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                  中国与美国的科技竞争力对比分析

                  时间:2018-09-12 来源:世界地理研究 作者:杜德斌,段德忠,夏启繁 本文字数:10338字

                    摘    要: 在界定国家科技竞争力内涵的基础上,从科技人力资源竞争力、科技财力资源竞争力、科学研究竞争力、技术创新竞争力和科技国际化竞争力五个方面建构了国家科技竞争力评价指标体系,从而详细对比了中美两国在科技发展上的差异。研究发现,无论是整体竞争力还是科技投入、科学研究、技术创新、科技国际化等单项竞争力,中国都与美国都存在不小差距,中国科技竞争力虽然加速提升,但仍显着落后于美国,中国科技发展任重道远。基于中美两国科技竞争力的现状对比及趋势研判,本文认为:中国进一步提升科技竞争力,加快建设世界科技强国,既需要对标先进、参照一流,进一步深化开放式创新,充分学习和借鉴美国等科技强国的成功经验,更需要立足自身、正视短板,坚持科技创新与制度创新双轮驱动、发展速度和创新质量有机统一、自主创新与开放创新相互促进,着力推动以质量和效益为核心的创新战略,加强基础科学研究,突破关键核心技术,集聚高端科创人才,以实现国家科技竞争力的持续稳步增强。

                    关键词: 星云棋牌官网下载科技竞争力; 中国; 美国; 科技人力资源; 科技财力资源; 科技国际化;

                    Abstract: 星云棋牌官网下载Based on the elaboration of national scientific competitiveness, this paper builds the national science competitiveness evaluation system from5 aspects, including scientific human resource competitiveness, scientific and financial resources competitiveness, scientific research competitiveness, technological innovation competitiveness and technology internationalization competitiveness, with specific comparison of science and technology development between China and the United States. Studies show that even though China has enhanced the scientific competitiveness, the United States surpasses China in both overall competitiveness and individual area like scientific investment, scientific research, technical innovation, and globalization of science and technology. For China, there is still a long way to improve scientific competitiveness further. After analyzing the present situation and the development trend of the scientific competitiveness between China and the United States, the paper believes that China should not only learn from the powerful and advanced scientific nations like the United States with new reforming and opening, but also be aware of self-weaknesses. China should stick to the two-wheel driver of scientific innovation and systematic innovation, the organic combination of development speed and the innovation quality, the mutual promotion of individual innovation and the open innovation, the innovation strategy focusing on quality and result, the enhancement of basic scientific research, the breakthrough of critical and core technology, the attraction of advanced scientific and innovative talents, so that the national scientific competitiveness could accelerate rapidly and continuously.

                    Keyword: 星云棋牌官网下载scientific and technological competitiveness; China; United States; scientific human resource; scientific financial resources; scientific technology internationalization;

                    0、 引言

                  星云棋牌官网下载   KEJISHIDIYISHENGCHANLI,SHIJINGJIHESHEHUIFAZHANDEDONGLIZHIYUAN。KEJIXING,ZEGUOYUNXING。KEJIJINGZHENGLIBUJINSHIGUOJIAJINGZHENGLIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,TONGSHIYESHIQIHEXINZHIZHU。SHIXIANZHONGHUAMINZUWEIDAFUXING,KEJISHIGUANJIAN。GAIGEKAIFANGYILAI,CONGKEJIAOXINGGUOZHANLVEDAOCHUANGXINQUDONGFAZHANZHANLVE,ZHONGGUOCHENGZHANGWEIYAZHOUDIYIHESHIJIEDIERDAJINGJITIDETONGSHI,ZAIKEJICHUANGXINLINGYUZHUJIANZOUCHULEYITIAOJUYOUZHONGGUOTESEDEZIZHUCHUANGXINDAOLU,DUOGEKEJIZHIBIAOYIYUEJUSHIJIEQIANLIE。ZHONGGUOKEJILILIANGDEKUAISUJUEQI,ZHENGZAISHENKEGAIBIAN、ZHONGGOUSHIJIEKEJIBANTUHESHIJIEZHENGZHIJINGJIGEJU[1,2,3]。

                    BUKEFOURENDESHI,ZAIDANGQIANQUANQIUKEJICHUANGXINBANTUZHONG,MEIGUOYIJIUSHIKEJISHILIZUIQIANGDEGUOJIA,BINGYINLINGSHIJIEKEJIFAZHAN。RANERJINNIANLAIZHONGGUOKEJIKUAISUJUEQIYINZHIDEGUANYUQUANQIUKEJIZHONGXINZHUANYIYIJIMEIGUOSHIFOUSHIQUKEJIJINGZHENGYOUSHIDETAOLUNCHIXUFAJIAO[4,5,6]。2018NIANYILAI,ZHONGMEIMAOYIMOCABUDUANSHENGJI。KEJICHUANGXINSHILIDEJIAOLIANGSHIZHONGMEIMAOYIZHENGDUANDEBENZHI,YESHIJUEDINGZHONGMEI“MAOYIZHAN”SHUYINGDEGUANJIANYINSU。TEBIESHI“ZHONGXINGSHIJIAN”、“HUAWEISHIJIAN”FASHENGHOU,ZHONGMEIKEJIJINGZHENGTEBIESHILIANGGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLIDAODISHUYOUSHULIE,YICHENGWEISHEHUIGEJIEGUANZHUDEZHONGYAOYITI[7]。

                  中国与美国的科技竞争力对比分析

                    JIYUCI,BENWENCONGKEJIRENLIZIYUANJINGZHENGLI、KEJICAILIZIYUANJINGZHENGLI、KEXUEYANJIUJINGZHENGLI、JISHUCHUANGXINJINGZHENGLIHEKEJIGUOJIHUAJINGZHENGLIWUGEFANGMIANGOUJIANLEGUOJIAKEJIJINGZHENGLIPINGJIAZHIBIAOTIXI,PINGGULEZHONGMEILIANGGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLIDEXIANGDUIDAXIAOJIBIANHUAQUSHI。

                    1、 国家科技竞争力内涵与评价

                    1.1、 国家科技竞争力的内涵

                    KEJIJINGZHENGLIDEYANJIULANGCHAOSHIZAIJINGZHENGLIDEYANJIUBEIJINGXIAXINGQIDE,KEJIJINGZHENGLIZUOWEIGUOJIAJINGZHENGLIDEHEXINZUCHENGBUFEN,SHIYIGEGUOJIAZONGHEJINGZHENGLIBUDUANFAZHANDEDONGLIHEHEXIN。CONGJINGZHENGLI、GUOJIACHUANGXINNENGLI、GUOJIAKEJINENGLIDAOKEJIJINGZHENGLI,WEIRAOGUOJIAKEJIFAZHANSHUIPINGPINGJIADEZHENGCEZIXUNBAOGAOCUISHENGLEDUOGELEISIDEGAINIAN,RU“JINGZHENGLI”、“GUOJIACHUANGXINNENGLI”DENG[8,9,10]。DUIYU“KEJIJINGZHENGLI”ZHEIYIGAINIAN,MUQIANGUOJISHANGSHANGWUTONGYIDINGYI。1999NIAN,YOUYUANGUOJIATIGAIWEIJINGJITIZHIGAIGEYANJIUYUAN、ZHONGGUORENMINDAXUE、SHENZHENZONGHEKAIFAYANJIUYUANGONGTONGYANJIUFABIAODE《ZHONGGUOGUOJIJINGZHENGLIFAZHANBAOGAO——KEJIJINGZHENGLIZHUTIYANJIU》,CAIYONG1998NIAN《SHIJIEJINGZHENGLINIANJIAN》ZHONGPINGJIAGUOBIEKEJIJINGZHENGLIDEZHIBIAOTIXI,DUIZHONGGUOKEJIGUOJIJINGZHENGLIJINXINGLEPINGJIA,CONGQIYEGUANLI、GUOMINSUZHI、JICHUSHESHI、JINRONGTIXI、GUOJIHUA、GUOJIAJINGJISHILIDENGFANGMIANFENXILEKEJIGUOJIJINGZHENGLIDEFAZHAN,BINGTICHULECUJINKEJIGUOJIJINGZHENGLIDECELVEJIANYI。

                    YIXIEXUEZHEDUI“KEJIJINGZHENGLI”DENEIHANJIPINGJIAJINXINGLETANTAO。ZHAOYANYUNRENWEI,CONGKEJIJINGZHENGLIZHENGTIJIQICHENGZHANGGUANXIKAN,TABAOHANZHEKEJISHILI、KEJITIZHI、KEJIJIZHI、KEJIHUANJING、KEJIJICHUDENGBUFENDEJINGZHENGLIZONGHE[11];AIGUOQIANGDENGRENWEI,KEJIJINGZHENGLISHIYIGEGUOJIAKEJIZONGLIANG、SHILIYIJIKEJISHUIPINGYUQIANLIDEZONGHETIXIAN,TASHIGOUCHENGGUOJIJINGZHENGLIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFENHEGUANJIANXINGYAOSU,BUJINZAIJINGJIJINGZHENGZHONGJUYOUJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG,ERQIEDUICUJINRENLEISHEHUIKECHIXUFAZHANFAHUIZHONGYAODETUIDONGYUXIEDIAOZUOYONG[12]。2010NIAN,YOUZHONGGUOKEXUEYUANKEJIZHANLVEZIXUNYANJIUYUANPANJIAOFENGDENGBIANXIEDE《GUOJIKEJIJINGZHENGLIYANJIUBAOGAO》CONGLIANGGECENGMIANCHANSHILEKEJIJINGZHENGLIDENEIHAN: (1) CONGZHENGTIJINGZHENGLIJIQICHENGZHANGGUANXIKAN,BAOHANKEJIYANJIUKAIFASHILI、CHUANGXINTIZHIYUJIZHI、KEJIJICHU、KEJIHUANJINGDENGJINGZHENGLIDEZONGHE; (2) CONGKEJIJINGZHENGLIDEZUCHENGYAOSUSHANGKAN,BAOKUOJIAOYUHEKEXUEDEJINGZHENGJICHU、JISHUDEJINGZHENGSHUIPING、YANJIUKAIFADEJINGZHENGSHUIPING,YIJICHUANGXINNENGLIJINGZHENGLIDENGZHUDUOFANGMIAN。GAIBAOGAOJIANGKEJIJINGZHENGLIDENEIHANTUOZHANZHIGUOJIJINGZHENGLI,RENWEIYIGUODEGUOJIKEJIJINGZHENGLIZHUYAOTIXIANZAI: (1) GAIGUOJIANGYIYOUJISHUZIYUANBIANWEIXIANSHIKEJISHENGCHANLINENGLIDEYOUSHI; (2) LIANGHAODEKEYANHUANJING; (3) QIYECONGSHIYIXINCHANPINKAIFAWEIZHUDEYANFACHUANGXINHUODONGDENENGLI[13,14]。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,KEJIJINGZHENGLIDENEIHANSHIFENFENGFUQIEGUANGFAN,YAOSUGOUCHENGFUZA。JIYUYIYOUYANJIU,BENWENJIANGKEJIJINGZHENGLIDINGYIWEIYIGEGUOJIAJIANGWUZHIHEFEIWUZHIKEJIZIYUANTOURUDAOZHISHISHENGCHANHEJISHUKAIFA,BINGYONGSUODEZHISHIHEJISHUCUJINBENGUOCHANYESHENGJI、JINGJIFAZHAN、GUOFANGHEWAIJIAONENGLITISHENG,JINERGAISHANGAIGUOZAIGUOJIZHENGZHIJINGJITIXI(YOUQISHIQUANQIUFENGONGTIXI)ZHONGYOUSHIDIWEIDENENGLI。

                    1.2 、国家科技竞争力评价体系建构

                    SUIRANGUOJISHANGDUIKEJIJINGZHENGLISHANGWUTONGYIDINGYI,DANYIKEJIPINGJIAWEIMUBIAODEGUOJIAKEJINENGLIHUOGUOJIACHUANGXINNENGLICEDUYICHENGWEIGUOJIZUZHI、ZHIKU、ZIXUNJIGOUYANJIUDEREDIANWENTI。LIRU,SHIJIEJINGJILUNTAN、RUISHILUOSANGGUOJIGUANLIFAZHANXUEYUAN(IMD)、JINGJIHEZUOYUFAZHANZUZHI(OECD)、SHIJIEYINXING(WB)、MEIGUOLANDEGONGSI(RAND)、SHIJIEZHISHICHANQUANZUZHI(WIPO)DENGZUZHIJIGOUDOUGOUJIANLEYITAOKEJINENGLIPINGJIATIXI,DUIQUANQIUHUOYIXIEGUOJIADEKEJIFAZHANNENGLIJINXINGPINGGU,QIZHONGDUOFENZIXUNBAOGAOPOJUGUOJIYINGXIANGLI,RU《SHIJIEJINGZHENGLINIANJIAN》、《QUANQIUJINGZHENGLIBAOGAO》、《QUANQIUCHUANGXINZHISHU》、《GUOJIKEJIJINGZHENGLIYANJIUBAOGAO》、《GUOJIACHUANGXINZHISHUBAOGAO》DENG[15,16,17,18]。

                    ZONGGUANYISHANGKEJIPINGJIABAOGAOZHONGDEKEJIPINGJIATIXIBUNANFAXIAN,GUOJIAKEJIJINGZHENGLIPINGJIATONGCHANGZUNXUN“TOURU-CHANCHU”FENXIKUANGJIA,BINGJIANGUXIAOLV、GUOJIYINGXIANGLIYIJICHUANGXINZHUTI(QIYE、DAXUE)DEBIAOXIAN。RANER,XIANYOUDEKEJIJINGZHENGLIPINGJIATIXIYECUNZAIYIXIAJIGERUODIAN:DIYI,DUOMIANXIANGKEYANJIGOU(QIYE、DAXUE)、QIYEDEKEJIJINGZHENGLICEDU;DIER,PINGJIAZHIBIAOJIAODUO,GUANJIANXINGZHIBIAOBUTUCHU;DISAN,RUANZHIBIAOJIAODUO,ZHUGUANXINGJIAOQIANG;DISI,ZHIBIAOZHONGFUXINGJIAOQIANG,JUYOUQIANGJINGDEXIANXINGXIANGGUANXING。

                    JIYUCI,BENWENCHONGFENJIEJIANYIYOUDEKEJIPINGJIATIXI,ZUNXUNKEXUEXING(QUANWEIXINGSHUJU)、WANZHENGXING(QUANMIANFUGAI)、GUANJIANXING(HEXINZHIBIAO)、ZHENGHEXING(JIEJIANYIYOUPINGJIATIXI)HEKEGUANXING(ZUNXUNSHISHI)DENGYUANZE,JIYU“TOURU—CHANCHU”FENXIKUANGJIA,QIANGDIAOGUOJIAKEJICHUANGXINXIAOLVHEKEJIQUANQIUYINGXIANGLI,JINGGUODUOCIZHENGXUNZHUANJIAYIJIAN,CONGKEJIRENLIZIYUANJINGZHENGLI、KEJICAILIZIYUANJINGZHENGLI、KEXUEYANJIUJINGZHENGLI、JISHUCHUANGXINJINGZHENGLIHEKEJIGUOJIHUAJINGZHENGLIWUGEFANGMIANJIANGOULEGUOJIAKEJIJINGZHENGLIPINGJIATIXI,SHEJI21GEJUTIPINGJIAZHIBIAO,YIQIKEGUANZHUNQUEDICEDUZHONGMEILIANGGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLICHAYI(BIAO1)。

                    表1 国家科技竞争力评价体系及数据来源
                  表1 国家科技竞争力评价体系及数据来源

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIZHONGMEIKEJIJINGZHENGLIPINGJIAZHIBIAOTIXIJICHUSHANG,BENWENCAIYONGCHANGJIANDESHANGZHIFAQUEDINGGEPINGJIAZHIBIAODEQUANZHONG,YIRUOHUAZHUGUANFUQUANFADEYINGXIANG,RANHOULIYONGSHANGQUANTOPSISFANGFADUIZHONGMEILIANGGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLIJINXINGZONGHEPINGJIA。YOUYUGAIFANGFAJIAOWEICHANGJIAN,BENWENBIANBUZAIZHUISHU。

                    2、 中美科技竞争力评估及比较

                    2.1、 中美两国综合科技竞争力呈持续收敛趋势,但目前差距仍相当明显

                  星云棋牌官网下载   2004—2016NIAN,MEIGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLIZHISHUYOU0.627SHANGSHENGDAO0.798,QIJIANSUIYOUXIAOFUBODONG,DANZONGTICHENGHUANMANZENGZHANGTAISHI。TONGQI,ZHONGGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLIZHISHUKUAISUZENGZHANG,YOU0.061ZENGZHANGDAO0.494,YUMEIGUODECHAJUZHUNIANSUOXIAO。CONGZHONGGUOYUMEIGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLIZHISHUDEBIZHILAIKAN,2016NIANZHONGGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLIZHISHUWEIMEIGUODE61.9%。KEJIAN,ZHONGMEIKEJIJINGZHENGLIDECHAJUYIRANSHIFENMINGXIAN(TU1)。

                    图1 2004—2016年中美两国科技竞争力指数比较
                  图1 2004—2016年中美两国科技竞争力指数比较

                  星云棋牌官网下载   Fig.1 Comparison of science and technology competitiveness index between China and the United States in2 0 0 4-2 016

                    2.2、 中国科技人力资源竞争力快速追赶美国

                  星云棋牌官网下载   2004—2016NIAN,ZHONGGUOKEJIRENLIZIYUANJINGZHENGLIZONGTICHENGXIANCHUKUAISUSHANGSHENGDETAISHI,CONG2004NIANDE0.027SHANGSHENGZHI2016NIANDE0.532,DANZAISHIXUDONGTAISHANGBIAOXIANCHUJIAODADEBODONGXING。QIZHONG,ZAI2004—2008NIANHE2009—2016NIANZHEILIANGGESHIJIANDUANNEI,ZHONGGUOKEJIRENLIZIYUANJINGZHENGLICHENGXIANCHUXUNMENGSHANGSHENGDETAISHI,ERZAI2008—2009NIANZECHUXIANDUANCENGXIADIEDEQINGXING1;ERMEIGUOKEJIRENLIZIYUANJINGZHENGLIZEYOU2004NIANDE0.441SHANGSHENGZHI2016NIANDE0.760,SHANGSHENGSUDUJIAOHUAN(TU2)。

                    ZHENGTISHANGKAN,ZHONGGUOKEJIRENLIZIYUANJINGZHENGLIKUAISUZHUIGANMEIGUO,YOUQIZAIZHUDUOKEJIRENLIZIYUANGUIMOZHIBIAOSHANGYIJINGCHAOYUEMEIGUO,DANZAIKEJIRENLIZIYUANZHILIANGSHANGYUMEIGUODECHAJURENGJIAOMINGXIAN。RUZAIQUANSHIDANGLIANGYANJIURENYUANSHULIANGSHANG,ZHONGGUOZAI2010NIANCHAOYUEMEIGUOHOU,XUNSULADAYUMEIGUODECHAJU,ZHI2016NIAN,YIDADAO169.2WANREN,ERMEIGUOJINWEI138.0WANREN;ZAIKEXUEYUGONGCHENGXUESHIXUEWEISHOUYUSHUSHANG,ZHONGGUOZAI2004NIANCHAOYUEMEIGUOHOU,YEXUNSULADAYUMEIGUODECHAJU,ZHI2014NIAN,DADAO165.4WANREN,BIMEIGUODUOCHU91.2WANREN。DANSHI,ZAIKEJIRENLIZIYUANZHILIANGZHIBIAOSHANG,ZHONGGUORENGRANDIYUMEIGUO,QIECHAJUJIAOWEIXIANZHE,ZHEIYESHIDAOZHIZHONGGUOKEJIRENLIZIYUANJINGZHENGLIRENGDIYUMEIGUODEZHUYAOYUANYIN。RUZAIGAOBEIYINKEXUEJIASHULIANGSHANG,MEIGUO2016NIANDERENSHUDADAO1644REN,ERZHONGGUOJINWEI249REN;ZAINUOBEIERSANDAZIRANKEXUEJIANGHUOJIANGRENSHUSHANG,MEIGUOZHI2018NIANYIYOU167RENHUOJIANG,ERZHONGGUOJINYOU1REN;ZAIZHAOSHOUDEGUOJILIUXUESHENGGUIMOSHANG,MEIGUO2016NIANDERENSHUDADAO88.9WANREN,ERZHONGGUOJINWEI44.9WANREN。

                    图2 2004—2016年中美两国科技人力资源竞争力指数比较
                  图2 2004—2016年中美两国科技人力资源竞争力指数比较

                  星云棋牌官网下载   Fig.2 Comparison of competitiveness index of science and technology human resources between China and the United States during 2004-2016

                    2.3、 中国科技财力资源竞争力与美国的差距快速缩小

                  星云棋牌官网下载   2004—2016NIAN,ZHONGMEILIANGGUODEKEJICAILIZIYUANJINGZHENGLIDOUCHENGXIANCHUSHANGSHENGQUSHI。QIZHONG,MEIGUOYOU2004NIANDE0.582SHANGSHENGZHI2016NIANDE0.981,ZHENGTIFAZHANTAISHIWEIBODONGSHANGSHENG;ZHONGGUOYOU2004NIANDE0.000SHANGSHENGZHI2016NIANDE0.765,SHANGSHENGQUSHIJIAOKUAI,YOUQISHI2007NIANHOUZENGZHANGXUNSU(TU3)。

                    图3 2004—2016年中美两国科技财力资源竞争力指数比较
                  图3 2004—2016年中美两国科技财力资源竞争力指数比较

                    Fig.3 Comparison of competitiveness index of science and technology financial resources between China and the United States during 2004-2016

                    ZHENGTISHANGKAN,ZHONGGUOKEJICAILIZIYUANJINGZHENGLIKUAISUZHUIGANMEIGUO,YOUQIZAIR&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOSHANGZENGZHANGXUNSU,YUMEIGUOCHAJUBUDUANSUOXIAO,DANZAIR&DJINGFEITOURUQIANGDU、ZHENGFUR&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOYUZHANBI、JICHUYANJIUR&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOYUZHANBIDENGFANGMIANYUMEIGUODECHAJUSHIFENXIANZHE。ZHEIYIDIANTUCHUFANYINGZAIZHONGMEILIANGGUODER&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOSHANG,SUIRANMEIGUOSHIZHONGSHIQUANQIUR&DJINGFEITOURUZUIGAODEGUOJIA,DANZHONGGUOR&DJINGFEINIANJUNZENGSUGAODA17.7%,TOURUGUIMOZAI2008NIANCHAOGUORIBENHOU,WEIJUQUANQIUDIER。DANSHI,ZHONGGUOZAIR&DJINGFEITOURUQIANGDU、ZHENGFUR&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOYUZHANBI、JICHUYANJIUR&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOYUZHANBIDENGFANGMIANYUMEIGUOCHAJUXIANZHE。ZHONGGUOR&DJINGFEITOURUQIANGDUYOU2000NIANDE0.9%SHANGSHENGZHI2016NIANDE2.1%,DANXIANGJIAOYUMEIGUO2.7%~2.8%DER&DJINGFEITOURUQIANGDU,CHAJURENGJIAOMINGXIAN。ZHONGGUOQIYER&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOHEZHANBIYICHAOGUOMEIGUO,DANZHENGFUR&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOHETOURUZHANBIMINGXIANDIYUMEIGUO。2016NIAN,ZHONGGUOZHENGFUR&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOHEZHANBIFENBIEWEI904.0YIMEIYUANHE21%,ERMEIGUOZHENGFUR&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOHEZHANBIFENBIEWEI1282.0YIMEIYUANHE25%,ZHEISHUOMINGZHONGGUOZHENGFUZAIJIADAR&DTOURUFANGMIANHAIYOUJIAODADEKONGJIAN。TONGMEIGUOXIANGBI,ZHONGGUOJICHUYANJIUR&DJINGFEITOURUMINGXIANPIANDI,2000—2016NIAN,ZHONGGUODEJICHUYANJIUR&DJINGFEITOURUZHANBISHIZHONGPAIHUAIZAI5%ZUOYOU,ERMEIGUODEJICHUYANJIUR&DJINGFEIZHANBIQUEDADAO17%~20%;TONGSHIZAIYINGYONGYANJIUSHANG,ZHONGGUOR&DJINGFEITOURUZHANBIZHUNIANJIANGDI,ZHI2016NIANJINWEI10%ZUOYOU,ERMEIGUOSHIZHONGBAOCHIZAI20%ZUOYOU。ZAIR&DJINGFEIGAOXIAOZHIXINGGUIMOHEZHIXINGZHANBISHANG,ZHONGGUOYEMINGXIANDIYUMEIGUO,2016NIAN,ZHONGGUOGAOXIAOZHIXINGDER&DJINGFEIJINWEI308.6YIMEIYUAN,ERMEIGUOWEI675.2YIMEIYUAN。2000-2016NIAN,MEIGUOGAOXIAOZHIXINGDER&DJINGFEIZHANBIYOU11.4%SHANGSHENGZHI13.2%,ERZHONGGUOGAOXIAOZHIXINGDER&DJINGFEIZHANBIQUECONG9.9%XIAJIANGZHI6.8%,ZHONGMEILIANGGUOZHIJIANDECHAJUZAIBUDUANLADA。

                    2.4、 中国科学研究竞争力仍远低于美国

                  星云棋牌官网下载   2004—2016NIAN,ZHONGMEILIANGGUODEKEXUEYANJIUJINGZHENGLIJUNCHENGXIANSHANGSHENGQUSHI,QIZHONGMEIGUOSHANGSHENGQUSHIJIAOHUAN,YOU2004NIANDE0.827SHANGSHENGZHI2016NIANDE0.930;ZHONGGUOKEXUEYANJIUJINGZHENGLIZAIZHEI13NIANJIANCHENGXIANCHUJIAOKUAIDESHANGSHENGTAISHI,YOU2004NIANDE0.001SHANGSHENGZHI2016NIANDE0.483(TU4)。

                    图4 2004-2016年中美两国科学研究竞争力指数比较
                  图4 2004-2016年中美两国科学研究竞争力指数比较

                  星云棋牌官网下载   Fig.4 Comparison of scientific and research competitiveness index between China and the United States during2 0 0 4-2 016

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENGTISHANGKAN,ZHONGGUOKEXUEYANJIUJINGZHENGLIKUAISUSHANGSHENG,DANYUMEIGUODECHAJURENGJIAOXIANZHE。ZHONGGUOKEXUEYANJIUJINGZHENGLIDEKUAISUTISHENGTUCHUFANYINGZAIZHONGGUOKEYANLUNWENCHANCHUGUIMOSHANG。2000—2016NIAN,MEIGUOSCILUNWENSHULIANGSHIZHONGWEIJUQUANQIUDIYI,DANZHONGGUOSCILUNWENSHULIANGNIANJUNZENGZHANGLVDA16.5%,2016NIAN,ZHONGGUOSCIKEYANLUNWENSHULIANGDADAO292941PIAN,YUMEIGUODECHAJUYOU196861PIANKUAISUSUOXIAOZHI41164PIAN。YOUCIKEJIAN,ZHONGGUORUONENGBAOCHIGAOZENGSUTAISHI,ZEJIANGHENKUAIGANCHAOMEIGUOCHENGWEIQUANQIUKEYANLUNWENCHANCHULIANGZUIGAODEGUOJIA。MEIGUOZAIKEXUEYANJIUJINGZHENGLISHANGDEYOUSHITUCHUFANYINGZAIKEYANLUNWENCHANCHUZHILIANGSHANG,RUZAIESIGAOBEIYINLUNWENSHULIANGSHANG,2016NIAN,MEIGUOWEI5203PIAN,ERZHONGGUOJINYOU2992PIAN;ZAINature/ScienceQIKANLUNWENSHULIANGSHANG,2016NIAN,MEIGUOWEI1103PIAN,ERZHONGGUOJINYOU167PIAN。

                    2.5、 中国技术创新竞争力迅速上升,但目前仍显着落后于美国

                  星云棋牌官网下载   2004—2016NIAN,ZHONGMEILIANGGUODEJISHUCHUANGXINJINGZHENGLIJUNCHENGXIANSHANGSHENGQUSHI,QIZHONGMEIGUOYOU2004NIANDE0.733SHANGSHENGZHI2016NIANDE0.948,JUYOUJIAOQIANGDEJINGZHENGLI;ZHONGGUOYOU2004NIANDE0.000SHANGSHENGZHI2016NIANDE0.545,SHANGSHENGSUDUJIAOKUAI,YOUQISHI2006NIANHOUZENGZHANGXUNSU(TU5)。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENGTISHANGKAN,ZHONGGUOJISHUCHUANGXINJINGZHENGLIYEKUAISUSHANGSHENG,DANYUMEIGUODECHAJURENGJIAOMINGXIAN。2000—2016NIAN,ZAIBENGUOSHOULIDEJUMINZHUANLISHENQINGLIANGSHANG,ZHONGGUOYOU2.5WANJIANXUNSUZENGZHANGZHI120.5WANJIAN,NIANJUNZENGZHANGLVDADAO27.3%,ZAI2009NIANCHAOYUEMEIGUOHOU,XUNSULAKAIYUMEIGUODECHAJU,ZHI2016NIANYICHAOCHUMEIGUO91.0WANJIAN。ZAISHENQINGRENWEIBENGUOGUOJIDEZHUANLISHENQINGLIANGSHANG,2000NIAN,MEIGUOWEI28.04WANJIAN,ERZHONGGUOJINYOU2.64WANJIAN,MEIGUOWEIZHONGGUODE10.6BEI;2016NIAN,MEIGUOZENGZHANGZHI52.16WANJIAN,ERZHONGGUOZENGZHANGZHI125.74WANJIAN,MEIGUOJINWEIZHONGGUODE41%。DANSHI,MEIGUODEJISHUCHUANGXINJINGZHENGLICHIXUWEIJUGAOWEI,2016NIANQIJISHUCHUANGXINJINGZHENGLIZHISHUDADAO0.948,RENGXIANZHELINGXIANYUZHONGGUO,TUCHUFANYINGZAIFAMINGZHUANLIDECHANCHUZHILIANGSHANG。RU,ZAISHENQINGRENWEIBENGUOGUOJIDEYOUXIAOZHUANLIYONGYOULIANGSHANG,2016NIANMEIGUOWEI218.7WANJIAN,ERZHONGGUOJINYOU123.8WANJIAN;ZAIPCTZHUANLISHENQINGLIANGSHANG,2016NIAN,MEIGUOYOU5.7WANJIAN,ERZHONGGUOJINYOU4.3WANJIAN。

                    图5 2004—2016年中美两国技术创新竞争力指数比较
                  图5 2004—2016年中美两国技术创新竞争力指数比较

                  星云棋牌官网下载   Fig.5 Comparison of technological innovation competitiveness index between China and the United States during 2004-2016

                    2.6、 中国科技国际化竞争力增长缓慢,与美国差距显着

                    2004—2016NIAN,ZHONGMEILIANGGUOZAIKEJIGUOJIHUAJINGZHENGLISHANGCHENGXIANCHUBUYIZHIDEFAZHANQUSHI,QIZHONGMEIGUOKEJIGUOJIHUAJINGZHENGLIZAIZHEI13NIANJIANJINGLILEJIAODADEBODONGGUOCHENG,YOUQIZAI2008—2009NIAN,CHUXIAN“DUANYASHI”DEXIAJIANGGUOCHENG。ERZAISUIHOUDESHIJIANLI,MEIGUOKEJIGUOJIHUAJINGZHENGLIZHUBUHUIFU,ZHI2016NIAN,JIBENSHANGSHENGZHIQIZAI2008NIANDESHUIPING。ERZHONGGUOKEJIGUOJIHUAJINGZHENGLISUIZAIZHEI13NIANJIANYECHUXIANPINLVJIAOGAODEBODONGGUOCHENG,DANZHENGTICHENGSHANGSHENGDETAISHI,YOU2004NIANDE0.189SHANGSHENGZHI2016NIANDE0.314(TU6)。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENGTISHANGKAN,ZHONGGUOKEJIGUOJIHUAJINGZHENGLIZENGZHANGHUANMAN,ZAIGUOJIKEJIHEZUOFANGMIAN、ZHISHICHANQUANCHUKOUFANGMIANYUMEIGUOCHAJUXIANZHE。2004—2016NIAN,ZHONGGUOKEJIGUOJIHUAJINGZHENGLIJIAOQITAJINGZHENGLIZENGZHANGHUANMAN,JINYOU0.189SHANGSHENGZHI0.314,QIEJINNIANLAIYUMEIGUODECHAJUCHENGKUODATAISHI。ZHEIYIFANGMIANYUZHONGGUOZAIGUOJIKEJIHEZUOZHONGDERUOSHIDIWEIMIQIEXIANGGUAN,RUZAIGUOJIKEYANHEZUOLUNWENSHULIANGSHANG,2016NIAN,MEIGUOWEI146171PIAN,ERZHONGGUOJINYOU73723PIAN,ZHONGMEILIANGGUODECHAJUYOU2000NIANDE47035PIANKUODAZHI2016NIANDE72448PIAN。ZAIBENGUOSHOULIDEFEIJUMINZHUANLISHENQINGFANGMIAN,2016NIANMEIGUOWEI31.0WANJIAN,ERZHONGGUOJINWEI13.4WANJIAN,ZHONGMEILIANGGUODECHAJUYOU2000NIANDE10.4WANJIANKUODAZHI2016NIANDE17.6WANJIAN。ZAIPCTZHUANLIGUOJIHEZUOSHENQINGLIANGSHANG,2014NIAN,MEIGUODADAO7450JIAN,ERZHONGGUOJINYOU1973JIAN,ZHONGMEILIANGGUODECHAJUYEYOU2000NIANDE4031JIANKUODAZHI2016NIANDE5477JIAN。LINGYIFANGMIANYEYUZHONGGUOZAIZHISHICHANQUANMAOYIZHONGDERUOSHIDIWEIMIQIEXIANGGUAN,2016NIAN,MEIGUODEZHISHICHANQUANCHUKOUEWEI1247.3YIMEIYUAN,ERZHONGGUOJINWEI11.6YIMEIYUAN。DANSHI,ZAIYIGAOKEJICHANPINCHUKOUWEIDAIBIAODEQUANQIUGAOKEJICHANPINSHENGCHANWANGLUOZHONG,ZHONGGUOYUYIZHANJUHEXINDIWEI。2000NIANYILAI,ZHONGMEILIANGGUOGAOJISHUCHANPINCHUKOUCHENGXIANCIXIAOBIZHANGDEFAZHANQUSHI,ZHONGGUODENIANJUNZENGZHANGLVDA16.7%,ERMEIGUODEWEI-1.6%。2016NIAN,ZHONGGUODEGAOJISHUCHANPINCHUKOUEDADAO4960.1YIMEIYUAN,MEIGUOJINWEI1531.9YIMEIYUAN。ZHONGGUOGAOJISHUCHANPINCHUKOUZAI2015NIANCHAOGUOMEIGUOHOU,YUMEIGUODECHAJUXUNSULADA,ERQIEYILIANXUDUONIANCHENGWEIQUANQIUGAOJISHUCHANPINCHUKOUEZUIGAODEGUOJIA。

                    图6 2004—2016年中美两国科技国际化竞争力指数比较
                  图6 2004—2016年中美两国科技国际化竞争力指数比较

                    Fig.6 Comparison of internationalization competitiveness index of science and technology between China and the United States during 2004-2016

                    3、 结论与建议

                    3.1、 结论

                  星云棋牌官网下载   GAIGEKAIFANGYILAI,ZHONGGUODEKEJIFAZHANCHENGJILINGRENZHUMU,DANYUSHIJIEKEJIQIANGGUODECHAJUYIRANHENDA。BENWENZAIJIEDINGGUOJIAKEJIJINGZHENGLINEIHANDEJICHUSHANG,CONGKEJIRENLIZIYUANJINGZHENGLI、KEJICAILIZIYUANJINGZHENGLI、KEXUEYANJIUJINGZHENGLI、JISHUCHUANGXINJINGZHENGLIHEKEJIGUOJIHUAJINGZHENGLIWUGEFANGMIANJIANGOULEGUOJIAKEJIJINGZHENGLIPINGJIAZHIBIAOTIXI,CONGERXIANGXIDUIBILEZHONGMEILIANGGUOZAIKEJIFAZHANSHANGDECHAYI。YANJIUFAXIAN:(1)ZHONGGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLIFAZHANXUNSU,YUMEIGUODECHAJUZHUJIANSUOXIAO,DANCHAJUYIRANSHIFENMINGXIAN;(2)ZAIKEJIRENLIZIYUANFANGMIAN,ZHONGGUOZAIYIXIEGUIMOZHIBIAOSHANGYIJINGCHAOYUEMEIGUO,DANMEIGUOZAIZHUDUOZHILIANGZHIBIAOSHANGBAOCHILINGXIANYOUSHI,ZHONGGUODEZHENGTIKEJIRENLIZIYUANJINGZHENGLIRENGLUOHOUYUMEIGUO;(3)ZHONGGUOKEJICAILIZIYUANJINGZHENGLIKUAISUTISHENG,YOUQISHIZAIR&DJINGFEITOURUGUIMOSHANG,YUMEIGUOCHAJUBUDUANSUOXIAO,DANZAIR&DJINGFEITOURUQIANGDU、ZHENGFUR&DJINGFEITOURU、JICHUYANJIUR&DJINGFEITOURUDENGFANGMIANYUMEIGUODECHAJUHAIHENXIANZHE;(4)YOUYUGAOZHILIANGYANJIUCHENGGUOBUZU,ZHONGGUOKEXUEYANJIUJINGZHENGLIXIANZHELUOHOUYUMEIGUO;(5)ZHONGGUOJISHUCHUANGXINJINGZHENGLIKUAISUSHANGSHENG,DANYUMEIGUODECHAJURENGJIAOMINGXIAN;(6)ZHONGGUOKEJIGUOJIHUAJINGZHENGLIZENGZHANGHUANMAN,ZAIGUOJIKEJIHEZUOFANGMIANYUMEIGUODECHAJUXIANZHE,QIEJINNIANLAIYOUZHUJIANKUODAQUSHI。

                    3.2、 建议

                  星云棋牌官网下载   KEJIJINGZHENGLISHIGUOJIAJINGZHENGLIDEHEXINZHICHENG。DANGQIAN,ZHONGGUOZHENGZAIJIAKUAIJIANSHESHIJIEKEJIQIANGGUODEJINCHENG。MEIGUOZUOWEIDANGJINSHIJIETOUHAOKEJIQIANGGUO,QIKEJIJINGZHENGLIXIANZHUANGJIQUSHIWEIZHONGGUOTIGONGLEKEYICANZHAODEZUOBIAO。JIYUZHONGMEILIANGGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLIDEXIANZHUANGDUIBIJIQUSHIYANPAN,ZHONGGUOXIANGYAOJINYIBUTISHENGKEJIJINGZHENGLI,JIAKUAIJIANSHESHIJIEKEJIQIANGGUODEBUFA,JIXUYAODUIBIAOXIANJIN、CANZHAOYILIU,JINYIBUSHENHUAKAIFANGSHICHUANGXIN,CHONGFENXUEXIHEJIEJIANMEIGUODENGKEJIQIANGGUODECHENGGONGJINGYAN,GENGXUYAOLIZUZISHEN、ZHENGSHIDUANBAN,JIANCHIJISHUCHUANGXINYUZHIDUCHUANGXINSHUANGLUNQUDONG、FAZHANSUDUHECHUANGXINZHILIANGYOUJITONGYI、ZIZHUCHUANGXINYUKAIFANGCHUANGXINXIANGHUCUJIN,ZHELITUIDONGYIZHILIANGHEXIAOYIWEIHEXINDECHUANGXINZHANLVE,JIAQIANGJICHUKEXUEYANJIU,TUPOGUANJIANHEXINJISHU,JIJUGAODUANKECHUANGRENCAI,YISHIXIANGUOJIAKEJIJINGZHENGLIDECHIXUWENBUZENGQIANG。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   DIYI,SHISHIYIZHILIANGHEXIAOYIWEIHEXINDECHUANGXIN。TONGGUOZHONGMEIKEJIJINGZHENGLIDEBIJIAOKEYIFAXIAN,ZAIXUDUOCHUANGXINZHIBIAODEJUEDUISHULIANGFANGMIAN,ZHONGGUOYIKUAISUJIEJINMEIGUO,BUFENZHIBIAOSHENZHIYICHAOYUEMEIGUO,ZHONGGUOYUMEIGUODECHAJUZHUYAOZAICHUANGXINZHILIANGFANGMIAN。YINCI,ZHONGGUOYINGBATIGAOZHILIANGHEXIAOYIFANGZAIKEJICHUANGXINFAZHANDEHEXINDIWEI,ZHELISHISHIYIZHILIANGHEXIAOYIWEIHEXINDECHUANGXINZHANLVE。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   DIER,ZHELIJIAQIANGJICHUKEXUEYANJIU。ZHONGGUOZAIJICHUYANJIUFANGMIANYUMEIGUODECHAJUJIAODA,JICHUYANJIUNENGLIBORUOYICHENGWEIZHONGGUOKEJIJINGZHENGLIDEZUIDADUANBANZHIYI。JINYIBUTISHENGZHONGGUODEKEXUEYANJIUJINGZHENGLI,XUYAOJIANCHIGUOJIAZHANLVEXUQIUHEKEXUETANSUOMUBIAOXIANGJIEHE,BATISHENGYUANSHICHUANGXINNENGLIBAIZAIGENGJIATUCHUDEWEIZHI,JIAQIANGJICHUYANJIUQIANZHANBUSHU。

                    DISAN,JIAKUAITUPOCHANYEGUANJIANHEXINJISHU。GUANJIANHEXINJISHUSHIGUOZHIZHONGQI,DUITUIDONGWOGUOJINGJIGAOZHILIANGFAZHAN、BAOZHANGGUOJIAANQUANDOUJUYOUSHIFENZHONGYAODEYIYI。JIAQIANGHEXINJISHUGONGGUANSHICHANYESHIXIANGAOZHILIANGFAZHANDEBIYOUZHILU,YESHIBAOZHANGCHANYEANQUANDEGUANJIANJUCUO。JIANYUZHONGGUOZAIJISHUCHUANGXINJINGZHENGLITEBIESHIGUANJIANHEXINJISHUFANGMIANYUMEIGUODECHAJU,JIAKUAITISHENGZHONGGUOCHANYEJISHUCHUANGXINSHILI,YAOZHENDUIWOGUOXIANJINZHIZAOYE、SHITIJINGJIFAZHANZHONGMIANLINDEGUANJIANHEXINJISHUPINGJINGWENTI,JIAKUAIGONGYEHUAHEXINXIHUASHENDURONGHE,ZHELIGOUJIANHEXINJISHUXIETONGGONGGUANJIZHIHETUIJINCHANXUEYANYONGYITIHUA,JIAKUAIJIANLIZHUYAOYOUSHICHANGPINGJIAHEXINJISHUCHUANGXINCHENGGUODEJIZHI。

                    DISI,PEIYANGJIJUGAOCENGCIKEJICHUANGXINRENCAI。CHUANGXINQUDONGDESHIZHISHIRENCAIQUDONG,ZAIKEJIJINGZHENGLIDEZHUYAOSUZHONG,RENCAISHIZUIHEXINDEYAOSU。DANGQIAN,ZHONGGUOZAIZHUDUOKEJIRENLIZIYUANGUIMOZHIBIAOSHANGYICHAOYUEMEIGUO,DANZAIRENLIZIYUANZHILIANGSHANGYUMEIGUODECHAJURENGHENMINGXIAN。YINCI,ZHONGGUOYAOBAPEIYANGHEJIJUGAOCENGCIKEJIRENCAIZUOWEITISHENGKEJIRENLIZIYUANJINGZHENGLIDEGUANJIAN。YAOJIANCHIYIRENWEIBEN,ZUNZHONGCHUANGXINCHUANGZAODEJIAZHI,YAOCHONGFENFAHUIKEXUEJIAHEQIYEJIADECHUANGXINZHUTIZUOYONG,YAOJIAKUAIJIANLIYIPINDE、NENGLIHEGONGXIANWEIDAOXIANGDERENCAIPINGJIAJILIJIZHI,YAOZHELISHENHUASHOURUFENPEIZHIDUGAIGE。

                    DIWU,CHIXUKUODAKEJIDUIWAIKAIFANG。ZAIKEJIQUANQIUHUADESHIDAIBEIJINGXIA,CHIXUTISHENGKEJIJINGZHENGLI,BIXUYAOYIQUANQIUSHIYEMOUHUAHETUIDONGCHUANGXIN,ZUIDAXIANDUDIYONGHAOQUANQIUCHUANGXINZIYUAN,QUANMIANTISHENGWOGUOZAIQUANQIUCHUANGXINGEJUZHONGDEWEISHI,LIZHENGCHENGWEIRUOGANZHONGYAOLINGYUDEYINLINGZHEHEZHONGYAOGUIZEZHIDINGDECANYUZHE。BENWENTONGGUOJISHUJIAOYIQINGKUANGDEDUIBIFENXIFAXIAN,ZHONGGUOZAIJISHUCHUKOUFANGMIANYUMEIGUOHAICUNZAIHENDACHAJU,ZHEISHUOMINGZHONGGUOJISHUCHUANGXINDEGUOJIYINGXIANGLIHAIBIJIAORUO,ZHEIYUZHONGGUOQUANQIUKEJIDAGUODEDIWEIMINGXIANBUXIANGCHENG。ZHONGGUOBIXUCHIXUKUODAKEJIDUIWAIKAIFANG,ZHELITISHENGKEJICHUANGXINDEGUOJIYINGXIANGLI。

                    DILIU,QIESHITUIDONGCHUANGXINZHILITIXIHEZHILINENGLIDEXIANDAIHUA。CHUANGXINFAZHANBIXUJIANCHIZHIDUCHUANGXINHEKEJICHUANGXINSHUANGLUNQUDONG,ZHIDUCHUANGXINDUIKEJICHUANGXINJUYOUZHONGYAOBAOZHANGZUOYONG。MEIGUOZHISUOYINENGCHENGWEISHIJIEKEJIQIANGGUO,YUQIXIANDAIHUADEKEJICHUANGXINZHILITIZHIHEJIZHIBUWUGUANXI。KEJITIZHIGAIGEDEBENZHIZAIYUJIEFANGHEFAZHANKEJIRENYUANDESHENGCHANLI。YAOANZHAOXIJINPINGZONGSHUJI“ZHUAZHANLVE、ZHUAGUIHUA、ZHUAZHENGCE、ZHUAFUWU”DEZHISHIJINGSHEN,SHUNYINGCHUANGXINZHUTIDUOYUAN、HUODONGDUOYANG、LUJINGDUOBIANDEXINQUSHI,TUIDONGZHENGFUGUANLICHUANGXIN,XINGCHENGDUOYUANCANYU、XIETONGGAOXIAODECHUANGXINZHILIGEJU,SHIXIANGUOJIACHUANGXINZHILITIXIHEZHILINENGLIDEXIANDAIHUA。

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                    [16]中国科学院国际科技比较研究组.中国与美日德法英五国科技的比较研究.北京:北京科学出版社, 2009.
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                    [18] World Economic Forum. Global Competitiveness Report 2016-2017.[2017-12-31], .

                    注释

                  星云棋牌官网下载   1 ZHONGGUODUI“QUANSHIDANGLIANGYANJIURENYUANSHULIANG”ZHIBIAODETONGJIZAI2009NIANCAIYONGLEOECDDEDINGYIHEBIAOZHUN, SUOYI2008NIANHE2009NIANCHANSHENGMINGXIANDEBODONG。

                    杜德斌,段德忠,夏启繁.中美科技竞争力比较研究[J].世界地理研究,2019,28(04):1-11.
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