星云棋牌官网下载

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                            固体废物污染防治法律制度现状与完善

                            时间:2019-01-20 来源:科技风 作者:林立庆 本文字数:3635字

                              摘    要: 星云棋牌官网下载近些年来,我国的经济发展取得了重大突破。然而,伴随着经济的快速发展也出现了资源能源的快速消耗问题。各行各业不断发展壮大,生态环境问题也与日俱增,出现了水污染、大气污染、噪音污染及废弃物污染问题。环境污染问题和能源消耗问题得到了社会的广泛关注,我国政府也提出了建设“生态文明”的要求。此后,我国也一直致力于改善发展经济过程中带来的环境问题。伴随着城市规模的不断扩大,城市环境压力也在加大,其中一个亟待解决的问题就是固体废弃物的管理与处置问题。本文首先对固体废弃物的含义及特征进行了简单阐述,进而对固体废物污染防治法律制度现状进行了分析,并就存在的不完善之处提出了建议。

                              关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 城市固体废物; 污染防治; 法律制度;

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CHENGSHIZHONGDEGUTIFEIQIWUDECHANSHENGZHUYAOLAIZISHENGCHANHESHENGHUOGUOCHENG,YOUYUFEIQIWUDESHULIANGJUDA、NANJIANGJIEQIECHENGFENSHIFENFUZAYINCICHULICUNZAIYIDINGKUNNAN。BUTONGTUJINGCHANSHENGDEGUTIFEIQIWUDESHULIANGHELEIXINGDOUBUXIANGTONG,JUYOUPANGDASHULIANGGUIMOTEDIANDEWURANWUZHUYAOLAIZIYILIAOFEIQIWU、GONGYESHENGCHANFEIQIWU、DIANZICHANPINFEIQIWUDENG。ZHEIXIEGUTILAJIBUJINWURANHUANJINGERQIECUNZAIYIDINGDEHUOZAIYINHUAN。BINGQIEGUTIFEIQIWUHUIBIQITAWURANWUYINQIDEWURANCHIXUSHIJIANZHANG,SHENZHIWEIHAICHENGDUGENGJIAYANZHONG。YINCI,WEISHIXIANSHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDEMUBIAO,BIXUJIAQIANGYUGUTIFEIQIWUFANGZHIXIANGGUANFAZHIJIANSHE,LIYONGFALVDEWUQIBAOZHANGSHENGTAIHUANJINGNENGPINGHENGDONGTAIFAZHAN。

                              一、固体废弃物的内涵及特点

                              YAODUIGUTIFEIQIWUJINXINGFALVCENGMIANDEFANGZHIGUANLI,SHOUXIANYAOLEJIEGUTIFEIQIWUDEGAINIANJIQITEDIAN。BIXUCHONGFENLEJIELEFEIQIWUKENENGZAOCHENGDEWEIHAI,CAINENGZHIDINGKEXUEHELIDEFALVZHIDING。

                              (一)固体废物的内涵

                              GUTIFEIWUSHIZHIZAISHENGHUOHESHENGCHANHUOQITAHUODONGZHONGBEISHIWEISHIQUSHIYONGJIAZHIDEWUPIN,BEIYUANCHIYOUZHEPAOQIBUYONGDEWUPIN。GUTIFEIWUDEZHUANGTAIBUJINXIANYUGUTAI,HAIBAOKUOBANGUTAI、FANGZHIYUMOUGERONGQIZHONGDEQITAIHUOYETAIDEWUPIN,YIJIBEIGUOJIAXIANGGUANFAGUIDINGYIWEIGUIRUGUTIFEIWUGUANLIZHONGDEWUPIN。CONGZHONGKEYIKANCHU,GUTIFEIWUBUZAIJUBEILIYONGJIAZHI,QIEQICHANSHENGDELIANGSHIPANGDADE,YINWEIWOMENMEITIANDOUZAIJINXINGSHENGCHANHUODONG,GONGYESHENGCHANZHONGBIMIANBULECHANSHENGGONGYEGUTIFEIWU。ERQIESUIZHECHENGSHIRENKOUDEZENGJIA,SHENGHUOLAJIDESHULIANGYEYURIJUZENG。CHULESHENGHUOLAJIWAI,YIXIEJUYOUYOUDU、YOUHAI、YOUFANGSHEXINGWEIXIANDEGUTILAJISHUYUWEIXIANFEIQIWU。ZAISHEHUIDESHENGCHAN、LIUTONG、XIAOFEIDENGHUANJIEZHONGCHANSHENGGUTIFEIWUSHIBUKEBIMIANDE,ZHIYAOSHEHUISHENGHUOYUNZHUANJIUBIRANHUICHANSHENGGUTIFEIWU。

                              (二)固体废物的特点

                              1.具有鲜明的时间性和空间性

                              之所以说固体废物具有空间性,是因为固体废物并非完全毫无利用价值,只是因为受限于我国现代的不够高水准的科学技术水平,所以现在还未能实现对固体废物的加以利用或者充分利用,因而从时间维度上看,随着科学技术水平的不断提高,在不远的未来我国定能充分利用固体废物,并将固体废物转换成可再次使用的资源。不能一概否定固体废物仍然有使用价值的事实,或许在另一方面或者另一个过程,它又可以作为原料被再次利用,只是技术的问题罢了[1]。
                             

                            固体废物污染防治法律制度现状与完善
                             

                              2.数量巨大,种类繁多,类型复杂

                            星云棋牌官网下载   CHENGSHIJUMINDERICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGHUIJIECHUDAODUOZHONGSHENGHUOYONGPIN,SHENGCHANZHONGDEYUANCAILIAOYESHISHIFENFUZA,ZHEIXIEYUANYINDAOZHIGUTIFEIWUDEPAIFANGLIANGMEINIANDOUZAIZENGJIA。SUIZHEGUTIFEIWUDEWENTIYUELAIYUEFUZA,FANGZHIGONGZUOJIUHUIGENGJIAKUNNAN,SHENZHIFEIWUDESHUMUHAIYOUZENGJIADEQUSHI。YOUYUWOGUOKEXUEJISHUSHUIPINGYOUXIAN,HAIWUFADUISUOCHANSHENGDEGUTIFEIWUJINXINGYOUXIAO、QUANMIANDECHULI,WANGWANGSHI“CHAOCHU”DAYU“XIAOHAO”,ZAOCHENGSHULIANGDELEIJIZENGJIA。JINNIANLAIHUAGONGCHANYEXUNSUFAZHAN,CHENGFENFUZADEHECHENGCAILIAOYEYULAIYUDUO,CHULIZHEILEIWURANDENANDUJIUBIJIAODA,ZHEIYESHICHULIGUTIFEIWUWURANMIANLINDEXINTIAOZHAN。

                              3.环境污染性和可回收利用性

                            星云棋牌官网下载   GUTIFEIWUJUYOUWURANXINGSHIBUZHENGDESHISHI,BUGUANSHIZAICHULIZHONGJINXINGTIANMAIHAISHIFENSHAO,ZHIYAOCHULIBUDANG,JIUHUIDUISHENGTAIHUANJINGZAOCHENGWURAN,BINGQIEZHEIZHONGYINGXIANGDECHIXUSHIJIANXIANGDANGZHANG。ERGUTIFEIWUDELINGYIGETEZHENGSHIJUYOUKEHUISHOULIYONGXING,YINWEIGUTIFEIWUJUYOUTEDINGDEHUAXUEXINGZHIHEWULIXINGZHI,BINGQIEXIANGBIYUYETIHEQITILAISHUO,GUTIGENGRONGYIBEISHOUJI,YINCI,GUTIFEIWUHAISHINENGGOUBEISHOUJIHEZAICILIYONGDE。

                              二、固体废物污染防治法律制度的现状分析

                            星云棋牌官网下载   JINNIANLAI,WOGUOZHENGFUYUELAIYUEZHONGSHISHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHE,RENMENYEYUELAIYUEGUANZHUHUANJINGWURANWENTI。XIAMIANJIANGJIEHEWOGUOCHENGSHIGUTIFEIWUWURANDEXIANZHUANGJINXINGFENXI,DUIGUTIFEIWUWURANFANGZHIFALVJINXINGTANSUOHEFENXI,BINGLIEJUWOGUOGUTIFEIWUWURANFANGZHIDEYIXIEZHUYAOFALVZHIDU。

                              (一)《宪法》

                            星云棋牌官网下载   1987NIANXIUDINGDEXIANFASHOUCITIDAOLEHUANJINGBAOHUWENTI:“YINGBAOHUHUANJINGHEZIRANHUANJING,FANGZHIWURANWENTIHEQITAGONGHAIWENTI”。ZHEISHIWOGUODIYICIJIANGHUANJINGBAOHUXIERUGUOJIAFALVZHONG,SUIRANZHISHIZONGJIEXINGGAIKUO,DANSHIWEIJINHOUDEHUANJINGBAOHUGONGZUOHELIFAGONGZUOTIGONGLEKUANGJIAHEXIANFAJICHU。

                              (二)《中华人民共和国环境保护法》

                            星云棋牌官网下载   1989NIANBANBUSHIXINGDE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOHUANJINGBAOHUFA》CHUBUJIANLILEHUANJINGJIANGUANTIZHI,ZHEIBUFALVJIAOWEIXITONG、QUANMIANDIDUIHUANJINGBAOHUZUOCHULEJUTIGUIDINGHEYAOQIU。《HUANJINGBAOHUFA》SHIZHIHOUDEXIANGGUANFALVTIXIDEJIANLIJICHU,YESHIWOGUOZAIHUANJINGBAOHUFANGMIANDEGENBENDAFA,TONGYANGYESHIFANGZHIGUTIFEIWUWURANDEZUIGENBENDAFA。

                              (三)《中华人民共和国固体废物污染环境防治法》

                              1995NIANDE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGUTIFEIWUWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIFA》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《GUTIFEIWUWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIFA》)SHIZHENDUIWOGUOGUTIFEIWUWURANSUOZHIDINGDEYIBUZHENZHENQIEQIEDEFALV。ZHENDUIGUTIFEIWUWURANDETEDIAN,TICHULEYIXILIEXINDEGUANLICUOSHI。BANSUIZHESHIDAIDEJINBU《GUTIFEIWUWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIFA》YEZAIBUDUANWANSHAN。2003NIAN《GUTIFEIWUWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIFA》BEIZHONGXINSHULI,SHULIGUOCHENGZHONGYEFAXIANLEYIXIEYOUWANSHANDEWENTI。BIRU:JIANDUBUZU,QUEFACHULILIDU,CHUZHIBIAOZHUNBUTONGYI,WUHAIHUACHULILVJIAODIDENGWENTI。WEILEJIEJUEYISHANGWENTI,《GUTIFEIWUWURANHUANJINGFANGZHIFA》JINXINGXIUGAI,BINGZAI2005NIANZHENGSHISHISHIZHEIXIANGFAGUIDEXIUDINGAN[2]。

                              三、关于完善城市固体废物污染法律制度的相关建议

                              WOGUOZAIWURANFANGZHIFANGMIANDEFALVJIANSHEYUFADAGUOJIADEFALVFAGUIXIANGBIHAICUNZAIMINGXIANCHAJU,YIXIAJIANGZHENDUIWOGUODEGUTIFEIWUWURANQINGKUANGTICHUXIANGGUANJIANYI,ZHUYAOCONGLIFACENGMIANHEFALVSHISHICENGMIANTICHU。

                              (一)建立完善的法律体系

                            星云棋牌官网下载   GUTIFEIWUDEFANGZHIGONGZUOZONGHEXINGHENQIANG,BUJINYAOQIUGONGZUORENYUANSHUXIGEZHONGGUDINGFEIWUDECAILIAO、TEXING、WEIHAI,HAIYAOQIURENYUANSHUXIWOGUODEFALVFAGUIDEGOUCHENG,NENGZAICUJINFALVWANSHANDEGUOCHENGZHONGJUYOUQUANJUGUANNIAN。WANSHANYOUGUANGUDINGFEIWUWURANFANGZHIDEFALVFAGUI,HUISHEJIDAOSHEHUIDANGZHONGDEDUOGECENGMIAN,BAOKUOCHENGSHIJUMINCENG、CHENGSHIGUANLICENG、SHENGCHANQIYECENGDENGDUOZHONGDUIXIANG。XIANGGUANFUZERENYAOYOUJIANDINGDEYIZHI,BIDINGNENGRENSHIDAOWURANFANGZHISHIYIXIANGCHIXUXINGHENQIANGDEGONGZUO,YAOYOUZUGOUDENAIXINHEXINXIN。FANGZHIGONGZUODESHUNLIKAIZHANXUYAOZHUANXIANGFALVFAGUIDEGUIFANHEGUANLI,HAIXUYAOPEITAOZHIDUYIJIXIANGGUANLINGYUDEXIEDIAOPEIHE[3]。YEJIUSHISHUO,JIANLIWANSHANDEFALVTIXIXIANYAOJINXINGZHUANXIANGLIFA。ZHUANXIANGLIFAFUHEFANGZHIGUOCHENGZHONGGUTIFEIWUZHONGLEIFANDUO,LEIXINGFUZADETEDIAN,KEYIJIANSHECHUZHENDUIXINGDEFALVZHIDUBINGGUIFANZHIXING,DUIYUBUTONGLEIXINGDEWURANWUYAOQIUZAICHULI、SHOUJI、HUISHOULIYONGDENGDUOGEFANGXIANGTICHUBUTONGDEYAOQIU。BIRUDUIYUSULIAOWURANZHONGDEBAISEWURANWENTI,WOGUOJIUZHUANMENZHIDINGLE《BAOZHUANGFEIQIWUGUANLIFA》,ZHEIXIANGFAGUIDEZHENDUIDUIXIANGZHENGSHIBAISEWURAN。QICISHIWANSHANYOUCAOZUOXINGDEGUTIFEIWUFENLEIBIAOZHUN,MIBUYINWUFAJINXINGGUTIFEIWUZHUNQUEFENLEIDEQUEXIAN,BANGZHUFALVXIUDINGDEJINYIBUWANSHANTIGONGBANGZHU。ZUIHOUSHIJIAQIANGDIFANGLIFA。DIFANGLIFAGENGJIEJINWURANYUANHECHULIHUANJIE,NENGZAIDUOGEYUNZHUANGUOCHENGZHONGJIANGZHUANXIANGLIFADEFALVFAGUIJINXINGPUJIHEGUANCHE,YEBIANYUGEDIQUGENJUZISHENQINGKUANGTUIDONGFANGZHIGUTIWURANGONGZUO。

                              (二)法律是一切行为的准则,为更好落实法律,法律实施过程中要做到以下几点

                              DIYI,JIANLISHOUZHENGFUJIANDUDESHICHANGGUANLIJIZHI。ZHENGFUSHIFALVDEYOULIZHIXINGZHE,YONGYOUWANSHANDEFALVZHIDUHAIXINGYONGYOUZHIXINGLIQIANGDESHISHIBUMEN。ZHENGFUBUJINYAOZHIDINGYUGUTIWURANWUFANGZHIYOUGUANDEFALVFAGUI,HAIYAOZUOHAOJIANDUSHISHIDEGONGZUO,ZHEIJIUYAOQIUZHENGFUYAOMINGQUEZHENGFUBUMENDEZHINENG、SHISHIGUTIFEIWUQUANGUOCHENGJIANGUANYIJIJIANLIFEIZHENGFUXINGGUTIFEIWUWURANFANGZHIZUZHI,JIJIDIAOYONGZISHENYOUSHIYIJISHEHUIZIYUAN,JINXINGZONGHEYUNYONGLAIJIANLIZHENGFUJIANDUXIADESHICHANGGUANLIJIZHI。

                              DIER,JIAQIANGXINGZHENGZHIFALIDU。ZHENGFUJIAQIANGZISHENDEZHIFALIDUKETONGGUOTUIXINGYOUGUANZERENZHIDUJIAYIFUZHU,LIRUQIANGZHITUIXINGSHENGCHANZHEZERENZHIDU、QIANGZHITUIXINGLAJIFENLEIHUISHOUZHIDU,YIFANGMIANYOUXIAOKONGZHIFEIQIWUSHENGCHANYUANTOU,LINGYIFANGMIANYOUXIAOBAKONGFEIQIWUDECHULIGUOCHENG,YIQIANGZHIXINGDEFANGSHISHIXIANGUTIFEIWUDECHUZHIYUGUANLIGONGZUO[4]。

                              DISAN,JIANLIGUTIFEIWUWURANFANGZHIDEJINGJIKONGZHIJIZHI。JINGJIJUEDINGZHENGZHIHEWENHUA,JINGJIHUODONGBIBUKESHAOHUIDAILAIHUANJINGWENTI,YINCIZAIJINXINGHUANJINGWENTIDEZHILIGUOCHENGYINGGAICONGJINGJIYUANTOUZUOQI。TONGGUOZHENGSHOUHUANJINGSHUI、JIANLILAJISHOUFEIZHIDUDENGFANGSHIJIANGJINGJIHUODONGYUHUANJINGZHILIGUAGOU,NENGGOUYOUXIAOKONGZHIHUANJINGWURANDEYUANTOU,CONGYUANTOUZHUAQISHIGUTIFEIWUWURANFANGZHIGONGZUODEYIGEZHONGDIAN。

                              四、结语

                              ZONGJIEYISHANGKEZHI,CHENGSHIFEIWUWURANWENTISHIWOGUOHUANJINGBAOHUGONGZUOZHONGDEZHONGDIANGONGZUO。YAOSHIXIANDUIGUDINGWURANWUDEFANGZHI,SHOUXIANYAOCONGFALVCENGMIANJINXINGWANSHAN,SHIGUANLIGONGZUOYOUFAKEYI,YOUJUKEXUN。BENWENYIJINGZHENDUIWOGUOXIANXINGYUWURANFANGZHIXIANGGUANDEFALVFAGUIWENTIJINXINGFENXI,BINGTICHULEWANSHANJIANYI,XIWANGDUICUJINWOGUOGUTIWURANFANGZHIFALVFAGUIDEJIANQUANHECHENGSHIHUANJINGBAOHUQIDAOCUJINZUOYONG。

                              参考文献

                              [1]本刊讯.环保部发布大中城市固废污染防治年报,全国246个大、中城市一般工业固体废物产生量为19.1亿吨[J].墙材革新与建筑节能,2016(12):20.
                              [2]再协.《2016年全国大、中城市固体废物污染环境防治年报》印发解读危废行业[J].中国资源综合利用,2016(12).
                              [3]韩冬梅,韩静.推进市场主导型城市生活垃圾管理对策研究[J].经济研究参考,2016(59).
                              [4]环境保护部发布《2016年全国大、中城市固体废物污染环境防治年报》[J].中国资源综合利用,2016(11):23.

                              林立庆.城市固体废物污染防治法律制度研究[J].科技风,2019(36):103+114.
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