星云棋牌官网下载

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                  技术工具论的阐述与类型探讨

                  时间:2018-09-12 来源:科学技术哲学研究 作者:程志翔 本文字数:10878字

                    摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 文章尝试给“技术工具论”以更清晰表述。首先依照技术与人、价值、使用目的等的关系而整理其三个要点:人控制技术、技术价值中性与技术不应被归责;而后讨论学者们对“价值中性”概念理解的分歧:是否容许意图外价值后果;再后,通过给含糊的“控制”“人”等概念以更明确涵义,从三个维度对工具论进行分类:理想vs.温和工具论;个体vs.阶级vs.抽象工具论;现实vs.可能工具论。

                    关键词: 星云棋牌官网下载技术; 技术工具论; 价值中性;

                    Abstract:星云棋牌官网下载 The paper tentatively clarifies instrumentalism of technology by discussing its three main constituents——the human dominion over technologies, the value-neutrality of technologies, and the moral unaccountability of technologies. And in so doing, the paper shows the disagreements among scholars on the meaning of such critical concepts as “value-neutrality”. Moreover, after clarifying vague concepts like “dominion”and “human”, it adumbrates a classification system for possible versions of instrumentalism——ideal vs. moderate instrumentalism; individual vs. class vs. abstract instrumentalism; actual vs. potential instrumentalism.

                    Keyword:星云棋牌官网下载 technology; instrumentalism of technology; value-neutrality;

                    XUNWEN“HEWEIGUANYUJISHUDEGONGJULUN (instrumentalism) ”SISHISUOXIEWULIAOZHIJU。BIJING,ZHEIYIJUCHENGSHIJIYUCHANGSHIERWEIJINGFANSIDESUPOLICHANGNEIRONGSIHUHENQIANBAI———“JISHUSHIFUWUYUSHIYONGZHEMUDEDE、JIAZHIZHONGXINGDEGONGJUSHOUDUAN”———QIESIHUGUOYUYOUZHI。YINER,SUIRANJUSHUORENGSHI“GUANYUJISHUDESHEHUIZHENGLUNZHONGDESHENGXINGGUANDIAN”[1]68,ERQIEXUEJIEYEBINGFEIMEIYOUZHENDUIQIMOUYIBANBENHUOZHISHAOSHIJUBUHEXINZHUZHANGDEBIANHUZHE (PIRU,YASIBEIERSI (Jaspers[2]119) 、PITE (Pitt[3]89) DENG) ,DANDAZHIRUWEIBEIKE (Verbeek) [4]43SUOYAN,GAILICHANGRUJINZAIJISHUZHEXUEZHONGSHENWEIHANJIAN。SIKAOJISHUWENTIDERENWENSHEHUIXUEZHEWANGWANGZHIZAILILUNKAIPIANJIANGZHIZUOWEIPIBODEBIAOBAERYUYIJIANDANTIJIYULIAOLIAOJIESHI,ERBUHUIZIXIFENXIQINEIHAN。

                    DANHEWEI“JIAZHIZHONGXING”?ZHEIYI“JINZHISHIGONGJU”YOUJIUJINGFOUDINGHEPAICHULENAXIEGUANYUJISHUDEJUTIZHUZHANG?SHEISHIZHEILIDE“SHIYONGZHE”?GONGJULUNYOUMEIYOUQIANGRUOBUTONGBANBENDEBIANSHI?DUIZHEIXIEWENTI,DAANQUEWEIJIANDEXIANRAN,YEBUJIANDEMEIGETIJIGONGJULUNHUOZIRENHUOBEIRENRENWEISHIGONGJULUNZHEDERENDOUCHIYIZHIKANFA。SHENZHITAZHENDESHI (ZAIJISHUZHEXUEZHIWAI) “BEIZUIGUANGWEIJIESHOUDE”[5]7SHENERSHIZHUDAODUOSHUPUTONGRENDEGUANDIANMA?DANYOUXUEZHE[6]20QUESHUODUOSHURENZAIGAILICHANGYUQIDUILILICHANGZHIJIAN (YINQISUOYUZHIJUTIJISHUER) OURANDIYAOBAI。CILIANGDUANYANYEDUOBANCHUYUCHANGLITUIDUANERFEIYUANZIJINGYANDIAOCHA;ERQIE,BIJIAOBUTONGXUEZHEDUIGONGJULUNDEGEZICHANSHI,HUIFAXIANQICUOCI、CEZHONGDIANSHENZHIDUIXIANGGUANGAINIANDELIJIEDUOYOUBUTONG。SHIJISHANG,SUIRANBEIXUDUORENCAIYONG,DANBINGFEISUOYOUSHIZHITANLUNTADEXUEZHEDOUZAIYONG“GONGJULUN”ZHEIYIBIAOSHU———BIRU,YOUXIEJISHULUNLIXUELINGYUDEXUEZHECEZHONGTANLUN“ZHONGXINGLUNTI” (neutrality thesis) ,SHENZHIJIANGZHIYU“GONGJULUN”ZUOWEIYOUQUBIEDANJINMILIANXIDEBIAOSHUBINGZHI[7,8]———ERQIESHIYONGTONGYISHUYUDERENYEWEIBIYOUTONGYANGZHICHENG (1) 。JIANYANZHI,“JISHUGONGJULUN”HAISUANBUSHANGYIGEBEIPUBIANSHIYONGDEDINGYILIANGHAODEGAINIAN。HUOXUBUTONGXUEZHESUOLIJIEDE“GONGJULUN”BINGFEITONGYI,ERGENGDUOSHI“JIAZUXIANGSI” (YINERYIWEIZHEBUTONGBANBENDEKENENGXING) 。HUOXU,YOUBIYAOGENGZIXIPOUXI“HEWEIJISHUGONGJULUN”。

                    “GONGJULUN”ZHEIYIMINGMING (ERFEIGAIZHUZHANG) RUHEERLAI?QUEQIEQIYUANZHEILINANYIDUANDING。YOUXUEZHEDILESIYUAOBODIKE (TilesYUOberdiek) [6]11JIANGZHIZHUISUDAOFENBOGE (Feenberg) ,DANYIGEGENGZAOBIAOSHUJIANYUBAOERGEMAN (Borgmann) [10],SUBOGE[11]51991NIANCONGTANEILIJIEYONGLEGAIMINGCHENG。ERBAOERGEMANDUIGONGJULUNDECHANSHIZHUYAOJIEJIANLESHILAIFU (Shriver, Jr) [12],HOUZHELIEJULESIZHONGKANDAIJISHUYUJIAZHIGUANXIDESHIJIAO,DANBINGWEISHIYONG“GONGJULUN”ZHIYU。ERBAOERGEMANJIANGQIZHONGDELIANGZHONG———“LIXINGJIAZHIJUEDINGLUN” (Rational Value Determinism) YU“ZHENGZHIHUADEJISHU” (Politicized Technology) ———DOUGUIRUGONGJULUN,BINGYULINGLIANGZHONGLICHANGJISHITILUN (substantive view) YUDUOYUANLUN (pluralist view) XIANGDUILIBINGZHI。DANGRAN,JIU“GONGJULUN”ZHIMINGERYAN,SHENSHOUXIANXIANGXUEYINGXIANGDEBAOERGEMANHUOXUJIEJIANZIHAIDEGEER,YINWEIHOUZHEGENGZAOJIANGTONGXINGYUSHIDEGUANYUJISHUDEGUANNIAN (“JISHUSHIHEMUDEDESHOUDUAN”HE“JISHUSHIRENDEXINGWEI”) CHENGWEI“GONGJUDEHERENLEIXUEDEJISHUGUIDING”[13]。

                    一、工具论:基本表述

                  星云棋牌官网下载   DANJIUGONGJULUNDEGENGXIZHINEIRONGERYAN,HAIDEGEERZHEIYIJIESHUOGUOYUJIANLIAN。XUDUOQITAXUEZHEYEYOUXIANGLVEBUDENGDEBIAOSHU,BIRUYOUDEJIANGZHIJIEDINGWEI“JIAZHIZHONGXING”YIJIYIZHONGJISHULEGUANZHUYI[7],ERYOUDEZEQIANGDIAOMUDEXIANGDUIYUZUOWEISHOUDUANDEJISHUDEFENLIXING[14]161。BIZHERENWEIZUIZHUAZHUGANGYAODESHIFENBOGE[15],TAJIANGZHIGUIJIEWEI“JIAZHIZHONGXING”YU“RENDEKONGZHI”LIANGFANGMIAN。GUXIAWENJIANGYANFENBOGEZHISHIDEDAOLU,BINGJIYUDUIGONGJULUNJIBENZHUZHANG (“JISHUSHIGONGJU”) HEJIBENSHUYU (RU“JIAZHIZHONGXING”) ZHIHANYIDEFANSI,DUIZHIJINXINGGOULE。

                  技术工具论的阐述与类型探讨

                  星云棋牌官网下载   FANGXIAOFENBOGE,ZHEILIJIANGQIDIYIGEYAODIANGUIJIEWEI“KONGZHI”WEIDU:

                    P1:JISHUYURENDEGUANXI———RENKONGZHIJISHU (YOUQISHIQISHIYONGHOUGUO) ,ERJISHUBINGFEIZIZHUBUSHOUKONG,GENGFEIJISHUKONGZHIREN。MIANDUIJISHU,RENBAOCHIZIYOUHEKONGZHIQUAN。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   SUIRANXUDUOXUEZHEDEBIAOSHUANHANZHEIYICENGMIAN (RUYASIBEIERSI[2]125DEBIAOSHU) ,DANXIANYOURENMINGQUETIJIGAIWEIDU (FENBOGELIWAI) ,GENGWULUNZHENGMIANJICHUJIESHILE。YINER,SHANGSHUCUSHUQUANSHISHIBIZHEKAOLVDAOGONGJULUNDUILIMIANYIXIELUNZHE (PIRU,WENNA (Langdon Winner) [16]29) DEZHUZHANGERZIJIJICHUDE,QIEBIZHERENWEIFUHEDUIGONGJULUNDEZHIJUELIJIE。DANGRAN,GAIJIANDANQUANSHIZHONGSHANGYOUBUSHAOHANHUZHICHU,LIUDAIXIAJIETAOLUNQIKENENGFENLEISHIZAIXINGQUFEN。ERDABUFENLUNZHEHUITIJIDESHILINGYIWEIDU:“JIAZHIZHONGXING”。TAMENSHIRUHESHUODENI?ZHEILILIEJUYIXIEBIZHECENGJIANDEBIAOSHU:

                    (1) “MUDE (ends) YUSHOUDUANDEWANQUANFENLI”[15];

                    (2) “JISHUZISHENJIBUHAOYEBUHUAI”[17];

                    (3) JISHUSHIJIKEYONGYUSHANYEKEYONGYUEDEBEIDONGDEYONGJU (passive tool) [8]420-440;

                    (4) QIANZAIYONGTUKAIFANGXINGHUOHANHUXING:TONGYIJISHUKEBEIRENYONGYUTIXIANXIANGYIHEDUILIJIAZHIDEDUOZHONGMUDE[18]41-45,[19];

                  星云棋牌官网下载   (5) “GONGJUSHOUDUANYUQISUOFUWUDESHIZHIJIAZHIOURAN (contingently) XIANGGUAN”[11]7;

                    (6) “XIANGDUIYUJISHUDEYINGYONGMUDELAISHUOZHONGLI”[20];

                    SUIRANHANYIYAOZHIDAZHIZHONGHEHUOZHISHAOSHIYIZHIDE,DANZHEIXIEBIAOSHUDECUOCINAIZHICEZHONGDEBUJINXIANGTONGQUEZHANGXIANWUYI。BIRU,PIANLUNLIXUEDELUNZHEMOLUO (Morrow) 、YILISI (Illies) DENGDUOCEZHONGCONGDAODEJIAZHI (“SHANE”) JIANG。ZONGHESHANGSHUJIANLVEDEJIANGFA,BENWENJIANG“JIAZHIZHONGXING”BIAOSHURUXIA:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   P2:JISHUYUJIAZHIZHIGUANXI———JISHUSHIJIAZHIZHONGXINGDE。ZHEIYIWEIZHE, (1) JINJIUZISHENERYAN,JISHUWUJIAZHISHUXING (JIBUHAOYEBUHUAI) ; (2) JIUQIKENENGDE、TIXIANJIAZHIDEJUTISHIYONGHOUGUOERYAN,JISHUSHIBEIDONGDE,JITAZISHENDUIRENHEHOUGUOMEIYOUQINGXIANG,YINERTAYURENHEJIAZHIDEGUANLIANDOUSHIOURANDE; (3) ZUOWEISHANGYIDIANDETELI,JISHUZAITIXIANDUILIJIAZHIDEBUTONGHOUGUOJIANMEIYOUPIANXIANG。

                    P2SUIWEIYONG“MUDEDUIZUOWEISHOUDUANDEJISHUDEFENLIXING”ZHIHUAYU———KAPENGTE (Carpenter[14]) GANCUIYONGTAKEHUAGONGJULUN,ERFENBOGEYEJIANGZHISHIZUODUI“JIAZHIZHONGXING”DEYIZHONGQUANSHI———DANYUNHANZHEIYIDIAN。“MUDE”———WULUNSHIJINZHIRENYIXIANGZHISUOZHIDE、JISHUDE“SHIYONGMUDE”,HAISHIFANZHIJISHUKENENGCANYUDAOZHIDEYIQIEJIEGUO———TIXIAN“JIAZHI”,ER“FENLI”SHISHUO,ZHEIMUDE (JIAZHI) BUSHIJISHUZISHENNEISHENGDEERSHIWAIZAIDE,BUSHITAZIFAQINGXIANGQUSHIXIANDE;ZHEIZHENGSHI“BEIDONGXING”DEYAOQIU。JIYOUCIGUANXI,ZHEILIJIANGZHILIEWEITUILUN,YIFENGFUSHENSHIHEBIAOSHUGONGJULUNDEJIAODU:

                    T1:JISHUYUMUDEZHIGUANXI———MUDEWAIZAIHEFENLIYUJISHU。

                    BUXIANGYALISHIDUODESUOYANDE“XIANGZI”NEIZAIBINGYOUZHANGCHENGXIANGSHUDE“YUANYIN” (MUDEYIN、XINGSHIYIN) ,T1ZHUZHANGSHIYONGMUDESHIRENWAIZAIDIJIAJIJISHUDE。LINGWAI,DANGWOMENSHUO“JISHUJINSHIMANZURENSHIYONGMUDEDEGONGJU”SHI,SIHUYUSHELEMUDEDUIJISHUZAILUOJIHESHIJIANSHANGDE“XIANZAIXING”,JI“XIANYOUMUDEXUQIU,ERHOUYOUZUOWEIMANZUCIXUQIUZHISHOUDUANDEJISHU”。DANGONGJULUNWEIBIYAOCHENGNUOZHEIYIDIAN:XIANYOUJISHU,ERHOURENXIANGDAOYONGTAQUSHIXIANMOUXINSHENGMUDE,ZHIYAOGAI“SHIYONG”SHIZIYOUZIZHUDE,NEIMENAPAZHEIYI“XIANGDAODEMUDE”SHIYOUJISHUSUOTISHIDE,YIWEICHANGBUKE。CHENGRENJISHUXIANGRENTIGONGHETISHIXINDEYINGYONGKENENGXING,ZHEISIHUBUWEIFANGONGJULUN。YINERZHEILIWEIJIANG“XIANZAIXING”LIERU。

                    P1YUP2WUFEIXIANGSHUO,JISHUSHIBEIDONGDE (BUDUIRENZIZHUSHIJIAYINGXIANG,BUCHANSHENGMUDE,ZISHENBUQINGXIANGYURENHEJIAZHIHOUGUO) HEFUCONGXINGDE (SHOUKONGYUREN,FUCONGYURENFUYUTADESHIYONGMUDE) 。RENJIAKAIQIANGSHALERENYI,DUICIGONGJULUNHUISHUO,ZHEIZHONGJIUSHIJIADEZIZHUJUEDING,BUSHIQIANGCUSHISHENZHIPOSHIJIAXINGCIJU;SHAYIZHEIYISHEJILUNLIHEZHENGZHIDEHUOHAOHUOHUAIDEHOUGUO,SHIJIAJIAJIQIANGDE,ERQIANGZISHENDUISHIXIANHUOBUSHIXIANZHEIYIHOUGUOMEIYOUQINGXIANG。JINER,ZUOWEIGONGJULUNDEDIANXINGKOUHAO,“RENSHAREN,ERFEIQIANGSHAREN”YEYIWEIZHEGONGJULUNYOURUXIAYUNHAN:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   P3:GUIZEWENTI———JISHUBUYINGBEIGUIZE。SUIRANGONGJULUNCHENGRENJISHUHUICANYUZAOCHENGBULIANGHOUGUO (YINERKEYIBEI“GUIYIN”) ,DANRENWEIJISHUBUYINGBEIGUIZE (not morally accountable) 。

                    ZHEIKEKANZUOSHIGONGJULUNSUOCHENGNUOJIJISHUDEBEIDONGXINGYUFUCONGXINGDEYIGETUILUN。DANGRAN,ZHEIXUYAOXIANGYINGDEDAODEGUIZEYUANZEZUOWEITUILUNDEFUZHUMINGTI (AP) ,ERGAIYUANZEKELVESHURUXIA:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   AP1:YIGEDAOZHIEGUOZHISHIJIANDECANYUZHE,RUOQUEFADUIDAODEFAZEHESHIWUYINGUOGUANLIANDEJIBENLIJIENENGLI (WUDAODEXINGWEINENGLI) ,HUOZAICANYUGUOCHENGZHONGSHIQUANRANBEIKONGZHIHESHOUPODE (FEIZIZHU) ,NEIMEGAICANYUZHEBUYINGDUICIEGUOFUZE。

                    WOMENDUIRENHEZIRANWUSHICAIQUCIYUANZEDE (BIRU,WULIZHIDERENBUFUDAODEHEFALVZEREN) ;ERZUOWEIDUIYUANZEPUSHIXINGDEYAOQIU,RUOPANDINGJISHUSHIWUDAODEXINGWEINENGLIHUOSHISHOUKONGDE,NEIMEJISHUTONGYANGBUYINGBEIGUIZE。P1、P2 (YIJIT1) YUP3SHICONGBUTONGJIAODUDUIGONGJULUNDEKEHUA,BENWENRENWEITAMENGOUCHENGLEQIJIBENYAODIAN。DANGRAN,GONGJULUNHAITONGCHANGYIWEIHUOGUANLIANZHEQITAZHUZHANG (1) ,PIRU“JISHUKUAWENHUADEPUBIANYOUXIAOXING”“JISHULEGUANZHUYI”DENG。DANZHEIXIEYIWEIHUOYOUXIEJIANJIE,HUOQIGUANLIANBINGBUBIRAN。

                    二、进一步阐释

                    P2XUJINYIBUCHANSHI。SHOUXIAN,YUZHUXUEZHEYIZHI,P2DUIJIAZHIYECAIQULEKUANFANLIJIE:FANRENSUOYUZHE,JIESHEJIAZHI。ZIRANTAYEBAOHANGENGCHANGBEIXIANGDAODELUNLIHEZHENGZHIJIAZHI;QICI,P2DEDISANDIANSHIWEILEZHAOGU“ZHONGXING” (neutrality) DEZIMIANHANYI,JIZAIBUTONGHUODUILILIANGZHEHUODUOZHEJIANBUPIANBUYI。DANZHEIZHONG“WUPIAN”SHISHUOJISHUZISHENDUILIANGDUILIJIAZHIDOUTONGYANGBUQINGXIANG,ERBUSHISHUOTONGDENGDIQINGXIANG。YIGEZIFAERSUIJIZUOHAOSHIHEHUAISHI (GE50%GAILV) DEJIQI,BUHEYUCICHUDE“JIAZHIZHONGXING”。YINER,SHUO“JISHUYURENHEJIAZHIDEGUANLIANDOUSHIOURANDE”,BINGBUZHISHISHUOTAYURENHE“JUTI”JIAZHIDEGUANLIANSHUYUOURAN,ERQIESHISHUOTAYU“JIAZHILINGYU”DEGUANLIANSHIOURANDE。SHANGSHUZIFASUIJIJIQI,FUHEQIANZHE,DANBUMANZUHOUZHE。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   DISAN,JISHUZISHENWUJIAZHISHUXING,ZHENGRUYOUXUEZHESUOZHICHUDE,ZHEIYUSHELESHISHIYUJIAZHIDEFENLI,YIJIZIRANBENSHENSHIWUJIAZHIDE[18]44ZHEIYIGUANNIAN。CIWAI,ZHEIYEYIWEIZHEGONGJULUNSUOLIJIEDEJISHUSHIBOLILEYIQIESHEHUIWENHUASHUXINGDE。CIBOLIQINGXIANGCONGXIALIZHONGKEJIANYIBAN:SHEXIANGYIZHONGJISHUXITONG,TAQIANGZHIQICHEJIASHIYUANXIANQUANDAI———RUOBUXI,CHEBUNENGKAIDONG。BUXIANGQIANG,GAIXITONGZIDONGZHIXINGZHEYIZHONGGUIFAN,YINERZISHENBUSHIJIAZHIZHONGXINGDE (SUIRANSHIYOUXIAODE“GONGJU”) 。MIANDUITA,GONGJULUNZHEHUISHUO,TAYIJINGSHEHUIHUALE,BEISHEJIZHE“XIERU”LEYIZHONGYITU,YINERBUSHIWOZHIDEJISHU;ZHENZHENGDEJISHUSHIGOUCHENGCIXITONGDECHUANGAN、KONGZHIDENG“JISHUDE”YAOSUBUJIAN,TAMENSHIZHONGXINGDE。YINCI,SUIRANZAITONGSUHUAYUZHONG“JISHU”SHOUXIANZHIJUTIDEWANZHENGJISHUWU,DANDUIGONGJULUNERYANBINGBURAN。YINERYOULUNZHE (DILESIYUAOBODIKE[6]34) PANDING,GONGJULUNZHEQINGXIANGYUBAJISHUHAIYUANWEI“ZIRANWU”。

                    DISI,JISHUWUZIFADEJIAZHIHOUGUOQINGXIANG。JISHUDESHIYONGHOUGUOKEYOULIANGLEI:YISHIRENFUYUTADESHIYONGMUDE,ERSHICHUSHIYONGMUDEZHIWAIDE (YIWAI) HOUGUO。JISHUBEISHIZUOBEIDONGDE,SUOYISHIYONGMUDESHIRENWAIJIADE。ZHEIRONGYILIJIE,DANMAFANZAIYUYIWAIHOUGUO。

                    DANGJISHUZAIRENBINGWEIYAOQIUYUWEICENGYULIAODEQINGKUANGXIAYINFACHAOCHUSHIYONGYITUDEHOUGUO,ZHEISHIFOUYIWEIZHETADUIZHEIHOUGUOYOU“QINGXIANG”,JINERWEIFANLEJIAZHIZHONGXINGNI?HUOZHESHUO,CISHITASHIZHUDONGDE,HAISHIBEIDONGDE?ZAIHUANYANZHI,CISHIJISHUYUXIANGGUANJIAZHIDEGUANLIANSHIJIEWEIFEI“OURAN”NI,YIHUORENGKESUANOURAN?

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZHEIWENTISIHUBUYIHUIDA。XUDUO (HUOXUDUOSHU) PIPINGGONGJULUNDEXUEZHE (RUYILISIYUMEIYE (Meijers) [8]420-440,BULAI (Brey) [22],WEIBEIKE (Verbeek) [4]43) ZHUZHANGJISHUZAICIYIBUSUAN“BEIDONG”,JINERRENWEIZHEIBIAOMINGJISHUBUSHIJIAZHIZHONGXINGDE;ERYIXIEZHONGXINGLUNDEBIANHUZHE (RUBIDESENYUSHIPAN (Peterson&Spahn) [23],PITE (Pitt) [3]29) CHENGRENYIWAIHOUGUOWENTI,QUERENWEIZHEIBINGBUWEIFANJIAZHIZHONGXING。SHENZHIYOUXIEPIPINGZHE (RUMOLUO[17]) YERENWEI“JIAZHIZHONGXING”GAINIANKEBAORONGYIWAIHOUGUO。ZONGZHI,DUICIDEBUTONGTAIDUYIWEIZHEDUIP2DEBUTONGLIJIE;ZHEILIBIAOSHUWEIDUIP2DELIANGZHONGDUILIQUANSHI:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   P2a:“JIAZHIZHONGXING”PAICHIYIWAIJIAZHIHOUGUO。 (QIANGLIJIE)

                    P2b:“JIAZHIZHONGXING”KERONGNAYIWAIJIAZHIHOUGUO,ZHIYAOJISHUYUZHEIHOUGUODELIANXISHIOURANDE。 (WENHELIJIE)

                    ZHEIYIWEIZHEBUTONGBANBENDEGONGJULUN。ERTONGYANGDEFENLEIYEKEYOUDUIP1ZHONG“KONGZHI”GAINIANDEBUTONGLIJIEDAOZHI,GUBENWENJIANGCILIUDAOXIAJIEZAILUN。

                    三、工具论的可能类型

                  星云棋牌官网下载   CHULE“JIAZHIZHONGXING”,P1ZHONGHAIYOULIANGGEGAINIAN (“KONGZHI”YU“REN”) TONGYANGHANHU:GONGJULUNSUOCHENGNUODERENDUIJISHUDE“KONGZHI”SHIKONGZHIDAOHEZHONGCHENGDU?“REN”YOUZHISHEI?XIAWENCHANGSHIBIAOMING,DUIZHEIXIEGAINIANDEBUTONGLIJIEHUIDAOXIANGBUTONGBANBENDEGONGJULUN。

                    (一) 变式维度一:控制技术的后果

                  星云棋牌官网下载   RUORENWEI“RENKONGZHIJISHU”YIWEIZHEWANQUANKONGZHIJISHUSHIYONGSUOHUIDAILAIDEHOUGUO,HUANYANZHI,RENWEIJISHUCHULESHIXIANRENFUYUTADEMUDEZHIWAIBUHUICANYUDAOZHIQITAHOUGUO,NEIMEZHEISHIYIZHONGLIXIANGBANBENDEGONGJULUN。ERZHEIZHONGQIANGLIJIEKEYIBIAOSHUWEIP1DERUXIAZENGBUQUANSHIMINGTI:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   P1a1:HOUGUOFENGBIXING———JISHUDESHIYONGZHIHUISHIXIANRENFUYUTADEMUDE,ERBUHUIYOUQITAHOUGUO (YOUQISHIBUHAODEHOUGUO) ,HUOSUIYOUQITAHOUGUO,DANDUIRENERYANYESHIWEIBUZUDAOHEKEHULVEDE。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ZAICIQINGKUANGXIA,WOMENKEYISHUO,JISHUSHIDUIRENSUOGUANXINDEWENTIDE“TESHEXING”JIEJUE。ZAIKEXUEZHEXUELI,YIGE“TESHEXINGJIASHUO”SHIZHIRENMENWEIXIAOCHUMOUYILILUNYUJINGYANGUANCHAZHIJIANDEMAODUNERTEYIYINRUDE、ZISHENYOUMEIYOUQITAKEJIANYANHOUGUODEFUZHUJIASHUO;LEIBIYUCI,RUGUOYIXIANGJISHUKEYIJIEJUERENSUOGUANXINDEMOUYIWENTIQIEBUHUIYINCIZAOCHENGQITAHOUGUOHEDAILAIQITAWENTI,NEIMEJISHUDUICIWENTIDEJIEJUEKECHENGWEI“TESHEXING”JIEJUE。P1a1YIWEIZHE,GONGJULUNCHENGNUOLEJISHUSHITESHEXINGDE。

                    P1a1SIHUSHIDUI“JISHUJINSHIGONGJU”ZHEIYIJIANLVEDEJIBENZHUZHANGDEYIGEHELIQUANSHI。RUOTABUCHENGLI,YEJIJISHUDESHIYONGKENENGZONGBANSUIYIDUIZHONGYAODAOWUFAHUSHIDE、WEICENGYULIAODEHOUGUO,NEIMEJISHUJIUYINGBEICHENGWEI“YIWAIZHIZAOZHE”,ERBUSHI“GONGJU”。JIUBIZHESUOJIAN,XUDUOGONGJULUNDEPIPINGZHE (RUYILISIYUMEIYE[8]420,WENNA[16]82) SHIZHISHANGSHIXIANGP1a1ZHEIYANGLIJIEGONGJULUNDE。YINER,P1+P1a1+P2+P3KEGOUCHENGDUIGONGJULUNDEYIZHONGCHANGJIANLIJIE。

                    DANRUOQUSHANGSHUQIANGLIJIE,NEIMEFENBOGE[5]7SUOSHUOGONGJULUN“SHIXIANDAIZHENGFUHEZHENGCEKEXUESUOYILAIDEZHANZHUDAODEGUANDIAN”DEKEKAOXINGJIUHENZHIDESHANGQUE,YINWEISIHUHENSHAOYOURENZHENXIANGXINJISHUZHISHIDUIWENTIDETESHEXINGJIEJUE,QIYINGYONGBUHUIYOUZHONGDAYIWAIHOUGUO。YINER,YAOMEFENBOGESHANGSHULUNDUANSHICUODE,YAOMESHANGSHULIXIANGBANBENBINGFEIGUANGWEIDAJIAJIESHOUDEGONGJULUN;HOUZHEYIWEIZHESHANGYOUYIZHONGCHENGRENYIWAIHOUGUODEGENGWENHEDEGONGJULUN。TAHUOXUYIWEIZHEDUI“RENKONGZHIJISHUDESHIYONGHOUGUO”CAIQUXIASHUGENGRUOLIJIE:

                  星云棋牌官网下载   P1a2:GONGJULUNCHENGRENYIWAIHOUGUODECUNZAI,DANRENWEITAYIDANXIANXIANZONGSHIYIWEIRENSUOCHAZHI;JINER,RUOBUYUANJIESHOUCIHOUGUO,RENZONGNENGGOUTONGGUOCAIQUYIXIECUOSHI———RUTINGYONGHUOGAIZAOCIJISHUHUOGAIBIANMOUXIEHUANJINGTIAOJIAN———LAIXIAOCHUTA。

                    CISHI,JISHUBUZAIBEIRENWEISHILIXIANGDE、DUIWENTIDETESHEXINGJIEJUE,DANZHEILIRENGXUNUOLEYIZHONGYOUXIAODE“SHIHOUZHUGELIANG”SHIDEKONGZHI,YIMIANFANGQI“HOUGUOFENGBIXING”ZHIHOUJUSHIBUKESHOUSHI———RUOCHENGRENBANSUIJISHUYINGYONGDEMOUXIEYIWAIHOUGUONENGQIANYIMOHUADISHENRUYINGXIANGRENERBUBEIJISHICHAZHI,HUOCHAZHIHOUBUNENGYOUXIAOKONGZHI,NEIMEWULUNRUHEBUNENGHELIDICHENGZHIWEIGONGJULUNLE。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   DANZHEIYICHENGRENHOUGUO“KAIFANGXING”DEDUIP1DEQUANSHI,DUIQITAJIGEMINGTIYIWEIZHESHENMENI?SHIFOUYUP2MAODUN?RUSHANGJIESUOSHI,XUEZHEMENYOUBUTONGYIJIAN;DANZHISHAOANP2bDUIJIAZHIZHONGXINGDELIJIE,LIANGZHESHIKERONGGUANDE;NEIME,P3NI?GONGJULUNKENENGBIANHUSHUO:SUIRANZAIDAOZHIYIWAIHOUGUODEQINGXINGZHONG,JISHUBINGFEISHOURENYOUYIKONGZHIERCHANSHENGCIHOUGUO,DANJISHUYIRANBUSHI“YOUDAODEXINGWEINENGLIZHE”,BUSHIDAODENENGDONGZHE (moral agent) ,YINERYIRANBUYINGBEIGUIZE;DANGRAN,ZUOWEISHIYONGZHEDERENZAICIKENENGYEBUYINGBEIGUIZE (YINWEITABINGFEIYOUYIWEIZHI,QIESHIQINGJINZHANCHAOCHUQIYOUXIANDEYUCEKONGZHINENGLI) ;DANRENBUBEIGUIZE,BINGBUYIWEIZHEJISHUYAOBEIGUIZE。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   YINCI,ZHEIYIKENENGDEWENHELICHANGSIHUKEYISHIZIQIADE。TACHENGNUOLERENDUIJISHUDEYOUXIAO (SUIFEIJUEDUIDE) KONGZHI,BAOCHILEJISHUZISHENDE“JIAZHIZHONGXING” (WENHELIJIE) ,ZHUZHANGLEJISHUBUYINGBEIGUIZE。TAKEYOUP1+P1a2+P2+P3LAIKEHUA。SUIBUXIANGLIXIANGBANBENNEIYANGZAIBIAOSHUSHANGGANCUILILUO,DANTAKENENGGENGHEHUCHANGRENDESUPOLICHANG (RUOTAMENZIRENCHIYOUGONGJULUNDEHUA) 。

                    (二) 变式维度二:人指谁

                    YISHANGDUIGONGJULUNBIANSHIDETANLUN,JINSHITONGGUODUI“KONGZHIJISHUDESHIYONGHOUGUO”ZHEIYIDIANZUOBUTONGLIJIEERCHANSHENGDE。BENJIETAOLUNLINGYIWEIDU———JIU“RENKONGZHIJISHU”ERYAN,ZHEILIDE“REN”SUOZHISHANGHANHU:TAZHIRENDECHOUXIANGGONGTONGTI,HAISHIZHIRENLEIZHONGNEIXIEZHANGWOTONGZHIQUANDEYIXIAOBUFEN,YIHUOGAIMINGTIYITUKEHUADESHIZUOWEIGETIDESUOYOURENTONGJISHUDAJIAODAOSHIYUJISHUSUOCHUDEGUANXI?DUIZHEIYIDIANDEBUTONGLIJIEYIWEIZHEBUTONGDEGONGJULUN。

                    RUOJUNIYU“RENKAIQIANG”ZHEIZHONGQIZHIXINGFANLISUOZHANGXIANDEQINGXING,NEIGONGJULUNMORENDESHISUOYOUZUOWEISHIYONGZHEDEGETIYUJISHUDEGUANXI。YEJI,XUYAODUIP1LINGJIAYIXIANGQUANSHIXINGZENGBU:

                    P1b1:P1ZHONGDE“REN”ZHIDESHIMEIGEYUJISHUDAJIAODAODEGETIREN。

                    GONGJULUNDEXUDUO (RUOFEISUOYOU) PIPINGZHESHIMORENZAICIYIYIXIALIJIEGONGJULUNDE。TADEQUEJIAOFUHEGETIYULEISIYUQIANGDEJIANDANGONGJU (tool) ———BIRU,ZHICHI、BEIZI,SHENZHISHIFANGWU、DIANSHIJIDENGKEGONGDUORENSHIYONGDEFUZASHESHI———DAJIAODAOSHIDEQINGXING。DANXIANGGONGJIAOCHE、DITIENI?SUISHUOSIJIYUCHENGKEDOUSHISHIYONGZHE,DANLIANGZHECHUYUBUTONGDIWEI:SIJICAISHIZHIJIEDEKONGZHIZHE,ERZUOWEIDUOSHUDECHENGKEZEZHUYAOZHISHIXIANGYONG;CISHIZHIJIEKONGZHIZHEYUSHIYONGZHEJIUYIJINGFENLILE。ZAICILIZHONGRENGMIANQIANGKESHUO,JINGYOUMORENDESHEHUIGUIFAN,HOUZHEKETONGGUOZHISHIQIANZHEHUODEDUICHEDEJIANJIEKONGZHI;DANSHI,HUANYILIZI,YIGECHANPINSHENGCHANLIUSHUIXIANSHANGYULIUSHUIXIANJIQIZHIJIEDAJIAODAODEDABUFENGONGRENZEJIBUZAI“RENKAIQIANG”ZHEIZHONGYIYISHANGSHIYONGHEKONGZHITA,YEBUZAI“CHENGKECHENGCHE”DEYIYISHANGXIANGYONGTA,ERWUNINGSHUOSHIZAIXIANGSIHOUYIGEZHUZIYIYANGWEITA“FUWU”。DUITAYOUZHIJIEKONGZHIQUANDERENKENENGSHICHEJIANGUANLIRENYUAN;ZAIZHUISUO,SUIJIANJIEDANGENGYOUKONGZHIQUANDESHIQIYEJUECEZHE,JINERZUIYOUKONGZHIQUANDEKENENGSHIYONGYOUHEZHANGKONGQIYEDEZIBENJIA。GONGJULUNDANGRANYEKESHIYONGZHEIZHONGQINGXING,DANZHEISHI,“RENKONGZHIJISHU”ZHONGDE“REN”SUOZHIDEZHISHIRENLEIZHONGDEYIXIAOBUFEN:NEIXIEZAIRENLEIFUZADE“TONGZHI-BEITONGZHI”JIEGOUHEGUANXIZHONGZHENZHENGZHANGWOTONGZHIQUANDEGETIMEN,HUOZHESHUO,TONGZHIJIECENG。YINCI,P1HUOXUKEYIYOUBIEDEQUANSHIXINGZENGBU:

                    P1b2:P1ZHONGDE“REN”ZHIDESHITONGZHIJIECENGHUOTONGZHIJIECENGZHONGDEGETI。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   ERZHEIZHENGSHIQIANWENTIDAODEBEISHILAIFUCHENGWEI“ZHENGZHIHUADEJISHU”BINGBEIBAOERGEMANGUIWEIGONGJULUNDEYIZHONGLEIXINGDEJISHUGUAN。ZHEISIHUYESHIMAKESIZHUYI (1) QINGXIANGYUCHENGXIANCHULAIDEJISHUGONGJULUNLEIXING。ZHEISHI,GONGJULUNSUOZHUZHANGDEJIUBUSHISUOYOURENLEIGETITONGJISHUDEGUANXI,ERSHIYIXIAOBUFENTONGZHIZHEYUJISHUDEGUANXI。CISHI,JISHUDUIGUANGDABEITONGZHIJIECENGRENMENDEFEIGONGJUXING,JIUBUGOUCHENGDUIGONGJULUNDEBOCHI。

                    ZAISHANGSHU“ZHENGZHIHUADEJISHU”LEIXINGZHONGSHANGYOUZUOWEIZHENZHENGKONGZHIZHEDEGETIREN;ERYUANZESHANG,ZAILINGYIBUTONGDEZHENGZHIGUANJICHUSHANG,GONGJULUNYEKEGENGTUIJINYIBUSHUO,“RENKONGZHIJISHU”ZHONGDE“REN”SHIZHIRENDECHOUXIANGGONGTONGTI,ERBUSHIRENHEGETIREN。YEJI,WOMENXUYAODESHI:

                    P1b3:P1ZHONGDE“REN”SUOZHIDESHIRENDECHOUXIANGGONGTONGTI。

                    ZUOWEIYIGEKENENGSHIYONGDELIZI,KAOLVLUKOUTUQIDEQICHEJIANSUHENGDAI,QISHIYONGHEKONGZHIZHEWEISHEI?SHIMEIRIJIACHEYUQISHANGJINGGUOERYUZHIZHAOMIANHEDAJIAODAODEJIASHIYUAN?DANTAMENBINGMEIYOUZHUDONGZIYUANDIYONGTA,ERSHIGENGXIANGZAIMIANDUIOURANLUODAOLUSHANGDEYIKUAIDASHITOUSHIYIYANGBEIPOJIESHOUTA,XIAOXINYINGDUITA。TAMENYEBINGWEIXIANGYONGTALAIDADAOZIJIDESHENMEMUDEHUOHUODESHENMEHAOCHU,FANERSHIYINTAERBEIPOGAIBIANZIJIDEJIASHIXINGWEI。TAMENKENENGCONGWEIBATADANGZUOZIJIDEYONGJU,FANDAOYIZHIDANGZUOFANRENDEZHANGAI,GENGTANBUSHANGKONGZHILE。YIGEGENGHELIDEHUIDASHI,SHIYONGHEKONGZHIZHESHIGURENBUSHEHEWEIHUZHEIXIEJIANSUDAIBINGQIWANGJIEZHIYIGUIFANRENDEJIASHIXINGWEIDEZHENGFUJUECEZHE。DANZHEIWEIGUANYUANXINGCHEJINGGUOLUKOUSHIYEYIYANGHUISHOUDAOQIXIANZHIHEYINGXIANG;BINGQIETADEGAIJUECEKENENGSHIYINGDANGDIMINZHONGDEHUSHENGERZUODE,HUOZHESHUO,TAZHISHIZUOWEIDAILIRENERZHIXINGCHOUXIANGDE“GONGYI”:DANGDISHEHUIDEDABUFENRENXIWANGHUOTONGYIYONGJIANSUDAIZHEIZHONGJISHUWULAIGUIFANQICHEJIASHIYUAN———RUOTAMENSUOYOUGETIDOUKAICHE,JIUSHISUOYOUREN———DEXINGWEI。ZHEISHIMEIYOUYIGEGETISHIGAIJISHUWUDEZHENZHENGKONGZHIZHE (GAIGUANYUANYEBUGANSUIBIANCHEDIAOTA) ,ERMEIYIGERENYOUSHOUDAOTADEYINGXIANGHEGUIFAN。ZAICIQINGXINGXIA,HUOKESHUO,GAIBANBENDEGONGJULUNYUNXUJISHUCHUYUXIANGMINZHULIXIANGFAZHISHEHUIZHONGDE“FALV”YIYANGDEDIWEI:TABUBEIQIZHONGRENHEGETISUOKONGZHI,FANDAOSHIXIANZHIHEYINGXIANGQIZHONGDEMEIGEYUZHIDAJIAODAODEGETI;DANZUOWEIBEIGONGTONGTIYUNXUCUNZAIHEYUNZUODEYIGEZHIZAOWU,TAYUANZESHANGBEIGONGTONGTI (ZUOWEICHOUXIANGDEREN) SUOKONGZHI。

                    GAIYANZHI,TONGGUOJI“REN”YIBUTONGHANYI,ZHEILIYEDEDAOLESANZHONGBANBENDEGONGJULUN (GETI、JIEJIHECHOUXIANGGONGJULUN) ;TAMENFENBIEZHUZHANGDESHISUOYOUYUJISHUDAJIAODAODEGETIDEREN、ZUOWEITONGZHIZHEDESHAOSHURENHEZUOWEICHOUXIANGGONGTONGTIDERENYUJISHUDEGUANXI。CISANBANBENYICIJIANRUO。

                    (三) 变式维度三:控制———“使然”还是“可以”

                  星云棋牌官网下载   SHANGJIETAOLUNZHONGCHUXIANLEYIZHONGPOWEIDIAOGUIDEMOSHI———“RENKONGZHI (HUORANG) JISHUQUKONGZHIREN”。ZHEISHIDEP1 (“RENKONGZHIJISHU,ERFEIJISHUKONGZHIREN”) ZOURULEMAOSIZIXIANGMAODUNDEJINGDI:JISHUZAIYINGXIANGHEKONGZHIREN,DANZHEIYOUSHI (YONGYOUZUIZHONGKONGZHIQUANDE) RENSHIZHIRAN。DANXIANSHIZHONG,ZHEIGE“RANG”WEIJIANDESHILIZISUOTIXIANDE“ZHUDONGSHIRAN”,ERYEYOUKENENG (HUOGENGYOUKENENG) SHI“BEIDONGSHUSHI”,JISUIBENKEKONGZHIHAOJISHU,DANRENYOUYUZISHENGUOSHIERZHI“QUANLIPANGLUO”,BUJINWEIKONGZHIHAOJISHU,FANERRANGJISHUKONGZHILEZISHEN。CONGER,BENLAINENGGOUBIAOXIANWEIGONGJUDE、JIAZHIZHONGXINGDEJISHU,ZAIXIANSHIZHONGQUEBINGWEIXIANXIANDEJIAZHIZHONGLI。DANBUJIANDERENYIDINGBUNENGZAIGAIBIANCIZHUANGKUANGERHUODEKONGZHIQUAN。ZHEIJIUYINCHULEGONGJULUNBIANSHIDEDISANGEWEIDU。

                    DANGGONGJULUNSHUO“RENKONGZHIJISHU”HE“JISHUSHIGONGJU”SHI,JIUJINGSHIZAISHUORENSHIJISHANGZAIKONGZHIZHEJISHUHEJISHUSHIJISHANGBIAOXIANWEIGONGJU,HAISHIZAISHUORENKEYIKONGZHIJISHUHEJISHUKEYIBIAOXIANWEIGONGJU?HUANYANZHI,ZHEIJIUJINGSHIYIZHONGXIANSHIZHUANGKUANGNI,HAISHIYIZHONGKESHIXIANZHUANGKUANG?HOUZHEYIWEIZHE,RENZAIXIANSHIZHONGWEISHIXIANHUOFANGQILEDUIJISHUDEMOUXIEKONGZHI,DANTAKEYIQUSHIXIANHUOHUIFUZHEIZHONGKONGZHI。

                    YEJI,KEYIDUIGONGJULUNZHUZHANGDEDUIJISHUDE“KONGZHI”CAIQULIANGZHONGLIJIE: (1) SHIJISHANGYIJINGHEZONGZAIZHEIYANGZUOZHE; (2) SUIRANSHIJISHANGYINWEIYIXIEYUANYIN (BIRURENLEINEIBUDOUZHENGDENG) BINGWEIQUANRANZUODAOHUOZHEBINGBUXIANGZUODAO (BIRU,JUEDEFANGRENYIXIEHUIGENGHAO) ,DANYUANZESHANGKEYI。HOUYIZHONG“KENENG”GONGJULUNKANSIWULIAO,DANMIANDUIJISHUYUNXINGWEISHOUKONGBINGDAOZHIFUMIANHOUGUODETONGYANGQINGXING,SHIJIESHIWEI“RENWULIKONGZHI”,YIHUO“RENWEI (JINLI) KONGZHI”,QIJIANDEYIWEICHABIEJIONGRAN。YINCI,RUOWOMENRENWEIGONGJULUNSHIZAIZHUZHANGRENYUJISHUZHIJIANDEMOUZHONGQUANLIGUANXIDEHUA,NEIMEZHEIYIQUFENSHIYOUYIYIDE。

                    TEBIEDI,DANGYASIBEIERSI[2]123-125HOUQIZHUANXIANGYIZHONGGONGJULUN———“JISHUJINSHISHOUDUAN,QIZISHENJIBUHAOYEBUHUAI。SHIQINGQUJUEYURENNATAZUOSHENME,YONGTAFUWUYUSHENMEMUBIAO,YIJIJIANGZHIZHIYUHEZHONGTIAOJIANZHIXIA”———ERYOUTONGYIXIANSHIZHONGRENDESHENGHUOYIBIANCHENGJIQIDEZUFEN,RENBIANCHENGLE“SHOUDUAN”,DANYOUHUYU“RANGJISHUZHONGXINSHOUKONG”SHI,TACHIYOUDESIHUJIUSHIZHEIHOUYIZHONG“KENENG” (ERFEI“XIANSHI”) GONGJULUNLICHANG;ERTONGGUOZHONGXINPEIZHISHENGCHANZILIAO (BAOKUOJISHU) KONGZHIQUANCONGERBIANGESHENGCHANGUANXI,MAKESIZHUYIDUISHIXIANRENDEPUBIANZIYOUDEGONGCHANZHUYIGEMINGDECHONGJING,SIHUYEANHANLEZHEIYANGYIZHONG“KENENG”GONGJULUN;TONGYANG,DANGHALISI (Karsten Harries) DANYOU“JISHUYIBUZAISHIYIZHONGBANGZHUWOMENHUODEGENGRENXINGDEGONGJU,ERSHIKENENGBODUORENXING,CHENGWEIDIERZHONGBENXING”,ERYOUXIANGXINREN“YUJISHUHEDIQIUDACHENGYIZHONGZHENZHENGQIADANGDEGUANXISHIZAITAIGUOZHONGYAO”[24]CONGERDUIZHEIGUANXIDESHIXIAN (HUOHUIFU) YOUSUOQIDAISHI,TAYEYUSHELE“KENENG”GONGJULUN。

                    四、结语

                    YISHANGSUOLUNZHANSHILE“GONGJULUN”ZHEIYITIFABENSHENDEHANHU,BINGZHANGKAILEYIGEGENGXIZHIDELIJIEYUDINGWEIKONGJIAN。CICHUYONGYIZHANGJIANBIAOZONGJIEBENWENNEIRONG。

                    表1 技术工具论的可能版本分类
                  表1 技术工具论的可能版本分类

                    XUZHUYIDESHI,SUIJINGYOU“KONGZHI”YU“JIAZHIZHONGXING”LIANGGEWEIDUWOMENJICHULETONGYANGDEFENLEIJIEGUO,DANZHEIBUBIAOMINGZHEILIANGZHONGQIERUJIAODUDENGJIA:LIXIANGGONGJULUNZHEKECHIYOUDUI“JIAZHIZHONGXING”GAINIANDEWENHELIJIE (P2b) 。ERQIEGAIWENHELIJIECHENGNUOLEZUOWEIJISHUZISHENSHUXINGDE“JIAZHIZHONGXING”YUZUOWEIJISHUXIANSHIBIAOXIANDE“JIAZHIZHONGLI”ZHIJIANDEGENGDAQUBIE:JISHIBINGFEIRENSHIZHIRAN (QIANGLIJIEZHICHENGRENZHEIZHONGQINGKUANG) ,JIAZHIZHONGXINGDEJISHUYEKEYIBUBIAOXIANWEIJIAZHIZHONGLIDE,ZHIYAOXIANSHIFUZADEYINGUOHUANJINGOURANSHIZHIRAN。ZHEIYIWEIZHE,YIGERENKEYISHIJISHUJIAZHIZHONGXINGLUNZHE,QUEBUBIZANTONGJISHUJINSHIGONGJU,CONGERBUSHIGONGJULUNZHE———ZHIYAOTARENWEIXIANSHIZHONGPINFADEJISHUYIWAIHOUGUOWEIBEILEGONGJULUNSUOXUNUODE“KONGZHI” (QIANGLIJIE) ,QUEWUAIYUJISHUBENSHENDE“JIAZHIZHONGXING” (WENHELIJIE) 。ZHEIYIWEIZHE“JIAZHIZHONGXINGLUN”DUI“GONGJULUN”DEXIANGDUIDULI。ZAICILIJIEZHIXIA,P2JINZHISHIGONGJULUNDEBIYAOERBUCHONGFENYAOSU,JIAZHIZHONGXINGZHISHITIGONGLEJISHUBIAOXIANWEIGONGJUDEKENENGXING。

                    ZUIHOU,YIGEWANZHENGDEGONGJULUNYINGSHIZHEIXIEWEIDUDE“XIANGCHENG”HUO“XIANGJIA”ZUHE。PIRU,XUDUOGONGJULUNPIPINGZHESUOLIJIEDEGONGJULUNSHIJISHANGSHI:“GETI+XIANSHI+QIANGKONGZHI+ (DUI‘JIAZHIZHONGXING’) QIANGLIJIE+BUGUIZE”。SHANGWENYIZHICHU,YOULUNZHEBINGBUTONGYIDUI“JIAZHIZHONGXING”DEQIANGLIJIE,ERBEIRENWEICHIYOUGONGJULUNLICHANGDEXUDUOPUTONGDAZHONGHENKENENGYEBUZANCHENGDUI“KONGZHI”DEQIANGLIJIE;ERYASIBEIERSIHOUQICHIYOU“KENENG+ (DUI‘JIAZHIZHONGXING’) WENHELIJIE”DEGONGJULUN;MAKESIZHUYIZECHENGXIANCHU“JIEJI+KENENG”DEGONGJULUNTEZHENG。DANGRAN,ZHEIXIECUSHUKEHUAYOUDAISHENCHA。

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                    [20]吴致远.有关技术中性论的三个问题[J].自然辩证法通讯, 2013, 35 (6) :116-121.
                    [21]杨庆峰, 赵卫国.技术工具论的表现形式及悖论分析[J].自然辩证法研究, 2002, 18 (4) :55-57.
                    [22] BREY P.Artifacts as social agents[C]∥HARBERS H.Inside the politics of technology:agency and normativity in the co-production of technology and society.Amsterdam:Amsterdam University Press, 2005:61-84.
                    [23] PETERSON M, SPAHN A.Can technological artefacts be moral agents?[J].Science and engineering ethics, 2011, 17 (3) :411-424.
                    [24]哈里斯.无限与视角[M].张卜天, 译.长沙:湖南科学技术出版社, 2014:1.

                    注释

                    1 比如, 米切姆 (Mitcham) 与维尔伯斯 (Waelbers) [9]对工具论的用法就比伯格曼等学者的用法窄。
                    2 杨庆峰、赵卫国[21]对工具论“意味”的讨论涵盖了上述几个基本点, 但其文所给其他“意味”则较间接和远离工具论的核心。
                    3 马克思主义呈现出工具论的一些特征。有些学者也给出了类似理解, 诸如, “马克思在许多方面对技术持有工具的 (理解) 进路”[1]70, 以及“马克思主义的革命政治学是建立在对技术的一种工具主义理解之上的”[6]13。

                    程志翔.何谓技术工具论:含义与分类[J].科学技术哲学研究,2019,36(04):75-81.
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