星云棋牌官网下载

    1. <form id='9y1p3'></form>
        <bdo id='9y1p3'><sup id='9y1p3'><div id='9y1p3'><bdo id='9y1p3'></bdo></div></sup></bdo>

          • <tr id='wab1l'><strong id='wab1l'></strong><small id='wab1l'></small><button id='wab1l'></button><li id='wab1l'><noscript id='wab1l'><big id='wab1l'></big><dt id='wab1l'></dt></noscript></li></tr><ol id='wab1l'><option id='wab1l'><table id='wab1l'><blockquote id='wab1l'><tbody id='wab1l'></tbody></blockquote></table></option></ol><u id='wab1l'></u><kbd id='wab1l'><kbd id='wab1l'></kbd></kbd>

            <code id='wab1l'><strong id='wab1l'></strong></code>

            <fieldset id='wab1l'></fieldset>
                  <span id='wab1l'></span>

                      <ins id='wab1l'></ins>
                      <acronym id='wab1l'><em id='wab1l'></em><td id='wab1l'><div id='wab1l'></div></td></acronym><address id='wab1l'><big id='wab1l'><big id='wab1l'></big><legend id='wab1l'></legend></big></address>

                      <i id='wab1l'><div id='wab1l'><ins id='wab1l'></ins></div></i>
                      <i id='wab1l'></i>
                    1. <dl id='wab1l'></dl>
                      1. <tr id='kimyv'><strong id='kimyv'></strong><small id='kimyv'></small><button id='kimyv'></button><li id='kimyv'><noscript id='kimyv'><big id='kimyv'></big><dt id='kimyv'></dt></noscript></li></tr><ol id='kimyv'><option id='kimyv'><table id='kimyv'><blockquote id='kimyv'><tbody id='kimyv'></tbody></blockquote></table></option></ol><u id='kimyv'></u><kbd id='kimyv'><kbd id='kimyv'></kbd></kbd>

                        <code id='kimyv'><strong id='kimyv'></strong></code>

                        <fieldset id='kimyv'></fieldset>
                              <span id='kimyv'></span>

                                  <ins id='kimyv'></ins>
                                  <acronym id='kimyv'><em id='kimyv'></em><td id='kimyv'><div id='kimyv'></div></td></acronym><address id='kimyv'><big id='kimyv'><big id='kimyv'></big><legend id='kimyv'></legend></big></address>

                                  <i id='kimyv'><div id='kimyv'><ins id='kimyv'></ins></div></i>
                                  <i id='kimyv'></i>
                                1. <dl id='kimyv'></dl>
                                  1. 学术堂首页 | 文献求助论文范文 | 论文题目 | 参考文献 | 开题报告 | 论文格式 | 摘要提纲 | 论文致谢 | 论文查重 | 论文答辩 | 论文发表 | 期刊杂志 | 论文写作 | 论文PPT
                                    学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 军事法论文

                                    军事立法的合宪性审查域外经验借鉴

                                    时间:2018-09-11 来源:苏州大学学报(哲学社会科学版) 作者:丛文胜,李敏 本文字数:16266字

                                      摘    要:   “加强宪法实施和监督,推进合宪性审查工作”,是我国社会主义法治建设进入新时代的显着标志。军事立法在国防和军队法治建设中乃至中国特色社会主义法治建设中都具有十分重要的地位,必然是国家合宪性审查不可或缺的重要领域。创新推进我国军事立法合宪性审查是维护宪法权威,提升国防和军队建设法治化水平的必然要求,具有重大的时代意义和实践价值。国外开展的军事立法合宪性审查对我国也具有一定借鉴意义。当前我国军事立法合宪性审查工作有诸多亟待解决的问题。为此,我们应当立足我国国情,全面强化全国人大在军事立法合宪性审查中的主导作用,依法规范中央军事委员会在军事立法合宪性审查中的保证作用,重视发挥司法机关在军事立法合宪性审查工作中的独特作用,积极创新推进我国军事立法的合宪性审查。

                                      关键词: 军事立法; 合宪性; 合宪性审查;

                                      Abstract:星云棋牌官网下载 "To strengthen the implementation and supervision of the constitution and promote constitutional review" significantly mark that the construction of China' s socialist rule of law has entered a new era. Military legislation plays a vital role in the construction of the national defense, the military rule of law and even the construction of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics, making itself an indispensable key area for national constitutional review. To innovate and advance the constitutional review of Chinese military legislation is an inevitable requirement to maintain the constitutional authority and improve the level of the rule of law for national defense and military construction, which bears major significance to our time and contains great value for practice. Meanwhile, the review of the constitutionality of military legislation carried out abroad can also be referential for China. At present, there are many problems to be solved urgently in the review of the constitutionality of military legislation in China. To this end, we should start from the national conditions of China to comprehensively strengthen the leading role of the National People' s Congress in the constitutional review of military legislation, regulate the role of the Central Military Commission in guaranteeing constitutional review of military legislation in accordance with law and value the unique role of judiciary authorities in the constitutional review so as to vigorously innovate and advance the constitutional review of military legislation in China.

                                      Keyword:星云棋牌官网下载 military legislation; constitutionality; constitutional review;

                                      JUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHABAOKUOGELEIJUNSHIFALVGUIFANDEHEXIANXINGWENTI1,YEBAOKUOYOUGUANJUNSHIJIGUANLVXINGXIANFAZHIZEDEXINGWEI2。2017NIAN10YUE,DANGDESHIJIUDATEBIEYAOQIU“JIAQIANGXIANFASHISHIHEJIANDU,TUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUO,WEIHUXIANFAQUANWEI”。2018NIAN2YUE,XIJINPINGZAIZHONGGONGZHONGYANGZHENGZHIJUDISICIJITIXUEXISHIQIANGDIAO:“YAOWANSHANXIANFAJIANDUZHIDU,JIJIWENTUOTUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUO,JIAQIANGBEIANSHENCHAZHIDUHENENGLIJIANSHE。”[1]2018NIAN3YUE,XIANFAXIUZHENGANJIANGQUANGUORENDAFALVWEIYUANHUIGENGMINGWEI“QUANGUORENDAXIANFAHEFALVWEIYUANHUI”,GENGYOULIYUCONGZUZHISHANGBAOZHANGHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEYOUXUJINXING。2019NIAN3YUE,LIZHANSHUZAISHISANJIERENDAERCIHUIYISHANGZAICIQIANGDIAO,YAO“LUOSHIXIANFAJIANDUZHIDU,JIANQUANHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOJIZHI,JIAQIANGBEIANSHENCHAGONGZUO”[2]。

                                      ZUOWEI“YOUJUNSHILIFAQUANDEJIGUANZAIFADINGZHIQUANFANWEINEIANZHAOFADINGCHENGXUZHIDING、XIUGAIHUOFEIZHIJUNSHIFALVGUIFANDEHUODONG”[3]580,JUNSHILIFAYUYIBANGUOJIALIFABUTONG,TAJIANJULIFAQUANHEJUNSHIQUANXINGSHIDEDIANXINGTEZHENG。MUQIAN,JUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAFANWEIYINGDANGJIBAOKUOGUOFANGHEJUNDUIJIANSHELINGYUDEGELEIFALV、FAGUIHEGUIZHANG,YEBAOKUOJUNSHIJIGUANZHIDINGDEGELEIJUNSHIGUIFANXINGWENJIAN3,ZAIDANGQIANQUANMIANTUIJINYIFAZHIGUODEBEIJINGXIA,JIJITUIJINJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAJUYOUZHONGDADESHIDAIYIYIHESHIJIANJIAZHI。

                                      一、推进我国军事立法合宪性审查具有重大时代意义和实践价值

                                      QUANMIANTUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOZAIWOGUODEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHIJIANSHEZHONGJUYOUZHONGDALICHENGBEIZUOYONG。JUNSHILIFASHIGUOJIALIFATIXIDEYOUJIZUCHENGBUFEN,ZAIQUANMIANTISHENGGUOFANGHEJUNDUIJIANSHEFAZHIHUASHUIPINGZHONGJUYOUHEXINZHICHENGZUOYONG,BIXUSHIZHONGYANGEZUNXUNXIANFADEGEXIANGGUIFAN。XIJINPINGZHICHU:“QUANJUNYAOZENGQIANGXIANFAYISHI,HONGYANGXIANFAJINGSHEN,ZUOXIANFADEZHONGSHICHONGSHANGZHE、ZIJUEZUNSHOUZHE、JIANDINGHANWEIZHE。”[4]JUNSHILIFAHUODONGGUOJIAHEJUNSHIFAZHIJIANSHEDEGENJI,RENHESHIHOUDOUBUNENGLIKAIXIANFAHEFALVDEGUIFANZHIYUE,BIXUZAIXIANFAHEFALVDEFANWEINEIHUODONG。

                                    军事立法的合宪性审查域外经验借鉴

                                      (一) 军事立法的合宪性审查是确立宪法权威的重要保证

                                      《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUANYUQUANMIANTUIJINYIFAZHIGUORUOGANZHONGDAWENTIDEJUEDING》 (YIXIAJIANCHENG《JUEDING》) ZHICHU:“JIANCHIYIFAZHIGUOSHOUXIANYAOJIANCHIYIXIANZHIGUO,JIANCHIYIFAZHIZHENGSHOUXIANYAOJIANCHIYIXIANZHIZHENG。”[4]XIANFASHIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIFALVTIXIDEHEXIN,SHIGUOFANGHEJUNDUIFAZHIJIANSHEDEZUIGAOFALVYIJU。JUNSHILIFAHUODONGBIXUYANGEZUNXUNXIANFAGUIFAN,“ZHEISHIGUOJIAXIANFADEZUIGAOFALVDIWEIJUEDINGDE,YESHIYIXIANZHIGUO、YIXIANZHIZHENGHEYIXIANZHIJUNDEBIRANYAOQIU”[5]。XIANFAQUANWEIDEWEIHUYOULAIYUXIANFAJIANDUZHIDUDEYOUXIAOLUOSHI。JUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAYOULIYUJISHIFAXIANHEJIUZHENGKENENGCUNZAIYUJUNSHILIFAZHONGDEWEIFANXIANFAGUIDINGDEGUIFANHEXINGWEI,SHIQUELIXIANFAZAIJUNSHILIFAHUODONGZHONGQUANWEIDIWEIDEZHONGYAOJUCUO,YESHIQUANMIANWEIHUXIANFAZHIXU、YOUXIAOBAOZHENGXIANFASHISHI、JIAKUAITUIJINYIFAZHIGUODEZHONGYAOFANGSHI。

                                      (二) 军事立法的合宪性审查是全面提升国防和军队建设法治化水平的必然要求

                                      《JUEDING》ZHICHU,YAO“GOUJIANWANSHANDEZHONGGUOTESEJUNSHIFAZHITIXI,TIGAOGUOFANGHEJUNDUIJIANSHEFAZHIHUASHUIPING”[6]。JUEDINGWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYIFAZHIJIANSHESHUIPINGHECHENGDUDEYIGEZHONGYAOBIAOZHISHIXIANFAZAIFAZHIJIANSHEZHONGDEQUANWEIDIWEIHESHISHICHENGDU,QIZHONGHEXIANXINGSHIYIGEZHONGYAOHENGLIANGBIAOZHUN。JUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHUIPINGZHIJIEFANYINGHEJUEDINGZHEGUOFANGHEJUNDUIJIANSHEFAZHIHUASHUIPING。XINSHIDAIDEJUNSHILIFACONGGENBENSHANGSHUO,JIUSHIYAOZAIDANGDEQIANGJUNMUBIAOZHIYINXIA,YIXIANFAWEIHEXIN,YANGEZUNXUNXIANFADEGEXIANGGUIFAN,CHUANGXINFAZHANZHONGGUOTESEJUNSHIFAZHITIXI,BAOKUOXITONGWANBEI、YANMIGAOXIAODEJUNSHIFAGUIZHIDUTIXI、JUNSHIFAZHISHISHITIXI、JUNSHIFAZHIJIANDUTIXI、JUNSHIFAZHIBAOZHANGTIXI,QUANMIANTISHENGGUOFANGHEJUNDUIJIANSHEFAZHIHUASHUIPING。JUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHASHIQUANMIANCHUANGXINFAZHANXINSHIDAIZHONGGUOTESEJUNSHIFAZHITIXI,JIAKUAITISHENGGUOFANGHEJUNDUIJIANSHEFAZHIHUASHUIPINGDEBIRANYAOQIU。

                                      (三) 军事立法的合宪性审查是保证国家法治统一、推进宪法实施的有效方式

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   YANGEZUNSHOUXIANFASHIWEIHUGUOJIAFAZHITONGYIDEZHONGYAOBAOZHENG。ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHIJIANSHEDEHEXIN,BIXUSHIJIANLIZAIWEIHUXIANFAZUIGAOQUANWEI、QUEBAOGUOJIAFAZHITONGYIDEJICHUZHISHANG。GUOJIAYIQIELIFAQUANDOUSHIYIXIANFAWEIGENBENYIJUDE,GELEILIFAZHUTIBAOKUOGUOJIALIFAJIGUANHEBEISHOUQUANLIFAJIGUANDOUBIXUZAIXIANFADEGUIFANXIAHUODONG,YIXIANFAWEIGENBENZUNXUN,ZHEISHIGUOJIAFAZHITONGYIDEGENBENBAOZHENG。WOGUOZAIXIANFAGUIFANXIAXINGCHENGLEQUANGUORENDAHEGUOWUYUAN、ZHONGYANGJUNWEIDENGGELEIJUNSHILIFAZHUTI,ZHEISHIQUANMIANJIAQIANGGUOFANGHEJUNDUIFAZHIJIANSHEDEZHONGYAOJUCUO。DANGELEIJUNSHILIFAZHUTIBIXUJIANGSUOYOULIFAHUODONGYANGETONGYIZAIXIANFADEGUIFANZHIDAOXIA。JIANYUWOGUOXIANYOUDEGELEIJUNSHILIFASUOXINGSHIDEZHIZE、QUANXIANFANWEIGEYOUBUTONG,RUHEQUEBAOJIANLIZAIXIANFAJICHUSHANGDEGUOJIAFAZHITONGYI,QUANMIANTUIJINJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHASHIGUANJIAN。ZHIYOUJIANLIQIDUIJUNSHILIFAHUODONGQUANMIANRENZHENYANSUDEHEXIANXINGSHENCHA,CAINENGBAOZHENGGELEIJUNSHILIFASHIZHONGZAIXIANFAGUIFANDEGUIDAOSHANGYUNXING,SHIJUNSHIFAZUOWEIXIANFADESHISHIFAYOUXIAOBAOZHENGGUOJIAFAZHIDETONGYI,QUEBAOXIANFAZAIGUOFANGHEJUNDUIJIANSHELINGYUDEQUANMIANSHISHI,ZHENZHENGSHIXIAN“YIFAZHIJUN”HE“YIFAZHIGUO”DEGONGTONGTUIJIN。

                                      二、国外军事立法的合宪性审查制度考察

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   JINGUANWOGUOXIANFAQUELIDEJUNSHILIFATIZHIYUXIFANGXIANZHENGGUOJIAGENBENBUTONG,DANWOGUODEJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAYUDANGDAIXIFANGFADAGUOJIADEJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZAISHENCHAZHIDUGOUJIAN、FALVYUANZEYUNYONGDENGFANGMIAN,RENGYOUKEZIXIANGHUXUEXIJIEJIANZHICHU。

                                      (一) 国外军事立法合宪性审查的基本状况

                                      HEXIANXINGSHENCHADUOSHUYULIFAKONGZHISHOUDUANZHONGDESHIHOUKONGZHI,YIBANYOULIFAJIGUAN、SIFAJIGUANHUOZHEXINGZHENGJIGUANLAICHENGDAN。“MUQIAN,SHIJIESHANGYIYOU130DUOGEGUOJIAJIANLILEWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDU。YOUYUWEIXIANSHENCHADEZHUTIBUTONG,KEYIFENWEIPUTONGFAYUANSHENCHAZHI、XIANFAFAYUANSHENCHAZHI、XIANFAWEIYUANHUISHENCHAZHI、LIFAJIGUANSHENCHAZHIDENGMOSHI。YEYOUSHAOSHUGUOJIACAIQUQITAMOSHI。”[7]ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,JIUXIFANGXIANZHENGTIZHIERYAN,SHIJIESHANGDUOSHUGUOJIADEXIANFAFUYUYIHUIXINGSHIJIANJUNQUANHEZHANZHENGQUAN,DUIWUZHUANGLILIANGJINXINGZUZHI、GUANLIHEKONGZHIDEJUNSHITONGLVQUANZETONGCHANGNARUXINGZHENGQUAN,JUNZHENGQUANHEJUNLINGQUANYOUZHENGFUZHANGWO。YINCI,GUOWAIJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHATONGXINGZHENGLIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAJUYOUTONGYIXING,DANJIYUDUIZHENGZHIWENTIHEJUNSHIWENTIMINGANXINGDEKAOLV,ZHENGFUNEIBUXINGZHENGJIGUANHEJUNDUIRENGCUNZAIXIANGDANGCHENGDUDEFENLI,GUOWAIJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAYEJUYOUBUTONGYUYIBANHEXIANXINGSHENCHADETEDIAN。

                                      1.美国军事立法的合宪性审查

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   MEIGUOSHIDIANXINGDESANQUANFENLIGUOJIA,QIJUNSHIQUANLISHUYUXINGZHENGQUAN,SHOUSIFAQUANZHIYUE。MEIGUODEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUDAIYOUHENQIANGDE“FUSUIXING”,JIZHIYOUZAIDUIJUTIANJIANJINXINGSHENLISHICAIHUIFUDAIDIDUIJUTIANJIANDEHEXIANXINGJIAYISHENCHA。SUOYIMEIGUODEHEXIANXINGSHENCHABINGFEIZAIDULIDEXIANFAFAYUANZHONGTONGGUOZHUANMENDESUSONGCHENGXUJINXING,ZAIPUTONGFAYUANJINXINGDESHENCHAYEBUXUYAOZAISUSONGZHONGZHUANMENZHENDUIHEXIANXINGWENTIZHONGDUANSUSONGCHENGXU。MEIGUODE“WEIXIANSHENCHACUNZAIYUZHENGGESIFATIXI,TAYUYIBANSIFAGUANXIABINGWUXIANZHEFENBIE。YIQIEZHENGYI,WULUNXINGZHIRUHE,DOUYITONGYANGDECHENGXU,ZAIJIBENSHANGCHABUDUODEHUANJINGXIA,YOUTONGYIFALVCAIJUE。RENHEANJIANDOUKENENGCHUXIANXIANFAWENTI,QIZHONGBINGWUTESHUDUIDAI。SHUODAODI,MEIGUOGENBENJIUMEIYOUSHENMETESHUDEXIANFASUSONG,MEIYOULIYOUBAZAITONGYIFAYUANTIQIDEANJIANHUOZHENGDUANZUOYI (ZHUANMENDE) FENLEI”[8]31。

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   MEIGUOLISHISHANGBUFASHEJIJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHADESHILI。YOUQIZAIMEIGUOZAOYU“9·11”KONGBUXIJISHIJIANYIHOU,SUIZHEXINGZHENGYINGJIQUANLIJISUKUOZHANG,“GUOHUILIFAHEZONGTONGMINGLINGGOUCHENGDEERYUANFANKONGJIZHIJIDADIGAIBIANLEMEIGUOXIANFADEYUNXINGHUANJINGHEGUIJI,JIANGGUOJIAANQUANYUGONGMINZIYOUDEMAODUNTUIXIANGLEJIZHI”[9]。MIANDUIYANZHONGSHIHENGDEQUANLIQUANLIGUANXI,MEIGUOLIANBANGZUIGAOFAYUANSHISHITONGGUOANJIANSHENLIHEHEXIANXINGSHENCHADUISHIHENGDEQUANLIGEJUJINXINGDIAOSHI。ZAIYUESE·PADILAYIAN4ZHONGMEIGUOFAYUANDUIZONGTONGQUANLIBIANJIEHEXIANGGUANJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAQUANMIANDIFANYINGLEMEIGUOJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUZAIZHUTI、CHENGXU、SHENCHAFANWEIDENGFANGMIANDETEDIAN。GAIANYESHIMEIGUO“ZUIGAOFAYUANZAI‘DIFANGZHANDOURENYUAN’DEJUJINHESHENPANWENTISHANGDIYICIQUANMIANCHANSHIZIJIDEGUANDIAN”[9]。

                                      2.德国军事立法的合宪性审查

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   YIBANRENWEI,MEI、DELIANGGUOJIANLIDEWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDUFENBIESHIYINGMEIFAXIDEPUTONGFAYUANMOSHIHEDALUFAXIZHUANMENJIGOUMOSHIDEDIANXINGDAIBIAO。“ZUOWEIZUNXUNXIANLIDEPANLIFAGUOJIA,MEIGUODEWEIXIANSHENCHASHIZAIFAYUANDEPANLIZHONGXINGCHENGERFEIZAIXIANFAZHONGQUELIDE;ERZUOWEICHENGWENFAGUOJIADEDEGUO,ZUNSHOUSANQUANFENLIDEYUANZE,YIZHENGZHIXINGWEIQIANTIJINXINGWEIXIANSHENCHA。”[10]

                                      DEGUOWEIXIANSHENCHAQUANYOUZHUANMENDEXIANFAFAYUANXINGSHI,XIANFAFAYUANYOUZIJIDULIDEXITONG,YOULIANBANGXIANFAFAYUANHEZHOUXIANFAFAYUANZUCHENG,BULISHUYURENHEGUOJIAJIGUAN。XIANFAFAYUANZUOWEISHENPANJIGUAN,JINGUANQICAIPANZAIXINGZHISHANGSHUYUFALVCAIPAN,DANBUFAZHENGZHIXINGYINSU。TANENGGOUCHULILIANBANGYUZHOUZHIJIANYIJIGEZHOUZHIJIANDEXIANFAZHENGYIAN,PANJUEXIAOLIJUYOUPUBIANXING,QIEWEIYISHENZHONGCAI。DUIYULIFADEWEIXIANSHENCHA,XIANFAFAYUANYOUQUANZHIJIEXUANBUWEIXIANDEFALVGUIFANWUXIAO。CONGCHENGXUSHANGKAN,DEGUOXIANFAFAYUANXINGSHIWEIXIANSHENCHAQUANDADOUJUYOUBEIDONGXINGHESHIHOUXING,ZAIXINGSHISHANGZHUYAOTONGGUOSHOULIXIANFASUSONGANLAIJINXINGJUTIDEFUSUIWEIXIANSHENCHA,DANBIYAOSHIYENENGGOUDUIXIANGGUANDELIANBANGFALV、FAGUIJINXINGCHOUXIANGDEWEIXIANSHENCHA。DUIYUBAOKUOJUNSHILIFAZAINEIDELIFAJINXINGDECHOUXIANGWEIXIANSHENCHAJIANJUSHIQIANSHENCHAHESHIHOUSHENCHADETEDIAN。

                                      JUNDUIHEWUQIZHUANGBEIMINYICEYANAN5BEISHIWEIDEGUOLIANBANGXIANFAFAYUANGENJUQI《JIBENFA》HE《LIANBANGXIANFAFAYUANFA》DUIJUNSHILIFAJINXINGHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEDIANXINGANLI。ZAIZHEIYIANJIANZHONG,DEGUOLIANBANGXIANFAFAYUANYINEIBUZONGXIANGSHENCHADEFANGSHIDUIJUNSHIXINGZHENGLIFAJINXINGLEHEXIANXINGSHENCHA。“SHIJISHANG,JIANYUXIFANGDADUOSHUGUOJIADEJUNSHIQUANJUNNARUXINGZHENGQUAN,QIJUNSHIXINGZHENGLIFADEXIANFASHENCHAZHUYAOJISHICIZHONGNEIBUZONGXIANGCENGJIDESHENCHA,NEIWAIBUDEHENGXIANGSHENCHAZEJIAOWEISHAOJIAN。”[11]

                                      3.法国军事立法的合宪性审查

                                      “XIANZHENGTIZHIZAIFAGUODEFAZHANYIJINGYOUSHUBAINIANZHIJIU,DANSHIFAGUOZHIDAOZUIJINJISHINIANCAIQUELILEXIANGDUIWENDINGDEWEIXIANSHENCHAJIZHI。”[12]ZHANGQIYILAI,ZAILIFAZHONGXINZHUYIDEZHUDAOXIA,FAGUOZHULIUFALVSIXIANGRENWEIYIHUITONGSHIYONGYOULIFAQUANHEZHIXIANQUAN,DAIBIAORENMINDEYIZHI。WEILEWEIHUYIHUIDEDIWEI,QIZHIDINGDEFALVBUNENGSHOUDAOCHUYIHUIBENSHENWAIDESHENCHA。XIANXING《XIANFA》BANBUHOU,FAGUOKAISHIYOU“LIFAZHONGXINZHUYI”XIANG“LIXIANZHUYI”ZHUANBIAN,XIANFAWEIYUANHUICAIZUIZHONGDEYICHENGWEIYIGEZHENZHENGYIYISHANGJUYOUHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHINENGDEJIGOU。

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   CONGXINGZHISHANGJIANG,FAGUOXIANFAWEIYUANHUIBINGBUSHIDANCHUNDESIFAJIGUAN,QICHENGYUANYEBINGFEIYOUFAGUANZUCHENG。6ZHENGRUYOUXUEZHEZHICHUDE:“JINTIANFAGUODEXIANFAWEIYUANHUIJISHIZHENGZHIJIGUANTONGSHIYESHISIFAJIGUAN,JIANYOUSIFA、JIANDU、ZIXUNDENGDUOZHONGZHINENG,TAJUYOUBUTONGYUQITAXIFANGGUOJIAXIANFAFAYUANDETEDIAN。”[12]JIUSHENCHADUIXIANGERYAN,FAGUODEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZAIYUSHENCHALIFABENSHEN,ERBINGBUSHENCHAQIZAIJUTIANJIANZHONGDESHIYONG。7GENJUFAGUO《XIANFA》,XIANFAWEIYUANHUIYEBINGBUJIEJUESUOYOUYUXIANFAWENBENDESHIYONGHEJIESHIXIANGGUANDEWENTI,“TAZHIJIEJUEYIHUITONGGUODEFALV、YIHUIGUIZEYIJIGUOJITIAOYUEDEHEXIANXINGWENTI”[13]。

                                      FAGUODEJUNSHILIFAQUANYOUYIHUI、ZONGTONGHEZONGLIGONGTONGXINGSHI。YIHUIKEYISHOUQUANNEIGEWEIYUANHUIZAIFEIFALVBAOLIUFANWEINEIDEFALINGSHIXIANGZHIDINGJUNSHIFAGUI。CONGFALVXINGZHISHANGJIANG,XINGZHENGJIGUANLIFABINGFEIYIHUITONGGUODEFALV,BUNARUFAGUOXIANFAWEIYUANHUIHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEFANCHOU。HUANYANZHI,ZHIYOUYIHUITONGGUODEJUNSHIFALVCAIJUYOUBEITIQIHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEKENENG。YINCI,FAGUOJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAFANWEISHIBIJIAOXIAZHAIDE,HEXIANXINGSHENCHADECHENGXUYUYIBANFALVDEHEXIANXINGSHENCHABINGWUMINGXIANBUTONG。

                                      4.英国军事立法的合宪性审查

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   YINGGUODEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAMOSHI,JIBUTONGYUMEIGUODEPUTONGFAYUANSHENCHAZHI,YEBUTONGYUDEFADENGGUOJIADEZHUANMENJIGUANSHENCHAZHI,ERSHIYIZHONGYIHUISHENCHAYUFAYUANSHENCHABINGZHONGDEHUNHESHENCHAZHI。

                                      YINGGUOSHIBUCHENGWENFAGUOJIA,YESHIFENGXINGYIHUIZHUQUANYUANZEDEGUOJIA。8YIBANRENWEI,1997NIANDAXUANHOU,YINGGUOGONGDANGZHENGFUTONGGUO《RENQUANFAAN》FUYUFAYUANDUIYIHUILIFAHECIJILIFADE“JIESHIQUAN”HE“XUANGAOQUAN”,JINERQUELILEYINGGUODERUOXINGWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDU9,FAYUANYIFAHUODESHENCHAYIHUILIFADEQUANLI。YUMEIGUO、DEGUODENGKEYIZHIJIEXUANBUFALVWEIXIANERWUXIAODEQIANGXINGWEIXIANSHENCHABUTONG,YINGGUOFENGXINGDEZHEIZHONGJINNENGJINXING“BUYIZHIXUANGAO”DERUOXINGWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDUBIAOMIANSHANGBINGBUJUYOUGUIFANYUESHULI,DAN“RUGUOLIFAHEXINGZHENGXUANZEHUSHIBUYIZHIXUANGAO,JIUXIANGDANGYUERZHEMAORANWEIFANSANGEBUMENZHIJIANDELIRANGYAOQIU,TIAOZHANXIANFAQUEDINGDEFAYUANZAISHIYONGFALVSHANGDEQUANWEIXING。DIZHIFAYUANDEPANJUEJIANGMIANLINDEZHENGZHIHOUGUO、OUZHOURENQUANFAYUANPANJUEYINGGUOZHENGFUBAISUHOUJIANGCHENGDANDEFALVHOUGUO、SANGEFENZHIZHIJIANDELIRANGCHUANTONGYIJIYINGGUOGONGZHONGDUIFAYUANDEZUNJING,GOUCHENGLEBUYIZHIXUANGAODESHIJIXIAOLI”[14]。SHISHISHANG,ZAI《RENQUANFAAN》TONGGUOZHIQIAN,YINGGUOFAYUANJIUCENGJINGTONGGUODUIYIHUILIFAYITUYANGEDEJIESHISHIXIANGUODUIYINGGUOJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHA。LIRU,QIESITESUBEITESENAN10JIUHENHAODISHUOMINGLEZHEIYIDIAN。

                                      FAYUANDUIYIHUILIFAHECIJILIFADERUOXINGWEIXIANSHENCHAYEJUEDINGLEDUI“BUYIZHI”DEYIHUILIFASHIFOUXIUGAIHUOFEICHUZUIZHONGYOUYIHUIJUEDING,YIHUILIANGYUANYEJIUCHENGWEIDUILIFAJINXINGSHENCHADEZUIZHONGYAODECHANGSUO。YOUYUTIZHIDEGUANXI,YINGGUOJUNSHILIFASHIXIANGHENDUOFUSUIYUZHENGFUFAAN,JIESHOUYIHUIDELIFAQIANSHENCHAHELIFAHOUSHENCHA。CONGZHONGJIMUDELAISHUO,DUIZHENGFUFAANDELIFASHENCHAXIANRANSHIWEILEYIZHIZHENGFUTONGGUOFAANKUOZHANGQIQUANLIDEQINGXIANG。YINGGUORUOXINGWEIXIANSHENCHAMOSHIDEYOUXIAOYUNXINGSHUOMINGWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDUBINGBUSHIFENGXINGYIHUIZHISHANGYUANZEGUOJIADEJINQU。

                                      (二) 国外军事立法合宪性审查制度的分析借鉴

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   YOUYUGEGUOXIANFAZHIDU、ZHENGZHIWENHUACHUANTONGDENGYINSUCUNZAIHENDACHAYI,QIJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUDEGOUJIANHESHENCHAJIANDUMOSHI、YUNXINGCHENGXUDENGYEDUOYOUBUTONG。

                                      1.军事立法合宪性审查模式与本国的宪法架构及军事权运行体制相适应

                                      ZAIDADUOSHUXIFANGGUOJIA,JUNSHILIFADEFALVDINGWEIYUWOGUOBINGBUYIZHI,ZHEIYUQIJUNSHIQUANYUNXINGTIZHIYOUGUAN。YAOSHIXIANDUIJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHA,SHOUXIANYAOMINGQUEJUNSHILIFADEDINGWEI,DADUOSHUXIFANGGUOJIASHIBAJUNSHIQUANGUIRUXINGZHENGQUANDEXIANZHENGJIAGOU。

                                      YIMEIGUOWEILI,JUNSHILIFAQUANYOUGUOHUICANZHONGLIANGYUANHEZONGTONGGONGTONGXINGSHI,MEIGUOJUNSHILIFADEXIAOLIDENGJI,ZHUYAOKEYIFENWEIGUOHUIBANBUDEJUNSHIFA、ZONGTONGBANBUDEJUNSHIMINGLING、GUOFANGBUZHANGBANBUDEGUOFANGBUZHILINGHEGEJUNZHONGBUZHANGBANBUDETIAOLITIAOLINGSIGECENGCI。MEIGUODEJUNSHIFASHIMEIGUOGUOJIAFALVTIXIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,YOUXIANGDUIDULIYUPUTONGFATIXI。TONGSHI,SUIRANMEIGUOSHUYUYINGMEIFAXI,PANLIFAZAIFALVTIXIZHONGZHANYOUZHONGYAODIWEI,DANJUNSHIFALIDEZHIDINGFADUOYUPANLIFA。MEIGUOJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHUYAOSHISIFASHENCHAMOSHI。

                                      YINGGUOLIFAQUANZHUYAOJIZHONGYUXIAYIYUAN,ERSHANGYIYUANZHIYONGYOUZUIGAOSIFAQUAN。ANZHAOYINGGUOXIANFAGUANLI,QIJUNDUIZHUYAOYOUYIHUIKONGZHI,YIHUIXIANGYOUJUNSHILIFAQUAN。YINGGUOJUNSHIFALVDEZHIDINGHEQITAFALVYIYANG,FENWEIFAANQICAOHEYIHUISANDULIANGGEJIEDUAN。FAANDEQICAOGONGZUOZHUYAOYOUGUOFANGBUCHENGDAN。GUOFANGBUKEYIGENJUYIHUIZHIDINGDEFALVJINXINGSHOUQUANLIFA,KEYIGENJUGUANLIWUZHUANGBUDUIDESHIJIXUYAOZIXINGZHIDINGJUNSHIXINGZHENGGUANLITIAOLI。“GUOFANGBUDEZHIQUANLIFAQUANLILAIYUANSHIYINGWANGTEQUAN,BEICHENGWEIXINGZHENGBUMENBUSHOUYIHUIKONGZHIDETESHUQUANLI。”[15]YINGGUODEPANLIFACHUANTONGJUEDINGLEYINGGUOJUNSHISHANGSUFAYUAN、YIHUISHANGYUANHEQITAPUTONGFAYUANSUOZUODEYUGUOFANG、JUNSHIYOUGUANDEPANJUEYESHUJUNSHILIFADEFANCHOU。YINGGUOJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHASHIYONGYIHUIHEFAYUANDEHUNHESHENCHAMOSHI。

                                      2.军事立法的合宪性审查模式依托于各国立法违宪审查运转体系

                                      GUOWAIWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDUZHUYAOQUFENWEICHOUXIANGXINGWEIXIANSHENCHAYUFUSUIXINGWEIXIANSHENCHA、QIANGXINGWEIXIANSHENCHAHERUOXINGWEIXIANSHENCHADENGJIBENLEIXING。JIUJUNSHILIFAERYAN,JINGUANLIFAXINGSHIHENEIRONGJUYOUYIDINGTESHUXING,DANZHUYAOXIFANGGUOJIARENGCAIYONGLEYUQIXINGZHENGLIFAYIZHIDESHENCHAMOSHI,YITUOYUGEGUOLIFAWEIXIANSHENCHAYUNZHUANTIXI。

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   MUQIANGUOWAIWEIXIANSHENCHAMOSHIZHUYAOYOUYIXIAJIZHONG:DIYI,SIFASHENCHAMOSHI。JIFAYUANZAISHENLIJUTIANJIANDEGUOCHENGZHONG,FUDAIDUIANJIANSUOSHIYONGDEFALVGUIFANXINGFAWENJIANJINXINGSHENCHABINGZUOCHUCAIPANDEZHIDU。ZAIZHEIZHONGMOSHIXIA,FAYUANZAIJUTIANJIANDESHENLIGUOCHENGZHONGKEYIDUISUOSHIYONGDEJUNSHIFALVGUIFANDEHEXIANXINGJINXINGSHENCHA,DANPAICHUCHOUXIANGSHENCHA。JIUSHENCHAHOUGUOLAIJIANG,TAZHIPANJUEYOUGUANDEFALVTIAOKUANWEIXIANWUXIAODANBINGBUCHEXIAOZHENGBUFALV,PANJUEBENSHENYEMEIYOUSUJILI,LIRUMEIGUOPUTONGFAYUANDEWEIXIANSHENCHA。DIER,ZHUANMENJIGUANSHENCHAMOSHI。JIYOUXIANFAGUIDINGDEZHUANMENJIGUANDUIFALVDENGGUIFANXINGWENJIANDEHEXIANXINGJINXINGSHENCHAHECAIJUEDEZHIDU,SHENCHAJUYOUZUIZHONGXIAOLI。LIRUDEGUODEXIANFAFAYUANHEFAGUODEXIANFAWEIYUANHUI。DISAN,HUNHESHENCHAMOSHI。JIYOULIANGGEHUOLIANGGEYISHANGDEGUOJIAJIGUANGONGTONGXINGSHIWEIXIANSHENCHAQUANLIDEYIZHONGZHIDUXINGSHI。YONGYOUWEIXIANSHENCHAQUANDEBUTONGGUOJIAJIGUANHUIYIJUGEZIDEQUANXIANHEFANGSHIDUIFALVGUIFANJINXINGHEXIANXINGSHENCHA,LIRUYINGGUOCAIYONGDEYIHUISHENCHAHEFAYUANSHENCHABINGZHONGDEMOSHI。

                                      3.国外军事立法合宪性审查制度运转状况对我国具有一定借鉴意义

                                      DIYI,ZAISHEHUIZHUYIFAZHIGUOJIADEJIANSHEZHONG,GUOJIADELIFAQUAN、XINGZHENGQUANHEJUNSHIQUANDENGDOUYINGDANGYIFAGUIZHI。JIULIFALAIJIANG,FALVGUIFANDEHEXIANXINGSHIZUIJIBENDEYAOQIU。

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   DIER,HEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUDEMOSHIYINGCONGSHIJICHUFA。GEGUOHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEZHUTI、CHENGXU、FANWEI、XIAOGUOGEBUXIANGTONG,GEYOUYOUSHIHEBIDUAN。JIANLIZENYANGDEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUQUJUEYUGEGUODEGUOQINGHEZHENGZHIWENHUACHUANTONG。ZAIWOGUO,JUNSHIQUANYUXINGZHENGQUANBINGLIDEDUTEXIANFAJIAGOUJUEDINGLEWOGUOJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAJUEBUNENGYIZHIXIFANGRENHEYIZHONGWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDUJIAGOU。ZHONGYANGJUNSHIWEIYUANHUIDETESHUXIANFADIWEIJIXINGZHENGQUAN (GUOFANGXINGZHENG) YUJUNSHIQUANERYUANTIXIDEYUNXINGZHUANGKUANGXUYAOJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUDETESHUSHEJI。

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   DISAN,SIFAJIGUANZAIHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUYUNXINGZHONGDANDANGZHONGYAODEJIAOSE。JIANYUSIFAHUODONGDEBEIDONGXING,FAYUANYIBANZAISHIHOUSHENCHAZHONGFAHUIQIESHIDEZUOYONG,SHIQIANSHENCHAZEDADUOYOULIFAJIGUANCHENGDAN,ERLIFAJIGUANTONGSHIZUOWEIFALVDEZHIDINGJIGUANHEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAJIANDUJIGUANQISHENCHASHIXIAONANYIBAOZHENG。JIANLIZHUANMENJIGUANSHENCHAMOSHIHUOHUNHEZHIDEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAMOSHIKEYIBIMIANZHUDUOFUZAYINSUDEGANRAO,DANZHEIZHONGMOSHIDUIGUOJIAQUANLIFENPEIHEZHIHENGDEZHUANGTAITICHULEJIAOGAOYAOQIU。

                                      三、对我国军事立法合宪性审查的几点思考

                                      WOGUOXIANXINGXIANFAHE《LIFAFA》DENGXIANGGUANFALVDOUQUELILEYIQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIJIQICHANGWUWEIYUANHUIWEIZHUDAODELIFAJIGUANWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDU。JUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOYITUOYUGUOJIADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDU。

                                      (一) 我国已初步构建了立法机关合宪性审查制度

                                      WOGUODELIFAJIGUANSHIQUANGUORENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUI。YIJUWOGUO《XIANFA》DI62TIAOHEDI67TIAOYIJI《LIFAFA》DI97TIAODEGUIDING,QUANGUORENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUIXIANGYOUJIANDUXIANFASHISHIDEZHIQUAN,DEYIFACHEXIAOYUXIANFADICHUDELIFA,“GONGXIANGHEXIANXINGSHENCHAQUAN”。[16]2018NIAN3YUE,《XIANFAXIUZHENGAN》JIANGFALVWEIYUANHUIGENGMINGWEI“XIANFAHEFALVWEIYUANHUI”,CHUCHENGDANYUANFALVWEIYUANHUIDEZHIZEWAI,ZENGJIA“TUIDONGXIANFASHISHI、KAIZHANXIANFAJIESHI、TUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHA、JIAQIANGXIANFAJIANDU”11DENGZHIZE。TONGNIAN10YUE,HEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUODEZHUANMENJIGOUQUANGUORENDAFAGONGWEIXIANFASHICHENGLI,XIEZHUQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIJIXIANFAHEFALVWEIYUANHUIKAIZHANHETUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUO。JUTONGJI,JIN2018NIANYINIAN,QUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUI“RENZHENSHENCHABAOSONGBEIANDEXINGZHENGFAGUI40JIAN、DIFANGXINGFAGUI1 180JIAN、SIFAJIESHI18JIAN,RENZHENYANJIUGONGMIN、ZUZHITICHUDESHENCHAJIANYI1 229JIAN,DUCUYOUGUANFANGMIANYIFACHEXIAOHEJIUZHENGYUXIANFAFALVXIANGDICHUDEGUIFANXINGWENJIAN”[2]。HEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOQUDEMINGXIANJINZHAN,BIAOZHIZHEWOGUOYIJINGCHUBUQUELILELIFAJIGUANHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDU。

                                      (二) 我国军事立法合宪性审查制度亟待完善

                                      TONGCHANGRENWEI,JUNSHIQUANYOUJIANJUNQUAN、ZHANZHENGQUANHETONGLVQUANSANBUFENZUCHENG。CONGQUANLIDEBENZHIJIANG,JUNSHILIFAQUANBINGBUSHIGUOJIALIFAQUANDEXIAWEIQUANLI,ERSHIZAIGUOJIALIFAQUANZHONGYUQITALINGYUDELIFAQUANJUYOUBUTONGDIAOZHENGLINGYUHEDUIXIANGDETONGWEILIFAQUAN,ZAIGUOJIALIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHONGBIRANJUYOUBUKEQUEXIDEDIWEI。ANZHAOWOGUOJUNSHILIFAQUANZHIDUSHEJI,FENWEIBUTONGCENGJIDEJUNSHILIFA,DANDOUBIXUNARUHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEFANWEI,YEBIRANTIXIANCHUBUTONGYUYIBANLIFADEJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHATEDIAN。YOUQISHIZAIWOGUOJUNSHIQUANYUXINGZHENGQUANFENLIDEXIANFAJIAGOUTIXIXIA,JUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAYEJIANGTIXIANCHUXIANMINGDEZHONGGUOTESE。

                                      1.我国军事立法中存在亟待解决的合宪性问题

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUOJUNSHILIFASHIXINGSHUANGGUIDUOJIZHI,CONGLIFAZHUTIFENXI,BAOKUOGUOJIAQUANLIJIGUAN、GUOJIAXINGZHENGJIGUANHEGUOJIAJUNSHIJIGUAN;CONGFADEYUANYUANFENXI,BAOKUOJUNSHIFALV,JUNSHIFAGUI、JUNSHIXINGZHENGFAGUI、JUNSHIGUIZHANG、JUNSHIXINGZHENGGUIZHANGDENG。12DANGQIAN,ZAIGELEIJUNSHIFALVGUIFANZHONGSHEJIHEXIANXINGZHENGYI,XUYAOTONGGUOHEXIANXINGSHENCHAJIAYIMINGQUEDETIAOWENBINGBUXIANJIAN。

                                      (1) 军事法律规范中的有关条款与宪法规定不相符

                                      YISHIGEBIEJUNSHIFALVZHONGDEGUIDINGYUXIANFAMINGXIANBUFU。LIRU,WOGUO《XIANFA》DI93TIAOGUIDING:“ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOZHONGYANGJUNSHIWEIYUANHUILINGDAOQUANGUOWUZHUANGLILIANG。”YIJU《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGUOFANGFA》 (YIXIAJIANCHENG《GUOFANGFA》) DI22TIAODEGUIDING,ZHONGGUORENMINWUZHUANGJINGCHABUDUISHUYUGUOJIAWUZHUANGLILIANGFANCHOU,YINGDANGYOUZHONGYANGJUNSHIWEIYUANHUILINGDAO。DAN《GUOFANGFA》DI22TIAOQUETONGSHIGUIDING:“ZHONGGUORENMINWUZHUANGJINGCHABUDUIZAIGUOWUYUAN、ZHONGYANGJUNSHIWEIYUANHUIDELINGDAOZHIHUIXIA”,《ZHONGGUORENMINWUZHUANGJINGCHAFA》 (YIXIAJIANCHENG《WUJINGFA》) DI3TIAOYEZUOLELEISIDEGUIDING,JI“RENMINWUZHUANGJINGCHABUDUIYOUGUOWUYUAN、ZHONGYANGJUNSHIWEIYUANHUILINGDAO”。ZAI《GUOFANGFA》HE《WUJINGFA》ZHONGDUIZHONGGUORENMINWUZHUANGJINGCHABUDUILINGDAOTIZHIDEGUIDINGSHANG,MINGXIANYU《XIANFA》GUIDINGBUYIZHI,YEYINQILEZHENGYI,BIXUJISHIJIUZHENG。13

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   ERSHIGEBIEJUNSHIFAGUIDEGUIDINGYUHEXIANXINGYAOQIUYOUCHONGTU。LIRU,2017NIAN5YUEZHONGYANGJUNWEIBANBUSHISHIDE《JUNSHILIFAGONGZUOTIAOLI》 (YIXIAJIANCHENG《TIAOLI》) ZHONG,JIANG“JUNSHIGUIFANXINGWENJIAN”ZUOWEIJUNSHILIFASHIXIANGDEYIGEZHONGYAOZHONGLEI,TUPOLE《LIFAFA》DUIWOGUOFALVTIXIDEGUIZHI,YEYUXIANFAQUELIDEGUOJIALIFATIXIBUFUHE。ERQIE,YIJUWOGUO《LIFAFA》DI103TIAODEGUIDING,JUNSHIGUIFANXINGWENJIANBINGMEIYOUGUIDINGZAIJUNSHILIFAFANCHOUZHINEI。DAN《TIAOLI》QUEBA“JUNSHIGUIFANXINGWENJIAN”SHITONG“FA”YUYIGUIFAN。TONGSHI,《TIAOLI》DI60TIAO、DI62TIAOHAIFUYUJUNSHIGUIFANXINGWENJIANZAITEDINGQINGXINGXIADEGAOYUJUNSHIFAGUI、JUNSHIGUIZHANGDEFALVDIWEI14,ZHEIXIETIAOWENDUI“GUIFANXINGWENJIAN”DEXIAOLIJINXINGLEGUODUTISHENG,GOUCHENGDUI《LIFAFA》WEIBEI,YEYU《XIANFA》JINGSHENBUFU。

                                      (2) 军事立法权的宪法依据不够明确充分

                                      ZAIWOGUO,ZHONGYANGJUNSHIWEIYUANHUIJIYOUGUANJUNSHIJIGUANYIZHIXINGSHIZHEJUNSHILIFAQUAN,ZAI《GUOFANGFA》HE《LIFAFA》ZHONGYEZUOLEDEXIANGGUANGUIDING,DANSUIZHESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHIGUOJIAJIANSHEHEYIFAZHIGUO、YIXIANZHIGUODEQUANMIANSHENRU,DUIQIANGHUAJUNSHILIFADEXIANFAYIJUHUITICHUGENGGAODEYAOQIU。YOUYUZAI《XIANFA》ZHONGQUEFAJUNSHILIFADEMINGQUELIFASHOUQUAN,BUJINYUQUANMIANJIAQIANGYIFAZHIJUN、TUIJINYIXIANZHIJUNDESHIDAIYAOQIUBUXIANGSHIYING,YEBULIYUJIAQIANGJUNSHILIFAGONGZUO,TISHENGJUNSHILIFADEXIANFADIWEI。ERQIEXIANXINGDE《LIFAFA》HE《GUOFANGFA》YESHI“GENJUXIANFA,ZHIDINGBENFA”。ZAI《XIANFA》MEIYOUMINGQUESHOUQUANDEQINGKUANGXIA,JUNSHIJIGUANDELIFAZHUTIDIWEIHELIFAQUANXIANQUEFACHONGFENXIANFAYIJU。15JUNSHILIFAQUANSHIGUOJIAZHONGDAQUANLI,BIXUYOUMINGQUEDEXIANFAYIJU,TONGGUOXIANFADEGUIFANJIANGJUNSHILIFANARUGUOJIAFAZHITIXI,BINGQUEBAOZHONGYANGJUNWEIJIYOUGUANJUNSHILIFAZHUTIZAIJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANFAXINGSHENCHAZHONGLIYUBUBAIZHIDI。

                                      (3) 军事立法中某些条款的正当性存疑义

                                      WEIWEIHUGUOJIAJUNSHILIYIDETESHUXUQIU,JUNSHILIFADUIJUNDUIDANWEIHEJUNRENDEGUANLIGENGWEIYANGE,DANYIXIETIXIANJUNSHILIFATESHUJIAZHIDETIAOKUANQUEYIYINFARENMENDUIQIZHENGDANGXING、HEFAXINGDEZHIYI。LIRU,2018NIAN《ZHONGGUORENMINJIEFANGJUNJILVTIAOLING (SHIXING) 》DI222TIAO、DI223TIAOGUIDINGLEXINGZHENGKANGUANCUOSHI。16XINGZHENGKANGUANZUOWEIYIZHONGXIANZHIRENSHENZIYOUDETESHUCUOSHI,PIZHUNQUANZAIGEJIJUNSHIDANWEIDEJUNZHENGZHUGUAN,BINGBUJINGSIFACHENGXU,ZAITEDINGQINGXINGZHONG,JUNRENKEYIBEIXIANZHIRENSHENZIYOUDA15RIZHIJIU。GAICUOSHIDESHEZHIYU《LIFAFA》GUIDINGDE“XIANZHIRENSHENZIYOUDEQIANGZHICUOSHIZHINENGYOUFALVSHEDING”DEFALVBAOLIUYUANZEBUXIANGFU。TONGSHI,ZAIGELEIJUNSHIFAGUIFANZHONGYECUNZAIYIXIEYUFAZHIYUANZEBUFU,SHENZHISUIYIJIADADUIJUNRENCHUFADEGUIDING。ZHEIXIEDOUXUYAOTONGGUOTUIJINJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHA,ZAIYOUXIAOBAOZHANGWEIHUGUOFANGHEJUNSHILIYIJICHUSHANGJINYIBUHELIBAOZHANGGUANBINGDEZHENGDANGQUANYI,SHIGEXIANGGUIDINGYUXIANFAFALVXIANGYIZHI。

                                      2.我国军事立法合宪性审查的基础理论研究亟待加强

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   DANGQIAN,WOGUOXIANXINGJUNSHIFALVGUIFANZHONGCUNZAIDEZHUDUOWENTI,JIYOUXIANFAFALVCENGMIANDE,YEYOUFAGUIGUIZHANGCENGMIANDE,ZHEIXIEFANYINGZAIBUTONGLINGYUHEBUTONGCENGMIANDEWENTI,YUANYINSHIDUOFANGMIANDE,YEJIAOWEIFUZA,DANDOUKEYICONGXIANFAFALVYISHIBUQIANGHEXIANGGUANLILUNYANJIUQUEWEIZHAODAOYUANYIN。DANGQIAN,BIXUJINTIEJUNSHIFAZHIJIANSHEDESHIDAIXUYAO,GAODUZHONGSHIXIANGGUANLILUNYANJIUTANTAO,BUDUANSHENHUAXIANFADUIJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHADELILUNYANJIU,WEIQUANMIANTISHENGJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHUIPINGHEJIAKUAITUIJINZHONGGUOTESEJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHATIGONGJIANSHILILUNZHICHENG。

                                      (1) 深入探讨我国国家权力结构中军事权的宪法地位

                                      WOGUOCAIYONGLEBUTONGYUXIFANGGUOJIA“SANQUANFENLI”MOSHIDE“YIXINGHEYI”DEGUOJIAQUANLIJIEGOUMOSHI,ZAIJIANCHIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUZHEIYIGENBENDEZHENGZHIZHIDUXIA,JUNSHIQUANZAIWOGUOGUOJIAQUANLIJIEGOUZHONGSHIDULIYUXINGZHENGQUANERCUNZAIDEQUANLITIXI。ZAIZHEIZHONGTIZHIXIA,WOGUOJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUDEJIANSHEJUEBUNENGQUANPANJIEJIANXIFANGKANSIJIAOWEICHENGSHUDEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUJIAGOUERBIXUYITUOYUWOGUODEJUTIGUOQING,ZAICHONGFENKAOLVWOGUOJUNSHIQUANDULIXIANFADIWEIHEDANGDUIJUNDUIJUEDUILINGDAODEJICHUSHANGYUYIQUANMIANSHEJI。YIHANDESHI,DANGQIANLILUNJIEDUIWOGUOJUNSHIQUANDULIXIANFADIWEIDEYANJIUDADOUQIANCHANGZHEZHI,DUIJUNSHIQUANYUXINGZHENGQUANYIJIJUNSHIQUANYULIFAQUANZAIGUOJIAQUANLICENGMIANDEFUZAGUANXIQUEFASHENRUDEFENXI,ZHEIXIANRANBULIYUJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUJIANSHEDETUIJIN。

                                      (2) 完善创新我国“政令分离”的国防领导体制

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   GUOFANGLINGDAOTIZHIYOUWUZHUANGLILIANGLINGDAOTIZHIHEGUOFANGXINGZHENGLINGDAOTIZHILIANGBUFENGOUCHENG,SHI“GUOJIADUIWUZHUANGLILIANGTONGLVHEDUIGUOFANGJIANSHESHIYEJINXINGMOUHUA、JUECE、ZHIHUI、XIEDIAODEJIGOUTIXIJIQIXIANGYINGZHIDU,SHUYUGUOJIADEGENBENZHIDUFANCHOU,YOUGUOJIAXIANFAGUIFANHEDIAOZHENG”[17]20。GENJU《XIANFA》GUIDING,WOGUOCONGHONGGUANSHANGSHIXIANLEXINGZHENGJIGUANDUIGUOFANGJIANSHESHIYEDELINGDAOQUANHEJUNSHIJIGUANDUIWUZHUANGLILIANGTONGLVQUANDEZHENGTIFENLI,XINGCHENGLE“ZHENGLINGFENLI”DEGUOFANGLINGDAOTIZHI17。ZHEIZHONGGUOFANGLINGDAOTIZHIJUEDINGLEWOGUOJUNSHILIFAZAIZHUTI、NEIRONG、XIAOLIDENGZHUDUOFANGMIANDEFUZAXINGHEDUOYANGXING,YEDUICHUANGXINWANSHANYUJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHIDUXIANGSHIYINGGUOFANGLINGDAOTIZHITICHULEGENGGAOGENGJUTIDEYAOQIU。

                                      (3) 正确把握法的公开性与军事法的保密性

                                      FADEGONGKAIXINGYUJUNSHIFADEBAOMIXINGGONGCUNYUJUNSHIFALVGUIFANZHIZHONG。《JUNSHILIFAGONGZUOTIAOLI》DI39TIAOGUIDING:“ZHONGYANGJUNWEIZHIDINGDEJUNSHIFAGUI、JUNSHIGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,JUNWEIJIGUANBUMENZHIDINGDEJUNSHIGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,BUSHEJIJUNSHIMIMIDE,FABUHUOZHEYINFAHOU,YINGDANGJISHIZAIQUANJUNXINGMEITIHEJUNSHIFAZHIXINXIWANGSHANGKANDENG。”ZHEITIXIANLEJUNSHIFADEGONGKAIXING,TONGSHIZAI《TIAOLI》DI38TIAOGUIDINGLEDUIJUNSHIFADEBAOMIXINGYAOQIU。YIBANDISHUO,CHUSHEJIJUNSHIMIMIDEJUNSHIFADOUYINGDANGXIANGQUANSHEHUIHUOZAIJUNDUIFANWEINEIXIANGGUANGDAGUANBINGGONGKAI,YILIYUZHIXIHEZUNSHOU,YESHUYUJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEFANCHOUHEZHUTINEIRONG;SHEJIJUNSHIMIMIDEJUNSHIFABUDEGONGKAI,DANYESHUYUJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHADENEIRONG。ERRUHEZHENGQUEBAWOJUNSHIFADEGONGKAIXINGHESHEMIXING,JIUXUYAOCHONGFENYUNYONGFAZHIYUANZETONGCHOUKAOLV、KEXUEQUHUA。

                                      3.我国军事立法合宪性审查缺乏有效实施路径

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   TUIJINJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHA,CHULEZAIJIBENLILUNYANJIUFANGMIANCUNZAIJIAODAQUEKOUWAI,ZAISHIJICAOZUOYUNXINGCENGMIANYEHENNANZHANKAI,ZHEIYUWOGUOJUNSHILIFADEZUOYONG、GUIMOBUXIANGSHIYING。JINGUANSUIZHEYIFAZHIGUOFANGLVEHEJIANSHEFAZHIJUNDUISHIJIANDECHIXUTUIJIN,DANGHEGUOJIAYIJINGDUIJUNSHILIFAGONGZUODEKEXUEXING、GUIFANXINGTICHULEYUELAIYUEGAODEYAOQIU,DANCONGJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEQIDONGZHUTI、SHIYONGDUIXIANG、SHENCHAFANWEI、FALVXIAOLIDAOYUNXINGCHENGXUHEFANGSHIDENGDOUQUEFAQUANMIANDEZHIDUSHEJI,SHENZHIWUFAKAIZHAN。

                                      (三) 我国军事立法合宪性审查实施路径

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   QUANMIANTUIJINHECHUANGXINWOGUODEJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUO,YINGDANGSHIZHONGJIANCHIYIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUWEIZHUDAO,YANGEZUNXUNXIANFAGUIFAN,BAOZHENGDANGDUIJUNDUIDEJUEDUILINGDAO,WEIJIAKUAITISHENGGUOFANGHEJUNDUIJIANSHEFAZHIHUASHUIPINGFUWU。

                                      1.全面强化全国人大在军事立法合宪性审查中的主导作用

                                      RENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUSHIWOGUODEGENBENZHENGZHIZHIDU。QUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUISHIGUOJIALIFAJIGUAN,YESHIGUOJIAZUIGAOQUANLIJIGUAN,ZAIWOGUODEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHONGFAHUIZHEZUIGAOQUANWEIZUOYONG。YOUXIAOTUIJINJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOBIXUCHONGFENFAHUIHEQUANMIANQIANGHUAQUANGUORENDADEZHUDAOZUOYONG。

                                      QUANMIANQIANGHUAQUANGUORENDAZAIJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHONGDEZHUDAOZUOYONGYAOTANSUOPOCHUZHANGQIXINGCHENGDELIFAZHUTIZIWOSHENCHADEKEJIU。JINGUANGUOJIALIFAJIGUANYIFAXIANGYOUJIANDUXIANFASHISHI,TUIJINHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEQUANLI,DANSHIJIANZHONGQUEWANGWANG“YINWEIFALVYUXIANFAZAILIFACHENGXUYUJIZHISHANGDE‘RONGHEXING’ERDAOZHIDUIFALVJINXINGHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEFALIKUNJING”[18],DUIGUOJIALIFAYOUQISHIJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZAITIZHIHECHENGXUSHANGGENGSHIZULIZHONGZHONG,NANYIYOUXIAOTUIJIN。QUANGUORENDAXIANFAYUFALVWEIYUANHUIJIFAGONGWEIXIANFASHIDECHENGLISHIQIANGHUAQUANGUORENDAZAIHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHONGZHUDAOZUOYONGDEZHONGDAJUCUO,DANJIANYUXIANFAYUFALVWEIYUANHUIZUOWEIXIEZHUQUANGUORENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUIKAIZHANHEXIANXINGSHENCHADENGGONGZUODEZHUANMENWEIYUANHUIBINGBUSHIXINSHEDEXIANFAJIANDUJIGUAN,MEIYOUPINGXINGHUODULIYUQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIDEDULIDIWEI,FAGONGWEIXIANFASHIYEJINDUIQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIHEQUANGUORENDAXIANFAYUFALVWEIYUANHUILVXINGXIANFAFANGMIANYOUGUANZHIZEQIDAOXIEZHUHEBAOZHANGZUOYONG。ZAIDANGQIAN,RENGXUJINYIBUWANSHANHECHUANGXINGENGWEIQUANWEIGAOXIAODELIFAJIANDUTIZHIJIZHI,BINGTUOZHANHEQIANGHUAQIJUNSHILIFAJIANDUGONGNENG,SHIXIANDUISUOYOUGUOJIALIFABAOKUOJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHA。

                                      2.依法规范中央军事委员会在军事立法合宪性审查中的保证作用

                                      ZHONGYANGJUNSHIWEIYUANHUISHIZUZHIZHIDINGHESHISHIGELEIJUNSHILIFADEZHONGYAOZHUTI,ZAITIGAOJUNSHILIFAZHILIANGHETUIJINJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZHONGFAHUIZHETESHUZHONGYAOZUOYONG。ZAIGUOJIAJIANDUTIZHIZHONG,ZHONGYANGJUNWEIBUKENENGSHIJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUODEHEXIN,DANTAJIYUJUNSHILINGLVJIGUANDETESHUDIWEIHEZHIQUANQUEKEYIZAIJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOZHONGFAHUIQITAGUOJIAJIGUANWUFATIDAIDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG。

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   SHOUXIAN,ZHONGYANGJUNWEISHIGUOJIAZUIGAOJUNSHIJIGUAN,SHIXINGJUNWEIZHUXIFUZEZHI。TAKEYIYIFADUIJUNSHIJIGUANZHIDINGBINGZAIJUNDUINEIBUSHISHIDEYIQIEGUIFANJINXINGYOUXIAODESHENCHAJIANDU,BIMIANJUNSHIJIGUANLIFAFENGBIXINGHEJUNSHIFAGUIFANBAOMIXINGDUIJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAZAOCHENGDEKUNNANHESHUFU。DIER,ZHONGYANGJUNWEIXINGSHIJUNSHITONGSHUAIQUAN,DUIJUNSHILINGYUDETEDIANHELIFAXUQIUSHIFENLEJIE,DUIJUNSHILIFANEIRONGDESHENCHAGENGJIAZHUANYEYOUXIAO,KEYIJIANSHAOFEIJUNSHIJIGUANJIYUZHUANYEQUEXIANZAISHENCHAGUIFANSHIZAOCHENGDEFUMIANYINGXIANG。DISAN,JIYUJUNSHISHEHUIDEFENGBIXING,BUDUINEIBUYOUXIANGDANGYIBUFENSHEFAJIUFENSHITONGGUONEIBUTUJINGJIEJUEDE。ZAICHULIHEJIEJUEZHEIXIESHEFASHIJIANZHONG,ZHONGYANGJUNWEIJUYOUBIFAYUANGENGSHUXIJUNSHIFALVGUIFANSHIYONGJIZHIXINGQINGKUANGDEYOUSHI,YEGENGRONGYIYIFA、HELI、GAOXIAODIJIEJUEGELEISHEFAWENTI,JISHICHULIGELEIWEIFAXINGWEI,BIMIANDUIJUNSHILIFATESHUJIAZHIDEGOUBINGHUOZHIYI。YINCI,JIXUZAIGUOJIALIFAZHONGDUIZHONGYANGJUNWEIXIANGYINGDEFAZHIJIANDUQUANBAOKUOJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAQUANDENGCONGSHITIHECHENGXUDENGFANGMIANJIAYIJUTIGUIFAN,JINYIBUQIANGHUAZHONGYANGJUNWEIDUIGELEIJUNSHILIFABAOKUOLVXINGXIANFAZHIZEHUODONGDEJIANDUZHIZE。

                                      3.重视发挥司法机关在军事立法合宪性审查工作中的独特作用

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   CONGSHIJIEFANWEIKAN,JINGUANGEGUODEWEIXIANSHENCHAMOSHIGEBUXIANGTONG,DANBULUNSHISIFAJIGUANSHENCHAMOSHI、ZHUANMENJIGUANSHENCHAMOSHI,HUOZHEHUNHESHENCHAMOSHI,FAYUANZAIWEIXIANSHENCHAZHIDUDEYUNXINGZHONGDOUFAHUILEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG,YEQUDELEBUCUODEXIAOGUO。CONGFALISHANGJIANG,YOUFAYUANZAIJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOZHONGDANDANGZHONGYAOJIAOSEJUYOUCHONGFENDELILUNYIJUHEGONGZUOYOUSHI。

                                      SHOUXIAN,FAYUANYIFAXIANGYOUSHENCHAFALV、FAGUISHIFOUFUHEXIANFADEQUANLI。“FAYUANDEZHIZESHITONGGUOXINGSHISIFAQUANLAILVXINGXIANFAYIWU,SUOYIFAYUANZAIXINGSHISIFAQUANDEGUOCHENGZHONGSHENCHAFALV、FAGUISHIFOUFUHEXIANFASHIQILVXINGXIANFAYIWUDETIXIAN,FAYUANSUIRANBUNENGJIESHIXIANFA,DANQUEBUNENGFOUDINGFAYUANYOUSHENCHAFALV、FAGUISHIFOUFUHEXIANFADEQUANLI。”[19]DIER,FAYUANZAICHULIGELEIANJIANZHONGSHOUXIANYAODUISUOSHIYONGFALVFAGUIBAOKUOJUNSHIXINGZHENGFAGUIHEJUNSHIFAGUIDEHEXIANXINGJINXINGSIFASHANGDEPANDUAN。FAYUANZAIJUTIANJIANZHONGSHIYONGDEFALVYINGDANGSHIYUXIANFABUXIANGDICHUDEFALV。DISAN,XIANGJIAOYUQITAJIGOU,FAYUANDEGONGZUORENYUANWANGWANGJUYOUGENGJIAFENGFUDESIFAJINGYANHEFAXUEZHUANYEZHISHI,YOUFAYUANZAIJUNSHILIFADEHEXIANXINGSHENCHAGONGZUOZHONGDANDANGZHONGYAOJIAOSEJUYOUMINGXIANDEZHUANYEYOUSHI。ZUIHOU,CONGQUANLIFENGONGHEZHIYUEDEJIAODUFENXI,FAYUANKEYIJIAOSHAODISHOUDAOQITAGUOJIAJIGUANDUIQIYEWUSHANGDEGANRAO,XIANGDUIDULIDIXINGSHISIFAQUAN,ZHEIYOULIYUFAYUANGENGJIAGONGZHENG、KEGUANDICHENGDANJUNSHILIFAHEXIANXINGSHENCHADEXIANGGUANGONGZUO。WOGUO《LIFAFA》DI99TIAOYIJINGFUYUZUIGAORENMINFAYUANWEIXIANSHENCHATIQINGQUAN,DANDUIYUZHEIYIQUANLIDEJUTIYUNYONGSHANGQUEFAXIZHIDEGUIDING,YINGDANGZHUBUYUYIWANSHAN。

                                      参考文献

                                      [1]更加注重发挥宪法重要作用把实施宪法提高到新的水平[N].人民日报,2017-02-26 (01) .
                                      [2] 全国人民代表大会常务委员会工作报告 (摘要) [N].人民日报,2018-03-09 (02) .
                                      [3] 中国人民解放军军语[Z].北京:军事科学出版社,2011.
                                      [4] 新华网.习近平出席解放军和武警部队代表团全体会议[EB/OL]. (2017-03-12) [2018-02-10]http://www.xinhuanet.com/mil/2018-03/12/c_129828209.htm.
                                      [5]丛文胜.依法加强国防和军队领域反腐败工作[N].法制日报,2013-11-27 (09) .
                                      [6]中共中央关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定[N].人民日报,2013-10-29 (01) .
                                      [7]李贤华,郭金生.域外违宪审查制度探析[N].人民法院报,2016-12-08 (08) .
                                      [8]路易斯·亨金,阿尔伯特·J.罗森塔尔.宪政与权利[M].上海:三联书店,1996.
                                      [9]刘文欢.论美国反恐立法的合宪性审查[D].济南:山东大学,2014.
                                      [10]宋虹儒.对美国、德国违宪审查制度的比较分析[D].北京:外交学院,2017.
                                      [11]王文英.军事行政立法研究[D].北京:中国政法大学,2011.
                                      [12]杨帆.违宪审查的法国道路——一个政治宪法学的考察[J].交大法学,2017, (1) .
                                      [13]王芳蕾.论法国的违宪审查程序[J].财经法学,2017, (4) .
                                      [14]李蕊佚.议会主权下的英国弱型违宪审查[J].法学家,2013, (2) .
                                      [15]冯巍.英国的军事立法简介[J].法学杂志,1992, (4) .
                                      [16] 刘连泰.中国合宪性审查的宪法文本实现[J].中国社会科学,2019, (5) .
                                      [17]田思源,王凌.国防行政法与军事行政法[M].北京:清华大学出版社,2009.
                                      [18]莫纪宏.论法律的合宪性审查机制[J].法学评论,2018, (6) .
                                    星云棋牌官网下载   [19]朱福惠,刘木林.论我国人民法院的宪法解释和违宪审查提请权[J].法学评论,2013, (3) .

                                      注释

                                      1 本文所指的军事立法从广义上包括国防和军队建设领域的各类立法。根据2017年5月, 中央军委《军事立法工作条例》第2条第3款的规定:“军事规范性文件是军事法规制度体系的组成部分”;军事规范性文件成为军事立法的重要内容, 理应纳入合宪性审查范围。
                                      2 从广义上讲, 应当包括所有履行相应国防和军事职责的机关。
                                      3 鉴于各级军事机关制定的军事规范性文件在军队法治建设中发挥着重要作用, 并在《军事立法工作条例》中加以规范, 实际上已经成为军事法的组成部分, 将其纳入合宪性审查范围有助于强化各级军事机关的宪法观念和意识。
                                      4 约瑟·帕迪拉是美国公民, 曾在阿富汗担任本·拉登的高级顾问, 从事制造“脏弹”的活动, 2002年5月8日他自巴基斯坦返回芝加哥, 在机场入境时被逮捕。此项逮捕行动以纽约州南区地方法院核发的重要证人令状为依据。帕迪拉随后被拘禁于纽约联邦拘留所并接受大陪审团的调查。5月22日, 帕迪拉申请律师辩护, 要求撤销重要证人令状。6月9日, 布什总统以宪法第二条规定的三军统帅权以及国会通过的《授权使用武力决议》为依据, 认定帕迪拉为“敌方战斗人员”, 并将其移送至南卡罗来纳州海军监狱无限期拘留。帕迪拉的律师以上述拘禁行为违反美国联邦宪法第一条第九款第二项人身保护令条款及宪法修正案第四至六条为由, 将总统、国防部长、海军监狱首长列为被告, 向纽约州南区地方法院起诉, 请求核发人身保护令。地方法院判决驳回帕迪拉的诉讼请求。后来案件上诉至美国联邦第二巡回上诉法院, 上诉法院认为总统作为三军统帅无权在交战区之外的美国本土拘禁美国公民, 《授权使用武力决议》仅构成一项国会通过的联合决议, 并非国会立法, 判决准予为帕迪拉核发人身保护令, 要求国防部于三十天内释放帕迪拉。案件上诉至联邦最高法院。2004年6月8日, 最高法院驳回帕迪拉的请求, 理由是本案被告不适格。参见Padilla v.Rumsfeld.352F.3d 695, 724 (2d Cir.2003) at 711-720。
                                      5 1955年联邦德国决定加入北大西洋公约组织, 须许可留驻美军在德国境内部署核武器。社会民主党对此持反对意见。该党在其占多数的汉堡州和不来梅州内以住民调查的方式进行投票, 促使两州制定了《与核武器相关的住民调查法》来压迫联邦政府改变在核问题上的政策。为阻止住民调查计划的实施, 联邦政府向联邦宪法法院对上述两州的法律提起了抽象性审查的诉讼, 同时还对汉堡州提起了联邦与州之间的权限争议诉讼。联邦政府认为防卫和外交事务根据《联邦德国基本法》的规定属于联邦专属立法权。联邦宪法法院确认了联邦政府的诉讼请求, 判决被咨询的住民调查介入了联邦专属的立法、统治和行政管辖权, 因此违反了《基本法》;两州的法律与联邦国家秩序相矛盾, 是无效的。同时阐明, 作为抽象性的违宪审查, 不仅可以审查法律的内容是否与《基本法》规定相一致, 而且也可以审查法律的形式合宪性。参见韩大元、莫纪宏主编:《外国宪法判例》, 中国人民大学出版社2005年版, 第477-481页。
                                      6 宪法委员会和其他国家违宪审查机关的功能不同, 它最初实质上是帮助政府监视议会、协调国家机构之间矛盾的机构。这种状况在法国两次宪法改革后得到改变, 逐步转变为维护公民权利的利器。目前, 法国的宪法委员会委员可分为两类:一类是选任委员, 由总统、参议院议长以及国民议会议长各任命三位;另一类是当然委员, 凡是卸任的总统均为宪法委员会的终身当然委员。
                                      7 根据修正后的《宪法》相关规定, 法国违宪审查对象分为三类:公布生效之前的组织法和议会内部规则;议会通过尚未公布生效的法律议案;已经公布生效的法律。其中前两类对应事前审查, 第三类为事后审查。三类违宪审查均为抽象性审查, 即仅针对法律本身而并非个案的适用。参见王芳蕾:《论法国的违宪审查程序》, 载《财经法学》2017年第4期。
                                      8 根据议会主权原则, 英国议会制定的所有法律都处于同一位阶。这常被视为违宪审查制度建立的最大障碍。但同时, 英国的违宪审查制度因此也成为议会主权国家建立违宪审查制度的最有效尝试。
                                      9 根据《人权法案》第3条的规定, 法院有义务尽一切可能将议会立法和次级立法解释得与公约权利相一致;根据第4条的规定, 如果无论怎么解释, 议会立法或次级立法仍然与公约权利相抵触, 法院就有权发布一份“不一致宣告”, 但《人权法案》并没有赋予法官推翻议会立法的权力。相对于美国式的宪法司法审查或德国的宪法法院模式, 英国《人权法案》建立的这种违宪审查模式被视为一种弱型违宪审查。参见李蕊佚:《议会主权下的英国弱型违宪审查》, 载《法学家》2013年第2期。
                                      10 1914年英国《领土防御条例》中的条例2A (2) 规定:“未经军需大臣的同意, 任何人都不应当为了获得 (军需工人所居住的) 任何住宅的重新占有, 或承租人的收回诉讼的命令或裁决这一目的而提起诉讼”, 法院裁决该项规定并没有得到1914年《领土防御巩固法》第1条第 (1) 款的授权, 因此是无效的。法院认为, 该项规定剥夺了公民进入法院寻求保护的权利。在该案中, 法院通过对议会立法意图的解释实现了对1914年《领土防御条例》的审查。转引自童建华:《英国违宪审查的形式与特点》, 上海交通大学2008年博士学位论文, 第153页。
                                      11 详见《全国人民代表大会常务委员会关于全国人民代表大会宪法和法律委员会职责问题的决定》第2条。
                                      12 根据2015年3月修改的《中华人民共和国立法法》第70条第2款规定, 军事行政法规和规章, 可以称为国防行政法规和规章, 参见丛文胜:《国防行政法规开辟国防立法新领域》, 《法制日报》2015年4月16日第9版。
                                      13 2017年12月, 中共中央印发《中共中央关于调整中国人民武装警察部队领导指挥体制的决定》, 确定“自2018年1月1日零时起, 武警部队由党中央、中央军委集中统一领导”。这是落实《宪法》第93条的重要举措。
                                      14 《条例》第60条规定:“中央军委制定的军事法规、军事规范性文件的效力, 高于战区、军兵种制定的军事规章和军委机关部门、战区、军兵种制定的军事规范性文件。军委机关部门制定的军事规范性文件的效力, 高于战区、军兵种制定的军事规章、军事规范性文件。”第62条规定:“同一单位制定的军事法规、军事规章与军事规范性文件对同一事项规定不一致的, 以军事法规、军事规章为准, 但中央军委为推行重大改革举措先行制定的军事规范性文件除外。”
                                      15 尽管从立法实践来看, 我们可以用“我国宪法对中央军委的立法授权采取默示的方式”这样的理由对中央军委军事立法权的宪法依据予以解读, 但对比《宪法》中对国务院立法权的明示, 中央军委立法权的宪法依据明显不足。
                                      16 “对有打架斗殴、聚众闹事、酗酒滋事、持械威胁他人、违抗命令、严重扰乱正常秩序等行为的人员, 或者确有迹象表明可能发生逃离部队、自杀、行凶等问题的人员, 可以实行行政看管。”“行政看管的时间, 一般不超过7日, 需要延长的, 应当报上级批准, 但累计不得超过15日。”
                                      17 有必要指出的是, 我国“政令分离”的国防领导体制与西方国家以行政权一元领导为前提的政令分离制度是有根本区别的, 从权力的本质上讲, 西方国家国防领导体制中的政令分离是行政权统领下的军事统率权内部的军政军令的分离, 与我国权力分离的本质属性不同。

                                      丛文胜,李敏.论推进我国军事立法的合宪性审查[J].苏州大学学报(哲学社会科学版),2019,40(04):45-53+191.
                                      相近分类:
                                      • 成都网络警察报警平台
                                      • 公共信息安全网络监察
                                      • 经营性网站备案信息
                                      • 不良信息举报中心
                                      • 中国文明网传播文明
                                      • 学术堂_诚信网站

                                      百胜棋牌---首页_欢迎您 百灵拼三张-Welcome 蓝洞棋牌官网送3金币---首页_Welcome 035棋牌手游官网 亲朋棋牌官方下载完整版-首页