星云棋牌官网下载

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                              学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 民商法论文

                              数据权属确定的困境、成因及对策

                              时间:2019-01-06 来源:东方法学 作者:韩旭至 本文字数:17055字

                                摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 数据确权存在多种理论,首先可置于既有制度规范中考察。这可能涉及物权法、合同法、知识产权法、竞争法、个人信息保护法等诸多规范。然而,无论是单独适用还是综合适用,既有规范均无法充分解答数据权属、保护与利用的问题。其次,从数据新型权利理论来看,亦未能实现数据确权。该类理论多建立在劳动赋权的简单论证之上,并未深入研究数据权利的生产机制,以致数据权利主体、客体均难以判定,且无法回应实践中的数据治理问题。数据确权的困境植根于以意志论、利益论为代表的传统权利理论无法解释新的数据问题。通过对数据权利生产机制考察发现,算法在数据价值与数据权利的形成中处于核心地位。因此,可通过算法规制反向实现数据确权。

                                关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 数据; 非个人数据; 数据权利; 新型权利; 个人信息;

                                Abstract: There are many theories about data right, which can be first examined in existing institutional norms. It may involve the regulation of Property Law, Contract Law, Intellectual Property Law, Competition Law, and Personal Information Protection Law. However, whether it is applied separately or comprehensively, neither the norms can fully answer the questions of data ownership, protection and utilization. Secondly, from the perspective of the new data right theory, it is not perfect. This kind of theory is based on the simple argumentation of labor empowerment. The production mechanism of data right has not been carefully studied, so that the subject and object of data right are difficult to judge and data right cannot respond to data governance problems. The analysis shows that dilemmas of data right is rooted in the traditional rights theory represented by the theory of will and interest cannot explain the new data problem. Through the data right production mechanism, algorithm is at the core of data value and data right. Therefore, Data right can be achieved through algorithmic regulation.

                                Keyword:星云棋牌官网下载 data; non-personal data; data right; new rights; personal information;

                                SHUJUQUANLIBUTONGYUSHUJUBAOHU。ZAIOUMEIYUJINGXIA,SHUJUBAOHUTEZHIGERENXINXIBAOHU。ERZAIZHONGGUOYUJINGZHONG,JIYU《MINFAZONGZE》DI111TIAOYUDI127TIAODUIGERENXINXIYUSHUJUDEQUFEN,BIZHETANTAODESHUJUQUANLIYUSHUJUQUEQUANJUNXIANYUFEIGERENSHUJUDEQUANSHUWENTI,SUIYOUSUOSHEJIDANBINGBUBAOHANGERENXINXIBAOHUDEWENTI。DANGQIAN,GUOJIAYIDUOCITICHUSHUJUQUEQUANDEYAOQIU。《“SHISANWU”GUOJIAXINXIHUAGUIHUA》JIZHICHUJIAKUAITUIDONG“SHUJUQUANSHU、SHUJUGUANLI”DELIFA。DISHISANJIEQUANGUORENDAHUIYIQIJIAN,QUANGUORENDACAIJINGWEITICHUWANSHAN“SHUJUQUANSHU、QUANLI、JIAOYIDENGGUIZE”。DANGDESHIJIUDAQIJIAN,XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIGENGSHIMINGQUETICHU“ZHIDINGSHUJUZIYUANQUEQUAN、KAIFANG、LIUTONG、JIAOYIXIANGGUANZHIDU,WANSHANSHUJUCHANQUANBAOHUZHIDU”DEYAOQIU。

                                然而,立法却一直未对数据权属作出正面回应。《民法总则》第127条实质完全回避了这一问题。从数据权利的司法实践来看,亦面临巨大挑战。法谚有云“无救济则无权利”。数据权实质未获法院的直接认可,常通过在个案中激活《反不正当竞争法》一般条款的特殊渠道获得救济,其能否成为一项新权利尚存疑问。新型权利的形成可体现为从个案裁判到司法解释,再到法律规定的“三部曲”。1显现于个案裁判中的数据确权诉求仍需进行仔细辨析。根据既有的理论与实践,适用既有规范与创设数据新型权利是关于数据权属的两类主张。由这两类主张出发,结合既有案例可知,当前数据确权面临多重困境。
                               

                              数据权属确定的困境、成因及对策
                               

                                一、既有规范适用的类型及缺陷

                                CONGXINXINGQUANLISHENGCHANDEQIANTILAIKAN,XUGENJUJIYOUGUIFANDUISHUJUQUEQUANJINXINGZIXIKAOCHA,CONGERYUMOUXIE“JINJUYOUMIAOSHUXINGYIYI、GEANJIAZHI,ERBUJUYOUPUBIANYIYI”DEQUANLISUQIUXIANGQUBIE。2YOUCI,SHUJUQUANCAIBUZHIYULUNWEIYIJUKOUHAO,NAOCHUSHUJUSHIDAI“JIEWENQUAN”DEXIAOHUA。RUOJIYOUZHIDUGUIFANNENGJIEJUESHIJIANZHONGSUOTICHUDESHUJUQUANSHU、BAOHUYULIYONGDEWENTI,SHUJUQUEQUANBIANSHIYIGEWEIMINGTI。GENJUSUOSHIYONGGUIFANSUOSHUDEFALVBUMENJINXINGHUAFEN,SHIWUZHONGZHUYAOCUNZAISHIYONGWUQUANFA、HETONGFA、ZHISHICHANQUANFA、JINGZHENGFA、GERENXINXIBAOHUFA、ZONGHESHIYONGJIYOUGUIFANDENGLIUZHONGLEIXING。XIANGYINGDI,CONGZHEIXIEJIYOUZHIDUGUIFANCHUFA,YEYOUZHONGDUOXUESHUOSHITUYI“JIUPINGZHUANGXINJIU”DEXINGSHIJIANGSHUJUQUANLISUQIUNARUQIZHONG。RANER,YOUYUJIYOUZHIDUKUANGJIAYUANYUGONGSHANGYESHIDAIDELIFA,SHIWULIHUIYINGDASHUJUSHIDAIDEWENTI,XIANGGUANXUESHUOYIWUFAHANGAIXINXINGDESHUJUQUEQUANXUYAO,WEINENGHUIDASHIJIANZHONGYONGXIANDENANTI。

                                (一)适用物权法

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SHIYONGWUQUANFAJIANGSHOUXIANSHEJISHUJUSHUXINGDEPANDUAN。YIFANGMIAN,RUOJIANGZHIPANDUANWEIGONGYOUPIN,ZESHUJUGONGYOU。SHANGHAISHISHUJUJIAOYIZHONGXIN《LIUTONGSHUJUCHULIZHUNZE》JIZHUYIDAOLE“SHUJUJUYOUSHEHUIXING、GONGGONGXING”。YOUXUEZHELIZUYUSHUJUDEGONGGONGXING,RENWEIGONGGONGLINGYUSHISHUJUQUANCUNZAIDEJICHU。YOUQISHISHEJIGONGQUANLIYUNXINGDEQINGXINGSHI,SHUJUSHI“WANGLUOSHEHUIZHONGDEGONGWU”。3LINGYIFANGMIAN,RUOJIANGSHUJUPANDUANWEIKESIYOUDEKETI,ZEKENENGCUNZAIYIZHONGSHUJUSUOYOUQUAN,YOUQISHIGERENDUIGERENSHUJUDESUOYOUQUAN。4OUMENG《YIBANSHUJUBAOHUTIAOLI》XUYANDI68TIAOJICAIQULEZHEIYILILUN。CIWAI,MEIGUO《TONGYIJISUANJIXINXIJIAOYIFA》YIDUIXINXICAICHANQUANZUOCHULEGUIDING。WOGUOMUQIANSHUJUYIYIBEIRENZUOYIZHONGJIAOYIBIAODEJINXINGJIAOYI。

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                                (二)适用合同法

                                SHIJIANZHONGSUIZHESHUJUJIAOYIERCHUXIANDESHUJUFUWUHETONGSHUYUWUMINGHETONG,DANGRANKESHIYONGHETONGFA。DUICI,YOUXUEZHEZHUZHANG,ZHAIFAZUYIJIEJUEGUANYUSHUJUDEZHENGYI。QICONGGENBENSHANGFOUDINGSHUJUDEQUANLIKETIDIWEI,TONGSHIFOUDINGSHUJUDECAICHANXING,ZHUZHANGSHUJUSHIZHONGLIDEGONGJU,QIESHUJUJIAZHISHOUZHIYUNEIRONG。7

                              星云棋牌官网下载   RANER,SHIYONGHETONGFADEQUEXIANZAIYU,WANQUANHUSHILESHUJUJIAOYIDEKETI。SUIZHUYIDAOLESHUJUDEFEIDULIXINGYUFEITEDINGXING,DANQUEWUFADUISHUJUZICHANJINXINGYOUXIAOJIESHI。DASHUJUJIAOYIQIANGDIAODEYESHIQIZHANGWODEKEJIAOYISHUJU,ERFEIJIAOYIBENSHEN。ZAIZICHANSHOUGOUYUPOCHANZHONGZUDENGANJIANZHONGSHUJUFUWUHETONGNANYIJIESHIGENGSHIKEJIANYIBAN。ZAIPOCHANANJIANZHONG,RUOZHIYISHUJUFUWUHETONGJINXINGPANDUAN,ZEJIANGWUFADUIXIANGGUANSHUJUJINXINGCHUZHI。ZAIZICHANSHOUGOUANJIANZHONG,WANGWANGYECUNZAIGONGXIANGSHUJUDEYUANWANG。RU2018NIANWEIZHENGHE“MOBAIDANCHE”ZHANGWODEHAILIANGSHUJUZIYUAN,“MEITUAN”JIDUIQIJINXINGLESHOUGOU。GENGWEIZHONGYAODESHI,HETONGXIANGDUIXINGYUANZEXIA,SHIWULIJIEJUESHIJIANZHONGDUOFADEDISANRENFEIFALIYONGSHUJUWENTI。“XINLANGSUMAIMAIAN”YISHENFAYUANJIZHICHUJINPING《KAIFAZHEXIEYI》WUFAYUESHUFEIMAIMAIYONGHU,RENGXUQUDEYONGHUSHOUQUAN。8CIWAI,RUOFOUDINGSHUJUDEQUANLIKETIDIWEI,HAIJIANGDAOZHISHUJUDEZHANYOUBAOHUSHOUCHUCHIQIJIANXIANZHI、CHUNCUIJINGJISUNSHIDEBAOHUKUNNAN、WUFATIQIZHIXINGYIYI、WUFAXINGSHIPOCHANQUHUIQUAN、BULIYUJINXINGDANBAORONGZIDENGWENTI。

                                (三)适用知识产权法

                                ZHEZUOQUAN、SHANGYEMIMI、SHUJUKUBAOHUSHISHIYONGZHISHICHANQUANFABAOHUSHUJUDESANLEIYIJU。DIYI,SHUJUKEGENJU《ZHEZUOQUANFA》SHOUBAOHU。ZAIZAOQISHUJUZHENGYIZHONG,QIYEDUOYIZHEZUOQUANQINQUANWEIYOUQISU。RU“HONGLITONGSUXINSANXUNAN”JIWEIQINFANJISUANJIRUANJIANZHEZUOQUANJIUFEN,FAYUANRENDINGHONGLITONGGONGSIDESHUJUFENXISHUYUHUIBIANZUOPINSHOUBAOHU。9DUICI,YOUXUEZHERENWEISHUJUSHIZHEZUOQUANKETI,YEYOUXUEZHERENWEISHUYULINJIEQUANKETI。10DIER,SHUJUHAIKENENGSHUYUSHANGYEMIMI。GENJU《MINFATONGZE》DI123TIAODEGUIDING,SHANGYEMIMISHUYUZHISHICHANQUANKETI。ZAI“ANKECHENGSUCHENYOUKEJIAN”“WANLIANWANGLUOSUZHOUHUIMINAN”DENGANJIANZHONG,FAYUANJUNKENDINGLERENQUNXINXISHUJUKUSHUYUSHANGYEMIMI。11“XINLANGSUMAIMAIAN”ZHONGXINLANGYITONGGUOHETONGYUEDINGJIANGXIANGGUANSHUJUJIEDINGWEISHANGYEMIMI。122019NIAN《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》XIUDINGHOU,JIZENGJIALEDIANZIQINRUDEQINQUANSHOUDUAN,QIEJIANGSHANGYEMIMIDEFANWEIZAIJISHUXINXIHEJINGYINGXINXIWAIJIALE“DENG”ZI。ZHEIKANSIJIEJUELEYISHANGYEMIMIBAOHUSHUJUDEFALVZHANGAI。DISAN,TEDINGDESHUJUKUSHOUFALVBAOHU。SUIRANWOGUOZANWEIJIANLISHUJUKUBAOHUZHIDU,DANGENJUOUMENG《GUANYUSHUJUKUFALVBAOHUDEZHILING》,SHUJUZHIZUORENDUISUIBUFUHEZHEZUOQUANBAOHUYAOQIU,DANJINGXITONGYOUXUANPAIDESHUJUHUOSHUJUJIYIYOUWEIQI15NIANDEZHUANYOUCAICHANQUAN。

                                RANER,SHIYONGZHISHICHANQUANFADEQUEXIANZAIYU,QICUNZAIFEICHANGDADEJUXIANXING,JIZHEZUOQUANXIANYUHUIBIANSHUJU,SHANGYEMIMIXIANYUMIMISHUJU,SHUJUQUANXIANYUJIEGOUHUASHUJU。SHOUXIAN,DANCHUNDESHUJUYUZUOPINHAISHICUNZAIXIANZHEQUBIE。CHENGRUXUEZHELIAIJUNDEFENXI,SHUJUBUJUDUCHUANGXING、QIXIANXING、FADINGXINGDEZHISHICHANQUANBIYAOTEZHENG,YEBUBIRANSHIZHILILAODONGCHENGGUO,GENGBUXUJINGGUOZHISHICHANQUANQUDEDEXIANGGUANFADINGCHENGXU。13YINCI,SHUJUYINANYISHIXIANZHISHICHANQUANSHANGDELONGDUANHEDUZHAN。CIWAI,YOUYU《ZHUANLIFA》MINGQUEGUIDINGZHILIHUODONGDEGUIZEHEFANGFABUJUKEZHUANLIXING,DASHUJUXIANGGUANSUANFAYIWUFAQUDEZHUANLIBAOHU。YOUCIKEJIAN,YIZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUSHUJUSHIYONGXIAOGUOBUJIA,CUNZAIJUDADEJUXIANXING。ZAI“DAZHONGDIANPINGSUAIBANGDIYIAN”ZHONG,FAYUANRENWEI,SHEANSHUJUZHENGTIBUGOUCHENGHUIBIANZUOPIN,QIEDIANPINGSHUJUDEZHEZUOQUANYINGYOUPINGTAIYUYONGHUGONGYOU,PINGTAIBUKEDANDUQISU。14QICI,SHUJUBUDENGYUMIMI,QIKEWEIDUORENGONGXIANG,YIBUJUDUZHANTEZHENG。DANGE、SHAOLIANGDESHUJUYIBUBIRANFUHESHANGYEMIMIDEJIAZHIYAOJIAN。GUIGENDAODISHANGYEMIMISHUOJINTIGONGJINGZHENGFASHANGDEFAYIBAOHU,BUJUPAITAXIAOLI,WUFAJIEJUESHIJIANZHONGFENFANFUZADESHUJUQINHAIWENTI。RUTONGGUOPACHONGZHUAQUGONGKAISHUJU、TONGGUOSUANFAHAIYUANYUANSHISHUJU、GERENFEIFAHUOQUQIYESHUJUDENGWENTITONGGUOSHANGYEMIMIDEJIAODUJUNWUFAJIEJUE。CIWAI,JIANGSHUJUNARUSHANGYEMIMIJIANGZHIJIEDAOZHI《MINFAZONGZE》DI123TIAOYUDI127TIAODECHONGTU,RUOSHUJUSHUYUDI123TIAOZHONGDESHANGYEMIMI,DI127TIAODEGUIDINGJIUXIANDEDUOYUQIEHUNLUAN。ZUIHOU,SHUJUKUBAOHUDESHUJUXIANYUYUANCHUANGXINGDEJIEGOUHUASHUJU,QIEYISHUJUKUZHIZUORENDESHIZHIXINGTOURUWEITIAOJIAN,YIWUFAFUGAIWOGUOSHUJUQUANLIDESUQIU。15

                                (四)适用竞争法

                                DANGQIAN,SHIYONGJINGZHENGFABAOHUQIYESHUJUSHISIFASHIWUZHONGJINGCHANGCAIQULUJING。ZHONGDUOANLIJUNCAIQUJIHUOBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGYIBANTIAOKUANDESILUJINXINGCAIPAN。“XINLANGSUMAIMAIAN”ZHONG,ERSHENFAYUANJIZHICHULEHULIANWANGXINGYEZHONGSHIYONG《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》DI2TIAODELIUDAYAOJIAN。16TONGGUODUIXIANGGUANYAOJIANDEFENXI,“TAOBAOSUMEIJINGAN”ZHONGERSHENFAYUANGENGSHIMINGQUEZHICHU,ANSHESHUJUCHANPIN“WUYISHUYUJINGZHENGFAYIYISHANGDECAICHANQUANYI”。17YOUXUEZHERENWEI,YIBANTIAOKUANSHI“YIFENJIYUSIFAJIGUANDESHOUQUANSHU”,WEISHIWUZHONGTONGGUO“CHENGSHIXINYONG”HE“SHANGYEDAODE”PANDUANSHUJUBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGTIGONGLEYIJU。18

                                RANER,SHIYONGJINGZHENGFADEQUEXIANZAIYU,JIHUOBENSHUYUSHIYIGUIDINGDE《FANBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGFA》DI2TIAOJUYOUJIDADEBUQUEDINGXING,LIUDAYAOJIANYIJIANGTONGGUOBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGBAOHUSHUJUQUANYIDEMENJIANDADATIGAO,JIANGWUFASHIXIANWEIHUSHUJUZHIPEIQUANDESUQIU。RU“DAZHONGDIANPINGSUBAIDUAN”ZHONG,FAYUANJIMINGQUEZHICHUCHUSHIBANBENDEBAIDUJINZHUAQUXIANSHISHAOLIANGDAZHONGDIANPINGXINXI,SHANGSHU“SHENDISHAOLIANGSHIYONGLAIZIQITAWANGZHANDEDIANPINGXINXI”BUGOUCHENGQINQUAN,ZHISHIDANGQIHOUDALIANGZHUAQUXINXISHICAIGOUCHENGBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENG。19“BAIDUSUAIBANGDIERAN”ZHONG,ERSHENFAYUANYIQIANGDIAO,SHIYONGTARENSHUJUDEXIANDUSHI“KONGZHIZAIHELIFANWEINEI”QIE“BUDEZAOCHENGSHICHANGTIDAIDEHOUGUO。”20TONGSHI,CONGYUWAIFALAIKAN,JIANLIZAISHUJUZHISHANGDEJINGZHENGFAFAYIYIWEIDEDAOPUBIANRENKE。DUIYUKAIFANGDEWANGLUOSHUJU,ZUZHITARENHUOQUSHUJUSHENZHIFANERKENENGGOUCHENGBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGXINGWEI。LIRU,MEIGUOZHIMINGDE“hiQSULINGYINGAN”ZHONG,hiQJIRENWEILINGYINGZUZHITARENHUOQUQIHUIYUANSHUJUDEMUDEZAIYUJIANGXIANGGUANSHUJUHUOBIHUA,CONGERGOUCHENGBUGONGPINGJINGZHENG。GENJUhiQDEYAOQIU,JIAZHOUBEIBUFAYUANJIFABULEYAOQIULINGYINGYICHUXIANGGUANJISHUCUOSHIDEYUXIANJINLING。21ZONGDELAISHUO,YIBANTIAOKUANDESHIYONGQUJUEYUGEANHENGLIANGDEFEICHANGGUICAOZUO,BUYICHENGWEIYIZHONGTEDINGDEBAOHUMOSHI,FOUZEJIANGYOUSUNSIFADEZHENGDANGXINGHEANDINGXING,GENGYOU“XIANGYIBANTIAOKUANTAOYI”DEWEIXIAN。BUDEBUSHIYONGYIBANTIAOKUANJINXINGCAIPAN,QIAHAOSHUOMINGLEFALVZHIDUGONGJICUNZAIYANZHONGWEIJI,XIANYOUTIXIWUFAHUIYINGSHUJUQUANLIWENTI。

                                (五)适用个人信息保护法

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SUIRANWOGUOBINGWEIJIANLITONGYIDE《GERENXINXIBAOHUFA》,DANGERENXINXIBAOHUFALVTIXIYIJIANCHUXING。《XINGFA》DI253TIAO、《MINFAZONGZE》DI111TIAO、《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》DI29TIAO、《DIANZISHANGWUFA》DI23TIAO、DI25TIAOYIJI《WANGLUOANQUANFA》DISIZHANGDENGSHEJIGERENXINXIFALVBAOHU。ZAISHUJUJIAOYIZHONG,SHANGHAISHISHUJUJIAOYIZHONGXIN《LIUTONGSHUJUCHULIZHUNZE》JIMINGQUEJIANGYINSIGUANLI、SHUJUTOUMING、GAOZHITONGYI、SHIYONGHEFAHEXIANZHIDENGGERENXINXIBAOHUZHUNZENARUQIZHONG。“XINLANGSUMAIMAIAN”GENGSHIQUELILEZHEMINGDESANZHONGSHOUQUANYUANZE,QIANGDIAODISANFANGHUOQUYONGHUXINXIYINGJIANCHI“YONGHUSHOUQUAN”+“PINGTAISHOUQUAN”+“YONGHUSHOUQUAN”SANZHONGSHOUQUANYIJIFUHE“HEFA、ZHENGDANG、BIYAODEYUANZE”。22“TENGXUNSUDOUYINAN”ZHONGFAYUANJIYUANYINZHEIYIYUANZEZUOCHUCAIPAN。23YOUXUEZHERENWEI,TONGGUOGERENSHUJUCAICHANQUANLILUNKESHIXIANSHUJUBAOHU。24SHISHISHANG,SHUJUQUANLIYUGERENXINXIBAOHUQUESHIMIQIEXIANGGUAN。CHENGRUWANGLIMINGJIAOSHOUSUOYAN,GERENXINXISHOUJILIYONGDEGUOCHENGYESHISHUJUCAICHANLIUZHUANDEGUOCHENG。25

                                RANER,SHIYONGGERENXINXIBAOHUFADEQUEXIANZAIYU,JIWEINENGYOUXIAOQUANMIANBAOHUGERENXINXI,YIWUFAHUIYINGFEIGERENSHUJUDEQUANSHUWENTI。SHOUXIAN,ZHILIYUBAOHUGERENXINXIDESANZHONGSHOUQUANYUANZECUNZAINEIBUQUEXIAN。YIFANGMIAN,DUIYUYIQUDEYONGHUTONGYIDANWEIQUDEQIYETONGYIDEXINXISHOUJIXINGWEI,SHIFOUANZHAOGAIYUANZEERJUYOUWEIFAXINGBUWUYIWEN。RU2017NIANHUAWEICENGWEIJINGTENGXUNSHOUQUANERTONGGUOYONGHUDIANJITONGYIDEFANGSHISHOUJIWEIXINLIAOTIANJILUYISHIXIANDINGXIANGTUISONG。LINGYIFANGMIAN,QIYIWEIDUIYONGHUTONGYIDEFANWEIYUQUANXIANZUOJINYIBUXIANZHI。ZAIDEGUO“WhatsAPPAN”ZHONG,FAYUANRENWEIWhatsAPPHUOQUYONGHULIANXIRENXINXIBUJINXUYAOYONGHUDEYOUXIAOTONGYI,GENGXUYAOSUOYOULIANXIRENDESHUMIANTONGYI。26QICI,GERENXINXIBAOHUYUFEIGERENSHUJUBAOHUSHILIANGGEBUTONGDECENGMIAN,FENBIEWEI《MINFAZONGZE》DI111TIAOYUDI127TIAOSUOGUIDING,GESHURENGEQUANBAOHUYUCAICHANQUANBAOHUNEIRONG。QUANGUORENDACAIJINGWEIYIJIANGWANSHAN“SHUJUQUANSHU、QUANLI、JIAOYIDENGGUIZE”YUZAI“GERENXINXIBAOHUFAZHONGGUIFANSHUJUQUANLIDEBAOHU”BINGLIETICHU。JIANGSHUJUQUANLIYUGERENXINXIBAOHUXIANGHUNXIAO,WANQUANWUSHIQIYEDEQUANLISUQIU,WEINENGHUIYINGFEIGERENSHUJUQUANSHUWENTI。SHISHISHANG,WOGUOFAYUANYIYISHIDAOSHUJUQUANLIYUGERENXINXIQUANLICUNZAIQUBIE。“TAOBAOSUMEIJINGAN”ZHONGYISHENFAYUANJIMINGQUEZHICHUJUYOUCAICHANXINGLIYIDEDASHUJUCHANPINYINGSHI“YUWANGLUOYONGHUXINXI、YUANSHIWANGLUOSHUJUWUZHIJIEDUIYINGGUANXIDEYANSHENGSHUJU”。27

                                (六)综合适用既有规范

                              星云棋牌官网下载   YOUYUDANDUSHIYONGMOUYIFALVJUNYOUBUZHOUQUANZHICHU,SHIFOUKEYIZONGHESHIYONGJIYOUGUIFANYIBAOHUSHUJUZHIDEKAOCHA。YOUXUEZHEZHUZHANG,SHUJUSHANGCUNZAIDUOYUANDEQUANYI,JIANJUCAICHANQUAN、RENGEQUAN、GUOJIAZHUQUANSANZHONGSHUXING。28YIYOUXUEZHEJIEZHUZHIDUJINGJIXUESHANG“QUANLISHU”DEGAINIANDUISHUJUSHANGDELIYIJINXINGFENGE,SHITUTONGGUOSHUJUZHEIYI“SHUDIAN”FENGECHURENGEQUAN、CAICHANQUANYIJISHUJUSHANGDEGONGQUANLI。29

                              星云棋牌官网下载   RANER,ZONGHESHIYONGJIYOUGUIFANDEQUEXIANZAIYU,RENGWUFAFUGAISHUJUQUANLIDESUQIU。SHOUXIAN,SHANGWENYIZHICHUSHUJUBUJUWUQUANSHUXING,WUFASHIYONGWUQUANFA。GUANZHUFEIGERENSHUJUQUEQUANDESHUJUQUANLIYUGERENXINXIBAOHUYIFEITONGYIWENTI。HETONGFALUJINGGENGSHIZHIJIEHUIBILEWENTIDESHIZHI,WUFAHUIDASHUJUJIAOYIDEKETISHUXING。QICI,SUIRANZHISHICHANQUANFAHEJINGZHENGFAZAIYIDINGFANWEINEIKEBAOHUSHUJU。DANJIQIYOUXIAN,LIANGZHEXIANGJIAYIWUFASHIXIANDUISHUJUDEZHOUQUANBAOHU。WANGLUOKONGJIANZHONGDALIANGCUNZAIYOUJISUANJIZIDONGZHUAQU、SHENGCHANDEHAILIANGSHUJU,ZHEIXIESHUJUBUJUDUCHUANGXING,BINGWEIBAOMI,YIWEIJIEGOUHUA,WUFAHUODEZHISHICHANQUANFABAOHU。CISHI,QIYEWANGWANGHUITONGGUORobotsXIEYISHENGMINGBUYUNXUPACHONGZHUAQUZHEIXIESHUJU。RANER,RUODISANFANGSHAOLIANGHUOBUFENDIZHUAQUZHEIXIESHUJUJINXINGGONGKAI,GENJUJINGZHENGFAWEIXINGCHENGSHICHANGTIDAIHOUGUO,YIWUFAHUODEJINGZHENGFABAOHU。JIBIANSHIDISANFANGQUANBUZHUAQUZHEIXIESHUJU,ZAIMEIYOUJINGZHENGGUANXIQIEWEIZHUANRANG、GONGKAIXIANGGUANSHUJUZHISHI,JINGZHENGFAYIWULICHULI。ZAICI,TONGYIGESHUJUXINGWEISHEXIANQINQUAN,WUFAZONGHESHIHELEIXINGBUTONGDEFALVGUIFAN。CISHIXINGCHENGDESHIQINGQIUQUANJINGHEGUANXI。RANER,WULUNSHIXUANZENAGEGUIFAN,RUQIANWENSUOSHU,YOUJUNCUNZAIQUEXIAN。ZUIHOU,“QUANLISHU”LILUNYIBANYONGYUJIESHICAICHANQUAN,CONGSHUJU“QUANLISHU”ZHONGFENLIRENGEQUANSHENZHIGONGQUANLIDECHANGSHIBUJINQUEFALILUNYIJU,ERQIERONGYILUNWEIYIGETAOBISHUJUSHUXINGNANTIDEXUANZE。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANG,JIYOUZHIDUKEZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGHUIYINGGONGGONGSHUJUGUANLI、SHUJUFUWUHETONG、HUIBIANSHUJUBAOHU、MIMISHUJUBAOHU、SHUJUKUBAOHU、SHUJUDEJINGZHENGFABAOHU、SHUJULIYONGZHONGDEGERENXINXIBAOHUDENGWENTI,QUEYIRANWUFAJIEDASHUJUSIYIBAOHU、SHUJUJIAOYIDEKETISHUXING、FEIJINGZHENGGUANXIDESHUJUSHIYONGDENGWENTI,QIEWEINENGYIQUANLIDEXINGSHIBAOHUSHUJU,SHUJUXINXINGQUANLICUNZAIGOUJIANDEKENENGYUKONGJIAN。

                                二、新型权利理论的模型及困境

                                XINXINGQUANLILILUNZAIWOGUOJIYOUZHIDUKUANGJIAWAITANXUNSHUJUQUANLIDEKENENGKONGJIAN,GAILILUNZHUZHANGSHELIXINXINGDESHUJUCAICHANQUAN。YOUXUEZHERENWEI,ZHEIYIQUANLISHUYUSHUJUZHIZAOZHEDUISHUJUJIHEZHANYOU、CHULI、CHUFENDECAICHANQUAN。30HUOQIYEJIYU“SHUJUCHI”XINGCHENGDE“YIGECHOUXIANGDEJIHEXINGCAICHANQUANLI”。31YEYOUXUEZHERENWEI,JUTIYINGBAOHANSHUJUJINGYINGQUANYUSHUJUZICHANQUAN,QIZHONGSHUJUZICHANQUANSHOUQIXIAN、SHICHANGJINGJIZHIXU、SHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI、XINXISHUJUANQUANDENGXIANZHI。32SHENZHIYOUXUEZHEZHUZHANG,SHUJUQUANLIYINGTONGGUOCHUANGSHEDAIMAKONGJIANQUANJIEJUE,JIFUYU“DAIMAKONGJIANZHUTIDUIDAIMAKONGJIANDEBAOCHI、LIYONG、GUANLIHEKONGZHIDEZIYOU”。33MUQIAN,GUANYUSHUJUXINXINGQUANLIDENEIHANYUGOUZAOSHANGCUNDUOZHONGLILUNZHENGYI,WEINENGXINGCHENGTONGSHUO。SUIRANZHEIXIEXINXINGQUANLILILUNZHUYIDAOSHUJUZUOWEIXINQUANLIKETIDEGEMINGXINGTIAOZHAN,DANQUEWEINENGTUOLIJIYOUFENXIKUANGJIA,QIJIANLIZAILAODONGFUQUANDELILUNZHISHANG,BINGWEISHENRUYANJIUSHUJUQUANLIDESHENGCHANJIZHI。YIZHISHUJUQUANLIZHUTI、KETIJUNNANYIPANDING,QIEWUFAHUIYINGSHIJIANZHONGDESHUJUZHILIWENTI。

                                (一)劳动赋权的失败

                                XINXINGQUANLILILUNMOXINGRENGZHIGENLUOKEDELAODONGFUQUANLILUNDUISHUJUCAICHANQUANJINXINGLUNZHENG,RENWEIQIYETOURUDECHENGBENSHIFUQUANDEGUANJIAN。34SUIRAN“DAZHONGDIANPINGSUAIBANGDIERAN”“XINLANGSUMAIMAIAN”ZHONGFAYUANDOUQIANGDIAOLEJINGYINGZHESUOFUCHUDECHENGBEN,“TAOBAOSUMEIJINGAN”ZHONGYISHENFAYUANGENGSHIZHIJIERENDING“SHUJUCHANPINXITAOBAOGONGSIDELAODONGCHENGGUO”。35DANCHENGRU“DAZHONGDIANPINGSUBAIDUAN”ERSHENFAYUANSUOZHI,WOGUOBINGBUCUNZAISUOWEI“LAODONGCHENGGUOQUAN”,YOUYU“MOFANGZIYOU”,SHIYONGTARENLAODONGCHENGGUOYEBUNENGYU“DABIANCHE”HE“BULAOERHUO”HUADENGHAO。36SHUJULAODONGBENSHENBINGBUNENGZHIJIETUICHUSHUJUQUANLI。SHUJUQUANLIDESHENGCHANZHISHAOHAISHEJISHEIZAISHENGCHAN、TONGGUOSHENMESHENGCHANGONGJUSHENGCHAN、SHENGCHANCHUHEZHONGJIAZHIDEWENTI。LAODONGZHISHIZAIZUIDIXIANDUSHUOMINGLESHUJUSHIBEISHENGCHANDESHISHI,YUANWEINENGHUIYINGSHUJUQUANLIDESHENGCHANJIZHIWENTI。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   QIZHONG,DUIYUSHEIZAISHENGCHAN(LAODONG)DEBUTONGHUIDA,JIANGXINGCHENGBUTONGDESHUJUXINXINGQUANLIZHUTI。YIFANGMIAN,YOUYUQIYEZAISHUJUCAIJI、CHULISHANGTOURULEDALIANGCHENGBEN,QITONGCHANGBEIRENWEISHISHUJUZHIZAOCHANZHE。37YONGHUTONGCHANGBUSHIFEIGERENSHUJUBAOHUGUANZHUDEZHONGDIAN。ZAI“TAOBAOSUMEIJINGAN”ZHONGYISHENFAYUANRENWEI,GERENDUI“DANGEYONGHUXINXISHANGWUDULIDECAICHANQUANHUOCAICHANXINGQUANYIKEYAN”,ANCILUOJISHUJUCAICHANXINGQUANLIDEZHUTIZHINENGSHIDUISHUJUSHOUJI、JIAGONG、ZHENGLIDESHUJUZHIZAOZHE。ZHANGYUJIE、HUZHENJIGENGSHIMINGQUEZHICHU,ZAI“SHESHU”DIANXINGANJIANZHONG,FAYUANSHIJISHANGGUANZHUDESHI“PINGTAIDASHUJUYOUSHIDEWEICHI”。38LINGYIFANGMIAN,YEYOUXUEZHETICHU,QIYESHUJUYILIBUKAIYONGHUSHIYONG,BINGTICHU“SHUJUZUOWEILAODONG”,ZHUZHANGYONGHUCAISHIZHENZHENGDESHUJUSHENGCHANZHE。39XIANXIANCHUJUDACAICHANJIAZHIDEDASHUJUWANGWANGLAIYUANYUDUIGERENSHUJUSHOUJIHECHULI,JIBIANSHIJIANGTAOLUNDUIXIANGXIANZHIZAINIMINGHUACHULIHOUDEFEIGERENSHUJUZHIZHONG,YEBUNENGDANGRANPAICHUGERENZUOWEIQUANLIZHUTI。SUIRANOUMENG《FEIGERENSHUJUZIYOULIUDONGKUANGJIA》ZAISHUJUDEDINGYISHANGPAICHULEGERENSHUJU,DANJINNIANLAIYEYOUGUOJIAZAIGERENXINXIBAOHUFAZHONGDUIGERENSHUJUDINGYIJINXINGKUOZHAN,JIANGQIYESHUJUYIBINGNARUQIZHONGBAOHU。CIWAI,SHUJUJUYOUZHANYOUZHUTIFEIWEIYIDETEZHENG,KEYOUDUOZHUTIGONGXIANG,CISHIRUHEQUERENQUANLIZHUTIGENGSHIBUWUYIWEN。

                                (二)基本范畴的模糊

                              星云棋牌官网下载   SHUJUQUANLIJIBENFANCHOUGONGSHIDEQUESHI,ZHIJIEDAOZHILESHUJUQUANLIWUFAZAITONGYIKUANGJIANEIJINXINGTAOLUN。SHUJUXINXIQUANLILILUNSIWEIZIXISIKAO“DANGWOMENTANSHUJUQUANLIDESHIHOUJIUJINGZAITANXIESHENME”。ZAISHUJUQUANLIKETIDEWENTISHANG,GUANYUSHUJUYUXINXIGUANXIDEZHENGYIYICHUANGJINYUYIDEMIGONG。SHIJIANZHONG,SHUJUYUXINXICHANGBEIHUNYONG。ERGENJUGUOJIBIAOZHUNHUAZUZHIDEDINGYI,XINXISHIZAITEDINGYUJINGXIAJUYOUTEDINGHANYIDEZHISHI,ERSHUJUZESHIGAIZHISHIDEBIAOXIANXINGSHI。40XINXIYUSHUJUYOUCUNZAINEIRONGYUXINGSHIZHIBIE。ZAIZHEIYIQUFENJICHUSHANG,JIUJINGHEZHESHISHOUFALVBAOHUZHIKETIYIBUWUYIWEN。RUZAI“TAOBAOSUMEIJINGAN”ZHONG,YISHENFAYUANSUIMINGQUECHENGRENXINXIYUSHUJUSHINEIRONGYUXINGSHIDEGUANXI,QUETONGSHIZHICHU“YUANSHISHUJUSUOJUYOUDESHIYONGJIAZHIZAIYUQISUOBAOHANDEWANGLUOYONGHUXINXINEIRONG,ERBUZAIYUQIXINGSHI。”41SIHURENWEI“DASHUJUQUANYI”DESHIZHIYINGZAIYUXINXINEIRONG。

                                YOUXUEZHERENWEI,SHUJUQUANLIKETIYINGGENJUSHUJUDENEIZAICENGCIJINXINGHUAFEN。RUJIHAILONGRENWEI,XINXIZAIFUHAOCENGSHANGBIAOXIANWEISHUJUWENJIAN,ERZAINEIRONGCENGSHANGSHUJUWENJIANZHONGDEXINXINEIRONGWEISHUJUXINXI,LIANGZHEYINGQUFENWEIBUTONGKETI。42LINGYIFANGMIAN,MEIXIAYINGZEZAIZHUZHANGSHUJUBINGFEIQUANLIKETIDETONGSHI,DUISHUJUYUXINXIZUOXIANGXIQUFEN。QIXIANSHIRENWEI,XINXIKETONGGUOSHUJUYIWAIDEQUDAOBIAODA,ERSHUJUJISHIXINXIMEIJIEYESHIXINXIBENTI,ZAIHULIANWANGHUANJINGXIASHUJUGENGJUCHANSHENGXINXIDEGONGNENG。43SUIHOUJIXIUZHENGQIGUANDIANZHICHU,SHUJUYUXINXISHI“GONGJUHEBENTIDEGUANXI”,SHUJUZHIDESHIWULIJISHUSHANGDEBITELIU,SHICHUANDIXINXIDEGONGJU,BINGYILAIYUDAIMA。44SHANGSHUXUEZHESUIDUISHUJUHEXINXIDENEIHANWENTIZUOLEJINGXIHUAFENXI,QUEWEINENGCONGSHUJUJIAZHILIANSHENGCHENGDEJIAODUJINXINGYANJIU,CONGERSHIDESHUJUQUANLIKETIWENTIBIANDEYICHANGFUZA。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   CIWAI,CONGSHUJUBENSHENLAIKAN,SHUJUYUDASHUJUDEGUANXIYIBUSHENMINGXI。DASHUJUDETEZHENGCHANGBEIGAIKUOWEI“4V”,JIRONGLIANGDA、LEIXINGDUO、CUNQUSUDUKUAI、YINGYONGJIAZHIGAO。GAIMIAOSHUWEIGUOWUYUAN《YINFACUJINDASHUJUFAZHANXINGDONGGANGYAO》《GUIZHOUSHENGDASHUJUFAZHANYINGYONGCUJINTIAOLI》DENGWENJIANSUOCAINA。CHENGRU《CUJINDASHUJUFAZHANXINGDONGGANGYAO》SUOZHI,“DASHUJUCHENGWEITUIDONGJINGJIZHUANXINGFAZHANDEXINDONGLI”,ZAISHUJUQUANLIZHONGTANTAODESHUJUJIAZHITONGCHANGZHIDEYISHIDASHUJUDEJIAZHI,DANGESHUJUDEJIAZHIZESHANGWEIHUODERENKE。LIRU“TAOBAOSUMEIJINGAN”ZHONG,YISHENFAYUANJIJIANGYUANSHISHUJUYUDASHUJUXIANGQUBIE,JINRENKELEBAOKUOYUANSHISHUJUYUYANSHENGSHUJUDEDASHUJUCHANPINJUYOUCAICHANXINGQUANYI。45DUICIWENTI,SHIWUJIEYOUGUANDIANRENWEI,DASHUJUZHUYAOZHIYANSHENGSHUJU,QIZHONGYUANSHISHUJUYUYANSHENGSHUJUSHIBUTONGDEQUANLIKETI,YINGFENBIEDUIYINGGERENXINXIQUANYUQIYESHUJUQUAN。46RANER,YIDAXIAODEXIANGDUIGAINIAN、CHOUXIANGDE“4V”TEZHENGQUFENDAXIAOSHUJUQUEFAKECAOZUOXING,DANGE、SHAOLIANGSHUJUHUOYUANSHISHUJUQIANGDIAODESHISHUJUDESHULIANGHELAIYUAN,BINGWEIQIANGDIAOYOUWUSHIBIEXING,GENGBUNENGDENGTONGYUGERENXINXIDEGAINIAN,GENGWUFAZHIJIEFOUDINGQIJIAZHI。

                                (三)数据治理的缺失

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZUIWEIZHONGYAODESHI,SHUJUXINXINGQUANLILILUNQIANGDIAOSHUJUDEKONGZHIQUANHECAICHANQUAN,JIANGWULIXIEDIAOSHUJULIYONGYUSHUJUZHILIDEGUANXI。SHUJUCAIJI、CUNCHU、JIAGONG、LIYONGDEGEGEHUANJIE,JUNKENENGCHANSHENGXINDESHEHUIWENTI。

                                DIYI,SHUJUKONGZHIQUANKENENGDAOZHI“SHUJUGUDAO”DEXINGCHENG。YOUYUCHANQUANDEYUANYIN,SHUJUCHENGXIANCHUGELIEFENSANJUMIAN,BULIYUXINGCHENGGENGJUJIAZHIDEDASHUJUZIYUAN。ERDASHUJUDEJIAZHIYOUYILAIYU“QUANYANGBEN”FENXI,DANYI、PIANMIANDESHUJUJIAZHIYOUXIAN。

                                DIER,MIXINSHUJU“QUANNENG”DESHUJULIYONGKENENGHUSHIXIANSHICUNZAIDE“SHUJUHONGGOU”。RUCHADEWEIKESUOZHI,YOUYURENMENHUOQUJISUANJIHEHULIANWANGDEHUOQUCHAYI,JINENGHEXINXISUYANGDEJINENGCHAYI,LIYONGXINXIMANZUSHEHUITISHENGDEJINGJIJIHUICHAYI,YIJILIYONGWANGLUOTIGAOZHENGZHICANYUDUDEMINZHUJIHUICHAYI,“SHUJUHONGGOU”KEGUANCUNZAI。47

                                DISAN,BUJIAXIANZHIDESHUJULIYONGGENGKENENGCHANSHENGPOHUAISHICHANGZHIXUDEJIEGUO。YIFANGMIAN,QIYEKENENGLIYONGDINGJIASHUJUJINXINGSHICHANGJIAGECAOZONG,TONGGUO“SUANFAHEMOU”,XINGCHENGLONGDUANXINGWEI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,“DASHUJUSHASHU”YIJIANGYOUHAIYUXIAOFEIZHELIYIBAOHU。2018NIANALI、DIDI、XIECHENGLIYONGSHUJUJINXINGCHAYIHUADINGJIABEIMEITIPUGUANG。SHISHISHANG,GUOWAIZHONGDUOQIYEYEZAIJINXING“DASHUJUSHASHU”。2012NIANGUGESHENZHIWEI“DIANZICHANPINDONGTAIDINGJIA”SHENQINGLEZHUANLI。48

                              星云棋牌官网下载   DISI,SUIRANSHUJUQUANLIJIYUFEIGERENSHUJUZHANKAI,DANYIRANYUGERENMIQIEXIANGGUAN。NIMINGSHUJUBINGBUNENGBAOZHENG100%DEANQUAN,QIEZAIYIDINGQINGKUANGXIAKEHAIYUANTEDINGWEIGERENXINXI。PINGTAIQIYETONGGUODUIYONGHUDENIMINGSHUJUJINXINGFENXI,YENENGWANZHENGPINCOUCHUYONGHUDE“SHUZIRENGE”。YANJIUBIAOMING,ZHIYAOZHANGWOCHAOGUO300GESHEJIAOWANGLUOZHONGDE“DIANZAN”,SUANFADUIYIGERENDELEJIECHENGDUJIUKENENGCHAOGUOQIPEIOU。49

                                DIWU,SHUJULIYONGHAIKENENGCHUCUO。AONIERJIJIANGCHULISHUJUDESUANFACHENGWEI“SHUZISHASHANGXINGWUQI”。50XIANSHISHENGHUOZHONG,XINYONGPINGFEN、GONGZUOPINGGU、JINRONGFENXI、FANZUIYUCEDENGJIYUSHUJUDESUANFAYIDUIRENMENSHENGHUOCHANSHENGLEJIDAYINGXIANG。XIANSHISHENGHUOZHONGYIJINGCHUXIANLEDALIANGDESHUJUCUOWUZHIHAIANLI。RUJIANGPUTONGRENCUOWUBIAOZHUWEIFANZUIXIANYIREN、JIANGLVKECUOWUBIAOZHUWEIKONGBUFENZI、JIANG“WUJIAKEGUIZHE”CUOWUBIAOJIWEI“QITAOZHE”DENG。51CIWAI,SHUJULIYONGHAICUNZAI“SUANFAQISHI”WENTI。DIANXINGRUHEIRENBEISHIBIECHENGDAXINGXING,ZAIFANZUIFENGXIANPINGGUZHONGBEIYUCEWEIGAOFANZUIFENGXIAN,ZAIJIANSUOJIEGUOZHONGYUBEIDAIBUXIANGGUANLIANDENG。

                                DIQI,SHUJUDEBUDANGLIYONGKENENGDAOZHI“SHUZIBAQUAN”DECHANSHENG。QIYEZAIZHANGWOLEHAILIANGSHUJUDEKONGZHIQUANTONGSHI,YEZHANGWOLEQIANSUOWEIYOUDEQUANLI。“PINGTAIZHILI”DENANDIANZAIYUDUIPINGTAISHISHISHANGXINGSHIDEGONGQUANLIJINXINGGUIZHI。HELALIDANYOU,SHUJUDEDALIANGHUIJIJIANGDAOZHI“JIANKONGSHEHUI”YU“SHUZIDUCAI”DEXINGCHENG。52GENGYOUXUEZHERENWEI,NACUIDEGUOYUNYONGLESHUJUCHULIJISHUXIEZHUDATUSHADEJINXING。53

                                DIBA,SHUJUCAICHANQUANJIANGBULIYU“SUANFAHEIXIANG”DEJIANGUAN。2017NIANMEIGUOJIAZHOUJIKAISHITUIDONGGUAN“SUANFASHENJI”DELIFA,SHITUDUISUANFAKEKAOXINGJINXINGGUIZHI。54RANER,YOUYUKONGZHIHEBAOMIDEYAOQIU,SHITUJIANGJIANGUANQUANLIYANSHENDAOSHUJUJISUANFAZHIZHONGCUNZAIYIDINGZHANGAI。CIWAI,HAILIANGSHUJUHEFUZASUANFAYISHIJIANGUANDEJINXINGKUNNANZHONGZHONG。

                                ZONGSHANG,SHUJUXINXIQUANLILILUNSUICUNZAIDUOZHONGMOXING,DANJUNWULIJIEJUESHUJUQUANLIZHUKETIBUMINGYUSHUJULIYONGDAOZHIDEZHILIWEIJI。ERZHEIXIEWENTI,JUNGENYUANYULILUNMOXINGTUOLILEXIANSHIFAZHANYUXUQIU,WEINENGTIAOCHUJIYOUDEQUANLILILUN。YINGYOUSHUJUQUANLISHENGCHANJIZHIBENSHENCHUFA,POJIESHUJUQUEQUANKUNJING。

                                三、数据确权困境的成因及破解

                                LIYONGFALIXUEDEJINGDIANQUANLILILUNFENXIKEZHI,JIYOUGUIFANSHIYONGYUSHUJUXINXINGQUANLILIANGZHONGLUJINGBEIHOUYOUYIZHILUNYULIYILUNDECHUANTONGQUANLILILUNZHICHENG。LIANGZHONGLUJINGDEKUNJING,FANYINGDEZHENGSHIXINYETAIXIACHUANTONGQUANLILILUNDESHIXIAO。SHUJUQUEQUANBIXUHUIGUIDAOSHUJUQUANLIDESHENGCHANJIZHIZHONG,DUISUANFAJINXINGKAOCHA,MINGQUESUANFAZAISHUJUJIAZHI、SHUJUQUANLISHENGCHANZHONGSUOCHUDEZHONGXINDIWEI。BINGTIQUSHUJUQUEQUANLILUNDEZUIDAGONGYUESHU,YIHEFAXINGZUOWEISUANFAGUIZHIDEZHONGXIN,POJIESHUJUQUEQUANKUNJING。

                                (一)困境成因:传统权利理论的失效

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ZAICHUANTONGQUANLILILUNZHONG,CUNZAIYIZHISHUO、LIYISHUO、ZIGESHUO、ZIYOUSHUO、YAOQIUSHUO、XUANZESHUO、FALISHUO、KENENGXINGSHUODENGDUOZHONGQUANLILILUN。QIZHONG,YIZHILILUNHELIYILILUNYOUSHIZUIWEIDIANXINGDECHUANTONGQUANLILILUN。YIKANGDEZHEXUEWEIJICHUDEYIZHILILUNLIZUYUFALVGUIZE,GENGGUANZHUQUANLIRENDEZHIPEILI、GERENYIZHIYUZIYOU;YIGONGLIZHUYIWEIJICHUDELIYILILUNLIZUYUFAYIBAOHU,GENGZHUZHONGQUANLIRENDEFUZHI、SHEHUIMUDE。ZHEIXIELILUNSUIYOUZHEZHONGYAOYIYI,MIANDUISHUJUQUANLIZHISHIQUEXIANDELIBUCONGXIN。

                                SHIYONGJIYOUGUIFANDELUJINGJISHIYIYIZHILUNWEIDAOXIANG。ZAISHUJUQUANLIWEIQUELIDEDANGQIAN,MIANDUIXIANSHIDEJIUFEN,LUNZHENGZHECHANGJIEYONGYIZHILUNDELUOJI,WEIGUANYUSHUJUDEZHUZHANGTANXUNQINGQIUQUANJICHU。ZAI“XINLANGSUMAIMAI”ZHONG,YISHENFAYUANJICAIQULEYIZHILUNDELUOJIZHICHU,“YONGHUYOUQUANZAICHONGFENBIAODAZIYOUYIZHIDEQINGKUANGXIAXIANGTARENTIGONGZIJIDEXINXIHUOBUTIGONGXINXI”。55RANER,FAYUANQUEWEIJINYIBUCHENGRENQIYEDUIYUSHUJUDEZHIPEILI,ZHISHITONGGUOXIANGGUANHETONGTIAOKUANDUISHUJUSHOUQUANJINXINGJIEDU。ZHEISHIYOUYUYIZHILUNCHANGCAIQU“SHENSHIFALVGUIZENEIRONG”DEFANGSHISHIBIEQUANLI。56

                                YOUYUJIYOUGUIFANZHINENGFEICHANGYOUXIANDIHUIYINGSHUJUQUANLISUQIU,ZAIZHIDUGONGJIBUZUDEXIANZHUANGXIA,SHUJUZHIZAOZHEDEZHUZHANGWUFAXINGCHENGWENDESHAYIDESUOZHIDE“FALVGUIZESUOFUYUDEYIZHIDEZHIPEILIHUOTONGZHILI”。57ZHEIYIZHUANGKUANGSHIJISHANGYISHUOMINGLESHUJUQUEQUANDEBIYAO。CIWAI,YIZHILUNSHIJISHANGZHUZHANGDESHI,FALVGUIZECHENGRENQUANLIZHUTIDEYIZHIYOUYUYIWUZHUTIDEYIZHI。RANER,YIJUBUTONGDEZHIDUGUIFAN,SHUJUZHIZAOZHEDESHUJUKONGZHISUQIUYUSHUJUSHIYONGZHEJIYUXINXIZIYOULIUDONGDEZHUZHANG、YONGHUKONGZHIQIXINXIDEYIZHIZHIJIANDEGUANXIJUNBUXIANGTONG。LIRU,SHIYONGWUQUANFAKENENGDECHUSHUJUGONGYOUDEJIELUN,SHIYONGGERENXINXIBAOHUFAYEKENENGDECHUZAIGERENXINXIWAIWUSHUJUQUANLIDEJIELUN。ZAISHIYONGFALVGUIZENANYIQUEDING,ZONGHESHIYONGGUIZEYIWUFAJIEJUESHUJUQUEQUANDEQINGKUANGXIA,JIYUYIZHILUNDEZHUZHANGNANYIFAHUIZUOYONG。

                                ZAIMIANDUIXINXINGQUANLIZHUZHANGSHI,LIYILUNYOUQIDUTEDEYOUSHI。ZIYELINYILAI,LIYILUNJIZHUZHANGFALVBAOHUHUOCUJINQUANLIZHUTIDELIYISHIQUANLIBUKEHUOQUEDEYAOSU。58SHIWABUGENGSHIZHUZHANG,“BAZHEYANYULIYIBAOHUHELIYISHIXIANDEMUDENARUQUANLIDINGYI”。59SHUJUXINXINGQUANLIDEHEXINJIBEIRENWEISHI“SHUJUJINGYINGZHE(QIYE)YINGYOUDECAICHANLIYISUQIU”。60ZAIJIYOUGUIFANSHIYONGSHANG,SHUJULIYIYISHIBUKEHUOQUEDEHEXINGAINIAN。ZAI“DAZHONGDIANPINGSUAIBANGDIERAN”ZHONG,YISHENFAYUANJIJIANGXIANGGUANSHUJU“NENGWEIHANTAOGONGSIDAILAIHEFALIYI”ZUOWEIJINGZHENGFABAOHUDEZHONGYAOLIYOU。61SHISHISHANG,ZAI“SHESHU”DIANXINGANLIZHONG,ZHONGDUOFAYUANJUNJIANGSHUJUZUOWEIJINGZHENGFASHANGDELIYI。CONGCEMIANZHONGYIKETIXIAN,TONGGUOTANXUNGUIZEDEMUDE,YISHIBIEFALVSUOBAOHULIYIDELIYILUNFANGFA。

                                JUTIERYAN,PANDUANMOUZHONGLIYISHIFOUSHOUBAOHUBISHEJILIYIHENGLIANGDEFALVFANGFASHIYONG。LALUNCIJIZHICHU,LIYIHENGLIANGZHONGYINGGENJUGEANZHONGFAYIDEZHONGYAOXINGJINXING。62YUBOHUAJINYIBUTICHU,KETONGGUO“LIYIDEXIANGDUIZHONGYAOXING”BIAOZHUNPANDUANLIYISUQIUSHIFOUGOUCHENGQUANLI。63“DAZHONGDIANPINGSUBAIDUAN”ZHONG,FAYUANJIMINGQUEZHICHU“YAOJIANGUXINXIHUOQUZHE、XINXISHIYONGZHEHESHEHUIGONGZHONGSANFANGDELIYI”,RUOWEINENGZUNXUN“ZUISHAO、BIYAO”YUANZEZHUAQUSHUJUQIECHANSHENGSHIZHITIDAIZEGOUCHENGBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENG。64“TAOBAOSUMEIJINGAN”ZHONG,FAYUANZHUYIDAOLE“WANGLUOYUNYINGZHEYUWANGLUOYONGHUJIANDELIYIFENPEIYUQUANLICHONGTU”,BINGZHICHUYINGZONGHEFALVYUANZE、FALVGUIDING、FALVGUANXIHESHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIZUOPINGPAN。65“XINLANGSUMAIMAIANZHONG”,FAYUANYILITUJIANGUDUIJINGYINGZHEDEJINGZHENGLIYIYUXIAOFEIZHEDEGERENQUANYIDEBAOHU。66

                                RANER,WULUNSHIJIYOUGUIFANSHIYONGHAISHIXINXINGQUANLILILUNJUNWEINENGJIANGSHUJULIYIYUQITALIYIXIANGBOLI。RUSHIYONGJINGZHENGFADESIFASHIJIANJIWEIJIANGSHUJULIYICONG“CHENGSHIXINYONG”“SHANGYEDAODE”ZHIZHONGXIANGBOLI,YIWEIPANDINGGERENXINXIBAOHUYUSHUJULIYIBAOHU、QIYESHUJUBAOHUYUYONGHULIYIWEIHUDEJIAZHIWEIJIE,ZHISHILONGTONGJIANGSHEJIQITALIYIDEFALVGUIDINGZUOWEISHUJUCHULIHEFAXINGDEPANDINGYINSU。YINCI,SHIJISHANGBINGWEIZAISHIBIEANSHELIYIDEJICHUSHANG,DUILIYILEIXINGZUOCHUQUFEN,BINGBIJIAOPANDUANLIYIDECHOUXIANGZHONGYAOXING。CONGERHUIBILESHUJUQUANLISUQIUDESHIZHI,WEINENGSHIXIANSHUJUQUEQUAN。SHISHISHANG,SHUJUSHANGCUNZAIDUOYUANLIYIZAOYICHENGWEIYIZHONGPUBIANGONGSHI。67TONGGUOLIYILUNCHOUXIANGZHUZHANGSHUJULIYIYIWEINENGHUIDASHUJUQUANLIDEWENTI。CIWAI,JIBENSHUJUXINXINGQUANLILILUNSUIZHILIYUSHUJULIYIDEBOLI,DANWANGWANGYOUJIANGSHUJUQUANLI、GERENXINXIBAOHU、SUANFAGUIZHI、PINGTAIZHILIDENGXIANGGUANNEIRONGGELIEYANJIU,JINGUANZHUDAO“SHUJUZIYUANQUEQUAN”DEMIANQIAN,ERHULVELE“KAIFANG、LIUTONG、JIAOYIXIANGGUANZHIDU”DEMIANXIANG,CONGERZHIXIANRUZISHUOZIHUADEWUQU。

                                KEJIAN,ZAIMIANDUISHUJUQUEQUANZHEIYIXINSHENGSHIWUSHI,CHUANTONGQUANLIFALIKAISHISHIXIAO。SHUJUQUANLIBUNENGSHENGBANYINGTAOJINGDIANQUANLILILUN,YIBUKECHONGDANGLIFAZHEDEJIAOSEZIXINGCHUANGZAO。CHENGRUMAKESISUOYAN,“LIFAZHEBINGBUCHUANGLIFALV,TAZHISHIZAIJIESHIHEBIAOSHUFALV”。68CHENYANJINGJIZHICHU,“XINXINGQUANLIDEYANJIUYINGDANGSHIYIGEFAXIANDEGUOCHENG,ERFEIYIGECHUANGZAODEGUOCHENG”。69DUISHUJUQUANLIDEYANJIUBIXUZHONGSHISHUJUQUANLIDESHENGCHANJIZHI,TANXUNQIBEIHOUDESHEHUIJICHU,YOUQISHI“WENTIYUJING、SHEHUIHUANJING、WENHUAGUANNIANBIANQIAN”,70ZAILILUNSHANGDUISHUJUQUANLIJINXINGSHIBIE。

                                (二)算法中心:数据权利的生产机制

                                JIYUSHUJUJIAZHIERCHANSHENGDESHEHUIBIANQIAN,XINGCHENGLESHUJUQUEQUANDESHEHUIJICHU。ZAIHULIANWANG、RENGONGZHINENG、DASHUJUJISHUYINLINGJINGJIFAZHANDEDANGXIA,SHUJUBEICHENGWEI“XINSHIYOU”,YICHENGWEIYIZHONGJIQIZHONGYAODEZIYUAN,JUYOUJUDADEJIAZHI。SUIZHEGUIYANG、SHANGHAI、WUHAN、YANCHENG、BEIJINGDENGDIYIPISHUJUJIAOYIPINGTAIDEZHUBUSHELI,SHUJUCHANPINZUOWEIJIAOYIKETIYEYIDEDAOPUBIANDECHENGREN。ZAISHICHANGJINGJIZHONG,SHUJUDEZUOYONGYIRIYIXIANZHE。“SHUZIDESHOU”YIYOUTIDAI“WUXINGDESHOU”DEQUSHI。71

                              星云棋牌官网下载   ERSHUJUJIAZHIZESHIYISUANFAWEIHEXINDE。DANGE、SHAOLIANGDESHUJUJIAZHIMIDUDI,ERJINGSUANFASHOUJI、JIAGONG、CHULIHOUXINGCHENGDESHUJUJIHEZEJIAZHIBEIZENG,YOUQISHIBEICHENGWEIDASHUJUDEYANSHENGSHUJUJIHEBENSHENJIYIJIAZHIMIDUGAOWEITEZHENG。YOUCI,BIANXINGCHENGLESHUJUJIAZHILIAN。ZHEIYIJIAZHILIANKEBIAOSHIWEI“YUANSHISHUJU(GERENXINXI+QITASHUJU)→SUANFA(CHULI)→(DA)SHUJU(YANSHENGSHUJU)”。JIEYONGLAISIGESUOTICHUDE“FALV-SHEQUNGUIFAN-SHICHANG-JIAGOU”DEWANGLUOFAJINGDIANFENXIKUANGJIA,72ZAISHUJUJIAZHISHENGCHANZHONG,SUANFACHUYUJIAGOUDEDIWEI,JUEDINGLESHUJUDEJIAZHI。SHUJUZHUAQU、SHUJUCHULI、SHUJUYINGYONGJUNLIBUKAISUANFA,ZHENGSHIZHEIXIESUANFASHIXIANLEDIJIAZHIDEYUANSHISHUJUXIANGGAOJIAZHIDEYANSHENGSHUJUZHUANHUA。SHUJUJINGJIDESHIZHIBIANSHI“SUANFADINGYIJINGJI”。73YINCI,SUANFAYESHIFALVDEZUIJIAGUIZHIDUIXIANG。

                                TONGSHI,SUANFAYIZAISHUJUQUANLISHENGCHANZHONGCHUYUZHONGXINDIWEI。SHUJUJIAZHIZHINENGCUISHENGCHUSHUJUQUANLISUQIU,ERWUFAZHIJIETUIDAOCHUSHUJUQUANLI。SHUJUQUANLISHENGCHANJIZHIDEZHENGQUEBIAOSHIYINGWEI“SHUJUJIAZHI→QUANLISUQIU→SHUJUQUANLI”。CHENGRUKANBEIERSUOZHI,“QUANLI”BEIYONGYIBIAODAHEQUERENGEZHONGSHEHUI、ZHENGZHIXIANGGUANDEZHUZHANG。74SHUJUQUEQUANSHIJISHANGBIANSHISHUJUZHIZAOZHE,ZAISHUJUZIYUANCHANSHENGJIDAJIAZHIDEXINYETAIZHONG,DUISHEHUIZIYUANFENPEIDEYIZHONGZHUZHANG。WEILEJINYIBUWEIHUZHEIZHONGZHUZHANG,SHUJUZHIZAOZHEYOUYIKAOSUANFAJINXINGJIAMIHUOYANZHENG,FANGZHISHUJUBEITARENQIEQU。JIBIANSHIJIANDANDEYIWENBENWENDANGXINGSHICUNZAIDERobotsXIEYI,YISHISHUJUZHIZAOZHETONGGUOSUANFASHOUDUANWEIHUZISHENSHUJUQUANYIDECHANGSHI。SHIJIANZHONG,ZHEIZHONGCHANGSHIYEDEDAOLEFAYUANDEZHICHI。75CIWAI,YUWAIXIANGGUANSUANFAGUIZHIDEJINGYANYIBIAOMING,SUANFAGUIZHIJIANGSHISHUJULIYONGBIANJIEDEYIMINGXI。YIOUMENGDESHUJUSHIJIANWEILI,QISUIJUNWEIGOUJIANSHUJUQUANLI,DANTONGGUOYIXILIEFALVDUISHUJUCAIJI、CUNCHU、CHULIZHONGDESUANFAJINXINGGUIZHI。YOUQISHIYUQIYESHUJUXINGWEIXIXIXIANGGUANDEGERENXINXIBAOHUYUFEIGERENSHUJULIYONGDESHICHANGJIANGUANFANGMIANCUNZAIZHONGDUOZHENDUISUANFADEGUIFAN。RU《YIBANSHUJUBAOHUTIAOLI》(GDPR)ZAIDUIGERENXINXIBAOHUGUIFANJINXINGSHENGJIDETONGSHIHAIYINRULESUANFAJIESHIQUANDEGAINIAN。《JINRONGGONGJUSHICHANGZHILING2》(MiFID II)GENGSHIMINGQUEDUIGAOPINJIAOYISUANFAJINXINGGUIZHI。FANGUANWOGUO,JIHUBUCUNZAIZHENDUISHUJUSUANFADEZHIDUGUIFAN,KESHIYONGYUSHUJUDEFALVGUIFANYISHIXIANGDUILINGSAN。YINCI,WUFAPANDUANSHUJUXINGWEIDEHEFAKONGJIAN,JIWUFAPANDUANSHUJUQUANLIDEBIANJIE。

                                SHUJUQUANLIDESHENGCHANBINGBUJUEDUIYILAIYUQUANLIHUADEFALVGUIFAN,TONGGUOGONGGONGQIANGZHIDESUANFAYIWUGUIFAN,YIKEFANTUICHUSHUJUQUANLI。RUGELUNDUNSUOZHI,“JIUFALVMUDEERYAN,YIXIANGQUANLIZHISHIYIGE‘YUYAN’,TAYUSHIZHEGONGGONGQIANGZHIJIANGSHIYONGYUNEIXIEWEIFANTADEREN”。76FAJINGJIXUEDEGUIZECAIDANYIBIAOMING,ZAIZHENGXIANGFUQUANDECAICHANGUIZHIWAI,HAICUNZAIWEIZERENDINGJIADEZERENGUIZHI、SHIJIAJIAOYIXIANZHIDEGUANZHIGUIZEYIJIJINZHIJIAOYIDEJINYIGUIZE。77YOUYUSUANFAZAISHUJUJIAZHIYUSHUJUQUANLIZHONGSUOCHUDETESHUDIWEI,SHEZHIZHENDUISUANFADESHUJUZERENGUIZHI、GUANZHIGUIZHI、JINYIGUIZE,JIKEQINGXIMIAOHUICHUSHUJUCAICHANQUANDELUNKUO。

                                (三)算法规制:以数据合法破解困境

                                YISUANFAGUIZHISHIXIANSHUJUQUANLIZHIDESHI,YISUANFAWEIZHONGXINJIANLISHUJUJIAOYIGUANZHIGUIZE、WEIFASHUJUJINYIGUIZHI、DAPO“SHUJUBILEI”DEZERENGUIZHI,TONGGUOZHEIXIEGUIZEDESHEZHIWEIHEFADESHUJUXINGWEIGOULECHUBIANJIE。SHUJUZHIZAOZHEDUIHEFADESHUJU,JIKEXIANGYOUSHUJUCAICHANQUAN。ZHEIYIFANGANJIKEJIEJUESHIYONGJIYOUGUIFANWUFAZHOUQUANDEWENTI,YIKEJIEJUESHUJUXINXIQUANLINANYIGOUJIANDEKUNJING。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   DIYI,SUANFADESHIJIAOKEPOJIEJIANDANLAODONGFUQUANXIAQUANLIZHUTIDEKUNJING。YISUANFAWEIZHONGXINDESHUJUJIAZHIYUSHUJUQUANLISHENGCHANBINGFEIYIFANGJIANDANDITOURUWULILAODONG,ERSHISHUJUZHIZAOZHEYISUANFATOURUSHISHUJUJIAZHIBEIZENG。YEZHENGSHIYOUYUYIQIYEWEIDAIBIAODESHUJUZHIZAOZHEJINXINGLEXIANGYINGDESUANFATOURU,BINGXIWANGSHOUHUOTONGGUOSUANFAHUOQUDESHUJUJIAZHI,YOUCICHANSHENGLESHUJUQUANLISUQIU。YINCI,TOURUXIANGGUANSUANFADESHUJUZHIZAOZHESHISHUJUQUANLIDEZHUTI。

                                DIER,SUANFADEZHONGXINDIWEIYIKEPOJIEQUANLIKETIDENANTI。JINGSUANFACHULIDEFEIGERENSHUJUSHISHUJUQUANLIDEKETI。TONGGUOSUANFAHUOQUDESHUJUTIXIANWEIDAIMAFUHAO,ERTONGGUOSUANFAJIAGONGCHULIDESHUJUYICHANGFANYINGXIANGGUANNEIRONG。WULUNSHIDAIMACENGSHANGDESHUJU,HAISHINEIRONGCENGSHANGDEXINXIJUNJUYOUJIAZHI。YOUQISHIZAIDASHUJUDEYUJINGXIA,GENGSHIJIBAOHANLEDAIMACENGMIANDEYUANSHISHUJU,YIBAOHANLEJUYOUNEIRONGFENXISHUXINGDEYANSHENGSHUJU。SUANFACHULIDESHUJUBINGBUYIDAIMA/NEIRONGHUODA/XIAOJINXINGQUFEN,ZHIYAOSHIJINGSUANFACHULIDEFEIGERENSHUJU,JUNJUYOUYIDINGDEJIAZHI,KECHENGWEISHUJUQUANLIKETI。

                              星云棋牌官网下载   DISAN,SUANFAHEFASUOBAOZHANGDESHUJUHEFA,SHISHUJUQUEQUANLILUNDEZUIDAGONGYUESHU。WULUNTONGGUOHEZHONGLUJINGBAOHUSHUJU,WUYIBUYISHUJUHEFAWEIQIANTI。WEISIFASHIWUSUOGUANGFANRENKEDESHUJU“HEFA、ZHENGDANG、BIYAODEYUANZE”,78SHIJISHANGYIKEGUIJIEWEISHUJUHEFA。ZHENGDANG、BIYAOYISHIZHUYIYUHEFADEPANDUAN。RANER,LILUNYUSHIWUSUICHENGRENSHUJUHEFAZUOWEISHUJUQUEQUANDEQIANTI,QUEWANGWANGYOUZAIZHEIYIQIANTIZHIWAISHEZHIQITATIAOJIAN。PAOQICHUHEFAYIWAIDEQITATIAOJIAN,CHENGRENSHUJUZHIZAOZHEDUIYUHEFASHUJUJUYOUSHUJUCAICHANQUAN,KEQUANMIANHUIYINGSHUJUQUANLISUQIU,YUSHUJUXINXINGQUANLIDEGOUJIANERYANXIANRANGENGWEIHELI。

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                                注释

                                1参见王庆廷:《新兴权利渐进入法的路径探析》,《法商研究》2018年第1期,第30页。
                                2参见彭诚信:《现代权利理论研究:基于“意志理论”与“利益理论”的评析》,法律出版社2017年版,第310页。
                                3参见段泽孝:《人工智能时代互联网诱导行为的算法规制》,《江西社会科学》2019年第2期,第26页。
                                4See Václav Jane?ek, Ownership of personal data in the Internet of Things, Computer Law & Security Review 34(2018), pp.1039-1052.
                                5See Yuval Noah Harari, Why technology favors tyranny, The Atlantic 10(2018), pp.64-70.
                                6参见[美]安德雷斯·韦思岸:《大数据和我们》,胡小锐、李凯平译,中信出版社2016年版,第185页。
                                7参见梅夏英:《数据的法律属性及其民法定位》,《中国社会科学》2016年第9期,第181页。
                                8参见(2015)海民(知)初字第12602号民事判决书。
                                9参见(2008)朝民初字第17787号民事判决书。
                                10参见林华:《大数据的法律保护》,《电子知识产权》2014年第8期,第80页。
                                11参见(2006)沪高民三(知)终字第92号民事判决书,(2011)沪高民三(知)终字第100号民事判决书。
                                12前引〔8〕
                                13参见李爱君:《数据权利属性与法律特征》,《东方法学》2018年第3期,第71-72页。
                                14参见(2009)一中民终字第5031号民事裁定书。
                                15参见[澳]马克·戴维森:《数据库的法律保护》,朱理译,北京大学出版社2007年版,第51页。
                                16北京知识产权法院在援引最高人民法院(2009)民申字第1065号判决中所列的适用不正当竞争一般条款的三个条件的基础上,增加了三个条件,形成了互联网行业中适用《反不正当竞争法》第2条的六大条件:法律未作规定;损害及因果关系;违反诚实信用原则和商业道德;损害消费者利益;破坏市场竞争秩序;存在证明不正当性的证据。参见(2016)京73民终588号民事判决书。
                                17浙01民终7312号《民事判决书》。
                                18参见许可:《数据保护的三重进路——评新浪微博诉脉脉不正当竞争案》,《上海大学学报》(社会科学版)2017年第6期,第21页。
                                19参见(2016)沪73民终242号民事判决书。
                                20参见(2011)一中民终字第7512号民事判决书。
                                21See hiQLabs, Inc. v. LinkedIn Corp., 273 F.?Supp.3d 1099 (N.D. Cal. 2017).
                                22前引〔16〕。
                                23参见(2019)津0116民初2091号民事裁定书。
                                24See Paul M. Schwartz, Property, privacy, and personal data, Harvard Law Review 7(2004), pp.2056-2128.
                                25参见王利明:《数据共享与个人信息保护》,《现代法学》2019年第1期,第47页。
                                26参见周学峰、李平主编:《网络平台治理与法律责任》,中国法制出版社2018年版,第135页。
                                27浙8601民初4034号民事判决书。
                                28前引〔13〕,李爱君文,第64页。
                                29参见闫立东:《以“权利束”视角探究数据权利》,《东方法学》2019年第2期,第61-62页。
                                30前引〔18〕,许可文,第23页。
                                31胡凌:《论赛博空间的架构及其法律意蕴》,《东方法学》2018年第3期,第94页。
                                32参见龙卫球:《再论企业数据保护的财产权化路径》,《东方法学》2018年第3期,第60-63页。
                                33吴伟光:《构建网络经济中的民事新权利:代码空间权》,《政治与法律》2018年第4期,第115页。
                                34前引〔32〕,龙卫球文,第50页。
                                35前引〔27〕。
                                36前引〔19〕。
                                37前引〔32〕,龙卫球文,第50页。
                                38参见张玉洁、胡振吉:《我国大数据法律定位的学说论争、司法立场与立法规范》,《政治与法律》2018年第10期,第147页。
                                39See Arrieta Ibarra I, Goff L, Jiménez Hernández D, et al, Should we treat data as labor? Moving beyond ‘free’, Social Science Electronic Publishing, 1(2017), pp.1-2.
                                40See ISO/IEC 2382:2015.
                                41前引〔27〕。
                                42参见纪海龙:《数据的私法定位与保护》,《法学研究》2018年第6期,第72页。
                                43前引〔7〕,梅夏英文,第168页。
                                44参见梅夏英:《虚拟财产的范畴界定和民法保护模式》,《华东政法大学学报》2017年第5期,第46页。
                                45前引〔27〕。
                                46参见戴昕:《数据隐私问题的维度扩展与议题转换:法律经济学视角》,《交大法学》2019年第1期,第40页。
                                47参见[英]查德威克:《互联网政治学:国家、公民与新传播技术》,任孟山译,华夏出版社2010年版,第69页。
                                48参见[美]多梅尔:《算法时代》,胡小锐、钟毅译,中信出版社2016年版,第40页。
                                49参见涂子沛:《数文明:大数据如何重塑人类文明、商业形态和个人世界》,中信出版社2018年版,第8页。
                                50参见[美]凯西·奥尼尔:《算法霸权:数字杀伤性武器的威胁》,马青玲译,中信出版社2018年版,第21页。
                                51前引〔48〕,多梅尔书,第136-140页。
                                52前引〔5〕,Yuval Noah Harari文, 第64-70页。
                                53参见[英]维克托·迈尔-舍恩伯格、[英]肯尼思·库克耶:《大数据时代》盛杨燕、周涛译,浙江人民出版社2013年版,第196页。
                                54See the New York City Council, Algorithmic Accountability Bill, Int. No. 1696-A.
                                55前引〔8〕。
                                56前引〔2〕,彭诚信书,第122-123页。
                                57转引自方新军:《权利客体论》,中国政法大学出版社2012年版,第110页。
                                58参见杨春福:《权利法哲学研究导论》,南京大学出版社2000年版,第64页。
                                59[德]迪特尔·施瓦布:《民法导论》,郑冲译,法律出版社2006年版,第134页。
                                60前引〔32〕,龙卫球文,第53页。
                                61参见(2010)海民初字第24463号民事判决书。
                                62参见[德]卡尔·拉伦茨:《法学方法论》,陈爱娥译,商务印书馆2003年版,第276-286页。
                                63参见于柏华:《权利认定的利益判准》,《法学家》2017年第6期,第1页。
                                64前引〔19〕。
                                65前引〔27〕。
                                66前引〔8〕。
                                67前引〔26〕,闫立东文,第58-59页。
                                68[德]马克思:《马克思恩格斯全集》(第1卷),人民出版社1956年版,第183、316页。
                                69陈彦晶:《发现还是创造:新型权利的表达逻辑》,《苏州大学学报》(哲学社会科学版)2017年第5期,第74页。
                                70前引〔63〕,于柏华文,第3页。
                                71参见[英]阿里尔·扎拉奇,[美]莫里斯·E·斯图克:《算法的陷阱:超级平台、算法垄断与场景欺骗》,余潇译,中信出版社2018年版,第39页。
                                72参见[美]劳伦斯·莱斯格:《代码2.0:网络空间中的法律》,李旭、沈伟伟译,清华大学出版社2018年版,第135页。
                                73参见徐恪、李沁:《算法统治世界:智能经济的隐形秩序》,清华大学出版社2017年版,第18页。
                                74See Tom Campbell, Rights: A critical introduction, London: Routledge, 2006, p.3.
                                75参见常鸣:百度诉奇虎360违反Robots协议案一审宣判, 载北京市第一中级人民法院网,2014年9月18日。
                                76[美]格伦顿:《权利话语:穷途末路的政治言辞》,周威译,北京大学出版社2006年版,第115页。
                                77参见凌斌:《法律救济的规则选择: 财产规则、责任规则与卡梅框架的法律经济学重构》,《中国法学》2012年第6期,第5页。
                              星云棋牌官网下载   78前引〔16〕。

                                韩旭至.数据确权的困境及破解之道[J/OL].东方法学:1-15[2019-01-06].http://doi.org/10.19404/j.cnki.dffx.20191230.002.
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