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                            农业可持续发展中土壤肥料应用现状与优化措施

                            时间:2019-03-21 来源:乡村科技 作者:古成祥 本文字数:2331字

                              摘    要: 土壤肥料在现代农业发展中具有十分重要的作用,在一定程度上直接影响农业可持续、健康发展。因此,通过翻阅相关的文献与资料,对农业可持续发展中的土壤肥料问题进行剖析,并对这些问题提出相关的建议,如实施测土配方施肥、将废弃资源再度合理化利用、研究与应用新型微生物肥料以及加强土壤养分检测等。

                              关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 土壤肥料; 可持续发展; 现代农业;

                            星云棋牌官网下载   NONGYEFAZHANDEJICHUSHITURANG,YINERTURANGZAIXIANDAIHUANONGYEFAZHANZHONGJUYOUBUKEQUDAIDEDIWEIYUZUOYONG。WEILESHITURANGHUOQUGENGWEIYOUZHIDEYANGFEN,SHINONGZUOWUDEBUTONGSHENGZHANGJIEDUANDOUKEYIHUODECHONGZUDEYANGFEN,FEILIAOKEWEISHIGONGBUKEMEI。KEXUE、HELIDISHIYONGFEILIAOLAIDUITURANGYUZUOWUJINXINGYANGFENBUJI,SHITIGAONONGYESHENGCHANCHENGXIAODEYIZHONGYOUXIAOFANGSHI,YESHIYIZHONGJICHUXINGBAOZHANG。

                              1、 农业可持续发展中土壤肥料问题

                              1.1 、施肥比例不恰当

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIXIANDAINONGYEFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONG,SHIFEIBILIBUQIADANGSHIPUBIANCUNZAIDEWENTIZHIYI。QIZUIWEIZHONGYAODETIXIANSHIDANLINDENGXIANGGUANDEYUANSUSHIYONGJILIANGCHAOGUOZHENGCHANGBIAOZHUN,ERJIAFEIDEYONGLIANGZEJIAOSHAO。CIWAI,XUDUONONGHUXIHUANSHIYONGGAONONGDUHUAFEI,SUIRANQIKEYISHITURANGZAIDUANSHIJIANNEIHUODEJIAOGAOHANLIANGDEYANGFEN,DANSHIQIYUYOUJIFEIXIANGBIBULIYUTURANGZISHENYANGFENDEJILEI。

                              1.2 、土壤肥力严重下降

                              ZHEIJINIAN,SUIZHENONGYESHENGCHANJISHUSHUIPINGDEBUDUANTISHENG,SHIDEXIANDAINONGYESHENGCHANXIAOLVJIFUZHONGZHISHUFANGMIANDOUHUODEJIAOWEIMINGXIANDETISHENG。DANSHI,DUIYUYOUJIFEILIAODEYUNYONGQUEZAIZHUJIANJIANSHAO。TONGSHI,JINGGUOZOUFANGDIAOCHAFAXIAN,ZAILIANGSHI、SHUCAIZHONGZHIFANGMIAN,BUFENNONGHUWEILEHUOQUGENGGAODECHANLIANG,CHUXIANLEDALIANGSHIYONGCUSHENGZHANGHUAFEIDEQINGKUANG。JIAZHIHUAFEISHIYONGZHONGLEIHESHIJIAFANGSHIBUHELI,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGHUIDUITURANGZAOCHENGBULIANGYINGXIANG,RUSHITURANGPINJIHUA,CONGGENBENSHANGYINGXIANGNONGYEKECHIXU、JIANKANGFAZHAN[1]。

                              2 、农业可持续发展中土壤肥料问题的解决措施

                              2.1、 实施测土配方施肥

                              CETUPEIFANGSHIFEIZAICUJINXIANDAINONGYEJIANKANG、KECHIXUFAZHANFANGMIANJUYOUSHIFENZHONGYAODEZUOYONGYUYIYI。ZAIMUQIANDEYONGFEISHIJIANZHONG,DUIYUCETUPEIFANGSHIFEIJISHUDEYOUXIAOYUNYONG,BUDANKEYIGENGWEIZHIGUAN、QINGXIDIZHANGWOTURANGZHONGYANGFENDECUNCHU、LIUSHIJIQUESHIQINGKUANG,ERQIEBIANYURENMENYIJUTURANGZHONGSHIJIDEYANGFENZHUANGKUANGLAIJINXINGZHENDUIXINGBUFEI,CONGERDADAOTURANGYANGFENPEIGU、YANGFENBUCHONGDENGMUDE。YOUCIKEJIAN,DUIYUCIXIANGJISHUDECHONGFENYUNYONG,BUJINKEYICHONGFENMANZUNONGZUOWUDEYANGFENXUQIU,ERQIEKEYIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGGAILIANGYUYOUHUATURANGJIEGOU,ZAIZHANGJIUWEICHITURANGJUYOUJIAOGAOSHENGCHANLIFANGMIANYOUZHESHIFENJIJIDEZUOYONGYUCHENGXIAO。

                              2.2、 废弃物资源化再利用

                              废弃物资源化再利用,主要就是把家禽牲畜的排泄物以及农作物收获后的秸秆与落叶等废弃资源转化成有机肥的一项技术。通过将废弃农作物及各种家畜的排泄物进行集中与堆积处理,再经过运用复式混合高温及发酵菌剂所具有的厌氧作用,促使废弃资源可以在短时间内实现快速发酵,从而使原有的废弃资源快速转化为具有运用价值的有机肥料资源。此项技术对于提高农作物的栽种质量与产量具有十分重要的作用。
                             

                            农业可持续发展中土壤肥料应用现状与优化措施
                             

                              2.3、 合理使用微生物肥料

                              JINJINIAN,SUIZHEKEXUEJISHUDEBUDUANFAZHAN,DUIYUXINXINGFEILIAODEYANFALIDUYUCHUANGXINLIDUZAIBUDUANZENGQIANG,GEZHONGXINXINGFEILIAOBUDUANYONGXIAN[2]。TEBIESHISUIZHEMUQIANWEISHENGWUJISHUDEFAZHANYUGUANGFANYINGYONG,NONGYESHENGCHANLINGYUDUIYUWEISHENGWUFEILIAODEYINGYONGBIZHONGZAICHIXUTISHENG,NONGCHANPINDEPINZHIYUCHANLIANGYEZAIBUDUANTISHENG。DANGQIANNONGYESHENGCHANZHONGZHUYAOYINGYONGDEWEISHENGWUFEILIAOYOUXIALIEJIZHONG:(1)YOUJILINXIJUNFEI,JUYOUGAOXIAOFENJIETURANGYOUJIZHIDEGONGXIAO,DUIYUTISHENGTURANGFEILIYOUZHEZHONGYAOZUOYONG;(2)JIAXIJUNFEI,KEYIDUITURANGZHONGJIAONANRONGJIEDEKUANGWUZHISHISHIQIANGYOULIDEFENJIE;(3)JUNGENJUNFEILIAO,ZHUYAOGONGXIAOSHIYOUZHUYUZENGQIANGNONGZUOWUGENBUDUIYUTURANGYANGFENDEXISHOUNENGLI;(4)KANGSHENGSU,QIGENGDUODIYUNYONGYUBINGCHONGHAIFANGZHIFANGMIAN,YIBAOZHENGNONGZUOWUKUAISUSHENGZHANG。

                              2.4、 加强土壤养分检测

                              WEILEJINYIBULEJIETURANGYANGFENQINGKUANG,XUYAOZHUZHONGTURANGJIANCEGONGZUO,ZHUZHONGHELISHIYONGFEILIAO,ZHEIDUIYUQUANMIANTISHENGTURANGFEILI、TIGAONONGZUOWUCHANLIANGHEZHILIANGJUYOUSHIFENZHONGYAODEYIYIYUZUOYONG[3]。SUOYI,ZAIMUQIANDEXIANDAINONGYESHENGCHANJINCHENGZHONG,SHISHIWANCHENGHAODUIYUTURANGDEFEIXIAOJIDUIQIYONGFEICHENGXIAOFANGMIANDEYOUXIAOJIANCE,YOUZHUYUSHISHIDUITURANGDEYANGFENHANLIANGYUZHUANGKUANGJINXINGQUANMIANZHANGKONG,ZHEIDUIYUNONGZUOWUZENGCHANSHIDAYOUYICHUDE。SUOYI,ZAIXIANDAINONGYESHENGCHANJINCHENGZHONGYAOCHONGFENYUNYONGDANGDAIXIANJINDEKEXUEJISHU,BUDUANWANSHANFEIXIAOJIANCEXITONG,JINGZHUNPOUXITURANGZHONGDANLINJIADEBILI,ZAICIJICHUSHANGJINXINGKEXUESHIFEI。TONGSHI,XUYAOZHUZHONGDUIYUCEDINGCANSHUYUSHUJUXINXIFANGMIANDECUNCHUYUGONGXIANG,GOUJIANYIGEKEXUE、YOUXIAOQIEJIAOWEIWANBEIDEXINXISHUJUZIYUANKUHUOXINXIGONGXIANGWANGLUOHUAPINGTAI,CONGERWEIJINHOUKEXUEYONGFEITIGONGXIANGYINGDECANKAOYUBANGZHU。

                              LINGWAI,ZAIGUOQUHENZHANGDEYIDUANSHIJIANLI,YOUYUDAMIANJI、GUOLIANGSHIYONGCHUANTONGDANYIDEFEILIAO,BUJINZAOCHENGLEZIYUANLANGFEI,ERQIEDUIYUSHENGTAIHUANJINGDEPOHUAILINGRENCHUMUJINGXIN。BINGQIEBUKEXUEDEYONGFEIFANGSHIZAOCHENGTURANGDAMIANJIBANJIE、TURANGSUANJIANHUADENG,CONGERDUITURANGZHILIANGZAOCHENGLEJIWEIYANZHONGDEYINGXIANG。DANSHI,JIAQIANGTURANGYANGFENJIANCE,ZAISHISHIZHANGWOTURANGDEZHENSHIZHUANGKUANGDEJICHUSHANG,YUNYONGKEXUEHELIDEYONGFEIFANGFA,KEYIZUODAOKEXUEYONGFEIYUKONGFEI,CONGERZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJIANGDIYOUYUBUHELIYONGFEIERDUIZHOUZAOSHENGTAIHUANJINGSUOZAOCHENGDEBULIANGYINGXIANG。TEBIESHIDUIYUGAILIANGTURANGLIHUATEXINGSHIFENYOULI,KEYIDADAZENGQIANGTURANGBAOFEIBAOSHUIXINGNENG,TIGAOTUFEILIYONGXIAOLV,CONGERZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJIANXIAOYOUYUBUKEXUE、BUQIADANGYONGFEIDUIZHOUZAOSHENGTAIHUANJINGSUOZAOCHENGDEBULIANGYINGXIANG[4]。

                              3 、结语

                              CONGDANGJINNONGYEKECHIXUFAZHANJIAODULAIKAOLV,WANCHENGHAOTURANGSHIFEIGONGZUO,DUIYUZENGQIANGTURANGFEILIYIJITIGAONONGZUOWUCHANLIANGYUZHILIANGJUYOUJIWEIZHONGYAODEYIYIYUZUOYONG。YOUYUQIADANGSHIYONGTURANGFEILIAOSHITISHENGTURANGFEILIDEGUANJIAN,SUOYIZAIJINHOUDENONGYESHENGCHANZHONGYAODUINONGYEYONGFEISHISHIKEXUEHUAGUANLI,YAOSUOJIANHUAXUEFEILIAODESHIYONGBILI,JIJITUIGUANGYUYINGYONGCETUPEIFANGSHIFEIJISHU,BINGQIEZHUZHONGDUIYUWEISHENGWUFEILIAODEKEXUEYUNYONG、JIAQIANGDUIYUFEIQIZIYUANDEZAICILIYONGDENG,ZAIWEIHUTURANGSHENGTAIHUANJINGDETONGSHI,CUJINXIANDAINONGYEKECHIXU、JIANKANGFAZHAN。

                              参考文献

                              [1] 刘三强.农业生态环境保护及与农业可持续发展的探讨[J].农村科学实验,2019(24):13-14.
                              [2] 张雪梅.初探农业机械化水平促进农业可持续发展[J].科学与财富,2019(7):11.
                              [3]关静,王晗,王辉.肥料与农业可持续发展的关系探析[J].河南农业,2019(4):17-18.
                              [4] 闫辉.土壤肥料在农业可持续发展中的地位和作用探究[J].农家科技,2019(5):293.

                              古成祥.农业可持续发展中的土壤肥料问题与对策[J].乡村科技,2019(32):92-93.
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