星云棋牌官网下载

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                          采矿权法律属性的理论分析与立法建议

                          时间:2019-01-20 来源:经济问题 作者:王士亨 本文字数:16897字

                            摘    要: 采矿权法律制度是矿产资源法律制度的重要组成部分,我国现行采矿权制度的主要问题在于不能科学界定采矿权的法律属性,具体表现为公权私权属性的混同合一和物权属性的错误定位。产生以上问题的原因在于:对矿产资源基本属性的忽略,矿产资源国家所有制度以及矿业立法传统思维的影响。采矿权法律制度的改革创新应以重新认识采矿权法律属性为基础,正确理解矿产资源国家所有的本质,将采矿权中的两种权利(力)属性进行分离,分别规定矿产资源资产所有权和采矿许可权,并实行矿产资源资产所有权证和采矿权许可证制度。

                            关键词: 采矿权; 用益物权; 矿产资源所有权;

                            Abstract:星云棋牌官网下载 The legal system of mining rights is an important part of the legal system of mineral resources.The main problem of the current mining rights system in China is that it is not able to define the legal attributes of mining rights scientifically.The specific manifestations are the mixed unity of the property and public right,wrong definition of property rights.The reasons for the above problems are:neglect of the basic attributes of mineral resources,impact of the state regime on mineral resources,impact of mining legislative traditions.The reform and innovation of the legal system of mining right should pay attention to the following aspects:New understanding of the legal attributes of mining rights,correct understanding of the nature of the national ownership of mineral resources separating provisions on ownership of mineral resources assets and mining licensing,implementation of the mineral resources asset ownership certificate and mining rights licensing system.

                            Keyword: 星云棋牌官网下载mining rights; usufructuary right; ownership of mineral resources;

                            WOGUOXIANXINGCAIKUANGQUANFALVZHIDUSHIYIZHONGMINSHIWUQUANHEXINGZHENGQUANLIHEWEIYITIDEFALVZHIDU。JIHUAJINGJISHIQI,WOGUODEKUANGCHANZIYUANSHIXINGWUCHANGHUABOKAICAIZHIDU,CAIKUANGQUANZAIKUANGCHANZIYUANFALVZHIDUZHONGXIANDEWUZUQINGZHONG,SHIXINGGAIGEKAIFANGHOU,GENJUCAIKUANGZHUTIDUOYUANHUAHEKUANGCHANZIYUANSHANGPINHUADEXUYAO,WOGUO《KUANGCHANZIYUANFA》QUELILETANKUANGQUANCAIKUANGQUANDEYOUCHANGQUDEZHIDU,2007NIANGONGBUSHISHIDE《WUQUANFA》YOUJIANGCAIKUANGQUANGUIDINGWEILEYONGYIWUQUAN,YOUCIZHUBUXINGCHENGLEWOGUODANGQIANDECAIKUANGQUANZHIDU。YISHANGGUIDINGCONGZHIDUCENGMIANMINGQUELECAIKUANGQUANDENEIHANHESHUXING,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGGAIBIANLEWUCHANGSHIYONGHEQUDEKUANGCHANZIYUANDEJUMIAN。DANCONGJUTINEIRONGHESHIJIXIAOGUOLAIKAN,QUEYUSHICHANGJINGJIGUILVXIANGBEILI,WUFAYOUXIAOSHIXIANCUJINKUANGYEFAZHANDELIFAMUDE。QIZHONGZUIZHUYAODEWENTIJIUZAIYUDUICAIKUANGQUANFALVSHUXINGDEJIEDINGPIANCHA,TUCHUBIAOXIANWEICAIKUANGQUANZHONGMINSHIQUANLIYUXINGZHENGQUANLIDEHUNXIAO,ERQIESHICAIKUANGQUANDEFALVSHUXINGTUOLILEKUANGCHANZIYUANBUKEZAISHENGDEWUZHISHUXING,JINERZAOCHENGLEKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEXUHUA、ZIYUANSHOUYIFENPEIBUHELI、ZHENGZHIHEZIRANSHENGTAIPOHUAIYANZHONGDENGSHEHUIWENTI。

                            一、问题的提出

                            CAIKUANGQUANSHIYIZHONGTESHUDEQUANLIXINGTAI,BAOHANLELIANGZHONGBUTONGXINGZHIDEQUANLI(LI)NEIRONG:YISHIJIYUXINGZHENGXUKECHANSHENGDECAIKUANGZIGEDEQUERENHESHEDING,JUYOUYIDINGDEGONGQUANSECAI;ERSHIJIYUKUANGCHANZIYUANJINGJIJIAZHISUOTIXIANDECAIKUANGQUANDEMINSHIQUANLISHUXING。ZHEIZHONGQUANLIXINGZHIHENEIRONGDEFUZAXINGDAOZHILEDUICAIKUANGQUANSHUXINGWENTIDEZHENGYI,《WUQUANFA》JIANGCAIKUANGQUANQUEDINGWEIYONGYIWUQUAN,ZHEIYIGUIDINGSUIRANCONGXINGSHISHANGMINGQUELECAIKUANGQUANDEWUQUANSHUXINGDINGWEI,DANCONGNEIRONGSHANGKANQUEYUCAIKUANGQUANDEBENZHITEZHENGXIANGMAODUN,DAOZHIGUANYUCAIKUANGQUANSHUXINGDEZHENGLUNGENGJIAJILIE,YEYINGXIANGLEZHENGGEKUANGCHANZIYUANFALVZHIDUDEGAIGE。MUQIANYOUGUANCAIKUANGQUANSHUXINGDEYANJIUZHUYAOJIZHONGYULIANGGEFANGMIAN:SHOUXIAN,RUHEJIEDINGCAIKUANGQUANDEGONGQUANYUSIQUANSHUXING;QICI,CAIKUANGQUANZAISIQUANTIXIZHONGYINGGAIRUHEDINGWEI,ZHEIGUANXIDAOKUANGCHANZIYUANDEJINGJIJIAZHIRUHETIXIAN、GUOJIASUOYOUZHEDESHOUYIRUHESHIXIAN、KUANGCHANZIYUANKAIFAZHEDEQUANLIRUHEJIEDINGDENGYIXILIEWENTI。

                            (一)采矿权中公权私权属性的混同合一

                            我国《宪法》规定“矿藏……等自然资源,都属于国家所有”,因此,采矿权是基于矿产资源国家所有而产生的一项权利,矿产资源本身是处于静止状态的,如果不进行相关的资源开发利用活动,其经济和社会价值就不可能显现,这就需要由特定主体对矿产资源进行勘查、开采和利用,由此便形成了法律意义上的探矿权和采矿权。就采矿权而言,法律赋予了权利人开采矿产资源和获得所开采的矿产品的权利,同时国家实行采矿权有偿取得制度,以实现所有者收益。因此,从本质上看,采矿权属于私权,应纳入民事物权的范畴。但同时这项权利也是基于行政许可而产生的1,根据《矿产资源法》《矿产资源开采登记管理办法》的规定,要想取得采矿权,必须经过各级政府主管部门的审批登记。由此可见,采矿权在本质上属于私权,但在权利来源上却依赖于行政许可。这样的权利授予模式将国家对全民所有的矿产资源民事权利与国家授权对矿产资源开发利用的行政许可混淆,两种权利(力)都体现在一个证上,即采矿许可证,这使采矿权的属性定位变得模糊,造成了制度实施中的利益冲突。这种利益冲突的实质是资源配置模式的矛盾,即是以行政权力为主还是以市场机制为主。实践中,这种矛盾体现在采矿权的设立、流转和收回等各个环节。
                           

                          采矿权法律属性的理论分析与立法建议
                           

                            1.就采矿权的设立而言,对采矿权的取得应以申请主体自身的经济、技术、管理条件为衡量标准,通过竞争机制的作用,使资源配置到能最大发挥其效益的市场主体手中

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DANZAIXINGZHENGXUKEYUMINSHIXUKEHUNXIAODEMOSHIXIA,GELEISHENQINGRENSUIRANTONGWEISHICHANGZHUTI,QUEYOUYUSUOYOUZHIXINGSHIDEBUTONGERSHOUDAOQUBIEDUIDAI,GUOYOUZHUTIWANGWANGZAIXINGZHENGZHUGUANBUMENDEZHICHIXIAYIWEIHUKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANHUOZHEBAOZHANGSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIWEIYOUHUOQUGELEITEQUAN,JIANGFEIGUOYOUZHUTIZHIYUBUPINGDENGDEDIWEIZHIXIA,WEIBEILESHICHANGJINGZHENGDEJIBENFAZE。RU《KUANGCHANZIYUANFA》DISANSHIWUTIAOJIANGGETICAIKUANGDEFANWEIJUXIANZAI“LINGXINGFENSANZIYUANHEZHINENGYONGZUOPUTONGJIANZHUCAILIAODESHA、SHI、ZHANTUYIJIWEISHENGHUOZIYONGCAIWASHAOLIANGKUANGCHAN”,SUIRANFATIAOZHONGCAIYONGLE“GEREN”DECHENGWEI,DANYIJUGAIFADIWUZHANG“JITIKUANGSHANQIYEHEGETICAIKUANG”DEMINGCHENG,ZHEILIDE“GEREN”HUO“GETI”QISHIJIUSHIJITIKUANGSHANQIYEZHIWAIDEQITAFEIGUOYOUSHICHANGZHUTI。ZHEIYANGDEGUIDINGDAOZHIBUTONGSUOYOUZHIQIYEZAICAIKUANGQUANDEQUDEFANGMIANSHOUDAOBUTONGDEZHENGCEDAIYU,TONGSHIJIYUBUTONGQIYETONGZHENGFULISHUGUANXIJISHUISHOUJIAONAGUANXIDEBUTONG,ZHEIZHONGCHABIEDAIYUHUIJINYIBUJIADA。ZHEIYU《XIANFA》“GONGTONGFAZHAN”DEJIBENJINGJIZHIDUYIJI《WUQUANFA》PINGDENGDUIDAISHICHANGZHUTIDEJIBENFAZESHIXIANGBEIDE。

                            2.就采矿权的流转而言,行政权力的干预问题十分突出

                            YICAIKUANGQUANCHURANGDEZHAOBIAOPAIMAIGUAPAIWEILI,ZHEIYIZHIDUZAIFAHUISHICHANGJIZHIGONGNENGFANGMIANQUESHIQIDAOLEJIJIZUOYONG,DANYOUYUZHAOPAIGUASUOZUNXUNDESHICHANGFAZEYUCAIKUANGQUANXINGZHENGXUKEZHONGDEDANFANGSHENPIBUXIANGRONG,DAOZHIZHEIYIZHIDUDESHISHIXIAOGUOBINGBULIXIANG2。ZHAOPAIGUAZHIDUYINGYISHICHANGJIAGEJUEDINGCAIKUANGQUANDEPEIZHI,ERXINGZHENGSHENPIYOUBIXUDUIZHUTIJINXINGYANGEDEZIZHISHENCHA。ZHEIERZHEJIEHEZAIYIQIJIUHUISHISHICHANGTIAOJIANXIADEGONGKAIJINGJIACHENGWEIXINGZHENGQUANLIKONGZHIDESHENPIGUOCHENG,QINEIZAIMAODUNHEYOUCICHANSHENGDEWENTISHIXIANERYIJIANDE。QIZHONGJIAOWEITUCHUDEJIUSHIXINGZHENGBUMENBUDANGJIERUCAIKUANGQUANCHURANGGUOCHENG,SHIZHAOPAIGUAZHIDUDEXINGSHIDAYUSHIZHI,RUZAICAIKUANGQUANCHURANGZHIQIANJIUQUEDINGHAOCHURANGDUIXIANG,SHENZHICAIYONGGUAPAIDEFANGSHIZHIQUEDINGYIGEJINGMAIREN。ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGBUJINZAOCHENGLESHICHANGZHUTICANYUCAIKUANGQUANCHURANGDETIAOJIANBUPINGDENG,ERQIEJIYISHICAIKUANGQUANJIAZHIBEIDIGU,SHIGUOYOUSHOUYILIUSHI。TONGSHIZAIKUANGCHANPINSHOUJIASHENGGAODEQINGKUANGXIA,CAIKUANGQUANSHOUYUJIGUANZAIZHIDAOCAIKUANGQUANRENKEYIHUODEGAOELIRUNDEQINGKUANGXIA,JIUKEYILIYONGSHOUZHONGDEQUANLI,YOUXUANZEXINGDIBACAIKUANGZIGESHOUYUNEIXIEJIYUQIFEIFAHAOCHUZUIDUODEREN,ZHEIYESHIKUANGCHANZIYUANLINGYUFUBAIWENTIPINFADEYUANYINZHIYI3。“RUSHANXI2006NIANHE2009NIANKAIZHANDEMEITANZIYUANZHENGHE……ZAIZIYUANDEPEIZHISHANG,BUSHISHICHANGSHUOLESUAN,ERSHIZHENGFUSHUOLESUAN,WEIGUANYUANFUBAIQUANLIXUNZUZAOJIULEKONGJIAN”[1]。

                            3.就采矿权的收回而言,权利存续的不稳定严重影响矿产资源的有效合理利用

                            ZAISHIJIANZHONG,YINZHENGFUJIANSHEXIANGMUZHENGSHOUZHENGYONGKUANGYEYONGDIHUOZAIZHENGFUZHUDAOXIAJINXINGZIYUANZHENGHEJIKUANGYEQIYEJIANBINGZHONGZU,JINERDAOZHICAIKUANGQUANBEISHOUHUIJIZHONGXINPEIZHIDEQINGKUANGLVJIANBUXIAN。ZHEIXIEQINGKUANGDECHUXIANSUIRANYOUCHANYEDIAOZHENG、WEIHUSHEHUIGONGYIDEKAOLV,DANYOUYUQIFASHENGDEBUQUEDINGXING,SHICAIKUANGQUANRENDUIQUDEDEKUANGYEQUANLIQUEFAWENDINGDEXINLIYUQI,DAOZHIQICAIYONGZUIKUAIJIE、CHENGBENZUIDIDEFANGSHIZAIJINKENENGDUANDESHIJIANNEIKAICAIDALIANGDEKUANGCHANZIYUAN,SHIXIANZISHENLIYIDEZUIDAHUA。YOUCIDAOZHIKUANGCHANZIYUANSHOUDAOYANZHONGSUNSHI,SHENZHIYINFAYANZHONGDEANQUANSHIGU,ZHEIYUKUANGCHANZIYUANCHANQUANCUNXUDEBUWENDINGYOUZHEMIQIEGUANXI。YINCI,ZAICAIKUANGQUANDEQUANLIWENDINGXINGFANGMIAN,SIQUANDEBAOZHANGJIZHIYUGONGQUANDESUIYIGANYURENGRANCUNZAIZHECHONGTU。YOUYUCAIKUANGXUKEZHENGDAIBIAODEBUJINSHIYIZHONGXINGZHENGXUKEXINGWEI,ERQIESHIYIZHONGCAICHANQUAN,XINGZHENGZHUGUANBUMENZAICHEXIAOXINGZHENGXUKEDETONGSHIYESHOUHUILECAICHANQUAN,JIANGERZHEBUSHIDANGDIDENGTONGQILAI。WEILEFANGZHIGONGQUANDESUIYIGANYU,JINKENENGDIDUOHUOSHOUYIHEJIANGDICHENGBENSUNSHI,CAIKUANGQUANRENJIGONGJINLIDEDUANQIXINGWEIHEXUNZUXINGWEIJIUZAISUONANMIAN。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,CAIKUANGQUANZHONGGONGQUANYUSIQUANSHUANGZHONGXINGDETEDIANZAOCHENGLEZHIDUYUNXINGGUOCHENGZHONGFUZADEMAODUNCHONGTU,YOUYUGONGQUANJUYOUQIANGLIEDEKUOZHANGXINGHEYUEWEIQINGXIANG,GUODUOGANYUSIQUANDEXINGSHI,HUNXIAOLEMINSHIQUANLIHEXINGZHENGQUANLIDEJIEXIAN,PAICHILESHICHANGZAIZIYUANPEIZHIZHONGDEJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG,YOUCIZAOCHENGDEYIXILIEWENTI,CHENGWEIZHIYUEKUANGYESHICHANGFAZHANDEZHUYAOZHANGAI。

                            (二)采矿权物权属性定位不当

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                            1.CONGSUOYOUZHEDEJIAODULAIKAN,CAIKUANGQUANYONGYIWUQUANSHUXINGDEJIEDINGSHIKUANGCHANZIYUANJIAZHIDIGUHESUOYOUZHESHOUYILIUSHIDEZHUYAOYUANYIN

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                            2.从使用者的角度来看,采矿权用益物权属性的界定是矿产资源开发利用秩序混乱、资源浪费严重的主要原因

                            SUOYOUQUANSHUZIWUQUAN,JUYOUDUZHANXING、PAITAXING。MAKESICENGZHICHU“ZHIYOUYIGERENYIKAISHIJIUYISUOYOUZHEDESHENFENLAIDUIDAIZIRANJIEZHEIGEYIQIELAODONGZILIAOHELAODONGDUIXIANGDEDIYIYUANQUAN,BAZIRANJIEDANGZUOSHUYUTADEDONGXILAICHUZHI,TADELAODONGCAICHENGWEISHIYONGJIAZHIDEYUANQUAN,YINERYECHENGWEICAIFUDEYUANQUAN”[2]。SHIYONGQUANSHUTAWUQUAN,SHIZAITARENSUOYOUDEWUSHANGSHELIDEQUANLI,QUANLIZHUTIDUIWUDEGUANXINCHENGDUYAOCIYUSUOYOUQUANREN。

                            《WUQUANFA》JIANGCAIKUANGQUANGUIRUYONGYIWUQUAN,SHIQIZHINENGDUIBIAODEWUJINXINGYOUXIANZHIDEZHIPEI,ZHEIDADAXUERUOLEQUANLIDEWENDINGXING,YEHENNANZUIDAXIANDUDIFAHUIWUDEXIAOYONG。SHICHANGZHUTISUIRANTONGGUOYOUCHANGDEFANGSHIQUDELECAIKUANGQUAN,DANZHEIZHONGQUANLICONGFALVCENGMIANSHANGLAISHUOZHISHIYIZHONGSHIYONGQUAN,QIZHONGJIQUANSHUHAISHIGUIGUOJIASUOYOU,ZHEISHIDECAIKUANGQUANRENDUIWEILAIDEYUQISHIZHONGCHUYUBUWENDINGDEZHUANGTAI。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,CAIKUANGQUANRENHENKENENGHUIXUANZESHIZISHENLIYIZUIDAHUADEXINGWEIMOSHI:JIDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANJINXINGXUANZEXINGDEKAICAI,YIQIUZAIZUIDUANDESHIJIANNEIKAICAIJINKENENGDUOHEHAODEKUANGCHANZIYUAN,YUCITONGSHIJINLIANGYASUOZAIANQUANSHENGCHAN、SHENGTAIBAOHUDENGFANGMIANDECHENGBENTOURU。ZHEIYANGKUANGCHANZIYUANKAIFAGUOCHENGZHONGTIAOFEIJIANSHOUDEXINGWEI、SIWALANCAIXINGWEIDENGJIUBUKEBIMIAN,TONGSHIYOUZAOCHENGLEANQUANSHIGUPINFA、SHENGTAIHUANJINGEHUA、KUANGDIMAODUNJIHUADENGEGUO。LINGWAI,YOUYUCAIKUANGQUANDEQUDESHITONGGUOXINGZHENGXUKEFANGSHIFUYUDE,ZIRANYEKEYITONGGUOXINGZHENGDEFANGSHIYUYIBODUO。SHISHISHANG,QUANLIRENDESHIYONGQUANSHIFOUWENDING,HENDACHENGDUSHANGQUJUEYUXINGZHENGYIZHI,ERFEISHICHANGJIZHI,XINGZHENGQUANLIZAIZHEIGEWENTISHANGJUYOUJUEDINGXINGDEZUOYONG。ZHEIYANG,CAIKUANGQUANZHUTIJIUHUIHEFUBAIGUANYUANJIECHENGLIYIGONGTONGTI,SHUANGFANGZHIJIANDELIYISHUSONGYEJIUZAISUONANMIAN,ZHEIYESHIKUANGYEFUBAINANYICHEDIGENCHUDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。

                            3.从资源配置的角度来看,采矿权用益物权属性的界定是采矿权市场化建设的主要障碍

                          星云棋牌官网下载   JIANLIYIGESHANGPINHEYAOSUZIYOULIUDONG、PINGDENGJIAOHUANDEXIANDAISHICHANGTIXI,SHISHICHANGPEIZHIZIYUANDEJICHUXINGYAOQIU,DANSHIJIANGCAIKUANGQUANSHEDINGWEIYONGYIWUQUANDEZUOFAQUEYUZHEIYIYAOQIUXIANGBEI。ZUOWEIYONGYIWUQUANDECAIKUANGQUANBENZHISHANGSHIYIZHONGTAWUQUAN,ZAIWEIZHENGDESUOYOUQUANRENTONGYIDEQIANTIXIA,CAIKUANGQUANRENBUJUYOUDUIBIAODEWUDECHUFENQUAN,FALVYEQUELILECAIKUANGQUANYUANZESHANGBUDEZHUANRANG、TESHUQINGKUANGCAIKEYIZHUANRANGDEGUIZE。DANZHENGRUQIANWENSUOSHU,SHICHANGZHUTIZAIQUDECAIKUANGQUANDETONGSHIYIJINGZAISHISHISHANGQUDELEDUITEDINGKUANGCHANZIYUANDECHUFENQUAN,ZHEISHIZHISHANGJIUSHIYIZHONGSUOYOUQUAN,YINGDANGZUNXUNSHICHANGJINGJISHANGPINLIUTONGDEJIBENFAZE。DANSHIYOUYU《WUQUANFA》JIANGCAIKUANGQUANDINGXINGWEIYONGYIWUQUAN,CONGZHIDUCENGMIANBODUOLECAIKUANGQUANRENDECHUFENQUANNENG,ZHEIJIUZAOCHENGLEFALVYUXIANSHIDETUOJIE。SHIJIANZHONG,YIBUFENCAIKUANGQUANRENHUIYINWEIZIJIN、JISHUDENGGEZHONGYUANYINWULIZAIJINGYINGQIYE,ERLINGYIBUFENRENSUIYOUCHONGZUDEZIJINHEJISHUSHILI,QUEKUYUMEIYOUCAIKUANGDEZIGE,ZAOCHENGLE“GENGZHEWUTIAN,TIANZHEBUGENG”DEJUMIAN,SHIZIYUAN、SHEBEI、ZIJINDALIANGLANGFEI。TONGSHIYIYONGYIWUQUANMINGYICHURANGDECAIKUANGQUANJIAGEYUQISHIJISHICHANGJIAZHIZHIJIANCUNZAIJUDACHAYI,WULUNSHICAIKUANGQUANRENHAISHIQITASHICHANGZHUTIDOUNENGQINGCHUDIKANDAOZHEIYIDIAN,LIYONGZHEIZHONGJIAGECHA,CAIKUANGQUANRENNENGGOUTONGGUOZHUANRANGCAIKUANGQUANDEDAOJUESHOUYI,SHOURANGFANGYENENGQUDEKAICAIKUANGCHANZIYUANHEJINGYINGKUANGCHANPINDEQUANLI,DUISHUANGFANGLAISHUODOUYOULIKETU。YINCI,ZAISHICHANGJIZHIDEDIAOJIEXIA,SUIRANFALVZUOCHULEXIANZHIZHUANRANGDEGUIDING,DANCAIKUANGQUANZHUANRANGYIJINGCHENGWEIYIZHONGXIANSHIXUQIU。SHIJIANZHONG,SHICHANGZHUTICHUGENJU《KUANGCHANZIYUANFA》DILIUTIAODEGUIDINGJINXINGCAIKUANGQUANDEZHUANRANG,HAIHUIXUNZHAOQITAFANGSHILAIGUIBIJIANGUAN:RUQUANLIZHUTITONGGUOGUQUANZHUANRANGDEFANGSHIBIANXIANGZHUANRANGCAIKUANGQUAN,ZHEIZHONGFANGSHISUIRANDUICAIKUANGQUANGUISHUZAIWAIGUANSHANGBUCHANSHENGYINGXIANG,DANSHIJIHUIDAOZHICAIKUANGQUANZHUTIGUQUANJIEGOUHEFARENZHILIJIEGOUDEBIANHUA,SHIQIYESHIJIKONGZHIQUANZHUANYI。CONGYISHANGSHISHIKEYIKANCHU,YIYONGYIWUQUANJIEDINGCAIKUANGQUANDEFALVSHUXINGDAOZHILECAIKUANGQUANQUANNENGCANQUE,FALVZHONGYUANZESHANGBUDEZHUANRANG、TESHUQINGKUANGCAIKEYIZHUANRANGDEGUIDINGQISHIFANYINGCHULELIFASHANGDEYIZHONGGANGA,ZAOCHENGLECAIKUANGQUANXUYAOZHUANRANGDANYOUBUNENGCHEDIFANGKAIDELIANGNANXUANZE。ZHEIZHONGQUANSHUMOSHIJIZHIDUGUIDINGBUDANMEIYOUQIDAOXIANZHICAIKUANGQUANZHUANRANGHEFANGZHIZIYUAN、ZIJINLANGFEIDEZUOYONG,FANERYINZHIDUYUXIANSHIDETUOJIEZUAILEKUANGYEFAZHAN。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,DUICAIKUANGQUANWUQUANSHUXINGJIEDINGDEPIANCHASHIKUANGYESHICHANGHUAFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGDEZHONGYAOWENTI。CONGQUANLIZHUTIDEJIAODULAIKAN,GELEIZHUTISHIZHONGCHUZAIYIZHONGQUANYISHIXIANHELIUSHIBINGCUNDEZHUANGTAIZHONG,GUOJIAZUOWEIKUANGCHANZIYUANDESUOYOUZHEXIANGYOUFALVYIYISHANGDESUOYOUQUAN,DANQUEWUFASHIXIANZHEIZHONGQUANLI,ERRENYOUZIYUANSHOUYIBUDUANLIUSHI;CAIKUANGQUANRENSUIRANKEYISHIJIXIANGSHOUDAOKAIFAKUANGCHANZIYUANDAILAIDEJINGJILIYI,DANQUESHOUZHIYUYONGYIWUQUANDEQUANNENGXIANZHI,QUANLIQUEFAWENDINGXING。“QUANLIDEMINGXIYUFOUYIWEIZHEQUANLIZHUKETI、JIEXIANHEQUANNENGDEMINGQUEYUFOU,……SHIZIRANZIYUANZICHANPEIZHIYOUHUADEJIBENYAOQIU”[3],DANGQIANKUANGCHANZIYUANQUANSHUMOHUDEZHUANGTAIYUSHANGSHUJIBENYAOQIUSHIXIANGBEIDE,ZHEIZHISHIFALVYIYISHANGDECHANQUANYUJINGJIYIYISHANGDECHANQUANXIANGHUMAODUN,GELEIZHUTIZAIQUANSHUSHANGDEJIEXIANWUFAMINGQUE,DAOZHILEJIAODIDECHANQUANXIAOLV,ZENGJIALEQUANSHUZHENGYIFASHENGDEKENENGXINGJIYOUCIERDAILAIDEGEZHONGCHENGBEN,XIANGYINGDEJILIHEJIANDUJIZHIYEWUFAYOUXIAOYUNZHUAN。ZAILIFASHANG,KUANGYELIFABIAOXIANCHUYIZHONGBAOSHOUDESIWEITAISHI,DUIJIBENFALVGAINIANDEJIEDINGYAOBAIBUDING,WEIKONGSHICHANGYINSUGUODUODAOZHIGUOJIADUIZHONGYAOKUANGCHANZIYUANSHIQUKONGZHI,JINERDUIZHENGGEGUOMINJINGJISHIQUKONGZHI。ZHEIZHONGZHIDUYUXIANSHIDEMAODUN,FANYINGCHUSHICHANGJIZHIRENGRANMEIYOUCHENGWEIZHUDAOKUANGYEZIYUANPEIZHIDEZHULIUFANGSHI,JIXUYISHICHANGHUADE、SHISHIQIUSHIDESIWEIFANGSHIZHONGXINDUICAIKUANGQUANDEFALVSHUXINGJINXINGJIEDING,YICITUIDONGKUANGCHANZIYUANFALVZHIDUDEGAIGEYUZHONGGOU。

                            二、采矿权法律属性的理论分析

                            (一)采矿权法律属性与矿产资源属性的错位

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YANJIUCAIKUANGQUANDEFALVSHUXINGWENTI,BIXUCONGKUANGCHANZIYUANDEZISHENSHUXINGCHUFA,YICIWEIJICHUJINXINGFENXI。KUANGCHANZIYUANDESHUXINGKEYICONGZIRAN、JINGJIHESHEHUISANGECENGMIANJINXINGCHANSHI。QIZHONGZIRANSHUXINGBAOKUOZIYUANDEYINBIXING、KEHAOJIEXINGHEXIQUEXING,KEHAOJIEXINGSHIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEJICHUZIRANSHUXING;JINGJISHUXINGZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEIKUANGCHANZIYUANZISHENJUYOUDEJIAZHIHEXIANGGUANDEQUANLIJIAZHI,QIZHONGJIUBAOKUOLECAIKUANGQUANJIAZHI;SHEHUISHUXINGBIAOXIANWEIWULUNSHIDUIYUKUANGCHANZIYUANHAISHIXIANGGUANQUANLIDECHUFEN,BUNENGWANQUANPINGJIEQUANLIZHUTIDEGETIYIZHI,HAIXUYAOJIANGUGUOJIAHESHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDEYAOQIU。

                            DUIKUANGCHANZIYUANZISHENSHUXINGDERENSHISHIJIEDINGCAIKUANGQUANFALVSHUXINGDEJICHUHEQIANTI,DANXIANXINGZHIDUDUICAIKUANGQUANSHUXINGDEJIEDINGQUEYUKUANGCHANZIYUANZISHENSHUXINGFASHENGLECUOWEI,QIYUANYINZAIYUHULVELEKUANGCHANZIYUANDEKEHAOJIEXINGJUEDINGDECAIKUANGQUANNEIRONGBAOHANYOUDUIKETIWUDECHUFEN。JIYUKUANGCHANZIYUANKEHAOJIEXINGHEBUKEZAISHENGXINGDETEDIAN,SUIZHECAIKUANGQUANDEXINGSHI,KUANGCHANZIYUANHUIZHUJIANXIAOHAO。CONGZHEIYIDIANSHANGKAN,CAIKUANGQUANDEXINGSHIBAOKUOLEDUIKETIWUDESHISHICHUFEN,ZHEIYUYONGYIWUQUANBUXIAOHAOWU、BUPOHUAIWUDEQUANNENGBENZHIMAODUN。YINCI,JIANGCAIKUANGQUANDINGXINGWEIYONGYIWUQUANSHIBUKEXUEDE。CAIKUANGQUANDEXINGSHISHIDIXIADEKUANGCHANZIYUANZHUANBIANWEIKUANGCHANPIN,CAIKUANGQUANRENYONGYOULEZHEIXIEKUANGCHANPINDESUOYOUQUAN,YEJIUYIWEIZHEQUDELEXIANGYINGDEKUANGCHANZIYUANDESUOYOUQUAN。CONGZHEIYIDIANSHANGLAIKAN,CAIKUANGQUANRENDUIKUANGCHANPINYONGYOUDESUOYOUQUANQISHIJIUSHIDUIXIANGYINGQUYUDEKUANGCHANZIYUANYONGYOUSUOYOUQUAN,RUGUOJIANGQIJIEDINGWEIYONGYIWUQUAN,XIANRANYUKUANGCHANZIYUANDEBUKEZAISHENGXINGXIANGBEI,SHIYISHIYONGQUANZHIMINGYANGAISUOYOUQUANZHISHI,HUIYANZHONGDIGUQUANLIDEJIAZHI,YANZHONGQINHAISUOYOUZHEDESHOUYIQUAN。

                            (二)现行采矿权中公权私权混同合一的根源

                            1.矿产资源国家所有制度的影响

                            XIANXINGCAIKUANGQUANZHIDUSHIWEIRAOKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOU(JIQUANMINSUOYOU)LAIZHIDINGHESHISHIDE,YINCICAIKUANGQUANZHONGGONGQUANHESIQUANDEHUNTONGYUKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUDEZHIDUYOUZHEMIQIEDEGUANXI。

                            SHOUXIANSHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTISHUANGZHONGXINGZHIDEYINGXIANG。CONGFALVSHANGKAN,GUOJIASHIYIGEJUYOUSHUANGZHONGFALVRENGEDEZHUTI,YIFANGMIANGUOJIAZHANGWOGONGQUANLI,DUISHEHUIJINXINGGUANLI,JUYOUGONGFARENGE;LINGYIFANGMIANGUOJIAYEKEYIYIMINSHIZHUTIDESHENFENCANYUSHEHUIJINGJISHENGHUO,DUIZIJIDECAICHANJINXINGLIYONGHESHOUYI,JUYOUSIFARENGE。KEGUANLAIKAN,GUOJIASHENFENDESHUANGZHONGXINGSHIQIZISHENXINGZHISHIRAN,BENSHENWUKEHOUFEI,DANRUGUOBUNENGMINGQUEQUFENZHEILIANGZHONGBUTONGXINGZHIDEFALVRENGE,SHIQIXIANGHUHUNTONG,ZEHUICHANSHENGHENDADEWENTI。WOGUOSHIYIGEYOUZHEJIHUAJINGJICHUANTONGDEGUOJIA,ZHANGQICUNZAIDUIXINGZHENGQUANLIDEXIGUANXINGYILAI。ZHEIYIXIANXIANGFANYINGZAIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANSHANG,JIUBIAOXIANWEIGUOJIATONGGUOXINGZHENGQUANLIDEFANGSHILAIXINGSHISUOYOUQUAN,DANBUNENGQINGCHUDIJIEDINGXINGZHENGQUANHESUOYOUQUANDEJIEXIAN,DAOZHIERZHEXIANGHUJIAOZHI,JIEWEIYITI。ZHEIYANGJIUSHIZHENGFUJISUOYOUQUANDAIBIAOHEJIANGUANZHEJIAOSEYUYISHEN,SUOYOUQUANXINGZHENGQUANLIHUA,XINGZHENGQUANLITIDAILESHICHANGJIZHIDEZUOYONG,JINXINGZIYUANPEIZHI,LVXINGSUOYOUZHEZHINENG,ERSHICHANGJIAOYIDEBUGONG、GUOJIACAICHANDELIUSHI、XUNZUFUBAIXIANXIANGDELVJINBUZHIDENGWENTIJUNYUCIYOUMIQIEDEGUANXI。ZAIKUANGCHANZIYUANLINGYU,ZHEIYANGDEWENTIBIAOXIANGENGWEIMINGXIAN,KUANGCHANZIYUANBENSHENZHONGYAODEJINGJISHEHUIJIAZHI、FADINGDEGUOJIAZHUANSHUXINGSHIKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANTIXIANCHUGENGWEINONGHOUDEXINGZHENGQUANLISECAI。CONGKUANGYEQUANDESHEDING、LIUZHUANDAOJIANGUANSHIZHONGWEIXINGZHENGQUANLISUOKONGZHI,ZAICAIKUANGQUANDESHEDINGSHANGQUFENDUIXIANGDESUOYOUZHIXINGTAIJIYUBUTONGDAIYU,LIYONGXINGZHENGXUKEDEFANGSHIXIANZHICAIKUANGQUANDEZIYOULIUZHUAN,ZAIZHEIZHONGJIZHIXIA,KUANGCHANZIYUANDEPEIZHIYOUXINGZHENGQUANLIERFEISHICHANGJIZHIJUEDING,ZAOCHENGXINGZHENGQUANLIMEIYOUBIANJIE,SUOYOUQUANQUEFABAOZHANGDEQINGKUANG,ZHEIWUYIHUIYANZHONGYINGXIANGDAOZIYUANDEYOUXIAOPEIZHIHELIYONG,SHIZIYUANLIUSHI→KUANGZHUBAOFU、GUANSHANGGOUJIE→KUANGYEFUBAIDENGWENTINANYIGENCHU。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   QICISHIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHIDUXINGSHIMOSHIDEYINGXIANG。YOUYUGUOJIASHIYIGEGAODUCHOUXIANGDEGAINIAN,“QUANMINSHIRENKOUYIYISHANGDEXUNIZHUTI,ZHISHILIYISHANGDEGONGTONGTI,ERBUJUYOUMINSHIZHUTIDIWEI”[4]。SUOYILIFASHANGJIANGKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANSHOUQUANJIGUOWUYUANJUTIXINGSHI,ERSHIJIANCAOZUOZHONGZHEIZHONGSHOUQUANXINGSHIDEMOSHIYOUBEIZHUJISHIYONGYUGEJIZHENGFUGUANLIBUMEN,CONGERXINGCHENG“SUOYOUQUANZHUTIDEWEIYIXINGHEZHANYOUQUANZHUTIDEDUOYUANXINGMIQIEJIEHEDEGUOJIASUOYOUQUANJIEGOU”[5]。ZHEIZHONGMOSHILIANGXINGYUNXINGDEJICHUZAIYUSUOYOUQUANRENHEQUANLIDAIBIAODELIYIYIZHIXING,JIGUOJIALIYIHEZHENGFULIYIDEZHENGTIYIZHI。DANJIUSHIJIQINGKUANGLAIKAN,QUE“JIYIBEIDIFANGZHENGFUYIGUANLIQUANTIDAISUOYOUQUANXINGSHI、HUNXIAOLIANGZHONGQUANLIJIEXIANJINERMOUQUSILIDEXINGWEIJIAKONG”[6]。ZHENGFUZUOWEISHEHUIJINGJISHENGHUODESHIJIGUANLIZHE,YEJUYOUDULIDELIYISUQIU,ZHEIZHONGLIYISUQIUCONGFANWEISHANGKANJUXIANYUYIDINGDEDIQU、BUMENSHENZHISHIGETICENGMIANSHANG,YUGUOJIAJIYUSUOYOUZHESHENFENWEIWEIHUSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYISUOYAOZHUIQIUDEMUBIAOSHIBUTONGDE。JUTIERYAN,GEJIZHENGFUXINGZHENGBUMENZAIZHUIQIUBENDIQU、BUMENHEGONGWURENYUANZISHENLIYIZUIDAHUADEGUOCHENGZHONG,HUIXINGCHENGTIAOKUAIFENGEDELIYIJITUAN,QIYUGUOJIADAIBIAODESHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIFASHENGCHONGTUSHI,WEILEWEIHUDIQULIYI、BUMENLIYISHENZHISHIGETILIYI,BEISHOUQUANZHUTIJIUHUIPINGJIEZISHENDEXINGZHENGQUANLIHEDUIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDESHIJIKONGZHILIYIZHISHENZHISUNHAIGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHUTIDELIYI,ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,YOUZHENGFUDAIBIAOGUOJIAXINGSHIKUANGCHANZIYUANSUOYOUQUANJIUJIYICHUXIANZIYUANZHIPEIHESHOUYIXIANGFENLIDEQINGKUANG。YIFANGMIANKUANGCHANZIYUANDESHIJIKONGZHIQUANZHANGWOZAIZHENGFUSHOUZHONG,ERGUOJIAHEZHENGFUDELIYIQUEBINGBUWANQUANYIZHI,ZAIQUEFAYOUXIAOJIANGUANSHOUDUANDEQINGKUANGXIA,GUOJIADEZHENGTIQUANYIHENNANDEDAOQIESHIDEBAOZHANG。LINGYIFANGMIANZHENGFUZUOWEISUOYOUQUANXINGSHIDEDAIBIAO,YANGELAISHUOBINGBUNENGQUDESUOYOUZHESHOUYI,ZAIQUEFAWUZHISHOUYICIJIDEQIANTIXIA,DIFANGGEJIZHENGFUHEBUMENRENZHENLVXINGZHIZEDEDONGLIBUZU,HUODUIZIYUANBAOHUBULI,HUOLIANSHOUSHICHANGZHUTIZHANYOUZIYUAN,DAOZHIGUOYOUKUANGCHANZIYUANDEPOHUAIHELIUSHI。SHANXIZUOWEIMEITANZIYUANDASHENG,ZAINENGYUANLIYONGFANGMIANDEGONGXIANHENDA,DANSHEHUIJINGJIFAZHANSHUIPINGZHANGQIZHIHOU,MEITANZIYUANPOHUAIYANZHONG,HUANJINGSHENGTAIEHUA,MEIJIAOLINGYUFUBAIWENTIYANZHONGDOUSHIYISHANGWENTIDEXIANSHIFANYING。YINCI,DANGQIANKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANZHIDUXINGSHIMOSHIDEZHUYAOWENTIJIUZAIYU“ZAIYOUZHENGFUXINGSHIZIRANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEQINGKUANGXIA,YINGDANGRUHEWEIHUQUANMINZUOWEIZIRANZIYUANSUOYOUQUANZHUTIDEFALVDIWEI,BAOZHANGZHENGFUANZHAORENMINYIZHIXINGSHISUOYOUQUAN,WEIHURENMINGONGGONGLIYI,SHIXIANRENMINGONGTONGFUZHI?CONGSHIJIANLAIKAN,ZHEIYIWENTIZAIXIANYOUDEZHIDUANPAIZHONGBINGMEIYOUDEDAOJIEJUE”[7]。

                            2.我国矿产资源立法发展演变过程中法律传统的影响

                          星云棋牌官网下载   KUANGCHANZIYUANZUOWEIRENLEISHEHUISHENGCUNHEFAZHANDEZHONGYAOWUZHIJICHU,DUIYIGUODEZHENGZHIWENDING、JINGJIHEJUNSHIFAZHANJUYOUJIDUANZHONGYAOXING。YINCI,ZAIWOGUOZHANGDASHUQIANNIANDEZHONGYANGJIQUANZHIXIA,GUOJIASHIZHONGDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANSHIXINGYANGEKONGZHIHEZHIPEI,DUIKUANGYEFAZHANSHIXINGTONGYIHUADEGUANLI,ZHEISHI“PUTIANZHIXIAMOFEIWANGTU”DEHUANGQUANSIXIANGZAIKUANGCHANZIYUANLINGYUDEJIZHONGTIXIAN,YEYOUCIXINGCHENGLEWOGUOKUANGCHANZIYUANLINGYUDEGONGQUANGUANZHIMOSHI。WOGUOCONGCHUANTONGSHANGJIUSHIYIGEGUOJIAGONGQUANLIHEGUANNIANGAODUFADADESHEHUI,ZIXIANQINZHIQINGCHAOQIANZHONGQI,CAIKUANGYEJIBENSHANGYANXILEGONGQUANGUANKONGDEZHENGCE,GUANFANGKUANGYESHIZHONGZHANJUZHUDAODIWEI,JINGJIQUANLIYUZHENGZHIQUANLIJINMILIANXIZAIYIQI,SIQUANLISHOUDAOGONGQUANDEGEZHONGYAZHI,NANYICHONGFENWENDINGDIFAZHAN。QINGCHAOHOUQIKUANGYEZHENGCEZHUBUYOUJINCAIZOUXIANGKAIFANG,BANKUANGFANGSHIKAISHIDUOYANGHUA,CHUGUANBANHEMINBANDEQUFENZHIWAI,HAIJIARULEWAISHANGHEZHONGWAIHEZIDEBANKUANGXINGSHI,DANSHIYOUYUDANGSHIPUBIANCAIQUDE“GUANDUSHANGBAN”DEJINGYINGGUANLIMOSHI,SHIKUANGCHANZIYUANHECAIKUANGQIYEDECHANQUANNANYIMINGXI,ZHENGFUJIEZHUGONGQUANLIDUIQIYEDESHENGCHANJINGYINGJINXINGGUODUGANYU,XIANGGUANZHUTIDESIQUANDEBUDAOYOUXIAOBAOZHANG。ZAIZHONGHUAMINGUOSHIQI,KUANGYEZHIDUTIXIFAZHANDEGENGWEIQUANMIAN,GUOJIAJINYIBUJIANGKUANGCHANZIYUANZHIYUGONGQUANLIDEZHIPEIHEGUANLIZHIXIA。XINZHONGGUOJIANLISHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUYIHOU,WOGUOKAISHIYIJIHUAJINGJIWEITONGLING,SHIXINGYANGEDEJIHUAJINGJITIZHI,KUANGCHANZIYUANDEGUIHUAKANTANKAICAIDOUYAOANZHAOGUOJIADEJIHUASHISHI,KUANGCHANPINBUCUNZAIJIAOYIZHICUNZAIFENPEI,GUOJIAYEBUCUNZAIKUANGCHANZIYUANSHICHANG。ZAICIBEIJINGXIA,GUOJIAJIKUANGCHANZIYUANDESUOYOUZHE、GUANLIZHE、JINGYINGZHEDUOZHONGJIAOSEYUYITI,ZHENGFUBUMENDUIKUANGSHANQIYEGANYUBUDUANJIAQIANG,CAIKUANGQUANDEQUDEHEXINGSHIZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGQUJUEYUKUANGYEXINGZHENGZHUGUANBUMENDEYIZHI。CONGWOGUOXIANXINGKUANGYEFAGUIDUICAIKUANGQUANDEGUIDINGLAIKAN,YEMINGXIANBIAOXIANCHU“ZHONGGONGQINGSI”DEZHIDUQINGXIANG,CAIKUANGQUANDEWUQUANSHUXINGYIZHIBEIHUSHIHEPAICHI。《WUQUANFA》SUIRANJIANGQIGUIRUYONGYIWUQUANZHIZHONG,DANJUTIGUIDINGQUEXIANGDANGJIANDAN,SHENZHIKEYISHUOMEIYOURENHEKEGONGCAOZUODEJUTIGUIDING,YUCIXIANGDUIDESHI,ZAIZHONGDUODEKUANGCHANZIYUANFALVFAGUIZHONG,CAIKUANGQUANDEGONGQUANSHUXINGDEDAOLECHONGFENTIXIAN。ZHEIYANG“WUQUANDEQINGSHIHEHULVEYUXINGZHENGQUANDEPENGZHANGHEKUOZHANGXINGCHENGLEYIDINGCIXIAOBIZHANGDEGUANXI。WUQUANZHIDUDEQUESHI,DAOZHIKUANGCHANZIYUANQUEFAYINGYOUDEYICAICHANBAOHUWEINEIRONGDEMINSHIQUANLIBAOHUJIZHI,SHIXINGZHENGQUANLIGUOFENKUOZHANGYUYUEQIYINGYOUDE‘SHILIFANWEI’,YUEZUDAIPAOQIANGXINGJIERUBENYINGSHIMINSHIQUANLIDEYUNZUOKONGJIAN,DANJIYUKUANGCHANZIYUANCAICHANSHUXINGERKEGUANCUNZAIDEDUIMINSHIQUANLIDENEIZAISUQIUYOUBUKENENGYINCIERXIAOMIE,ZHEIJIUSHICHANSHENGKUANGCHANZIYUANKAIFALIYONGZHONGQUANLIYUQUANLIZHUDUOCHONGTUDEGENBENYUANYIN”[8]。

                            3.矿产资源基本属性对采矿权中公权私权配置的影响

                          星云棋牌官网下载   KUANGCHANZIYUANJUYOUZIRAN、JINGJI、SHEHUIDENGDUOZHONGSHUXING,FALVGUIDINGKUANGCHANZIYUANGUIGUOJIASUOYOU,ZHEISHIQIJUYOULEYIBANWUSUOMEIYOUDEGONGGONGXINGHESHEHUIXING。YINCI,CAIKUANGQUANDEQUDEHEXINGSHIBIXUCONGSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYICHUFA,JIESHOUGUOJIADEJIANDUGUANLI。CAIKUANGQUANRENYONGYOUDUITEDINGQUYUKUANGCHANZIYUANDESHIJIZHIPEIQUAN,DANYEXUYAOCHENGDANXIANGYINGDESHEHUIYIWU,ERGUOJIAGONGQUANLIDUIKUANGYEQUANDEZHONGZHONGXIANZHI,QICHUSHIMUBIAOYESHIWEILEBAOZHENGDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEHELIKAIFALIYONG,SHIKUANGCHANZIYUANDESHEHUIGONGNENGDEYISHIXIAN,ZHEIJIUSHICAIKUANGQUANGONGQUANSHUXINGDETIXIAN。DANSHICONGLINGYICENGMIANSHANGKAN,CAIKUANGQUANDEBENZHIRENGRANSHUYUWUQUAN,QIYUNXINGYINGZUNXUNMINSHIGUIZE,YAOFANGZHIGONGQUANLIDEGUODUGANYU。RUGUOFALVBUDUIXINGZHENGQUANLIJIAYIGUIZHI,NEIMEQUANLIJIUHUIZHUBUYIHUA,CHENGWEIGEJIZHENGFUHEQUANLIBUMENJIGERENMOUQUBUDANGLIYIDETUJING,GEZHONGSHEZUHEXUNZUXINGWEIJIUHUICENGCHUBUQIONG,ZHEIHUIPIANLIYUANYOUDEJIANGUANMUBIAO,YINGXIANGGUOJIALIYIHESHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIMUBIAODESHIXIAN。SUOYI,KUANGCHANZIYUANDEJIBENSHUXING、GUOJIASUOYOUDEZHIDUANPAI,SHICAIKUANGQUANJUYOUGONGQUANTEZHENG,ERWEICHONGFENSHIXIANKUANGCHANZIYUANSUOYOUZHEDEQUANYIHEKUANGCHANZIYUANDEZISHENJIAZHI,WOMENYEBIXUZUNZHONGQISIQUANBENZHI。ZAISHICHANGJIZHISHANGBUWANSHANQIESHICHANGGUYOUQUEXIANDEYINGXIANGXIA,GONGQUANGANYUSHISHIFENBIYAODE。DANZAIWOGUOZHEIYANGYIGEJUYOUGONGQUANCHUANTONGDEGUOJIA,GONGFAZHIDUHEGONGQUANGUANNIANZHANGQIZHANJUZHUDAODIWEI,GONGQUANLIDEZHANGKONGZHELIYONGXINGZHENGQUANLIHUODEBUDANGLIYIDEKONGJIANHENDA,ERZUOWEIGONGQUANLIXIANGDUIFANGDESIQUANZHUTISHIXIANQUANLISUQIUDENANDUJIAODA。ZHEIJIUYAOQIUZAIZHIDUSHANGGAIBIANCAIKUANGQUANZHONGMINSHIWUQUANYUXINGZHENGGUANLIQUANXIANGHUHUNXIAO、MOHUBUQINGDEPEIZHI,MINGQUEXINGZHENGJIGUANDEZHINENGHEXINGZHENGQUANLIDEZUOYONGFANWEI,DUIGONGQUANXINGWEIJIAQIANGJIANDUHEZHIYUE。

                            (三)采矿权物权属性的重新定位

                          星云棋牌官网下载   YOUYUKUANGCHANZIYUANDETESHUSHUXINGHECAIKUANGQUANNEIRONGDEFUZAXING,YOUGUANCAIKUANGQUANWUQUANSHUXINGDEZHENGLUNSHIZHONGCUNZAI,SUIRAN《WUQUANFA》JIANGCAIKUANGQUANGUIRUYONGYIWUQUANZHIZHONG,DANQUEBINGWEIJICHUKEGONGCAOZUODEZHIDUGUIDING,LILUNSHANGYEQUEFALINGRENXINFUDEJIESHI。KEGUANLAIKAN,ZAIXIANXINGZHIDUKUANGJIAXIAJIANGCAIKUANGQUANDINGXINGWEIYONGYIWUQUANYOUQIYIDINGDEHELIXING,ZHUYAOJIEJUEDESHICAIKUANGQUANRENSHISHICENGMIANHUODEKUANGCHANPINYUKUANGCHANZIYUANFALVCENGMIANGUOJIASUOYOUZHIJIANDEMAODUNGUANXIWENTI,QIANGDIAOCAIKUANGQUANYINGSHOUDAOSUOYOUQUANDEZHIYUE。DANZHEIYIZHIDUANPAIZUIDADEWENTIZAIYUCAIKUANGQUANYUYONGYIWUQUANZHEILIANGLEIQUANLIDEBENZHISHUXINGCUNZAIMAODUN,XIANGHUZHIJIANWUFAJIANRONG:YIFANGMIANJIANGCAIKUANGQUANLONGTONGDIJIEDINGWEIYONGYIWUQUAN,HUIDAOZHIDUIQIGONGQUANSHUXINGDEHULVE,BUNENGMINGQUECAIKUANGQUANZHONGGONGQUANYUSIQUANDEJIEXIAN,NANYIJIEJUEQUANLINEIBUGONGSIQUANSHUXINGDEMAODUNCHONGTU;LINGYIFANGMIANJIYUKUANGCHANZIYUANDEKEHAOJIEXING,ZAICAIKUANGQUANXINGSHIHOU,QUANLIBIAODEWUYIJINGBUKENENGYIYUANZHUANGFANHAIJISUOYOUQUANREN,CAIKUANGQUANDENEIRONGYIJINGBAOHANLEDUIBIAODEWUDECHUFEN,ZHEIYUYONGYIWUQUANDEQUANNENGNEIRONGCHANSHENGLECHONGTU。JIANGCAIKUANGQUANJIEDINGWEIYONGYIWUQUANBUJINDAOZHILEWUQUANFALVZHIDUZAICAIKUANGQUANWENTISHANGDEBEIDONG,YEZAOCHENGLESHIJIANZHONGKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOYOUSHOUYILIUSHI、YUSHICHANGJINGJITIZHIXIANGTUOJIE、XINGZHENGQUANLIXUNZUDENGYANZHONGWENTI。SHISHISHANG,CAIKUANGQUANZAI“CHUANTONGDEWUQUANTIXIZHONGBINGMEIYOUXIANGYINGDEWEIZHI,YINWEICHUANTONGWUQUANTIXISUOYAOJIEJUEDEHEXINWENTISHIRENZAOCAIFUDEWUQUANGUISHUHELIUZHUANWENTI”,ERCAIKUANGQUANSUOYAOJIEJUEDEWENTISHI“RUHEYONGQUANLIZHEIYIZHIDUGONGJUMIAOSHUHEGUIFANJIANGZIRANCAIFUBIANCHENGRENZAOCAIFUDEGUOCHENG”[9]。YINERYOUBIYAODUICAIKUANGQUANDEWUQUANSHUXINGJINXINGZHONGXINRENSHI,CHENGRENQIJUYOUSUOYOUQUANSHUXING,YOUCICAINENGCONGGENBENSHANGJIEJUEWENTI。

                            1.矿产资源国家所有权和矿产资源资产所有权的区分

                          星云棋牌官网下载   KUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANSHIJIYU《XIANFA》GUIDINGERCHANSHENGDE,《XIANFA》DIJIUTIAOGUIDING“KUANGZANG……SHUYUGUOJIASUOYOU,JIQUANMINSUOYOU”。YOUYU《XIANFA》SUOJUYOUDEZHENGZHISHUXING,YINCI《XIANFA》ZHONGGUIDINGKUANGZANGGUIGUOJIASUOYOUDEMUDEZAIYUMINGQUEGUOJIAHEQITAZHUTIZAIKUANGZANGGUISHUWENTISHANGDEGUANXI,TIXIANCHULEGUOJIAZHUQUANDEXINGZHI。KUANGZANGSHUGUOJIASUOYOUJIEJUEDESHIKUANGCHANZIYUANZAIZIRANMAIZANGZHUANGTAIXIADEGUISHUWENTI,ZAIZHEIYIJIEDUAN,ZIYUANBINGWEIBEIKAIFALIYONG,QIFANWEIYEBINGWEIBEITEDINGHUA,KUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUSHIDUIYIGUOZHUQUANFANWEINEISUOYOUDEYIFAXIANHEWEIFAXIANDEZIYUANERYANDE,QIKETIJUYOUJIAOQIANGDECHOUXIANGXINGHEZHENGTIXING,YINQICUNZAIYUGUOJIAZHUQUANKONGZHIDEDIYUFANWEINEI,SUOYICHENGWEILEXIANFAYIYISHANGDEGUOJIASUOYOUQUANDEKETI。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   JIUCAIKUANGQUANERYAN,QINEIRONGBAOKUOKAICAIKUANGCHANZIYUANHEHUODEKUANGCHANPINLIANGGEFANGMIAN,YOUYUKUANGCHANZIYUANKEHAOJIEXINGDETEDIAN,CAIKUANGQUANDEQUANLINEIRONGYIJINGBUSHIYONGYIWUQUANSUONENGNANGKUO,ERCHENGWEILEYIZHONGSHIZHIYIYISHANGDESUOYOUQUAN。DANZHEIZHONGSUOYOUQUANYUKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUQUANBUTONG,TAQIANGDIAODESHIKUANGCHANZIYUANBEIKAIFAZHIHOU,JINRUSHICHANGZHUANBIANWEIZICHANDEYIZHONGZHUANGTAI,SHIYAOCONGZIYUANZICHANHUADEJIAODUKANDAIKUANGCHANZIYUANDUIGUOMINJINGJIHESHEHUIFAZHANDEJIAZHIHEZUOYONG,KECHENGWEIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUAN,QIKETIYINGSHIZAITEDINGDEDIYUFANWEINEITONGGUODIZHIDIAOCHAHUOQITAFANGSHIYIJINGTANMINGDETEDINGHUADEZIYUAN,NENGGOUWEIQUANLIZHUTISUOJUTIZHIPEIHESHIYONG,BINGHUOQUJINGJISHOUYI。

                            YOUYISHANGFENXIWOMENKEYIDECHUZHEIYANGDEJIELUN:KUANGCHANZIYUANSUOYOUQUANKEYICONGGONGQUANHESIQUANLIANGGECENGMIANQULIJIE:CONGGONGQUANDEJIAODUKAN,TASUOTIXIANDESHIGUOJIAZHUQUAN,SHIGUOJIALIYONGGONGQUANLIDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEGUANLI,ZHEISHIDEKUANGCHANZIYUANCHUYUJINGTAIDEZHUANGTAIZHONG,SHANGWEIJINRUSHICHANGLIUTONGLINGYU,CONGZHENGTISHANGKANBUNENGJIANGQICHUFENHUOFENPEIJIRENHEZHUTI,ZHEIYEJIUSHIWOMENTONGCHANGSUOSHUODEKUANGCHANZIYUANZHUANSHUYUGUOJIASUOYOUDEHANYI;CONGSIQUANDEJIAODUKAN,TASUOTIXIANDESHIGUOJIADUIKUANGCHANZIYUANYONGYOUMINFAYIYISHANGDESUOYOUQUAN,ZHEIZHONGSUOYOUQUANZUOYONGDEKETISHIBEIQUEDINGLEYIDINGFANWEIHECHULIANGDEJUTIZIYUAN,QINEIRONGSHIBAOKUOLEZHANYOU、SHIYONG、SHOUYIHECHUFENQUANNENGZAINEIDEJIHETI,ZHEIZHONGSUOYOUQUANDEHEXINJIAZHIBUZAIYUDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEZHANYOUHEKONGZHI,ERSHITONGGUODUIZIYUANSHIYONGQUANHECHUFENQUANDEXINGSHI,ZUIDAHUADIHUOQUZIYUANSHOUYI,YEJIUSHISHUOYAOSHIXIANZIYUANDEZICHANSHUXING,ZHEIYIQIEDEWANCHENGBIXUYAOJINGGUOSHICHANGJIAOHUAN,ZAIDONGTAIDEGUOCHENGZHONG,GUOJIAKEYIJIANGKUANGCHANZIYUANDEGEXIANGQUANLICHURANGYUSHICHANGZHUTI,TONGGUOSHOUQUZIYUANDUIJIASHIXIANSUOYOUZHEQUANYI,SHICHANGZHUTIYEYOULEGENGWEIWENDINGDEQUANLIYUQIHEBAOZHANG。

                            2.设立矿产资源资产所有权的正当性分析

                            WOGUOGUIDINGLEKUANGCHANZIYUANGUIGUOJIASUOYOU,MUQIANWULUNZAILILUNHAISHISHIJIANZHONG,PUBIANRENWEICHUGUOJIAYIWAIDEQITAQUANLIZHUTIBUNENGQUDEKUANGCHANZIYUANDESUOYOUQUAN。ZHEIYANGDELIJIEKANSISHIDUIGUOJIAKUANGCHANZIYUANSUOYOUZHEDIWEIDEYIZHONGBAOHU,DANSHIJISHANGFANERHUIDAOZHIGUOJIADUIKUANGCHANZIYUANSHOUYIQUANHEKONGZHIQUANDESANGSHI。SHISHISHANG,YOUYUKUANGCHANZIYUANDEKEHAOJIEXING,ZHIYAOYUNXUCAIKUANGQUANDESHELIHEXINGSHI,JIUDAIBIAOZHEGUOJIAYIJINGCHURANGLETEDINGQUKUAIKUANGCHANZIYUANDESUOYOUQUAN,ERBUJINJINSHISHIYONGQUAN。RUGUOYIDINGYAOYONGFALVGUIDINGMOHUZHEIZHONGXIANSHIQINGKUANGDEHUA,QIJIEGUOZHINENGSHISUNHAIGUOJIADUIKUANGCHANZIYUANDESHOUYIQUANHEKONGZHIQUAN。ZAIKUANGCHANZIYUANKAIFALIYONGZHONG,WOMENYINGJIANCHIKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUDEJIBENYUANZE,DANTONGSHIYEYAORENSHIDAOGAIXIANGYUANZESHIJISUOZHIYINGSHIZHENGTIYIYISHANGDEKUANGCHANZIYUAN,ZHEIZHONGKUANGCHANZIYUANBAOKUOYIZHIHEWEIZHIDEQUANBUZIYUAN,FANWEIJIQIGUANGFAN,JUYOUGAODUDEGAIKUOXINGHECHOUXIANGXING。ERZAISHEZHICAIKUANGQUANZHIHOU,KUANGCHANZIYUANBEITEDINGHUAHEJUTIHUA,KEYIWEIQUANLIZHUTISUOZHIPEIBINGPINGGUQIJIAZHIHEJIAGE,JUYOULEZIYUANZICHANDESHUXING,ZHEIJIUWEISHELIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANTIGONGLETIAOJIANHEKENENG。

                            (1)SHELIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANBINGBUYU《XIANFA》GUIDINGHESHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHIYAOQIUXIANGBEI。WOGUO《XIANFA》GUIDINGLEKUANGZANGZIYUANGUIGUOJIASUOYOU,NEIMERUGUOSHELIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANBINGJIANGQICHURANGJISHICHANGZHUTISHIFOUHUIWEIFAN《XIANFA》DEGUIDINGNI?DUIZHEIYIWENTIDEHUIDASHOUXIANXUYAOMINGQUE《XIANFA》GUIDINGKUANGZANGZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUDEYITUSHISHENME,ZHEIYIGUIDING“BUSHIWEILEJIEJUEPINGDENGDEZIYUANKAIFALIYONGZHUTIZHIJIANDEQUANYIQUERENHECHONGTUWENTI,ERSHIJUYOUZHUQUANXUANSHI、MINGQUEGUOTIDEYONGYI,QIEWEIGUOJIADUIZIYUANQUANLIDEPEIZHITIGONGZHENGDANGXINGJICHU”[10]。YINER《XIANFA》GUIDINGKUANGZANGGUIGUOJIASUOYOU,QIMUDEZAIYUWEIHUSHEHUIZHUYISHENGCHANZILIAODEGONGYOUZHI、WEIKUANGCHANZIYUANQUANLIPEIZHIHEXINGSHITIGONGXIANFAYIJU。NEIMERUGUOSHELIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUAN,SHIFOUHUIDUISHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHIDEJINGJIJICHUZAOCHENGSUNHAINI?ZHEIJIUSHEJIDAOSUOYOUQUANHESUOYOUZHIDEGUANXIWENTI。GENJUMAKESIZHUYILILUN,SUOYOUQUANSHIYIGEFALVGAINIAN,SHUYUSHANGCENGJIANZHUFANCHOU;SUOYOUZHIDAIBIAOYIZHONGJINGJIGUANXI,SHUYUJINGJIJICHUFANCHOU。ERZHEZHIJIANDEGUANXISHISUOYOUZHIJUEDINGSUOYOUQUAN,SUOYOUQUANKEYIFANZUOYONGYUSUOYOUZHI。WOGUOYIZHIJIANCHIKUANGCHANZIYUANSHUGUOJIA(QUANMIN)SUOYOU,QIMUDEZAIYUBAOZHENGSHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHIDECHUNJIEXING,PAICHIQITAJINGJICHENGFENZAIKUANGCHANZIYUANLINGYUDEJIERU。DANSUIZHEWOMENDUISHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHIRENSHIDEBUDUANSHENHUA,WOGUODEJIBENJINGJIZHIDUYOUDANYIDESHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHIYANBIANWEI“GONGYOUZHIWEIZHUTI、DUOZHONGSUOYOUZHIJINGJIGONGTONGFAZHAN”、GONGYOUZHIJINGJIHEFEIGONGYOUZHIJINGJIGONGTONGCHENGWEISHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFENHEWOGUOJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANDEZHONGYAOJICHU,GONGYOUZHIDESHIXIANXINGSHIKEYIERQIEYINGGAIDUOYANGHUA,GUOJIABAOZHENGGEZHONGSUOYOUZHIJINGJIYIFAPINGDENGSHIYONGSHENGCHANYAOSU。DUISHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHIJIQISHIXIANXINGSHIDETUPOXINGRENSHI,YOUZHUYUWOMENZHENGQUELIJIEKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOJIASUOYOUDEBENZHI,RENSHIYINGSUIZHESHIJIANDEFAZHANERFAZHAN,YAOYIDONGTAIDE、QUANMIANDE、CHUANGXINDESHIJIAOLIJIEWOGUODEKUANGCHANZIYUANSUOYOUQUANWENTI。DANGQIAN,“RENMENDUIWUQUANDEXUQIUYIJINGCONGXIANGYONG(SHIYONGJIAZHI)ZHUANXIANGLIUZHUAN(JIAZHI),SUOYOUQUANRENGUANZHUDEZHONGXINCONGSHIYONGJIAZHI(WUBENSHEN)DEZHIPEIZHUANBIANWEIJIAZHIDEHUOQU(SHOUYIQUANNENG)”[4]。ZHEIZHONGSUOYOUQUANSHIXIANFANGSHIDEZHUANBIANYAOQIUJIANGKUANGCHANZIYUANSHIWEIYIZHONGZICHAN,SHIXIANKUANGCHANZIYUANDEZICHANHUAGUANLI。ZAIZHEIYIGUOCHENGZHONG,GUOJIAWULUNSHIJIANGKUANGCHANZIYUANYONGYUSHEHUIGONGGONGSHIYEHAISHISHANGYETOUZIYIHUOSHIYUQITAZHUTIJINXINGSHICHANGHUAJIAOYI,WOMENDOUYINGYIKETIWUJIAZHIZONGLIANGBUBIANWEIBIAOZHUN,ERBUSHIWUDEGUISHUHEZHANYOUZUOWEIBIAOZHUNLAIHENGLIANGXINGWEIDEZHENGDANGXING。QISHICONGWOGUOKUANGCHANZIYUANFALVZHIDUDEYANBIANGUOCHENGLAIKAN,YIJINGNENGGOUMINGXIANKANCHUSHICHANGHUADEJIAZHIQUXIANG,LIRUSHICHANGZHUTICONGDANYIDEGUOYINGQIYEFAZHANCHENGWEIGUOYOU、JITI、GERENBINGCUN,ZIYUANJIAGEYEYOUGUOJIAZHIDINGZHUANERYOUSHICHANGDIAOJIEGUOJIAHONGGUANDIAOKONG,TANKUANGQUAN、CAIKUANGQUANSHICHANGDEZHUBUJIANLI,ZIYUANPEIZHISHOUDUANYOUJIHUAXIANGSHICHANGDEZHUANBIANDENG。ZHEIDOUSHIWEILESHIYINGSHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJITIZHIDEYAOQIUHEJINGJISHEHUIKECHIXUFAZHANDUIZIYUANBAOZHANGDEXUYAOERJINXINGDEBIYAOGAIGE。YINCIZAIQUANMIANSHENHUAGAIGE,SHISHICHANGZAIZIYUANPEIZHIZHONGQIJUEDINGXINGZUOYONGDEBEIJINGXIA,RUGUONENGZAIKUANGCHANZIYUANSUOYOUQUANDEWENTISHANGYOUSUOTUPOCHUANGXIN,ZHENZHENGSHIXIANYOUZIYUANGUANLIXIANGZICHANGUANLIDEZHUANBIAN,ZHEIBUJINBUHUISHIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEJIAZHIJIANSHAOHELIUSHI,FANERHUITONGGUOSHICHANGJIZHISHIXIANJIAZHIDEBAOZHIZENGZHI,ZUIZHONGJINYIBUFENGFUKUANGCHANZIYUANSUOYOUQUANDESHIXIANXINGSHI,SHIGUOJIASUOYOUZHEQUANYIDEDAOGENGDACHENGDUDEBAOZHANG。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (2)SHELIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANBUHUISHIGUOJIASHIQUDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEKONGZHI。KUANGCHANZIYUANYUGUOMINJINGJIDEFAZHANXIXIXIANGGUAN,SHIZHONGYAODEJINGJIMINGMAI,NEIMEYIDANSHELIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANSHIFOUHUIDAOZHIGUOJIASANGSHIDUIZIYUANDEKONGZHINENGLINI?QISHIDUIZHEIYIWENTIWANQUANKEYITONGGUOHELIDEZHIDUSHEJILAIJIEJUE,KUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANDESHELISHIQUANLIZHUTIDUITEDINGQUYUNEIDEMOULEIKUANGCHANZIYUANXIANGYOULESUOYOUQUAN,DANGAIQUYUNEIDEKUANGCHANZIYUANRUHEKAIFALIYONGHAISHIHUISHOUDAOZHENGFUDEJIANDUGUANLI,TONGGUOCAIKUANGXUKEZHIDUFAHUIJIANGUANZUOYONG。DANGGUOJIAJIANGKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANSHOUYUTEDINGZHUTIHOU,QUANLIZHUTIYAOXIANGKAICAIGAIQUYUNEIDEZIYUANHAIXUYAOBANLIXIANGYINGDEGELEIXINGZHENGXUKE;KUANGJINGDESHEJISHIGONGYAOFUHEGUOJIAGUIDINGDEGELEIBIAOZHUN;ZIYUANKAICAISHIHAIHUIJIESHOUYOUGUANBUMENDEJIANGUAN;ZUIHOUKAICAIWANBIHOUHAIYAOJINXINGTUDIFUKENDENGWANSHANGONGZUO。SUOYISHUOKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANDESHELIBINGBUHUIXUERUOGUOJIADUIZIYUANDEGUANKONG,ZHISHIJIANGKUANGCHANZIYUANZHENZHENGZHUANBIANWEIZICHAN,CHENGRENQICAICHANSHUXING,ZHEISHIFUHESHICHANGJINGJIGUILVDE。ZAIZHEIYIGUOCHENGZHONG,TONGGUOZHENGFUJIAQIANGSHICHANGJIANGUAN、WEIHUSHICHANGZHIXU,SHIQUEBAOGUOJIADUIZIYUANYONGYOUZUIZHONGKONGZHILIDEYOUXIAOSHOUDUAN,YESHIQUANMIANSHENHUAGAIGEZHONG“GENGHAODIFAHUIZHENGFUZUOYONG”DEYINGYOUZHIYI。

                            TONGSHI,SUIZHEXIANDAIJINGJI、SHEHUIDESHENKEBIANHUA,SUOYOUQUANDESHEHUIHUAYIJINGCHENGWEIYIZHONGQUSHI。QUANLIZHUTIBUDELANYONGSUOYOUQUAN,BIXUZAIZUNZHONGHEWEIHUSHEHUILIYIHETARENLIYIDEQIANTIXIAXINGSHISUOYOUQUAN,GUOJIAJIYUZHENGDANGLIYOUKEYIYIFADUIQUANLIXINGSHIJINXINGXIANZHI。ZHEIYANGWANQUANKEYISHIXIANDUISUOYOUQUANDESHEHUIKONGZHIHEGUOJIAKONGZHI,WOMENWANQUANMEIYOUBIYAODANXINYOUYUKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANDESHELIERDAOZHIGUOJIASHIQUDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEKONGZHIQUAN。

                            (3)SHELIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANYOUZHUYUZIYUANDEHELIKAIFAHEKUANGYEDEJIANKANGFAZHAN。GUOJIASHELIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANKEYIYOUXIAOBIMIANZIYUANLANGFEI,TIGAOZIYUANSHIYONGXIAOLV。ZAIZIYUANLANGFEIYANZHONGDEWENTISHANG,KUANGCHANZIYUANDESIWALANCAISHIZAOCHENGZIYUANLANGFEIDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN,YOUYUCAIKUANGQUANRENHUODEDEZHISHIKUANGCHANZIYUANDESHIYONGQUAN,ZAIKAICAINIANXIANYOUXIANDEQINGKUANGXIA,TAMENGUANXINDESHIZHONGSHIRUHEZAIYOUXIANDESHIJIANNEIHUOQUGENGDUODEJINGJILIYI,TIAOFEIJIANSHOU、JIANSHAOCAIKUANGTOURUJIUCHENGWEIHEHUCHANGLIDEBIRANXUANZE。ERRUGUOSHELILEKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUAN,TEDINGZHUTIZAIZHIFUHELIDUIJIAHOU,XIANGGUANQUYUDEKUANGCHANZIYUANYIJINGZHUANBIANWEIZISHENDEZICHAN,TAMENWEIBIMIANZIJIDEJINGJISUNSHI,HUIQIANFANGBAIJIDITIGAOZIYUANLIYONGXIAOLV,JINERZENGJIAGUOJIADESHOUYI。

                            TONGSHIZAIEZHIKUANGYEFUBAIFANGMIAN,SHELIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANYEJUYOUSHIFENZHONGYAODEYIYI。KUANGYEFUBAISHIKUNRAOWOGUOKUANGYEFAZHANDEYIDAGUJI,CHENGXIANCHUMINGXIANDEZHIDUXINGFUBAIDETEZHENG,ZHEIYIWENTIDECHANSHENGGURANYOUDUIXINGZHENGQUANLIGUIFANBULIDEYUANYIN,DANQIGENYUANHAIZAIYUBUNENGHELIDISHEJIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEKAIFALIYONGJIZHI,WEIGONGQUANLIXUNZUTIGONGLEKECHENGZHIJI。ZAIDANGQIANDEZHIDUKUANGJIAXIA,KUANGCHANZIYUANSHIGUIGUOJIASUOYOUDE,CAIKUANGQUANRENZHINENGTONGGUOXINGZHENGXUKEDEFANGSHIQUDEZIYUANDESHIYONGQUAN,ZHEIZHONGSHIYONGQUANSHIFOUWENDING,HENDACHENGDUSHANGQUJUEYUXINGZHENGQUANLI。ERKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANDESHELI,JIANGHUIZUIDAXIANDUDIZENGQIANGQUANLIDEWENDINGXING,SUOXIAOXINGZHENGQUANLIBUDANGGANYUDEFANWEI,CAIKUANGQUANRENYEJIANGYOUGENGWEICHONGFENDEYIJUBAOZHANGQIZISHENQUANYI。ZHEIYANGJIUNENGGOUCONGNEIWAILIANGGECENGMIANXINGCHENGEZHIKUANGYEFUBAIDEJIZHI。

                            三、重构采矿权法律属性的立法建议

                            XIANXINGCAIKUANGQUANZHIDUSHIKUANGCHANZIYUANMINSHIQUANYUKUANGCHANZIYUANGUANLIQUANDEHEYIZHIDU,ZONGHELEMINSHIWUQUANHEXINGZHENGGUANLIQUANDESHUANGZHONGSHUXING,ZHEISHIDECAIKUANGXUKEZHENGTONGSHICHENGZAILEJINGJIZHINENGHEGUANLIZHINENG,JINERDAOZHILEYIXILIEWENTI。YINCI,ZAIZHONGGOUCAIKUANGQUANFALVSHUXINGDEJICHUSHANG,YINGJIANGCAIKUANGQUANZHONGDELIANGZHONGQUANLI(LI)SHUXINGJINXINGFENLI,BINGJINXINGXIANGYINGDEZHIDUGAIGE。

                            (一)分设矿产资源资产所有权和采矿许可权

                            JIANGXIANXINGCAIKUANGQUANFENLIWEIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANHECAIKUANGXUKEQUAN:QIZHONGKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANSHIMINSHICAICHANQUAN,TIXIANGUOJIASUOYOUZHEMINSHISHOUYI,SHIGUOJIAYIMINSHIZHUTIDESUOYOUZHESHENFENCHURANGKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUAN,SHICHANGZHUTIZUOWEISHOURANGFANGZHIFUZIYUANDUIJIA,TONGGUOPINGDENGDESHICHANGJIAOYIHUODETEDINGBUFENKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANDESUOYOUQUAN;CAIKUANGXUKEQUANSHUYUZHENGFUXINGZHENGJIANGUANQUANLIDEFANCHOU,SHIXINGZHENGJIGUANDUISHICHANGZHUTIKAIFALIYONGKUANGCHANZIYUANZIGEDEYIFAQUEREN,YINGANZHAOFADINGDEXINGZHENGXUKECHENGXUSHISHI。

                            KUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANYINGSHIYIZHONGSHICHANGHUADEQUANLI。ZAIYIJISHICHANGSHANG,GUOJIAZUOWEIKUANGCHANZIYUANDESUOYOUQUANREN,KEYITONGGUOZHAOBIAO、GUAPAI、PAIMAIDEFANGSHIDUIZIYUANJINXINGSHICHANGHUAPEIZHI,SHICHANGZHUTIZHIFUZIYUANDUIJIAHOUQUDETEDINGKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUAN,QIHOUKEYIGENJUYISIZIZHIHEQIYUEZIYOUYUANZE,ZAIERJISHICHANGJINXINGQUANLIZHUANRANG。XINGSHIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANDEGUANJIANZAIYUJIANCHIJINGZHENGXINGDECHURANGFANGSHI,YANGEXIANZHIFEIJINGZHENGCHURANG。

                            JIUCAIKUANGXUKEQUANERYAN,TASHIZHENGFUYIGUANLIZHEDESHENFENDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEKAIFALIYONGJINXINGGUIHUAHEJIANGUANDEGONGQUANLI,YUSUOYOUQUANRENDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANJINXINGGUANLISHIBUTONGDE4,CAIKUANGXUKEQUANSHI“YICHANQUANZHUTIXINGWEIWEIDUIXIANGDEJIANGUAN,JIYUGONGGONGQUANLIHEXINGZHENGFAYUANZE,FANGFANJIANDUGECHANQUANZHUTIXINGWEIDUIZIYUANHUANJINGDESUNHAI,KEGUIRUGONGFASHISHIDELINGYU”[11]。SHICHANGZHUTIJINGUANTONGGUOYIJISHICHANGYIYOUCHANGDEFANGSHIQUDEKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUAN,DANSHIDUIZIYUANKAIFALIYONGZHONGDEGUIHUA、SHENGCHANZHEDEZIGEHENENGLI、ANQUANSHENGCHANSHESHI、ZIRANSHENGTAIBAOHUDENGSHEJIGONGGONGANQUANHELIYIDEWENTI,HAIXUZHENGFUXUKE,JINGSHENCHAFUHETIAOJIANDEBANFAJICAIKUANGQUANXUKEZHENG。QUDEXUKEZHENGHOU,GUANLIZHEHAIXUSHISHIYOUXIAOJIANGUAN,BINGCHIYIZHENGFUWEIZHUDAODETONGYIGUIHUAGUANLIZHIDU,JIANGUSHENGTAILIYIHEJINGJILIYI,DUIYUKUANGCHANZIYUANCONGCHUANTONGDEZIYUANSHIJIAOZHUANXIANGWEIZICHANGUANLISHIJIAO,JINERSHIXIANKUANGCHANZIYUANDEYOUXIAOLIYONG、JIANGUANJIBAOHU。[12]ZAIZHENGGEJIANGUANGUOCHENGZHONG,RUGUOCAIKUANGQUANRENTIAOJIANFASHENGBIANHUAHUOCHUXIANFADINGQINGKUANG,GUANLIBUMENKEYIYIFASHOUHUICAIKUANGQUANRENDECAIKUANGQUANXUKEZHENGZHAO。YOUCIKEJIAN,LIANGQUANFENLIHOUDECAIKUANGXUKEQUANYIJINGTUOLILEMINSHIWUQUANSHUXING,BIANWEILEYIZHONGCHUNCUIDEXINGZHENGQUANLI,SHIGUOJIAFUYUQUANLIRENCONGSHIKUANGCHANZIYUANKAICAIHUODONGDEFALVZIGE,SHOUXINGZHENGXUKEDENGFALVFAGUIDEDIAOZHENG,TIXIANGONGQUANSHUXING。

                            (二)制度修改建议

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DUICAIKUANGQUANFALVZHIDUJINXINGWANSHAN,QIZHONGDIANZAIYUXIANGGUANQUANLI(LI)DESHEZHI、XINGSHIDENGWENTI,YAOTONGGUOZHIDUDEGAIGECHUANGXINLAIYOUHUAKUANGCHANZIYUANPEIZHIJIZHI,TISHENGZIYUANLIYONGXIAOLV。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   1.ZAI《KUANGCHANZIYUANFA》DEXIUGAIZHONG,YINGMINGQUEQUFENXIANXINGCAIKUANGQUANZHONGMINSHICAICHANQUANHEXINGZHENGGUANLIQUANLIANGZHONGFALVGUANXI,FENBIESHEDINGGEZIDEQUANLI(LI)XINGSHIGUIZE

                            JIANYIZAI《KUANGCHANZIYUANFA》ZHONGGUIDINGGUOJIASHIXINGKUANGCHANZIYUANYOUCHANGQUDEZHIDU,SHICHANGZHUTIXIANGGUOJIAJIAONAZIYUANDUIJIAHOUQUDEXIANGYINGDEKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUAN,CONGERMINGQUEGAIXIANGQUANLIDECAICHANQUANSHUXING。CHU《KUANGCHANZIYUANFA》WAI,DUI《WUQUANFA》ZHONGDEXIANGGUANGUIDINGYEYINGJINXINGDIAOZHENG,BUYIJIANGCAIKUANGQUANJIXUGUIDINGZAIYONGYIWUQUANZHONG,ZAIJIANCHIKUANGZANGSHUGUOJIASUOYOUDEQIANTIXIA,QUFENKUANGZANGYUTUDI、SHUILIUDENGQITAZIRANZIYUANDESHUXINGCHAYI,CONGZHIDUSHANGQUELIKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANJIQIBAOHUGUIZE。

                            2.WOGUOXIANXING《KUANGCHANZIYUANFA》YUANZESHANGSHIJINZHICAIKUANGQUANZHUANRANGDE,ZHEIYIGUIDINGYUXIANXINGCAIKUANGQUANSHIMINSHIWUQUANYUXINGZHENGXUKEQUANXIANGFUHEDEQUANLILEIXINGYOUMIQIEGUANXI

                          星云棋牌官网下载   CAIKUANGQUANZHONGXINGZHENGXUKEDEGONGQUANSHUXINGJUEDINGLEQIBUKENENGZIYOULIUZHUAN,FOUZEXINGZHENGJIGUANDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANKAIFALIYONGFUQUANDEXINGZHENGXUKEJIUXINGTONGXUSHELE。ERZAILIANGQUANFENLIZHIHOU,ZHEIYIZHANGAIJIANGBUZAICUNZAI,YOUYUKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANSUOYOUQUANCHENGWEICHUNCUIDEMINSHICAICHANQUAN,YANGEXIANZHIQIZHUANRANGYIWUBIYAO,《KUANGCHANZIYUANFA》YINGBINGCHENG“YUANZEKEYIZHUANRANG、TESHUQINGKUANGBUDEZHUANRANG”DEYUANZE,WANSHANQIJUTIZHUANRANGGUIZE,YISHIXIANKUANGCHANZIYUANZICHANHUA。

                            3.CAIKUANGQUANLIANGQUANFENLIZHIHOU,CAIKUANGXUKEQUANJIANGCHENGWEIWANQUANYIYISHANGDEXINGZHENGXUKEQUAN,SHIGUOJIADUIKUANGCHANZIYUANXINGSHIJIANGUANQUANDEBIAOXIAN,BUZAIJUYOUWUQUANSHUXING

                          星云棋牌官网下载   FENLIHOUDECAIKUANGXUKEQUANZHUYAOJUYOULIANGFANGMIANDENEIRONG:YISHIDUIGUOJIASUOYOUDEKUANGCHANZIYUANDEKAICAIXUKE;ERSHIDUIKUANGCHANZIYUANYIJI、ERJISHICHANGJINXINGJIANGUAN。YINCI,ZAI《KUANGCHANZIYUANFA》ZHONGYINGMINGQUEGUIDING,CAIKUANGXUKEDESHOUYUZHINENGYIPIZHUNSHENQINGDEFANGSHIJINXING,ZIRANZIYUANZHUGUANBUMENTONGGUODUISHENQINGZHUTIKAICAIFANGAN、ZIJINJISHU、ZUZHIXINGSHI、ANQUANHUANBAOCUOSHIDENGYAOSUDEYIFASHENHE,DUIYUFUHEFADINGTIAOJIANDEFUYUQIKAICAIZIYUANDEQUANLI。ZAISHEDINGXINGZHENGXUKEZHIHOU,ZHUGUANBUMENHAIYINGDUIKAICAIZHUTIKAIFALIYONGKUANGCHANZIYUANDEQUANGUOCHENGJINXINGBIYAODEJIANGUAN,BAOKUOHOUQIDUCUQUANLIRENLVXINGHOUXUYIWU,RUTUDIHUIFU、HUANJINGBAOHUDENGGONGZUO。DANDUSHELICAIKUANGXUKEQUANHOU,《KUANGCHANZIYUANFA》YINGYANGEJINZHIKAICAIZIGEDEZHUANRANG,YINWEIZHEIXIANGQUANLISHITONGGUOZHENGFUDEXINGZHENGXUKEQUDEDE,SHIZHENDUITEDINGZHUTIDEZIGERENKE,JUYOUZHUTIDETEDINGXING。RUGUOQUDEKAICAIZIGEXUKEDESHICHANGZHUTI,ZAIQUEFAWAIBUJIANGUANDEQINGKUANGXIA,JIANGKAICAIQUANLIZHUANRANGJIQITAZHUTI,NEIMEHENKENENGZAIZIYUANKAIFALIYONG、HUANJINGBAOHU、ANQUANSHENGCHANDENGFANGMIANCHUXIANWENTI,SHENZHIHUIXUERUOGUOJIADUIKUANGCHANZIYUANDEKONGZHILI,YINGXIANGGUOJIANENGYUANANQUAN。YINCI,XIANGGUANKUANGYEFAGUIYINGXIHUAKUANGCHANZIYUANKAIFALIYONGDEJIANGUANGUIZE,SHIXIANCONGKUANGYESHICHANGZHUNRUDAOTUICHUDEDONGTAIDEYOUXIAOJIANGUAN,WEIGUANLIZHEXINGSHIJIANGUANQUANTIGONGCHONGFENDEZHIDUYIJU。

                            参考文献

                            [1] 王继军.优化矿产资源领域政治生态法律问题研究——以山西腐败大案为例[J].毛泽东邓小平理论研究,2014(10):16-22.
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                            注释

                            1《行政许可法》第十二条规定了需要进行行政许可的事项,其中包括“有限自然资源开发利用、公共资源配置以及直接关系公共利益的特定行业的市场准入等,需要赋予特定权利的事项”。
                            22014年10月30日中共山西省委召开的煤炭管理体制专家学者座谈会上,有专家指出:“2006年6月15日国务院国函【2006】52号文件中明确要求我省对新设立煤炭资源矿业权以招标、拍卖、挂牌等市场竞争方式出让。但是,我省至今未执行,是我国主要产煤省份中唯一未公开出让过煤炭资源矿业权的省份。政府通过行政手段直接配置煤炭资源,过多干预市场,存在不公开、不公正、低买高卖的现象,导致可能的权力寻租”。
                            32014年10月30日中共山西省委召开的煤炭管理体制专家学者座谈会上,有专家指出:“这里有一笔账,全省已设立矿业权约900亿吨,价款当时按平均每吨3元作为底价算,省营大矿占一半,可以不缴价款,其他矿占一半,须缴价款,按底价算,应缴1350亿元,实际收回600多亿元,流失750亿元,如果实行竞价,则远不是这个数目。这是前一段。后一段,主要是国营大矿收购小矿,在价款上问题不大,因为有省政府统一的公开定价,总资产有无高估,省营矿有待了解,省外企业明显存在这样的问题,如已暴露出的华润收购案。一低一高,加上煤价高企,以致在山西形成了官商勾结,竞相逐利的黑洞”。
                          星云棋牌官网下载   4有学者指出:“产权监管是以“权利—责任”为对象的监管,基于财产权利和民法原则,维护各产权主体的权利,督促履行其相应的责任,归属私法实施的领域”,参见刘尚希(2018)。

                            王士亨.采矿权法律属性的理论重构与制度改革[J].经济问题,2020(01):27-36.
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