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                          学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 民法论文

                          宪法与民法的关系厘定探析

                          时间:2019-02-06 来源:广西大学学报(哲学社会科学版) 作者:汪太贤 本文字数:12432字

                          民法毕业论文第八篇:宪法与民法的关系厘定探析

                            摘要:从历史维度来看,宪法与民法的关系最初奠定于罗马共和国宪制对市民法的调整与改造。在共和体制中,作为市民法主要成分的私法从习惯法的限制中解放出来,向成文法形式发展,并建立起与宪制的依附关系,在宪制的理念和原则的规训下发育和生长,成就了具有普世意义的诸多品格,成为后世尊崇和仿效的典范。近代以来,由宪法制度直接建立起来的宪法与民法之间的关系,在19世纪被各国宪法普遍采用,并形成三种基本模式:一是效力关系,即宪法基于效力对民法的约束;二是调整事项的重叠关系,即民事事项被选择性地纳入宪法的调整范围;三是立法的授权关系,即宪法对民事立法的明确授权。这些关系模式最终在成文宪法的国家中形成了民法以宪法为根据的传统。

                            关键词:宪法; 民法; 关系模式; 根本法;

                            The Origin and Mode of the Relationship between Constitution and Civil Law

                            Wang Taixian

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                            ZHENGSHISIFAYINXIANZHIYAOQIUDEGAIBIANHEFAZHAN,20SHIJIYIDALIZHEMINGDELUOMAFAXUEJIAMAERDINUORENWEI,LUOMAFABINGFEIYIZHONGGERENZHUYIDEFA,“LUOMAFAJIANGSIFAZHIYUGONGFAZHIXIA”,BINGQIEJIANGRENZHIYUFALVTIXIDESHOUWEI。3RENMENHENRONGYIGENJUJINDAIYILAISIFADEMOUXIEGUANNIAN,RENWEILUOMASIFASIHUSHIZAITUOLIGONGFAHUOXIANZHIDEYUESHUXIAFAZHANQILAIDE,BINGCHENGWEIBAOZHANGGERENQUANLIMIANSHOUGERENQINFANDEZUIYOUXIAODESHOUDUAN。QISHIZHENXIANGBINGFEIRUCI,LUOMASIFAZHISUOYIBEIHOUSHICHENGDAO,QIZHUYAOSHIYINWEITAZAIXIANZHIBUYUZHIXIACHENGZHANGQILAIDEZIYOUHEPINGDENGDEPINXING。CONGGENYUANSHANGJIANG,ZUIZHONGBAOZHANGGERENQUANLIMIANSHOUGERENQINHAIZUIYOUXIAODESHOUDUAN,SHIXIANZHIERBUSHISIFA。

                            二、宪法与民法关系的正式厘定

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (YI)XIANFAYUMINFADEZUICHUGUANXIMOSHI

                          星云棋牌官网下载   XIANDAIYIYISHANGDEXIANFAXINGSHIZUIZAOBUSHICHUXIANZAI18SHIJIDEMINZUGUOJIA,ERSHICHUXIANZAIBEIMEIZHOUSHISANGEYINGSHUZHIMINDIZHIZHONG。ZAI1776NIAN7YUEBEIMEIDALUHUIYIFABU《DULIXUANYAN》HOU,YIXIEZHOUDEXIANFABUJINYIFADIANDEXINGSHICHUXIAN,ERQIEYEQUELILEYUPUTONGFADEGUANXI。“PUTONGLIFAHEXIANFAXINGLIFAFENBIEYOUBUTONGDELIFAJIGOUJINXING,FAGUANJIANDUZHEPUTONGLIFAQUANLIFUCONGXIANFAXINGGUIFANDEXIANZHI。RUGUOGENJUFAGUANDEPANDUANMOUYIBUFALVQINFANLEJIBENQUANLI,TABIXUJINZHIQISHISHI。”[12]ZHEIXIEQINGXINGBIAOMING,XIANFAYUPUTONGFAGUANXIMOSHIYIJINGJIANLI:YISHIZAILIFASHANGBAXIANFAYUPUTONGFAQUBIEKAILAI,FUYUXIANFAGAOYUPUTONGFADEXIAOLI;ERSHIZAISIFASHANGFUYUXIANFADUIPUTONGFADEKONGZHI。XIANDAIXIANFAYUMINFADEGUANXIJIUQUELIYUXIANFAYUPUTONGFADEGUANXIMOSHIZHONG。

                            1787NIAN,MEIGUOYIXIEZHOUXIANFASUOCHUANGLIDEXIANFAYUMINFADEGUANXIMOSHI,BEILIANBANGXIANFASUOXISHOU,SHANGSHENGWEIYIZHONGGUOJIADEXIANFAZHIDU。BUTONGDESHI,ZAILIFACENGMIAN,LIANBANGXIANFABUJINXUANBUXIANFASHIZUIGAODEFALV,ERQIEZHIJIEQUELIXIANFAZUOWEIQITALIANBANGLIFADEGENJU,ERBUGUANZHEIXIELIANBANGLIFASHIGONGFAHAISHISIFA。RUMEIGUO《XIANFA》DI6TIAOGUIDING:“BENXIANFAJIYIZHAOBENXIANFASUOZHIDINGZHIHEZHONGGUOFALVYIJIGENJUHEZHONGGUOQUANLISUODIJIEHUOJIANGDIJIEDEYIQIETIAOYUE,JUNWEIQUANGUODEZUIGAOFALV。”TONGSHI,HAIXUANBUGEZHOUDEXIANFAHEQITAFALVDUILIANBANGXIANFAWUTIAOJIANDIZUNSHOU,ERGEZHOUDEQITAFALVJIBAOKUOGONGFAYEBAOKUOSIFA。YIXIEXUEZHEJIESHISHUO:“RENHEYIZHOUDOUMEIYOUBAOLIURENHEQUANLI,LAIJIECHUTAZIJIDUIXIANFADELIANXI、HUOZHEQUXIAOTADETONGYI、HUOZHEZHONGZHIXIANFADEYUNZUO。”[13]WOMENKEYILIJIEWEIBAOKUOMINFAZAINEIDEGEZHOUFALV,RUGUOYULIANBANGXIANFADICHUSHI,QIDICHUDENEIRONGWUXIAO。

                            ZAISIFACENGMIAN,LIANBANGXIANFAMINGQUEBAXIANFAGUIDINGNARUSIFATIXI,GOUCHENGDUILIANBANGHEGEZHOUPUTONGFALVDEJIANDU。MEIGUO《XIANFA》DI3TIAODI2KUANGUIDING,SIFAQUANSHIYONGYU“YIQIEJIYUBENXIANFA、HEZHONGGUOFALVYIJIGENJUHEZHONGGUOQUANLISUODIJIEDEJIJIANGDIJIEDETIAOYUEERCHANSHENGDEPUTONGFADEJIHENGPINGFADEANJIAN。”MEIGUO《XIANFA》DI6TIAOHAIGUIDING,“JISHILIANBANGXIANFAYURENHEYIZHOUDEXIANFAHUOFALVXIANGDICHU,GEZHOUDEFAGUANRENGYINGZUNSHOUTA。”ZHEIYIWEIZHE,XIANFAHEMINFADEGUANXIBUJINJINZHIBIAOXIANZAILIFASHANG,HAIBIAOXIANZAISIFAZHIZHONG。ZAIYIQIESIFASHENPANZHONG,BAOKUOMINFAZAINEIDEPUTONGFASHIYONGSHI,XIANFARENGRANSHIYIZHONGZHONGYAODESIFAGENJU。

                            (ER)XIANFAYUMINFADEGUANXIMOSHIDEJICHENGYUCHUANGXIN

                            ZICONGMEIGUOXIANFAJIANLIQIXIANFAYUMINFADEGUANXIZHIHOU,1791NIANDE《FAGUOXIANFA》ZAIQIJIBENJINGSHENSHANGCHUANCHENGLEZHEIYIXIANLI,JIZAIXIANFASUOQUELIDEYUANZEHEJIAZHITIXIZHONG,ZHIYINHEGUIFANZHEBAOKUOMINFAZAINEIDEQITAFALV。FAGUOXIANFAYUMINFAZHIJIANDEGUANXIKEYICONGYIXIASANGEFANGMIANJINXINGQUESHIDEBAWO。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   1.XIANFAHEMINFAGONGXIANGDEJINGSHENJICHU

                            CONGXIANFAFANGMIANLAIKAN,《RENQUANXUANYAN》SHIFAGUOZHIXIANGUOCHENGZHONGDEZAOQICHANWU,CHENGWEIZHIDAOXIANFAZHIDINGDEYUANZE。1791NIANXIANFAJIUSHIZAIGAIXUANYANSUOQUELIDEYUANZEZHIYINXIAZUIZHONGXINGCHENGDE,BINGQIE,GAIXUANYANDE17TIAONEIRONGYIZIBUSHAODICHENGWEI1791NIANXIANFADEYIGEZUCHENGBUFEN。QIHOU,1793NIAN、1795NIANXIANFADIANQIANDE“RENQUANXUANYAN”,SUIRANDUI1789NIANDE《RENQUANXUANYAN》YOUSUOGAIDONG,DANQIZHONGLIANGGEZHONGYAOYUANZEJIZIYOUHEPINGDENGBINGWUSHIZHIXINGDEGAIBIAN。ZI1799NIANZHIHOUDEGONGHEGUOXIANFA,“RENQUANXUANYAN”SUIBUZAITIANLIEYUXIANFADIANZHISHOU,DANSHIDUIYUNEIXIEXIANFAERYAN,1789NIANDE《RENQUANXUANYAN》CONGWEISHIQUXIAOLI,TAYIJINGCHENGWEIFAGUOGONGHEGUOSHIQIYONGJIUXINGDEXIANFAGANGLING。4CONGMINFAFANGMIANLAIKAN,《RENQUANXUANYAN》KEYISHUOSHI1789NIANHOUQIYILAISIFAZHIDINGHE1804NIANMINFADIANBIANZUANDESIXIANGJICHUHEJINGSHENZHIDAO,SHENZHIKEYISHUO,SIFASHIYITEDINGDEXINGSHIDUIXUANYANSUOJIESHIDEYUANZEDEGUANCHE。1789NIANZHI1791NIANDEZHIXIANYIHUIBANBUDESIFAGAIGEFALINGDOUSHIJIANLIZAI《RENQUANXUANYAN》SUOQUELIDEYUANZEZHISHANGDE。1804NIANDE《FAGUOMINFADIAN》GENGSHIDUI《RENQUANXUANYAN》SUOQUELIYUANZEDEJUTIBIAODA。ZHEIBUFADIANSHOUXIANSHIJIANLIZAI《RENQUANXUANYAN》SUOQUELIDEGERENZHUYIGUANNIANZHISHANGDE。CONGQIPOSUDEZILIXINGJIANTOULUCHUDEGUANNIAN,YU《RENQUANXUANYAN》ZHONGDEYUANZEBINGWUCHAYI。LIRU,ZAIMINSHIZHUTIZIGEDEGUIDINGZHONG,RENHETEQUANYIJINGXIAOSHI;ZAICAICHANSUOYOUQUAN、HUNYINJIATINGHEJICHENGBUFENDEGUIDINGZHONG,JIUYUNHANZHE《RENQUANXUANYAN》DI1、2、4、6、17TIAOSUOBIAODAZIYOUHEPINGDENGDEYUANZE。ZAIMINFAXUEJIAKANLAI,“《NAPOLUNFADIAN》BUGUOSHIZHEIXIEGUANNIANZAISIFALIDEFANBANERYI。”[14]

                          星云棋牌官网下载   CONGSHANGSHUKEZHI,JINDAIXIANFAYUMINFADOUSHIDUI18SHIJIZHENGZHILINIANDEGONGXIANGERCHUANGLIDE。XIANDAIZHENGZHILINIANBUSHIXIANFACHUANGLIDE,XIANFADEZUOYONGSHIJIANGZHEIXIEZHENGZHILINIANZHUANHUAWEIYUANZEHUOZHIDU。MINFATONGYANGSHIZAISHIDAIDEZHENGZHILINIANZHONGYUNYUERCHENG,SHOUZHEIXIEZHENGZHILINIANDEZHIDAO。DANSHI,YIDANDANGXIANFAJIANGZHEIXIELINIANYUANZEHUAHUOZHIDUHUAHOU,TAJIUGOUCHENGDUIMINFADEXIANZHI,ZHISHAOCHENGWEIMINSHILIFADEGENJU。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   2.FAGUOXIANFADUIXIANFAYUMINFAGUANXIDEZHIDUXINGGOUZAO

                          星云棋牌官网下载   1791NIAN《XIANFA》MINGQUEZHISHI:“ZHIDINGYIBUSHIYONGYUZHENGGEWANGGUODEMINFADIAN。”YUSHI,FAGUOMINFADIANDEZHIDINGZAIGAIXIANFASHENGXIAOZHIHOUJIUZHUNBEIQIDONG。ZHEIBIAOMING,FAGUOMINFADIANDEZHIDINGBENSHENJIUSHIDUIYIXIANGXIANFAZHILINGDEGUANCHE。TONGSHI,1791NIAN《XIANFA》JIAOWEIMINGQUEDIQUELILEXIANFAYUMINFADEGUANXI。ZHEIYIGUANXIZHUYAOXIANDINGZAILIFALINGYU,KEYIBIAOSHUWEIXIANFASHIMINFALIFADEGENBENYIJU。QIGUANXIDEBIAOXIANXINGSHIZHUYAOYOULIANGZHONG:YISHIXIANFADUISHUYUMINFALINGYUDEMOUXIESIQUANHUOSHIXIANGQUELILEJIBENDEZHIDAOYUANZE,ZHEIXIEYUANZEBAOKUODUIMINSHILIFADEXIANZHIXINGGUIDINGHEZHUZHANGXINGGUIDING。5ERSHITONGGUOXIAOLIDENGJIDEHUAFEN,JIANJIEQUELIMINFADUIXIANFADEZUNCONG。ZAI《XIANFA》ZHONGGUIDING:“GUOMINZHIXIANYIHUISUOBANBUDEWEIBEIBAOHANZAIBENXIANFAWENJIANDEMINGLING,ZUOWEIFALVYUYIZHIXING。ZHIQIANDEFALVBUYUXIANFACHONGTU,ZAIBEILIFAYUANFEICHUHUOZHEXIUGAIQIAN,YINGJIXUYOUXIAO。”QIYIBIAOMING,PUTONGLIFAWEISHEJIXIANFAGUIDINGDESHIXIANG,JUYOUFALVXIAOLI;RUGUOSHEJIXIANFASUOGUIDINGDESHIXIANG,QIEYUXIANFADICHU,ZIRANSHIQUFALVXIAOLI。

                            1793NIANHE1795NIANDEFAGUOXIANFADIANZHONGSUOQUELIDEXIANFAYUMINFADEGUANXI,JIBENSHANGZUNCONGLE1791NIANXIANFASUOQUELIDEXINGSHI。DANTAMENYIJINGQUXIAOLETONGGUOXIAOLIGUIDINGBIAOMINGXIANFADEGENBENDIWEI,ZHONGXINZHIZAITONGGUODUIMINSHIQUANLIHUOSHIXIANGDEGUIDING,BIAOMINGXIANFAZUOWEIMINSHILIFADEGENJU。YU1791NIANXIANFABUTONG,1793NIANXIANFADEXIANGGUANGUIDING,BUSHIYAOJIANLIXIANFADUIMINSHILIFADEKONGZHI,FANGZHIMINSHILIFAYUYUEJIBENDEJIEXIAN,ERSHIKUODAMINSHILIFAZHONGSIQUANDEFANWEI,FUYUSIQUANHEGERENXINGWEIDECHONGFENDEZIYOU。DANSHI,ZHEIXIEYOUGUANMINSHILIFADEGUIDINGZHUYAOTIXIANZAIZHIYUXIANFAZHISHOUDE“RENHEGONGMINDEQUANLIXUANYAN”BUFEN。CI“RENQUANXUANYAN”YUQIAN“RENQUANXUANYAN”XIANGBI,ZAISIQUANDEGUIDINGSHANGGENGWEIJUTIHEXIZHI。1795NIANXIANFAYU1793NIANXIANFAYIYANG,BAXIANFAHEMINFADEGUANXITIXIANZAIZUOWEIXIANFAXUYAN——“RENHEGONGMINDEQUANLIHEYIWUXUANYAN”ZHIZHONG,DANSHIBUTONGDESHI,TADUISIQUANHUOMINSHIXINGWEISHIXIANZHIXINGDE。6

                            3.《FAGUOMINFADIAN》ZHONGXIANXIANDEXIANFAYIJU

                          星云棋牌官网下载   BUNENGFOURENDESHI,ZAI1789NIANZHIHOUFAGUODEXINMINFA、TEBIESHI1804NIANDE《FAGUOMINFADIAN》ZHONG,WOMENSIHUCHUCHUDOUKEYIKANDAOLUOMASIFADEYINGZI。DANSHI,FAGUOMINFADEJINGSHEN、YUANZEHEBUSHAOZHIDUDOUBUSHIYUANYUCHUANTONGHUODUICHUANTONGSIFADEJICHENG,ERSHISHIDAIJINGSHENDEBIAODA。ZHEIXIEJINGSHENXIANYOU《RENQUANXUANYAN》SUOXUANGAO,ZAIYOUXIANFAGUIDINGHUOQUERENDE,ZUIHOUTIXIANZAI《FAGUOMINFADIAN》ZHIZHONG。ZHEIYIQINGXING,ZAOJIULEXIANFAYUMINFAZHIJIANDEYIZHONGTESHUDEGUANXI,JIXIANFASHIMINFADEGENJUFA。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZAI1804NIANDE《FAGUOMINFADIAN》ZHONG,XIANFADEGENJUKEYIZAITADEJINGSHEN、YUANZEHEYIXIEZHIDUXINGGUIDINGFANGMIANXIANSHICHULAI。SHOUXIAN,ZAIJINGSHENCENGMIAN,YOUFAGUOXIANFASUOBIAODADEGERENZHUYIJINGSHENYIZHIGUANCHUANYU《FAGUOMINFADIAN》ZHIZHONG。ZAIFADIANDESANBIANZHONG,GERENYIZHIHELIYIDEDAOCHONGFENDETIXIAN。ZAIGUANYUCAICHAN、HUNYIN、JIATINGHEQIYUEDENGZHIDUZHONG,ZUOWEIFALVZHUTIZIGEDEGERENSHIZHONGCHUYUHEXINDIWEI。QICI,ZAIYUANZEFANGMIAN,MINFADIANZAIFEICHULEFENGJIANDEDENGJIHETEQUANJICHUSHANG,“CAINALE1789NIANDESHEHUIYUANZE:GERENZIYOU,FALVMIANQIANRENRENPINGDENG、GUOJIASHISUHUA、XINYANGZIYOUHEXUANZEZHIYEDEZIYOU。”[15]TONGSHI,YEYI1791NIANYILAIDUOBUXIANFASUOQUELIDEMINSHIFANGMIANJIBENYUANZEWEIGENJU,JIANLIQIZIJIDEJIBENYUANZE。LIRU,XIANFASHANGQUEDINGDEZIYOU、PINGDENGHECAICHANQUANDEJUEDUIBAOHUYUANZE,YECHENGWEIMINFADIANDEJIBENYUANZE。BUTONGDEZHISHIERZHEZAIBIAODASHANGDECHAYI:QIANZHEJIAOWEICHOUXIANGGAIKUO,HOUZHEGENGWEIJUTIQUESHI。RUXIANFAZHONGDEPINGDENGYUANZEZAI《FAGUOMINFADIAN》DI8TIAOJUTIBIAOSHUWEI:“SUOYOUFAGUORENDOUXIANGYOUMINSHIQUANLI”,ZAIDI488TIAOJUTIBIAOSHUWEI:“MANERSHIYISUIWEICHENGNIAN,DAODACINIANLINGHOU,CHUJIEHUNZHANGGUIDINGDELIWAIWAI,YOUNENGLIWEIYIQIEMINSHISHENGHUOSHANGDEXINGWEI。”YOURU,XIANFASHANGDEZIYOUYUANZE,ZAI《FAGUOMINFADIAN》ZHONGBEIJUTIHUAWEIYISIZIZHIHUOQIYUEZIYOU,YINHANZAIFADIANDEDI146TIAO、DI1134TIAO、DI1156TIAODENGTIAODEGUIDINGZHIZHONG。7XIANFASUOQUELIDESIYOUCAICHANQUANYUANZE,JUTITIXIANZAI《FAGUOMINFADIAN》DI537、544、545TIAODENGGUIDINGZHIZHONG。8

                            《FAGUOMINFADIAN》BUJINZAI“ZONGZE”ZHONG,ERQIEZAIQITABUFEN,XIANFADEGENJURENGRANDEDAOTIXIAN。LIRU《FAGUOMINFADIAN》DI17TIAO、DI21TIAOGUANYUSANGSHIFAGUORENZIGEDEGUIDING,TONGYANGSHIYIJU1793NIAN《XIANFA》DI5TIAO、1795NIAN《XIANFA》DI12TIAO、1800NIAN《GONGHEBANIANXIANFA》DI4TIAODEXIANGGUANGUIDING。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   (SAN)XIANFAYUMINFAGUANXIMOSHIDEPUBIANHUA

                            YOUMEIGUOHEFAGUOXIANFAQUELIDEXIANFAYUMINFADEGUANXI,ZAI19SHIJIBEISHIJIEGEGUOXIANFAPUBIANFANGXIAO,XIANFAZUOWEIMINFADEGENJUFAZAITAMENDEXIANFAZHONGDOUHUODELEBUTONGCHENGDUDEZHIDUHUA。YIFANGMIAN,TAMENBAXIANFAQUEDINGWEILIGUODEJICHU,YICITONGSHUAIZHENGGEFALVXITONG;LINGYIFANGMIAN,TAMENBAXIANFAQUELIWEIDUIFALVZHIXUGAIZAODEJINGSHENHEYUANZE,MINGQUELEXIANFADUIGONGSIFADEGENJUXINGHEZHIDAOXING,BINGQIEZAIZHIDUSHANGJIANLIQILEXIANFADUIYUYIQIEPUTONGFALVDEJIANKONGHUOJIANDUFANGSHI。ZHEIZHONGFANSHIDAZHIKEYIGAIKUOWEISANZHONGJIBENDEMOSHI,JIFALVXIAOLIMOSHI、MINSHISHIXIANGNARUMOSHIHEXIANFASHOUQUANMOSHI。

                            FALVDEXIAOLIMOSHI,JIZAIXIANFAZHONGQUELIYIQIEFALVYUXIANFADICHUJIWUXIAODEYUANZE,CONGERQUELIXIANFAZUOWEIBAOKUOMINFAZAINEIDEYIQIEPUTONGFALVDEGENJUXING。ZHEIZHONGMOSHIYOU18SHIJIMEIGUO、FAGUOXIANFAXIANGJICHUANGLI,ZAI19SHIJIBEISHIJIEGEGUOPUBIANCAIYONG。CISHIDEOUZHOU,WULUNSHIJUNZHULIXIANDEXIANFA,HAISHIGONGHEMINZHULIXIANDEXIANFA,WULUNSHIMINZUGUOJIADEXIANFAHAISHIMINZUGEBANGGUODEXIANFA,JIHUWUYILIWAIDIXUANZELEZHEIZHONGMOSHI。LIRU,1814NIAN《NUOWEIXIANFA》DI94TIAOGUIDING,PUTONGSHIYONGDEMINSHIHEXINGSHIXINFADIAN,YINGZAIGUOHUIPUTONGHUIYIQIJIANZHIDING,DANZAIZHEIXIEFADIANWEIZHIDINGZHIQIANDEGUOJIAXIANXINGFA,“BUYUBENXIANFAXIANGCHONGTUZHE,JIXUYOUXIAO”。1831NIANDE《BILISHIXIANFA》DI138TIAOGUIDING,ZIBENXIANFASHIXINGZHIRIQI,FANSHIWEIFANBENXIANFADE“YIQIEFALV、WANGMING、ZHILING、TIAOLIJIQITAWENSHU,JIEFEIZHIZHI”。1874NIAN《RUISHILIANBANGXIANFA》DE“ZANXINGTIAOKUAN”DI2TIAOGUIDING:“FANYUBENXIANFAXIANGDICHUZHILIANBANGFALV、SHISHIXIZE,YIJIGEZHOUXIANFAHUOFALV,YINGZIBENXIANFASHIXINGRIQIHUOYOUBENXIANFAGUIDINGZHIFALVGONGBUYIHOU,YILVWUXIAO。”ZHEIYIWEIZHEFANSHIYUXIANFAXIANGDICHUDEYIQIEFALVXINGSHI,DOUJIANGSHIQUXIAOLI。TONGGUOFALVDEXIAOLIGUIDING,QUELIXIANFAYUQITAGONGSIFADEGUANXI,KAIERSENHOULAIMINGQUEJIESHISHUO:“YINWEIRUGUOZHEIGEFALVYOUXIAOLI,NEIME,TAZHISUOYIYOUXIAOLIZHISHIYINWEITAFUHEXIANFA;RUGUOTAYUXIANFAYOUDICHU,TAJIUBUKENENGSHIYOUXIAOLIDE。YIGEFALVDEXIAOLIDEWEIYILIYOUJIUSHITACENGZAIXIANFASUOGUIDINGDEFANGSHIXIACHUANGLI。”[16]

                            CHULEZAITONGGUOXIAOLIJIANLIQIXIANFAYUMINFADEGUANXIZHIWAI,YIXIEGUOJIAXIANFAHAIBAMOUXIEMINSHISHIXIANGZHIJIENARUXIANFADIAOZHENG,SHIXIANFADEMINSHIGUIDINGCHENGWEIPUTONGMINSHILIFADEZHONGYAOYIJU。WOMENBAZHEIZHONGFANGSHICHENGWEIZHIJIENARUMOSHI,TAZHIZAIJUTIDIMINGQUEMINSHIXIANGGUANFALVDEXIANFAGENJU。ZHEIXIEXIANFAGENJUZHUYAOTIXIANYULIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHIQUELIMINSHILIFADEYIXIEJIBENYUANZEHEJINGSHEN,ERSHIDUIMINSHILIFAXIANGGUANLINGYUJINXINGGAIGEHUOXINGCHENGTEDINGDEXIANZHI。

                            ZAIXIANFAZHIZHONGZHIJIEQUELIMINFAXIANGGUANLINGYUDEJIBENJINGSHEN、YUANZEHEZHIDU,ZAI19SHIJIBEIBUSHAOGUOJIADEXIANFACAIYONG,SUOSHEJIDEMINFALINGYUBAOKUO“RENFA”“WUQUANFA”“QINQUANZERENFA”“HUNYINJIATINGFA”HE“JICHENGFA”DENGNEIRONG。ZAIJINGSHENHUOYUANZEFANGMIAN,RUQUELIMINSHIQUANLIPINGDENG、SIRENXINGWEIZIZHIDENGJINGSHENHUOYUANZE。LIRU,1815NIANDEHELAN《XIANFA》DI4TIAOGUIDING,ZAIWANGGUOLINGTUZHINEI,WULUNHERENTONGDENGXIANGYOURENSHENHECAICHANDEQUANLI,BINGSHOUDAOPINGDENGDEBAOHU。1866NIANBANBUDEDANMAI《XIANFA》DI92TIAOGUIDING,FANSHIBAOLIUZAIJIUFALVZHONGDEZUNGUICHENGHAOHUODENGJITEQUAN,YILVFEICHU。1871NIANGESIDALIJIA《XIANFA》DI49TIAOGUIDING,SIRENXINGWEIZHIWUGUANDAODEHUOGONGAN,HUOWUHAIYUDISANRENZHE,BUSHOUFALVZHIZHICAI。ZAIMINSHIZHIDUFANGMIAN,XIANFAGUIDINGSHEJICAICHAN、HUNYIN、JICHENGDENGSHIXIANG。LIRU,1874NIANRUISHI《XIANFA》DI54TIAOGUIDING:“FANZAIYIZHOUHUOWAIGUOYIZHAOSUOZAIDIXIANXINGFAJIEHUNZHE,ZAILIANBANGJINGNEIJUNRENWEIYOUXIAO”(DI3KUAN);“FUNVDEYINJIEHUNQUDEQIFUZHIGONGMINQUANJIJUZHUQUAN”(DI4KUAN);“HUNQIANSUOSHENGZHIZINV,YINQIFUMUJIEHUNHOU,DERENWEIHUNSHENGZI”(DI5KUAN)。

                            XIANFABAYIXIEMINSHISHIXIANGZHIJIEGUIDINGQIZHONG,ZHIZAIDUIMINFAXIANGGUANZHIDUDEGAIGEHEXIANZHI,CIZHONGQINGXINGZAI19SHIJIDEXIANFAZHONGYIJIAOWEIPUBIAN。XIANFADUIJICUNDEMINFAZHIDUDEBIANGE,WANGWANGZHENDUIDESHIYUGAIXIANFAJINGSHENBUFUDEYIXIEMINSHIZHIDU。LIRU,1857NIAN《MOXIGEXIANFA》DI17TIAOGUIDING,BULUNHEREN,BUNENGYINWEICHUNCUIMINSHIXINGZHIDEZHAIWUERBEIDAIBU。1829NIAN《WULAGUIXIANFA》DI133TIAOGUIDING,CAICHANJICHENGXIANDINGYIRENZHIZHI,YINGLIJIFEICHU。1831NIAN《BILISHIXIANFA》DI4TIAOGUIDING,FEICHUFALVXUANGAOSIWANGZHIDU,GAIZHIDUYIJINGFEICHUBUDEZAICIQUELI。XIANFADUIYIXIEMINSHISHIXIANGDEZHIJIEGUIDINGQIZHONG,ZHIZAIDUIXIANXINGMINFAJINXINGXIANZHIDEGUIDING,DADUOSHUYUYUANZEXINGDE,DANYEYOUGUIZEXINGDE。ZAICAICHANFAFANGMIAN,LIRU,1874NIAN《RUISHILIANBANGXIANFA》DI31TIAOGUIDING:“FANGUANYUJIUDIANJIJIULEIZHILINGSHOU,GEZHOUYINGYIGONGGONGFULIZHIYAOQIU,DEYIFALVXIANZHIZHI。”1860NIAN《MILUXIANFA》DI41TIAOGUIDING,WULUNHERENZAIHEDI,FANSHIYIJINGYINGFANMAINULIDESHANGYEHUOCAICHAN,QISUOYOURENSANGSHIQIGONGMINQUAN,BUXIANGYOUDUIGAISHANGYEHUOCAICHANDESUOYOUQUAN。ZAIHUNYINFAFANGMIAN,1874NIAN《RUISHIXIANFA》DI54TIAOGUIDING:“FANHUNYINBUDEYINZONGJIAOSHANGZHILIYOU,HUOPEIOUYIFANGDECHIPINHEJIEHUNRENZHIPINXINGJIQIZHIXUSHANGZHILIYOUFASHENGZHANGAI。”(DI2KUAN)ZHEIXIEXIANFAGUIDINGDEMINSHISHIXIANG,WULUNSHIYUANZEHAISHIGUIZE,DOUSHIDANGSHIMINFAZHIDINGHEZHIXINGDEGENJU。

                          星云棋牌官网下载   TONGSHI,XIANFAHAITONGGUOSHOUQUANDEXINGSHIBATEDINGSHIXIANGSHOUYUMINFADIAOZHENG,XINGCHENGXIANFADUIXIANGGUANMINSHILIFADEGENJUHUOZHEDUIXIANGGUANLINGYUDEMINFAZHIDUXINGCHENGTEDINGDEZHIDAO。LIRU,1831NIAN《BILISHIXIANFA》DI4TIAOGUIDING,BILISHIGUOMINSHENFEN(GUOJI)DEQUDE、BAOCHIHESANGSHI,YOUMINFASHELIGUIZEQUEDING。1850NIAN《PULUSHIXIANFA》DI19TIAOGUIDING,GUOMINDEHUNYINZHIDU,YIDIAOZHENGMINSHIGUANXIDETEBIEFALVDINGZHI。1880NIAN《BOLIWEIYAXIANFA》DI19TIAOGUIDING:“BULUNHERENZAIBOLIWEIYAXIANGYOUMINSHIQUANLI。MINSHIQUANLIDEXINGSHI,YIMINFADIAOZHENGZHI。”SHANGSHUZHEIXIESHIXIANGBENSHENSHUYUMINFADIAOZHENGDEFANWEI,XIANFAWEIHEHAIYAOSHOUQUAN?QIMUDEHENXIANRANSHIYAOQUELIXIANFAJINGSHENHEYUANZEDUIMINFAYUESHUXINGHEZHIDAOXING。

                            DANGRANXUYAOSHUOMINGDESHI,XIANFAJIANGMINSHISHIXIANGNARUXIANFADEDIAOZHENGJUYOUXUANZEXING,SUOYIBINGFEIMINFASUOYOUDEJUTISHIXIANGHUOZHIDUDOUNENGZAIXIANFAZHONGZHAODAOYIJU。YINCI,RENMENWANGWANGYICILAIFOUDINGXIANFASHIMINFADEGENJUFAHUOMUFALUNDUAN。QISHI,ZHIYAOWOMENCHENGRENLIANGGEJIBENSHISHIJIKEXIAOCHUZHEIZHONGFOUDING:YISHIXIANFAHEMINFAZAIDIAOZHENGDUIXIANGHEFANGSHISHANGDECHAYIXING,JUEDINGLEERZHESUOGUIDINGDESHIXIANGBUKENENGWANQUANZHONGDIE;ERSHIDANGXIANFADEJINGSHEN、YUANZEHUOGUIZEYIDANQUELI,MINFADEJINGSHEN、YUANZEHEXIANGGUANGUIZEDOUBIXUYIJUXIANFA,FOUZE,JIANGBEIXUANBUWUXIAOHUOBEIYAOQIUQIANGZHIXIUGAI。

                            三、结语

                            TONGGUOSHANGSHULUNSHUKEZHI,XIANFAYUMINFADEGUANXIBUSHIZIRANXINGCHENGDE,ERSHIXIANFASUOCHUANGJIANDE。WULUNSHIGULUOMAGONGHESHIQIXIANZHIDUISIFADEYINGXIANG,HAISHIJINDAIXIANFADUIXIANFAYUMINFAGUANXIDEQUEREN,DOUHUODETONGYIGEJIBENSHISHI,NEIJIUSHIXIANFACONGLAIDOUBUZHISHIGONGFADEGENBENFA,ZICONGTADANSHENGZHIHOU,JIUYIZHIZUOWEISIFAHUOMINFADEGENJUFAERCUNZAI。20SHIJIYILAI,BANSUIXIANFAZAISHIJIEDEBOXING,YIXIEGUOJIADEZHENGZHILIXIANGHEXIANSHIDECHAYIDAOZHILEXIANFASHIJIEDEFUZADUOBIAN,YEDAOZHIXIANFAJIBENGONGNENGHEDIAOZHENGLINGYUDEBIANHUA。XIANFASUOZUNCONGDEGONGQUANLIYUSIQUANLIDEYANGEFANGXIANBEITUPO,GONGFAYUSIFADEJIEXIANYEKAISHIBIANDEMOHUNANBIAN。XIANFADEZHONGDABIANHUAZHIJIEDAILAIXIANFAYUMINFAGUANXIYANJIN。ZAIZONGTISHANGJIANG,20SHIJIMINFADEFAZHANFANGXIANGJIYUXIANFADEZHIYIN,HUOZHESHUO,20SHIJISHIJIEXIANFADEFAZHANDAILAILEMINFASHIJIEDEJUDABIANGE。DUICIYIWENTI,NILINGZHEWENZHUANTITAOLUN。

                            CANKAOWENXIAN

                            [1][古罗马]优士丁尼.法学阶梯[M].徐国栋,译,北京:中国政法大学出版社,1999:17.
                            [2] [英]巴里·尼古拉斯.罗马法概论[M],黄风,译,北京:法律出版社,2000:16.
                            [3] [意]弗朗切斯科·德·马尔蒂诺.罗马政制史(第1卷)[M].薛军,译,北京:北京大学出版社2009.
                            [4] [意]朱塞佩·格罗索.罗马法史[M].黄风,译,北京:中国政法大学出版社,2009:80.
                            [5][意]弗朗切斯科·德·马尔蒂诺.罗马政制史(第1卷)[M],薛军,译,北京:北京大学出版社2009:345.
                            [6][英]巴里·尼古拉斯.罗马法概论[M].黄风,译,北京:法律出版社.2000:15.
                            [7] [英]哈耶克.自由秩序原理(上)[M].邓正来,译,北京:北京三联书店1997:209.
                            [8] [意]彼德罗·彭梵得.罗马法教科书[M].黄风,译,北京:中国政法大学出版社2005:14.
                            [9] [英]迈克尔·奥克肖特.政治思想史[M].秦传安,译,上海:上海财经大学出版社2012:168.
                            [10] [德]奥特多尔·蒙森.罗马史[M].李稼年,译,上海:商务印书馆,2015.
                            [11] [古罗马西塞罗.论共和国[M].王焕生,译,上海:上海人民出版社,2006:183.
                            [12] [德]格奥尔格·耶里内克.《人权与公民权利宣言》——现代宪法史论[M].李锦辉,译,上海:商务印书馆,2013:29.
                            [13] [美]约瑟夫·斯托里.美国宪法评注[M].毛国权,译,上海:上海三联书店,2006:135.
                            [14] 吴传颐.近代欧陆民法之演进:从拿破仑法典到苏联民法[M].独立出版社,1945:26.
                            [15] [法]乔治·勒费弗尔.拿破仑时代(上卷)[M].河北师大外语系翻译组译,上海:商务印书馆,1978:151.
                          星云棋牌官网下载   [16] [奥]凯尔森.法与国家的一般理论[M].沈宗灵,译,上海:商务印书馆,2013:235.

                            ZHUSHI

                            1 民法学界与宪法学界的学术论争,肇始于2005年我国《物权法草案》公布时引起的宪法问题之争,进而转进为宪法与民法的关系之争。关系之争以民法学人对既有的宪法与民法的关系论(即宪法与民法是根本法与普通法、母法与子法的关系)的质疑开端,即一些民法学者从扞卫民法的地位和独立性的立场,否定了民法与宪法之间似乎已成通说或定论的关系论,进而提出了民法与宪法关系的虚假论(即宪法与民法实际上没有任何关系)和一种新的宪法与民法的关系论(即民法是根本法,宪法是一般法;民法是母法,宪法是子法)。于是,引起了宪法学者的反驳。这场论争的线索,可参见董书萍:《宪民界分论》,中国人民公安大学出版社2012年版,第14—19页。
                            2国内外学界对古罗马民法(Civil law)这一概念往往在两种意义上使用,一是指古罗马市民法;二是专指罗马法中的私法。因前者本身包含了后世被称为宪法的公法内容,所以,本文在论及古罗马时期宪制与民法的关系时,民法概念所指的是罗马私法,而非与万民法相对的市民法。
                            3[意]皮朗杰罗·卡塔拉诺:《对罗马公法的运用:从卢梭的<社会契约论>到德·马尔蒂诺<罗马政制史>》,转引自[意]弗朗切斯科·德·马尔蒂诺:《罗马政制史》第1卷,薛军译,北京大学出版社2009年版,第5页。
                            4其根据是,在19世纪以来的法国宪法典以不同的程度和方式重申了《人权宣言》的宪法效力,如1852年《宪法》第1条直接宣布:“本宪法重申、确认和保障一七八九年所宣布的伟大原则,并将之作为法兰西人公共权利的基础。”
                            5前者如《宪法》第一篇规定:“立法机关不得制定侵犯或者阻碍行使本编中保障的自然权利和公民权利的任何法律。但行使自由不得损害他人权利,也不得损害公共安全。”后者如《宪法》第一篇规定:“宪法保障各种财产的不可侵犯性。若经合法认定的公共需要必须牺牲财产,宪法保障事先给予公正的补偿。”“宪法保障依据法律确定的方式对已经进行的和将要进行的财产转让行为。”宪法在第二篇第7条规定:“法律仅把婚姻视为民事契约。”
                            61795年法国《共和三年宪法》中的“人和公民的权利和义务宣言”除了重申1793年宪法中宣告的私权原则以外,也对私权行为有所限制,例如义务部分第8条规定:“土地的耕作、各种产品、任何劳动工具,以及整个社会秩序,都取决于财产的维护。”
                            7《法国民法典》第146条:“未经合意不得成立婚姻。”第1134条的规定:“依法成立的契约,在缔结契约的当事人之间有相当于法律的效力。”依法成立的契约,“仅依当事人相互的同意或法律规定的原因取消之”。第1134条:“解释契约时,应寻求缔约当事人的共同意思,而不拘泥于文字。”
                            8《法国民法典》第537条:“除法律规定的限制外,私人得自由处分属于其所有的财产。”第544条:“所有权是对于物有绝对无限制地使用、收益及处分的权利,但法令所禁止的使用不在此限。”第545条:“任何人不得被强制出让其所有权;但因公用,且受公正并事前的补偿时,不在此限。”

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