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                          我国适用应收账款质押制度的问题与对策

                          时间:2019-02-06 来源:法制博览 作者:魏杰 本文字数:3236字

                            摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 文章概述了应收账款质押相关理论,阐述了在我国使用过程中存在的问题,最后提出了有效的使用途径。

                            关键词: 应收账款质押制度; 适用研究; 界定;

                            一、引言

                            YIZHIYILAI,YINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYACHENGWEISHEHUIGEJIETANTAODEZHUYAONEIRONG,GUANYUQUANLIZHIYAFANWEIZHENGYIPODUO。SUIRANWOGUOZAI2007NIANTONGGUOLE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOWUQUANFA》,DANSHIGAIFABINGMEIYOUYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAZHIDUSHIYONGFANWEIJINXINGQUANFANGWEIDETANTAO,SHIDEYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAZHIDUZAISHEZHIGUOCHENGZHONGCUNZAIGEZHONGGEYANGDEWENTI,WULUNSHIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANDEFALVWAIYAN。HAISHIZAITONGZHIZHAIWUDISANRENWENTISHANGBINGMEIYOUMINGQUETANTAO。YINCI,YINGGAICHONGFENFAHUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAZUOYONG,JIEJUEWOGUOXIANCUNDEZHONGXIAOQIYERONGZIWENTI,XIANJIEDUANZHENDUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAZHIDUZAIWOGUOSHIYONGJINXINGTANJIU,JUYOUZHIGUANZHONGYAODEXIANSHIYIYI。

                            二、应收账款质押相关理论

                            (一)应收账款界定

                            ZHANZAIHUIJIXUELINGYUDUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANNEIRONGJINXINGJIEDING,ZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANG,YINGSHOUZHANGKUANBINGMEIYOUMINGQUEDEFALVNEIHAN。YINGSHOUZHANGKUANSHIZHITIGONGFUWUHUOWUHUOZHESHISHESHIHUODEXIANGGUANYIWURENFUKUANDEQUANLI,ZHUYAOSHIDUIXIANYOUHUOZHESHIWEILAIDEJINQIANZHAIQUANJINXINGFENXI,ZAICIGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDESHOUYI,RUGUOSHIYINWEIPIAOJUHUOZHESHIQITAYOUJIAZHENGQUANCHANSHENGDE,BINGBUBAOKUOZAINEI。CIWAI,ZAIJINXINGSHOUZHANGKUANHANYIJIEDINGGUOCHENGZHONG,BIXUYAOKAOLVDAOZHAIQUANDEXIANGGUANNEIRONG,TASHIYIWUQUANFAWEIBIAOZHUN,YAOYANGEDETANTAO,YINGSHOUZHANGKUANZAIQUANLIZHIYAHEDONGCHANZHIQUANLIANGGECENGMIANDENEIRONG。DUIYUQUANLIZHIYALAISHUO,TAKENENGZHISHIYONGYUDONGCHANZHIQUAN。RANER,TABINGMEIYOUDUIZHIQUANJINXINGMINGQUEDEMIAOSHU,ZHANZAIDONGCHANZHIQUANFANWEINEI,DUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYADINGYISHI。DUIYUZHAIQUANRENLAISHUO,TAZHIYOUYIDINGDEYOUQUANCHUFEN,BINGMEIYOUJIANGYINGSHOUZHANGKUANCHUZHIJIQITAZHAIWUREN。ZAIJINXINGXINDAIZHENGXINJIGOUDENGJISHI,KENENGWEIZHAIQUANTIGONGYOUXIAODEDANBAO,ZHEISHIZHAIWURENZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGBIXUYAOLVXINGYIWU。FANZHI,RUGUOBINGMEIYOULVXINGYIWU,YINGGAITONGGUOFALVNEIRONGJINXINGBIANMAIHUOZHESHIZHEJIA[1]。

                            (二)应收账款质押与动产质押的区别及其实践意义

                            ZAIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAHEDONGCHANZHIYAQUBIEFENXISHI,LIANGZHEZAICHUZHIZIGEYIZHISHOUDAOGUANGFANDEZHENGYI,YOUYUYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYA,TAYOUZISHENDETEDIAN。YIFANGMIAN,ZAISHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONG,TAHUIZAIWUXINGZHONGZENGJIAZHIZAOQUANRENDEFENGXIAN。LINGYIFANGMIAN,YINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAGENGYOUYIDINGDETESHUXING,ZHEIHECHUANTONGYIYISHANGDEDONGCHANZHIYAXIANGBISHIQIANCHAWANBIEDE。ZHEIJIUYIWEIZHE,ZAIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAGUOCHENGZHONG,YAOKAOLVDAOXIANGGUANDEDONGCHANZHIYAFANWEI,RANERXIANYOUDEYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYABINGMEIYOUDUIDONGCHANZHIYADENEIRONGJINXINGGUIDING,HUSHIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANDEDINGYI,YINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHUYAOSHIDUIXIANZAIHUOZHESHIWEILAICHIYOUDEJINQIANZHAIQUANSHOUYIJINXINGFENXI。RUGUODUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANKUANXIANGHUAFENTAZHUYAOYOULIANGGENEIRONG,DIYI,JIUSHIXIANYOUDEYINGSHOUZHANGKUANKUANXIANG。DIER,JIUSHIWEILAIDEYINGSHOUZHANGKUANKUANXIANG。ZAIJINXINGLIANGZHEFENXISHI,YAOKAOLVDAOQUANLIRENDEJIEXIAN,TAZHUYAOSHIYOUYULVXINGHETONGERQUDEDE,KEYIXIANGTEDINGDEZHAIWURENSUOQUJINQIANZHAIQUAN。RANER,DUIYUWEILAIDEYINGSHOUZHANGKUANKUANXIANGLAISHUO。TASHIZAIWEILAICHIYOUDEZHEISHIBINGMEIYOUQIANDINGXIANGYINGDEHETONG。ZHEIHEYUQIHETONGFADENEIRONGYESHIBUTONGDE,YINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAJUYOUDUTEDEGONGSHIZHI。YINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAQUANLIJUYOUYIDINGDEFENGXIANXING,YOUQISHIDUIYUZHONGXIAOQIYELAISHUO,TAMENZAIRONGZIGUOCHENGZHONG,BUKEBIMIANHUICUNZAIRONGZINAN、RONGZIFENGXIANDADENGYIXILIEDEWENTI,WEILEGENGHAODEJIHUOXIANYOUDESHICHANGZIJIN,ZHEISHIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYABIXUYAOYIWUQUANSHUXINGWEIBIAOZHI,HEQITADEZHAIQUANXIANGBI,TAJUYOUJIAOXIAODEPAITAXING[2]。

                            三、应收账款质押制度在我国适用中的问题

                            (一)应收账款质权的设立和公示方法

                            目前,应收账款质押在使用过程中存在各种各样的问题。首先,应收账款在质权设立和公式方法中存在一定的弊端,债权设置问题和债权转让相比,它较为复杂,如果不采取有效的方式,很难明确法律关系。首先,必须要对法律关系进行明确,然而在实际使用过程中不能明确法律关系。其次,还需要使用书面表达的方式,这是一种辅助方式,要严格地参照我国物权法的相关内容,在进行应收款项质押过程中要严格地参照合同登记的内容,不能私自设立,要保护出质人,这是物权公示的基本特点,在最大范围内保证公平交易。目前,在现有的经济背景之下,应该充分发挥登记生效的科学性,如果涉及到第三人,应该及时的排除。值得注意的是,在进行相关质权内容设立过程中,必须要及时的通知第三人,这时才能对质权设立条件进行分析,严格地参照合同法内容,充分发挥质权效用。尤其是在应收账款质押过程中,并没有给出详细的规定,这是应收账款制度。这和应收账款制度设立存在一定的出入,如果没有及时告通知,第三人会出现第三人善意还款处置人恶意收款等情况。在进行质权设立和债权转让过程中,这时需要考虑到质权在设立过程中的条件和权威性,严格的履行第三债务人的义务。最后,在进行应收账款质押登记过程中,要采取有效的登记方式,考虑信贷征信系统花费的时间,减轻中小企业出资人的负担,为了在最大范围内完成筹资工作,在有效时间内保证应收账款质押制度顺利实施,需要考虑到出资人的负担,为了保证周期更长,除此之外,要严格地参照信贷机构实质审查法相关的内容,完善登记机构、承担审查义务、充分发挥原有的职责、实现公共管理[3]。
                           

                          我国适用应收账款质押制度的问题与对策
                           

                            (二)应收账款质权的实现

                          星云棋牌官网下载   XIANJIEDUAN,ZAIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIQUANSHIXIANGUOCHENGZHONGYAOKAOLVDAOTAZISHENCUNZAIDEMAODUNHEZHENGYI。DUIYUYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYALAISHUO,YAOKAOLVDAOTAZAIFALVCENGMIANSUOSHEJIDAODEZHUTINEIRONG,MINGQUEZHAIQUANZHAIWULIANXI。ZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANG,TAJUBEIQUANLISHANGDEQUANLITEDIAN,YINGGAIKAOLVDAOXIANYOUYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYA。YIFANGMIAN,ZAIJINXINGYINGSHOUZHANGKUANSHELISHIYAOJISHIDETONGZHIDISANZHAIWURENGENJUCHUXIANXUJIACHUZHIQINGKUANG,YAOKAOLVDAOFEIZHENGQUANHUADETEZHENG,ZAICHUZHIGUOCHENGZHONGYAOJIJIDIJIANGDISHENCHANANDU,YOUQISHIXIANGYINGDEDENGJIJIGOU,YAOZUOHAOSHIZHIXINGSHENCHAGONGZUO,ZAIDUOZHONGYUANYINZHIXIA,WEILEJIANGDICHUZHIRENPIANQUDANBAODEKENENGXING,LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZAIYUANYOUDEHETONGQUANLIFANWEIZHINEIYAOMINGQUEDISANZHAIWURENDEZHIZEKEYIJISHIDIXIANGZHIQUANRENJINXINGKANGBIAN,SUIZHEWOGUOWUQUANFABUDUANSHISHI,RANER,QUEMEIYOUDUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIQUANSHIXIANZUOCHUMINGQUEDEGUIDING。ZAISHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONG,ZAIJINXINGZHIQUANSHIXIANGUOCHENGZHONG,BUNENGDANCHUNDIYILAIDISANRENDEXINYU。ZHENDUIHAIKUANCUOSHIJINXINGMINGQUE,YEJIUYIWEIZHEDISANRENRUGUOZAIGUIDINGSHIJIANNEIMEINENGHAIKUAN,XUYAOWANCHENGFUZACHENGXUDEJUZHENGGONGZUO,CHONGFENFAHUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZISHENJIAZHI,BIMIANYINGSHOUKUANXIANGZAIZHIYAZHIDUSHISHIGUOCHENGCUNZAIDEHEZHUZHIXIANGWEIBEIXIANXIANG,RUGUOYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZAISHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONGYOUXIANYUZHUZHAIQUAN,YAOCANZHAOWUQUANFADENEIRONG,XIANJIEDUAN,ZAIWUQUANFASHISHIGUOCHENGZHONG,XUYAOKAOLVDAOZHIQUANRENHECHUZHIRENZHIJIANDEYUEDING,BIXUYAODUITIQIANQINGCHANGZHAIWUDENEIRONGJINXINGFENXI,SHEZHIXIANGYINGDEYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIDU。RUGUOZHANZAICHUZHIRENCENGMIANLAIKAN,MEIYOULVXINGXIANGGUANDEHETONGYIWU,YINGSHOUZHANGKUANZAIDAOQIZHIQIANMEIYOUSHOUHUI,ZHEISHI,ZHIQUANRENWEILEBIMIANYANQI,KEYIXIANGCHUZHIRENSUSONG,ZAIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANDAOQIZHIHOU,KEYIZHIJIEDEQISUDISANRENJIANGDILVXINGCHENGBEN[4]。

                            四、应收账款质押制度在我国适用的有效路径

                            (一)应收账款质押内容和外延合法化

                          星云棋牌官网下载   WEILEGENGHAODIZAIWOGUOSHIYONGYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAZHIDU,BIXUYAODUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYANEIHANHEWAIYANJINXINGQUEDING。ZHENDUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANFANWEI,MEIYOUZUOCHUJUTIGUIDINGDEJINGQUSHOUFEIQUAN、YIYUANSHOUFEIQUANDENGSHIFOUZUOWEIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANDEWAIYANYECUNZAIYIDINGDEZHENGYI。ZHEISHIYINGGAICHONGFENFAHUIYINXINGDEZUOYONG,YAOYIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANNEIHANWAIYANHUAWEIQIJI,ZHAODAOXINXINGSHOUFEIBIAOZHUN,LIRU:KEYISHOUQUXIANGGUANDEJINGQUFEIYONG、JUMINSHUIFEI、SHUIDIANDENG。KUODARONGZIQUDAO,ZHENDUIYINGSHOUKUANXIANGSHIYONGDEFANWEIZUOCHUXIANGXIDEGUIDING。

                            (二)区分应收账款的类型

                          星云棋牌官网下载   DUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANDELEIXINGJINXINGQUFEN,CAIQUYOUXIAODEFANGSHI,ZAIMINGQUEDEFANWEINEI,QUEBAOCHUZHIWEIHUWUQUANFAXIANGGUANDENEIRONG。ZAIJINRONGSHIWUZUOYONGZHONG,WEILEGENGHAODETUXIANYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAFALV,XUYAODUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANDEGAINIANHEWAIYANCAIQUXIAODEFANGSHIJINXINGQUEREN,WEIWOGUOYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYASHIYONGTIGONGLIANGHAODEYUNXINGHUANJING。CIWAI,WANSHANYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYADEGONGSHI、TONGZHIDISANZHAIWURENZHIDUYIJIXIANGGUANDEYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYASHIXIANDEZHIDU。

                            五、结语

                          星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,GENJU《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOWUQUANFA》XIANGGUANGUIDING,YINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAXUYAOSHELISHUMIANZHIYAHETONG,BINGZAIDENGJIJIGOUJINXINGDENGJI。YINGSHOUZHANGKUANZAIZHIYASHELISHIXUYAOCHUSHIYAOJIAN。YOUQISHIZAIZHIQUANSHIXIANHETONGZHISHI,DISANZHAIWURENDENGFANGMIANCUNZAIYIDINGDEWENTI,WUFATUXIANYINGSHOUZHANGKUANDEZHIYAGONGNENG。YINCI,BIXUYAODUIYINGSHOUZHANGKUANZHIYAZHIDUZAIWOGUODESHIYONGJINXINGQUANMIANTANJIU。

                            参考文献

                            [1]王乐兵.“物权编”与“合同编”体系化视角下的应收账款质押制度重构[J].法学家,2019(3):96-109.
                            [2]罗欢平.封闭回款协议与应收账款质押之比较——兼论应收账款质押制度的完善[J].征信,2019(4):19-22.
                            [3] 陈福录.从银行视角试析应收账款质押的配套制度缺失及其对策[J].现代商业银行导刊,2019(10):50-55.
                            [4]张运战.物权法视野下应收账款质押的法律问题探究[J].法制博览,2019(26):87-88.

                            魏杰.应收账款质押制度在我国的适用研究[J].法制博览,2020(03):64-65.
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