDINGLIANGFENGXIANPINGGUFANGFA,QUEDINGCHANGDIWURANDEYANZHONGCHENGDUHEXIUFUSHIJIAN。[21,22]

                              DEGUODE《LIANBANGTURANGBAOHUFA》 (Federal Soil Protection Act) JIANGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEZUOWEIJIBENYUANZEZHIYI,CHUANGSHELEYANGEDEFENGXIANPINGGUCHENGXU,YONGYUSHAIXUANWURANCHANGDI。DUIWURANCHANGDIJINXINGDIAOCHA、SHIBIE、FENGXIANPINGJIAHEXIUFU、PINGGUHOUFANGKEZHONGXINTOURUSHIYONG。WURANCHANGDIGUANLIZHIDUBAOKUOSHIBIE、FENGXIANPINGJIA、XIUFUHEJIANCESIGEJIEDUAN。ZHENDUIZHEIXIEJIEDUAN,LIFAJUNZUOCHULEXIANGYINGDEGUANLIYAOQIU。《LIANBANGTURANGBAOHUYUWURANDITIAOLI》ZAIGAIFADEJICHUSHANG,GUIDINGLETURANGWURANHETUIHUADEDIAOCHAHEPINGGUZHIDU,MINGQUELEFANGFANWEIXIANDEYAOQIUBINGXIANGXIGUIDINGLEQIDONGZHI、XINGDONGZHI、FENGXIANYUFANGZHIYIJIYUNXUDEFUJIAWURANEDU。[23]

                              (二) 我国立法因应

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CONGXINZHONGGUO70NIANHUANJINGFAZHIYUANZEDEYANJINLISHIKAN,《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOTURANGWURANFANGZHIFA》 (YIXIAJIANCHENG《TURANGWURANFANGZHIFA》) SHIYONGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZESHIYIGEZHONGDATUPO。WOGUOTURANGWURANFANGZHICAIYONGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZE,BUJINYINWEITURANGWURANZHUANGKUANGRIYIYANZHONG,ERQIEYINWEIYUQITALEIXINGDEWURANXIANGBI,TURANGWURANZHILINANDUGENGDA、CHENGBENGENGGAO、ZHOUQIGENGZHANG。[24]YOUJIANYUZHEIXIETEDIAN,TURANGWURANFANGZHIFASHIYONGLESHANGSHU“QIANGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZE”。WOGUO《TURANGWURANFANGZHIFA》ZAIZHEIYIFANGMIANZUOCHULEYOUYIDECHANGSHI,JIYUFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEJIUTURANGWURANFANGZHIDEGEGEFANGMIANZUOCHULEQUANMIANDEGUIDING。ZAIFALVWENBENZHONG,JIN“FENGXIAN”YICIJIUCHUXIANLE125CIZHIDUO。

                              FENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEZAISHITIFACENGMIANDELUOSHI,TONGCHANGXUYAOYITUOYUJUTIDEFALVZHIDU。WEICI,《TURANGWURANFANGZHIFA》JIYUGUIHUAZHIDU、BIAOZHUNZHIDU、JIANCEZHIDUDENG,GUANCHEFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZE。GAIFAYAOQIUJIANGTURANGWURANFANGZHIGONGZUONARUSHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUGUIHUA,BINGGENJUHUANJINGBAOHUGUIHUAYAOQIU、TUDIYONGTU、TURANGWURANZHUANGKUANGPUCHAHEJIANCEJIEGUODENG,BIANZHITURANGWURANFANGZHIGUIHUA。TURANGWURANFENGXIANGUANKONGBIAOZHUNZEFENWEIGUOJIAJIHEDIFANGJILIANGGEJIBIE。DUIYUTURANGHUANJINGJIANCE,CONGSHENGTAIHUANJINGZHUGUANBUMENDAODIFANGRENMINZHENGFUYOUGUANBUMEN,JUNCHENGDANXIANGYINGDEZHIZE。TONGSHI,TURANGYOUDUYOUHAIWUZHIMINGLU、TURANGWURANZHONGDIANJIANGUANDANWEIMINGLUZHIDU、NONGYONGDIHEJIANSHEYONGDIDETURANGWURANFENGXIANGUANKONGHEXIUFUDENG,ZAI《TURANGWURANFANGZHIFA》ZHONGYEYOUGUIDING。RUCIQUANFANGWEI、DUOCENGMIANDIGUANCHEFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZE,ZAIWOGUOHUANJINGLIFAZHONGSHANGSHUSHOUCI。MOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGJIANG,ZHEIKENENGYUSHIZHEXINSHIDAIWOGUOHUANJINGLIFACONGYUFANGYUANZEXIANGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEDEZHUANXING。

                              (三) 风险预防的限度考量

                              ZHENGRUGUOCUOYUANZEDESHIYONGYINGFUYIZERENXIANZHIJIZHIYIYANG,FENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEDESHIYONGYEYINGDANGJUYOUXIANGYINGDEXIANDUKAOLIANG。ZHEIZHUYAOTIXIANWEIANQUANYUZHIDESHEDINGHECHENGBENXIAOYIFENXIDESHIYONGLIANGGEFANGMIAN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ANQUANYUZHI。FENGXIANPINGGUHEFENGXIANGUANLISHISHIXIANFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEDEZHUYAOJIZHI。ZAIZHEILIANGDAJIZHIZHONG,HELIDEANQUANYUZHIZHIGUANZHONGYAO。ZAIXIANSHIZHENGCEHELIFAZHONG,WANGWANGTONGGUODIAOZHENGANQUANYUZHILAIYINGXIANGHEKONGZHIFENGXIANYUFANGDEYANGECHENGDU:DUIYUFENGXIANJIAODADEXINGWEISHIXINGGENGJIAYANGEDEFENGXIANYUFANGCUOSHI,DUIYUFENGXIANJIAODIDEXINGWEIWANGWANGSHIXINGJIAOWEIKUANSONGDEFENGXIANYUFANGCUOSHI。[25]

                              CHENGBENXIAOYIFENXI。FENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEYAOQIUZAISHANGWEIFASHENGSHIJIDESUNHAISHIJIUCAIQUXINGDONG。RUGUOSUOCAIQUDECUOSHISHIBUBIYAODE,HUOZHEQICHENGBENGAOYUYUQIDESHENGTAIHUANJINGSUNHAI,JIUHUIDAOZHISHEHUIZIYUANDELANGFEIHEGUANLICHENGBENDEZENGJIA。WEICI,SHIXINGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEDETONGSHIXUYAOFUHECHENGBENXIAOYIYUANZE,DUICAIQUYUFANGCUOSHIDECHENGBENHEYUFANGXINGWEIDETIDAIFANGANJUNXUFENXI,CONGERZAIFENGXIANYUFANGCUOSHIYUBIMIANSUNHAIZHIJIANXUNQIUXIANGDUIHELIDEPINGHENG。

                              三、程序法的实践回应:基于预防性环境公益诉讼分析

                              ZONGGUANWOGUOHUANJINGFAZHIFAZHANDE70NIANLISHI,YUFANGXINGHUANJINGGONGYISUSONGSHOUDAOYUELAIYUEDUODEGUANZHUSHIYUJINYIXIENIAN。SUSONGZUOWEIYIZHONGJIUFENJIEJUEJIZHI,TONGCHANGJUYOUDIANXINGDE“SHIHOUXING”TEZHENG。JIANG“YUFANGXING”NARUSUSONGJIZHI,BUJINSHIMIANDUIRIYIYANJUNDESHENGTAIHUANJINGWENTIZAICHENGXUFACENGMIANCAIQUDEYINYINGCUOSHI,GENGTIXIANLEFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZESHIYONGLINGYUDEYANZHAN。

                              (一) 制度建构及实践

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENDUISHENGTAIHUANJINGFENGXIANDEBUQUEDINGXINGTEZHENG,YOUQISHIDUIYUBUKENIDESHENGTAIHUANJINGSUNHAI,YINGGAIWEIYUCHOUMOU。[26]JIYUZHEIYIJIBENGONGSHI,YIXIEGUOJIAZAIHUANJINGSUSONGLINGYUJINXINGLEYOUYIDECHANGSHI。ZAIMEIGUODE《QINGJIEKONGQIFA》 (Clean Air Act) ZHONG,GONGMINSUSONGZHIDUTIXIANLEYUFANGYUANZE,GONGMINKEZHIJIEDUIFADINGDEWEIFAXINGWEITIQISUSONGERWUXUZHENGMINGSUNHAIDECUNZAI。[27]DEGUOJIANLILEYUFANGXINGBUZUOWEISUSONGHEQUERENSUSONGLIANGXIANGZHIDU,ZAIXINGZHENGSUSONGZHONGYUFANGXINGSUSONGLILUNGOUZAOYUSHIWUJIAOWEICHENGSHU。[28]ZAIWOGUO,ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANTONGGUOSIFAJIESHIDEXINGSHI,ZAIYUFANGXINGSUSONGFANGMIANZUOCHULEJIJIDECHANGSHI。《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHENLIHUANJINGMINSHIGONGYISUSONGANJIANSHIYONGFALVRUOGANWENTIDEJIESHI》GUIDING,YUANGAOWEIXIAOCHUWEIXIANCAIQUHELIYUFANG、CHUZHICUOSHIERFASHENGDEFEIYONG,QINGQIUBEIGAOCHENGDANDE,RENMINFAYUANKEYIYIFAYUYIZHICHI。12《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHIYONG〈ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA〉DEJIESHI》GUIDING,QIDONGHUANJINGGONGYISUSONGJINYAOQIUTIGONG“CHUBUZHENGJU”,CONGERWEITIQIYUFANGXINGHUANJINGGONGYISUSONGJIANGDILENANDU。13YUFANGXINGHUANJINGGONGYISUSONGZAIWOGUOYIYOUSUOSHIJIAN。2015NIAN9YUE,ZHONGGUOSHENGWUDUOYANGXINGBAOHUYULVSEFAZHANJIJINHUIZHENDUISHISHIYALONGJIANGSHUIDIANTIJIKAIFAJIHUAKENENGPOHUAIWUXIAOYEQISHENGCUNDEQINGKUANG,XIANGSICHUANSHENGGANZIZANGZUZIZHIZHOUZHONGJIRENMINFAYUANTIQIDUIYALONGJIANGLIUYUSHUIDIANKAIFAYOUXIANGONGSIDEGONGYISUSONG。TONGNIAN12YUE,GANZIZHONGYUANDUIGAISUSONGYUYILIAN。LINGYIGEANJIANSHI,2018NIAN7YUE,ZIRANZHIYOUQISUZHONGGUOSHUIDIANGUWENJITUANXINPINGKAIFAYOUXIANGONGSI、ZHONGGUODIANJIANJITUANKUNMINGKANCESHEJIYANJIUYUANYOUXIANGONGSI。ZIRANZHIYOURENWEIXIANGMUKAIFAJIANSHEHUODONGKENENGZAOCHENGLVKONGQUEZHONGQUNQUYUXINGMIEJUEERTIQISUSONG,SHENQINGRENMINFAYUANPANLINGTINGJIANJIASAJIANGSHUIDIANZHAN。YOUZHEILIANGQIANJIANDESUSONGQINGQIUKEJIAN,YUANGAODESUQIUSHIXIAOCHUSHANGWEIFASHENGDANGAIRANXINGJIGAODESHENGTAIHUANJINGFENGXIAN。ZHEILIANGGEANJIANSHIWOGUOMUQIANWEISHUBUDUODEJUYOUDAIBIAOXINGDEYUFANGXINGHUANJINGGONGYISUSONG。

                              (二) 可行的改进路径

                            星云棋牌官网下载   MUQIAN,WOGUOYUFANGXINGHUANJINGGONGYISUSONGZHUYAOSHIZHENDUIHUANJINGWEIFAZHUTIDEYUFANGXINGMINSHIHUANJINGGONGYISUSONG。DANZAIXIANSHIZHONG,YOUYUXINGZHENGJIGUANDEZUOWEIHUOZHEBUZUOWEIYINQIDEHUANJINGWURANHESHENGTAIPOHUAIYEWEISHUBUSHAO,YINCIYOUBIYAOYINRUYUFANGXINGHUANJINGXINGZHENGGONGYISUSONG,DUIWEIFADEXINGZHENGJIGUANJINXINGJIANDU。[29]2017NIANXIUGAI《XINGZHENGSUSONGFA》SHI,ZAIDI25TIAOZHONGZENGJIALEJIANCHAJIGUANBUCHONGTIQIHUANJINGXINGZHENGGONGYISUSONGDEQINGXING,DANJINXIANYU“GUOJIALIYIHUOSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYISHOUDAOSUNHAI”DEQINGKUANG,JIRENGYISUNHAIJIEGUOFASHENGWEIBIYAOYAOJIAN,QIEZHIYOUZAIMEIYOUFALVGUIDINGDEJIGUANHEZUZHIHUOZHEFADINGJIGUANHEZUZHIBUTIQISUSONGDEQINGKUANGXIACAIKETIQIXINGZHENGSUSONG。ZHEIXIEXIANZHITIAOJIANBULIYUGUANCHEFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEHEDUCUHUANJINGBAOHUZHIFAJIGUANJISHIXINGSHIZHIQUAN。YINGDANGYUNXUFADINGZHUTIZAIFAXIANHUANJINGWEIFAXINGWEISHI,ZHIJIEZHENDUISHIZHIDEHUANJINGBAOHUZHIFAJIGUANTIQIXINGZHENGGONGYISUSONG,SHIXIANDUIXINGZHENGDEYOUXIAOJIANDU。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   LINGYIFANGMIAN,TUIDONGXIANDAIHUANJINGFAFAZHANDEJIBENMAODUN,BIAOXIANWEI“CHIXUZENGZHANGDEJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANKEXUEJINBUDELIYIXUQIUYUCHIXUZENGZHANGDEHUANJINGBAOHUDELIYIXUQIUZHIJIANDECHONGTU”[30]。ZAISUSONGLINGYUZHONG,JUZHENGZERENDEFENPEIDENGFANGMIANYINGZUNXUNBILIYUANZE,CAIPANGUOCHENGZHONGKAOLVYUFANGCUOSHIDEBIYAOXING、YUFANGXIAOGUODEKEDADAOXING、SHISHIDEYOUXIAOXINGDENGYINSU。SHISHISHANG,ZHEIYESHISHANGSHUCHENGBENXIAOYIFENXIZAIYUFANGXINGHUANJINGGONGYISUSONGLINGYUDEYUNYONG。ZAIZERENCHENGDANFANGSHISHANG,KEYIXISHOUMEIGUOFUJIAXINGHUANJINGXIANGMU (SEPs) DEJINGYAN14,GENGJIALINGHUODISHEDINGCHENGDANFALVZERENDEXINGSHI,ZENGJIAGENGJUYOUHEMUDEXINGDEZHENGGAIFANGAN,YOUTIAOJIANDIJIANSHAOJINGJIXINGCHENGFACUOSHI,ZAIZERENCHENGDANFANGSHISHANGGENGJIATIXIANFENGXIANYUFANGDEJINGSHEN,ERFEIBUJIUCHENGFA。

                              四、结论:生态环境风险防范的协同进路

                              FENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEZAIGUOJIALIFAHESIFACAIPANLINGYUDEZHUBUQUELIHEZHANKAI,NEIZAIDIYAOQIUGUOJIASHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUYIXIETONGZHILIMOSHIZHANKAI。SHENGTAIHUANJINGXIETONGZHILISHIFALVZHUTIJIYUGONGTONGRENKEDEGUIZE,KAIZHANDUOMIANXIANG、DUOJIAODU、DUOCENGCIDEXIEZUOXINGXINGDONG,CONGERSHIXIANJIDINGDEHUANJINGZHILIMUBIAO。ZAIXIANDAIHUANJINGFADESHIYEXIA,DUISHENGTAIHUANJINGHEZIRANZIYUANDEKAIFALIYONGXINGWEISUOZAOCHENGDESUNHAICAIQUDANDU、FENSANDEDUICEXINGCUOSHI,YIYUANYUANWUFAMANZUFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZEDEYAOQIU。YAOZAISHENGCHANLIGAODUFADADEXIANDAISHEHUIGUIBIFENGXIAN,JIUYAOQIUDUICIZHONGKAIFALIYONGXINGWEIDEMEIYIGEXIJIEKAIZHANGUIHUAYUKONGZHI,SUOYOUZHEIXIEDOUYAOZAIKEXUEHEKECENGZHIDEBIHUZHIXIASHISHI。[13]96SHENGTAIHUANJINGXIETONGZHILITIGONGLEYIGEKEXINGDEMOSHI,CHENGWEICONGYUANTOUSHANGYOUXIAOGUIBISHENGTAIHUANJINGFENGXIANDEFANGFA。ZHEIBIAOZHIZHEGUOJIASHENGTAIHUANJINGZHILIMOSHI,YOUDANYIWEIDUDEGUANLIKONGZHIMOSHIXIANGDUOYUANZHUTIGONGTONGCANYUDEHUDONGMOSHIHEDUOQUYULIANHEZHILIDEMOSHIZHUANBIAN。XINZHONGGUO70NIANHUANJINGFAZHIDEFAZHANLICHENGYEYINZHENGLEZHEIYIDIAN。

                              YOUGONGYOUCAICHANQUANZHIDUZHIYUSHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUYOUXIANZUOYONGDEJIAODUGUANZHI,SHENGTAIHUANJINGXIETONGZHILIYEYUFENGXIANYUFANGYOUZHETIANRANDEGUANLIAN。AILINUO·AOSITELUOMUYIJIAOYICHENGBENWEIGONGJU,FENXIZIYUANSHIYONGZHEZAIJIEJUEZIYOUHUOQUBEIJUWENTISHIDEHEZUO (HUOBUHEZUO) XIANXIANG。ZAICI,HEZUOQINGXINGCHUXIANDETIAOJIANJIUBAOKUO“TUANTIZHONGDEDADUOSHUGETIRENWEIZAIZIYUANSUOYOUQUANHEGUANLIZHONG,HEZUOBIBUHEZUOYAOHAO;HUHUIHUXINDESHEHUIGUIFANZAITUANTIZHONGZHANZHIPEIDIWEI”[31]211DENG。ZHEIZHONGCHENGBEN—XIAOYIFENXIWEIGUANCHEFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZETIGONGLEGUANGFANERYOUYIDESHIYE,YEWEISHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUDEXINGZHENGGUIZHITIGONGLEJICHU。[32]120DANNIER·KEERRENWEI,GUOJIADUISHENGTAIHUANJINGWENTIDEGUANLISHI“ZUOWEIYIZHONGQUELIHUANJINGWUPINGONGGONGCAICHANQUANDEFANGSHIDEWURANGUANZHI”[33]35。YINCI,SHENGTAIHUANJINGXIETONGZHILIMOSHIYOUZHUYUTUPOXINGZHENGGUIZHIDEDIFANGXINGJUXIAN,BIANYUZAIDUIGUANGFANQUYUNEIDESHENGTAIHUANJINGHEZIRANZIYUANSHISHIXIETONGGUANLIDEJICHUSHANG,GUANCHEFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZE。ZAIYOUXIANHUANJINGZIYUANHEJIDINGZIYUANBINGFUDETIAOJIANXIAYINGDUIRIYIYANJUNDESHENGTAIHUANJINGTIAOZHAN,KEZAIGUANCHEYUFANGYUANZEDEJICHUSHANG,ZAIMOUXIELINGYUNEISHIXINGFENGXIANYUFANGYUANZE,TUIDONGDUOZHUTI、DUOYAOSU、DUOFANGMIANDESHENGTAIHUANJINGXIETONGZHILI,YESHIJIEJUESHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHULINGYUZHENGFUSHILINGDEYOUXIAOTUJING。ZAIMOUZHONGYIYISHANGJIANG,XIANDAISHENGTAIHUANJINGWENTISHISHICHANGSHILINGYUZHENGFUSHILINGDIEJIAZUOYONGDEJIEGUO。ZHEIZHONGDIEJIAZUOYONG,JIAJULESHENGTAIHUANJINGGUANLIGUANHUDUOYUANZHUTI、GUANHUDUOYUANLIYI、MIANLINDUOYANGTAIFENGXIANDETIAOZHAN。ZAICIQINGXINGXIA,GENGXINHEWANSHANZHILIMOSHI,JIYUSHENGTAIHUANJINGXIETONGZHILITUIJINSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHE,BIANCHENGWEIBIYOUZHILU。

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                              [24]刘溜、刘英丽:《拿什么拯救被污染的土地》, 《中国新闻周刊》, 2005年24期。
                              [25]袁炯:《浅议风险预防原则在〈土壤污染防治法〉中的构建》, 《资源节约与环保》, 2016年8期。
                              [26]张旭东:《预防性环境民事公益诉讼程序规则思考》, 《法律科学》, 2017年4期。
                              [27]吴凯杰:《论预防性环境公益诉讼》, 《理论与改革》, 2017年3期。
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                              [29]湛中乐、尹婷:《环境行政公益诉讼的发展路径》, 《国家检察官学院学报》, 2017年2期。
                              [30]李启家:《环境法领域利益冲突的识别与衡平》, 《法学评论》, 2015年6期。
                              [31]埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆:《公共事物的治理之道———集体行动制度的演进》, 余逊达译, 上海:上海三联书店, 2000年。
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                              注释

                              1 《里约宣言》第15条。
                              2 2014年《环境保护法》第5条的表述也是“预防为主”。
                              3 也有学者称之为“损害环境者付费原则”“原因者负担原则”等。
                              4 《环境保护法》 (1989年) 第4条。
                              5 《环境保护法》 (2014年) 第4条。
                              6 尽管这种变化并非皆由协调发展原则之演变而生,例如国际环境法的发展映射于我国国内环境法制建设也是一个重要因素。
                              7 有些文献也将Precautionary Principle译为“谨慎原则”。
                              8 《联合国气候变化框架公约》第3条规定:“各缔约方应当采取预防措施,预测、防止或尽量减少引起气候变化的原因并缓解其不利影响。当存在造成严重或不可逆转的损害的威胁时,不应当以科学上没有完全的确定性为理由推迟采取这类措施。”
                              9 如乌尔里·希贝克在《风险社会》中的观点。
                              10 2001年《农业转基因生物安全管理条例》第3条 (已废止) 。
                              11 《环境保护法》第1条。
                              12 《环境保护法》第39条。
                              13 Department for Environment Food&Rural Affairs (Defra) .Environmental Protection Act 1990, Part 2A.http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1990/43/part/IIA, 2019年4月28日;布莱克·史密斯环境研究所:《土壤项目政策报告》,2015年,, 2019年4月28日。
                              14 《最高人民法院关于审理环境民事公益诉讼案件适用法律若干问题的解释》第19条。
                              15 《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉的解释》第284条。
                            星云棋牌官网下载   16 附加性环境项目 (SEPs) 协议最大的优势是灵活性。该协议由原告与被告共同达成。被告为减少惩罚,有足够的动力整改生产方式;而原告作为SEPs的受益者,也愿意与被告合作寻找并实施最符合当地经济、生态利益的解决方案。参见EPA:Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance.Beyond Compliance:Supplemental Environmental Projects.EPA-325-R-01-001, January 2001, at 3.

                              于文轩.生态文明语境下风险预防原则的变迁与适用[J].吉林大学社会科学学报,2019,59(05):104-111+221.
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