星云棋牌官网下载

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                                抵押不影响租赁合同的效力探析

                                时间:2019-01-06 来源:商业研究 作者:袁野 本文字数:13651字

                                  摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 对于抵押权和租赁权竞合问题,我国《民法典草案》对现行法条文进行了修正,但仍然有待完善。在抵押权和租赁权成立先后顺序的认定方面,《物权法》第190条存在法律漏洞,《民法典草案》第196条之修正仍有不足,应以“抵押权登记”作为判定基点;同时,移转占有并不足以补强交易安全,租赁权的认定也应以登记为首要标准。在法律效果方面,若为“先租后抵”,承租人既可对抗后手抵押权,又可基于租赁合同之继受保护向受让人主张继续履行租赁合同;倘系“先抵后租”,若租赁关系之存续对抵押权实现有不利影响,抵押权人可行使除去权消灭租赁关系,此时受让人可要求承租人返还租赁标的。

                                  关键词: 租赁权; 抵押权; 法定契约承受说; 除去权; 相对无效;

                                  一、问题之提出

                                  WULIANGYOUXIAN,QIJIAWUXIAN。CAICHANZHIJIAZHI,FEIJINXIYUSUOYOU,GENGQUANYULIYONG。JINGJIJIAOYIGAODUMIJIDESHANGYESHIDAI,GENGSHIRUCI。DIYAYUZULIN,YIWUQUANYIZHAIQUAN,SUIXINGZHIYOUBIE,QUXIANGGEYI,QUEYUMINSHANGSHIJIAOYIZHONGLVLVBINGCUN,YOUCIZHAOZHIZHUXIANGSONGZHENG,PINXIANYUSIFASHIWUZHIANDU1。

                                  YINXIANXINGFADUIYUDIYAQUANYUZULINQUANZHICHONGTUYUXIEDIAODEXIANGGUANGUIDINGJIFANQIEZA,JIESHIKONGJIANHAORAN,YINZHIXUEJIEZHENGZHIBUXIU、XINJIEPINGENG。《HETONGFA》DI229TIAOGUIDING:“ZULINWUZAIZULINQIJIANFASHENGSUOYOUQUANBIANDONGDE,BUYINGXIANGZULINHETONGDEXIAOLI”。GAITIAOBEISHIWEI“MAIMAIBUPOZULIN”ZHILANBEN[1],BINGBEIJIESHIKUOZHANGZHI“SUOYOUQUANRANGYUBUPOZULIN”,“DIYABUPOZULIN”FANGDEJUBEISHIYONGKONGJIAN[2]。GAITIAOSUIWEISHOUFAN,DANYANCIJIANLVE,DUIJUTIGUIZERUHESHIXINGWEIZHIYICI;YOUQISHIYINQIWEIZUODONGCHANYUBUDONGCHANZHIQUFEN,YIZAOXUEJIEZHUDUOJIANTAO[3,4]。ERHOU,《DANBAOFA》DI48TIAO,《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHIYONG〈ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUODANBAOFA〉RUOGANWENTIDEJIESHI》(FASHI[2000]44HAO)DI66TIAO,《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYURENMINFAYUANMINSHIZHIXINGZHONGPAIMAI、BIANMAICAICHANDEGUIDING》(FASHI[2004]16HAO)DI31TIAODI2KUAN,《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHENLICHENGZHENFANGWUZULINHETONGJIUFENANJIANJUTIYINGYONGFALVRUOWENTIDEJIESHI》(FASHI[2009]11HAO)DI20TIAO,《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAODENGFALVGUIFANDUICIJIAYIBUTONGCHENGDUDEXIHUAYUBUQIANG。GAIGUIFANQUNBUMINGZHICHUSHENDUO,HUOYINSHIXIAOBUYIQIANHOUCHONGTU[5],HUOYINGUIZETESHUYOUSUOJUXIAN[6],HUOYINYUYANBUXIANGLIJIEGEYI[7,8,9,10]。DANGXIAZHENGZHIMINFADIANBIANZUAN,CONGMUQIANCHENGXIANDECAOANTIAOWENLAIKAN,《MINFADIANCAOAN(HETONGBIAN)》(ERCISHENYIGAO)DI516TIAOZAI《HETONGFA》DI229TIAODEJICHUSHANGZENGJIALE“ZHANYOU”YAOSU2;TONGSHI,《MINFADIANCAOAN(WUQUANBIAN)》(ERCISHENYIGAO)(XIAJIANCHENG《CAOAN》)DI196TIAOJIANG《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAODIAOZHENGWEI“DIYAQUANSHELIQIANDIYACAICHANYICHUZUBINGZHUANYIZHANYOUDE,YUANZULINGUANXIBUSHOUGAIDIYAQUANDEYINGXIANG”。MUQIANDECAOANXIUGAINENGFOUJIEJUEXIANXINGFAZHISUODAILAIDEWENTI,RENGDAISHENJIU。

                                  此外,对于租赁权的特殊保护,比较法及法制史对此皆有迹可循。罗马时代,租赁制度已具雏形,当时系以“买卖破租赁”为原则,即物之买卖虽不使租赁解除,却不能对抗新所有权人,当承租人遭致驱逐,其仅可对出租人及其继承人行使诉权[11]。后因战争影响而致住房奇缺,为承租人利益计,《法国民法典》《德国民法典》《日本民法典》相继赋予租赁权对抗效力,“买卖不破租赁”原则逐步确立与发展[12]。随之成为大陆法系国家立法主流,“租赁权物权化说”于近世各国学界地位陡升,该说既坚持租赁权之债权本质,又认可其物权之对抗效力[13]。我国现行立法亦承其遗风,此于上述规范群中彰显。问题在于,“买卖不破租赁”原则若一脉相承系保护经济相对贫弱者——承租人生存地位之立法政策考量,则《合同法》第229条理应限定解释于住房租赁领域[4]。但世易时移,市场主体、财富形式日趋多元,住房短缺时代一去不返;况且孰强孰弱,孰富孰贫,岂凭一纸诉状所能轻易甄别?此外,更有学者指出占有移转方系租赁关系中实现支配(物权化)之关键[14],这点从现有《草案》条文修订中亦有显现。综上,在原有立法政策渐失其意前提下,对于抵押权与租赁权之关系,必须回归至平等关系视野下各方法律关系之分析,尤其是抵押权人、受让人与承租人之间的利益衡量,为具体制度设计的主心骨,亦本文展开研究思路主脉。
                                 

                                抵押不影响租赁合同的效力探析
                                 

                                  DUICI,GENJUFASHI[2000]44HAODI65TIAO、DI66TIAODI1KUANGUIDINGKEZHI,ZULINYUDIYACHENGLIDEXIANHOUSHUNXUYOUWEIGUANJIAN。RUO“XIANZUHOUDI”,DIYAQUANYIJIUKEYISHIXIAN,CHENGZURENKEXIANGSHOURANGRENZHUZHANGJIXULVXINGZULINHETONG;RUO“XIANDIHOUZU”,CISHIZULINGUANXIDUISHOURANGRENBUZAIJUYOUYUESHULI,ZULINGUANXICHUYUXUANERWEIJUEZHIZHUANGTAI。QICI,ZAICHENGZURENYUSHOURANGRENZHIGUANXICHULISHANG,《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAOQIANHOUJUZHIDUIBIGUIDINGYIYOUXIANGLEI。GAIYANZHI,ZAI“XIANZUHOUDI”QINGXINGXIA,CHENGZURENXIANGYOUWANQUANZIZHUQUAN,JIKEDUIKANGDIYAQUANREN,YOUKEYAOQIUSHOURANGRENJIXULVXINGZULINHETONG;ERZAI“XIANDIHOUZU”QINGXINGXIA,BINGBUBIRANDAOZHIZULINGUANXIZHIXIAOMIE,JINCHENGZURENZHIFALVDIWEICHUYUTAZHIJUMIAN。ZONGTIERYAN,JIAODIANWENTIYOUER:QIYI,ZULINQUANHEDIYAQUANCHENGLIDEXIANHOUSHUNXUJIUJINGDANGRUHERENDING,FANGWEIZUIYOU?QIER,《CAOAN》DI516TIAOYANXI《HETONGFA》DI229TIAODEFALVXIAOGUOBIAODA——“BUYINGXIANGZULINHETONGDEXIAOLI”,YINGZUOHEJIESHI?ZAIXIANZUHOUDIYUXIANDIHOUZUZHIBUTONGQINGXINGXIA,JUTIGUIZECHAYIYOURUHEQUFEN?

                                  二、租赁权与抵押权成立之先后顺序判定

                                  (一)《物权法》第190条之法律漏洞

                                  《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAOZHONGLIANGGESHIJIANDIANFENBIEWEI“DINGLIDIYAHETONGQIAN”YU“DIYAQUANSHELIHOU”,DANGENJU《WUQUANFA》DI187TIAOZHIBUDONGCHANCAIDIYADENGJISHENGXIAOZHUYI,DI188TIAOZHITESHUDONGCHANCAIDIYADENGJIDUIKANGZHUYI,RUOZULINHETONGCHENGLIYUDINGLIDIYAHETONGHOU、DIYAQUANCHENGLIQIAN,BIANHUICHUXIAN《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAOQIANHOUJUJIEWUSUOSHICONGZHIGANGAJINGDI,FALVLOUDONGYOUCICHANSHENG[6]。GAILOUDONGWEIFAN“JIHUAZHIBUWANZHENGXING”,CHANSHENGYUGUIFANBENSHEN,YINGSHU“GUIFANLOUDONG”[15]。JUTIERYAN,YIFANGMIAN,ZAIBUDONGCHANQINGXINGXIA,CISHICAIDENGJISHELIZHUYI,JINGUANDIYAHETONGYIRANDINGLI,DANZHIYAOWEIYUDENGJI,DIYAQUANSHANGWEIJIANLI,《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAOHOUJUZHISHIYONGGENGSHIWUCONGTANQI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZAIDONGCHANQINGXINGXIA,CISHICAIDENGJIDUIKANGZHUYI,DIYAQUANZIDIYAHETONGDINGLIZHIRIQISHENGXIAO,DANRUOWEIYUDENGJI,YIJIUWUFACHANSHENGDUIKANGZULINQUANZHIXIAOLI。YAOYANZHI,DUIYUGAITIAOHOUJUZHISHIJIANTIAOJIAN,BULUNDONGCHANHUOBUDONGCHAN,YUQISHUO“DIYAQUANSHELIHOU”,BURUWEI“DIYAQUANDENGJIHOU”GENGXIANSHIZHI。

                                  (二)抵押权视角下《草案》第196条的进步与不足

                                  CONG《CAOAN》DI196TIAODETIAOWENBIAODALAIKAN,YIFANGMIANQISUODUANLETIAOWEN,JIANGZHONGXINFANGZAIDIYAQUANSHELIQIANZULINQUANSHIFOUSHELIBINGZHUANYIZHANYOUDEYAOJIANKAOCHASHANG。LINGYIFANGMIAN,QIYONG“DIYAQUANSHELIQIAN”QUDAILE《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAODE“DINGLIDIYAHETONGQIAN”,HENDACHENGDUJIANQINGLEDIYAHETONGYINBIXINGSUOZAOCHENGDEJIAOYIFENGXIAN,ZHEIDIANSHITIAOWENXIUDINGDEJINBUZHICHU。DANSHICICHURENGRANCUNYOULOUDONG。ZAIDONGCHANDIYAQINGXINGXIA,RUOAYUBQIANDINGDONGCHANDIYAHETONG,DANWEIDENGJI;SUIHOU,AJIANGGAIDONGCHANCHUZUJISHANYICBINGYIZHUANZHANYOU,CISHIDONGCHANDIYAQUANYIRANCHENGLI。DANGENJU《CAOAN》DI194TIAOGUIDING,DONGCHANDIYAQUANRENGCAIDENGJIDUIKANGZHUYI,WEIDENGJIBBUDEDUIKANGSHANYIDISANRENC。TONGSHI,RUGUODUI《CAOAN》DI196TIAOJINXINGFANMIANJIESHI,ZEGAILIZHONGBZEKEYIDUIKANGSHANYIDISANRENC,DANCIJUBINGWEIGAIBIANDONGCHANDIYAQINGXINGXIA《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAOZHONGDINGLIDIYAHETONGBIANCHENGLIDIYAQUANSUODAILAIDEJIAOYIFENGXIAN,GUBUKEQU。

                                  SHISHISHANG,FASHI[2009]11HAODI20TIAODUI“MAIMAIBUPOZULIN”ZHILIWAIGUIDINGDI(YI)XIANGYEJIANG“DIYAQUANSHELI”ZUOWEISHIJIANDIAN,DANGAISIFAJIESHIJINZHENDUIFANGWUZULIN,YIJIZAIBUDONGCHANDIYADENGJISHENGXIAOZHUYIMOSHIXIA,“DIYAQUANSHELI”YU“DIYAQUANDENGJI”KEYIDENGTONG。CONGSHIJIANSHUNXUKAN,《WUQUANFA》SHENGXIAOZAIQIAN,GAISIFAJIESHICHUTAIZAIHOU,ERFAJUNCAI“DIYAQUANSHELI”ZHIYONGYU,YOUCICHUAIDU,LIFAZHECICHUSIYUQIANGDIAO“WUQUANYIRANCHENGLI”ZHISHIZHIHOUGUOYU“WUZHAIERQUANQUFENYUANZE”ZHIMINFAYUANLI。YIWAIDESHI,YINDIYAQUANDUIDONGCHANYUBUDONGCHANCAIQUBUTONGGONGSHIYUANZE,《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAOYOUYUJIANGERCHANGAIERSHUZHI,YOUCIBIANCHUSHULOU。GUIGENJIEDI,LIFAZHEZAICIYUJIANG“DENGJISHISHI”TIAOGUO,ZHIJIEJIANG“FALVXIAOGUO”QIANZHIRU“GOUCHENGYAOJIAN”ZHIZHONG,JITANGYIXIANYOUGUIDING,FAGUANZAISHIYONGGAITIAOSHIRENGHUIXIANYUSHENCHASHEANCAICHANSHIFOUDENGJIZHISHISHI,FANGKEDUANDING“DIYAQUAN”DEFOUCHENGLIHUOSHIFOUJUBEIDUIKANGXIAOLI。GUCONGTIXIJIESHIKAN,YI“DENGJISHISHI”ZUOWEISHIJIANYAOSUZHIGOUCHENGYAOJIANGENGWEITUOSHI。BUZHIYUCI,JINGUANFASHI[2000]44HAODI66TIAOWEIMINGQUETIJIDIYAQUANDEFOUDENGJIZHISHISHI,DANYIN《DANBAOFA》DI43TIAODI2KUANQUEYAN“WEIJINGDENGJIDEDIYAQUANBUJUYOUDUIKANGXIAOLI”,GUGAISIFAJIESHIDI66TIAOJINSHIYONGYUYIDENGJIDEDIYAQUAN[16]。CIGUANDIANYUSHANGSHUFENXIBUMOUERHE。

                                  LINGWAI,JIEHE《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAOHOUJUZHONG“GAIZULINGUANXIBUDEDUIKANGYIDENGJIDEDIYAQUAN”ZHIFALVHOUGUO,BUNANKANCHU,GAITIAOZHIYIYUDENGJIDUIKANGZHUYIDUIYUXIANZHI“DIYABUPOZULIN”ZHIZHONGDAYIYI(DENGJISHENGXIAOZHUYIBENSHENBIANYIYUNHANDUIKANGZHIXIAOGUO)。SHENYANZHI,DUIYUDINGLIDIYAHETONGHOU,WEIYUDENGJIZHIQIANCHENGLIZULINHETONGZHIQINGXING,RUOWEIDONGCHANDIYAQUANWUDUIKANGXIAOLI,TANGXIBUDONGCHANDIYAQUANZESHANGWEICHENGLI,SUIJUTISHIYOUBUYI,DANCONGCHENGZURENDUIDIYAQUANRENZHIKANGBIANJIAODUKAN,CIERYOUJIEKECHANSHENG“DIYABUPOZULIN”ZHIZUIZHONGXIAOGUO,SHUTUTONGGUI。

                                  YINCI,CONGMUDEXINGJIESHIHETIXIJIESHIKEZHI,CONGDIYAQUANJIAODULAIKAN,“DIYAQUANDENGJI”FANGXIZULINQUANDEFOUDUIKANGDIYAQUANZHIFENSHUILING,《CAOAN》DI196TIAOZHONGDE“DIYAQUANSHELIQIAN”RENGYOUQUELOU,YINGGAIWEI“DIYAQUANDENGJIQIAN”。

                                  (三)租赁权视角下移转占有之缺陷及其替代性方案

                                  ZHIYUZULINQUANDEPANDING,SHOUXIAN《CAOAN》196TIAOHE516TIAODOUQIANGDIAOLEZHANYOUYIZHUANDEGUANJIANYAOSU,TONGYANGXIAOCHULEZULINHETONGYINBIXINGSUODAILAIDEJIAOYIFENGXIAN,CIXIJINBUZHIJU。DANKEYIJIEWENDESHI,YOUQIZAIBUDONGCHANQINGXINGXIA,JINPINGYIZHUANZULINWUZHIZHANYOUBIANKEQUEBAOJIAOYIANQUANMA?BENWENDUICICHIYOUYIYI。SHOUXIAN,CONGSHIJIANLAIKAN,ZAIBUDONGCHANZULINZHONG,DANGSHIRENTONGGUOXUGOUHUODAOQIANZULINHETONGBINGZHUANYIZHANYOU,JINERHUODEZULINQUANDEDUIKANGXIAOLILAIZUAITARENQUANLISHIXIANDEANLIBUZAISHAOSHU。ZHEIDIANCONGZUIGAORENMINFAYUAN《GUANYURENMINFAYUANBANLIZHIXINGYIYIHEFUYIANJIANRUOGANWENTIGUIDING》(FASHI[2015]10HAO)ZHUANSHEDI31TIAODI2KUAN3YUYIGUIZHIKEJIANYIBAN。TONGSHI,SUIZHEJIAOFUXINGSHIDEDUOYANGHUA,ZHANYOUDEQUANLITUIDINGGONGNENGRIQUWEIRUO,JIAOFU(YIZHUANZHANYOU)ZUOWEIGONGSHIFANGSHIZHIYI,ZAIXUEJIEYIRANZAODAOJIANTAO[17]。YINCI,JIANGYIZHUANZHANYOUZUOWEIPANDINGBIAOZHUN,SUIRANBUSHUXIACE,DANYEBINGFEISHANGCE。XIANGFAN,YOUQIZAIBUDONGCHANLINGYU,ZUINENGBAOHUJIAOYIANQUAN、JIANGDIBUCEFENGXIANDEGONGSHIFANGSHIRENGSHIDENGJI。LIRU,YOUXUEZHEZHUZHANGJIANGFANGWUZULINQUANDENGJIZUOWEIXINDEDENGJILEIXINGZHIYI,CHONGFENTIXIANZULINQUANWUQUANHUADEDUIKANGXIAOLI[18]。CIWAI,CHANGPENGAOJIAOSHOUJIZHUZHANGJIANGFANGWUZULINZUOWEIYUGAODENGJIDELEIXINGZHIYI[19],TONGSHIYEZAILINGWENZHONGKENRENFANGWUZULINDENGJIBEIANDEGONGSHIXIAOLI[20]。

                                  BENWENRENWEI,CONG2014NIAN《BUDONGCHANDENGJITIAOLI》JIQIHOUXUCHUTAIDESHISHIXIZELAIKAN,LIFASHANGBINGWEIKENRENZULINQUANDENGJIZUOWEIDANDUDENGJILEIXING,GUANYUJIANGZULINQUANZUOWEIYUGAODENGJIDELEIXINGZHIYIYEWEIJIANMIAOTOU。GUJINJIUMUQIANLIFADONGXIANGLAIKAN,TONGYIDEZULINDENGJIZHIDURENGXUSHIRI。DANSHI,JIEYOUFANGWUZULINHETONGWANGQIANBEIANZHIDULAIPEIHE“DIYABUPOZULIN”DEGUIZESHIJIAN,ZESHIFUHEXIANXINGZULINFAZHIHEWANGQIANBEIANZHIDUZOUXIANGDEKEXINGFANGAN。LIRU,2018NIAN7YUESHANGHAISHILVXIANTUICHU“ZHUFANGZULINHETONGWANGQIANBEIANGONGGONGFUWUPINGTAI”,MUQIANZANSHISHIHETONGWANGQIANYUDENGJIBEIANGEZIDULI,HOUXUJIANGZHUBUSHIXIANYITIHUA。BINGQIE,CONGSHIJICAOZUOLIUCHENGLAIKAN,FUZEZHUFANGZULINHETONGWANGQIANJIGOUSHIZHUFANGSUOZAIQUDEFANGDICHANJIAOYIZHONGXIN,YUZHUFANGMAIMAIJIAOYIDENGJISHUYUTONGYIJIGOU。QIECONGWANGQIANLIUCHENGLAIKAN,ZULINZHUFANGDEQUANSHUZHENGMINGSHIBIBEICAILIAOZHIYI。JUCITUIZHI,ZAITONGYIBUMENXIADETONGYIXITONGNEISHIXIANZHUFANGZULINXINXIZAIZHUFANGMAIMAIJIAOYIZHONGDESHISHIZHUANGTAIGONGXIANGWANQUANJUYOUKEXINGXING4。LINGWAI,WOGUOSHANGPINFANGMAIMAIWANGQIANJIAOYIJIZHIYIYOUXIANGDANGJINGYANJILEI,WANGQIANBEIANMOSHISHISHISHANGYIJINGFAHUIZHEWANGLUOHUAZHAIQUANGONGSHIDENGJIDEZUOYONG[21]。ZHIYAOFANGWUQUANSHUYUZULINXINXIXITONGHUTONGYOUWU,NEIMEBAOKUOMAIMAI、ZULIN、DIYA、CHAFENGZAINEIDESHISHIFALVZHUANGTAIDOUJIANGKEGONGCHAYUE,RUCIJIKEJIANSHAOJIAOYIFENGXIAN,YOUNENGTIGAOSHICHANGXIAOLV,SHIDE“ZULINQUANYUDIYAQUAN”DEJINGHERENDINGWENTINENGZAIBULINGXINGZENGJIAZHIDUCHENGBENDEQIANTIXIADEDAOYOUXIAOJIEJUE。

                                  YINCI,YIDANFANGWUZULINWANGQIANBEIANJIZHIZAIQUANGUOPUJIKAILAI,HUOWEILAIGUANYUZULINDENGJIZHIDUKAISHIZHUBUGOUJIAN,DUIYUBUDONGCHANLINGYUDEDIYAQUANHEZULINQUANJINGHEWENTI,YINGYIDENGJIWEISHOUYAOPANDINGYUANZE,JINJINYIZHUANZHANYOUDEFANGWUZULINBUDEDUIKANGYIJINGDENGJIDEDIYAQUAN。DUIYUDONGCHANYOUQISHIJIDONGCHE、CHUANBODENGTESHUDONGCHAN,YIYINGJIANGDENGJIZUOWEISHOUYAOKAOLIANGYAOSU,ZHANYOUJINNENGZUOWEICIWEIDEFUZHUBIAOZHUN。WEIDUIYUSHANGBUCUNZAIDENGJIKENENGDEYIBANDONGCHANZERENGYIYIZHUANZHANYOUWEIKAOLVBIAOZHUN。JUTIJINGHECHULIGUIZESHULIRUXIA:ZAIBUDONGCHANQINGXINGXIA,DIYAQUANHEZULINQUAN(BAOKUOWANGQIANBEIANDENGJI)DOUYIDENGJIDE,YIDENGJISHIJIANXIANHOUZUOWEIPANDINGBIAOZHUN;DIYAQUANDENGJIDANZULINWUJINYIZHUANZHANYOUDE,WEIJIAOYIANQUANJI,DIYAQUANDENGJIWEIXIAN;DIYAQUANWEIDENGJIQINGXINGZEDIYAQUANBINGBUCHENGLI,GUBUCUNZAIJINGHEWENTI。ZAIDONGCHANQINGXINGXIA,DIYAQUANHEZULINQUANDOUYIDENGJIDE,YIDENGJISHIJIANXIANHOUZUOWEIPANDINGBIAOZHUN;DIYAQUANDENGJIDANZULINWUJINYIZHUANZHANYOUDE,DIYAQUANDENGJIWEIXIAN;DIYAQUANWEIDENGJI,ZULINWUDENGJIHUOYIZHUANZHANYOUDEWEIXIAN(CISHICHENGZURENXUWEISHANYI);DIYAQUANWEIDENGJI,JINYOUZULINHETONGQIEWEIZHUANYIZHANYOUDE,ANZHAOGEZIHETONGDESHENGXIAOSHIJIANQUEDING。

                                  三、法律效果认定:“不影响租赁合同的效力”

                                  YIHETONGSHENGXIAOZHIXUELICHANGSHI,YIBANQINGXINGXIA,ZHIYAODANGSHIRENSHIGE,YISIBIAOSHIYIZHI,HETONGNEIRONGBUWEIFANFALVXIAOLIXINGQIANGZHIGUIDING,BUWEIBEIGONGXULIANGSU,HETONGJIWEIYOUXIAO。ERYINDIYADENGYUANYINSUOYINFAZHISUOYOUQUANBIANDONG,SHISHUZULINHETONGZHIWAIBUXINGWEI,YUZULINHETONGZHIXIAOLINANYOUGUANLIAN。JINCONGWENYIKAN,《CAOAN》DI516TIAO(《HETONGFA》DI229TIAO)ZHONG“BUYINGXIANGZULINHETONGDEXIAOLI”ZHIBIAOSHUSIXIANLEIZHUI。YINCI,JIEHEXIANXINGQITAGUIFAN,CANZHUOXUEJIEGESHUODUIGAIJUJINYIBUJIAYIJIESHI,XUNYOUBIYAO。

                                  (一)“先租后抵”:法定契约承受说

                                星云棋牌官网下载   FASHI[2000]44HAODI65TIAOYANMING:“DIYARENJIANGYICHUZUDECAICHANDIYADE,DIYAQUANSHIXIANHOU,ZULINHETONGZAIYOUXIAOQINEIDUIDIYAWUDESHOURANGRENJIXUYOUXIAO”。YIGAITIAOZHIYI,SUOWEI“YOUXIAO”XIZHIDUIDIYAWUDESHOURANGRENZHIXIANGDUIYOUXIAO。JUTIZHIMINFATIXIZHONGZHIQUANLIJICHU,XUEJIEZHONGSHUOFENYUN,ZHULIUZHISHUOYOUSI:FADINGQIYUECHENGSHOUSHUO;ZHAIZHIGENGXINSHUO;WUQUANBAOHUSHUO;YOUQUANZHANYOUWEICHISHUO[22]。QIZHONGFADINGQIYUECHENGSHOUSHUOWEIXUEJIETONGSHUO,XIZHISHOURANGRENCISHICHENGWEIXINCHUZUREN,GAIKUOCHENGSHOUYUANCHUZUREN(DIYAREN)ZHIQUANLIYUYIWU,JIZHAIZHIZHUTIBIANGENG,ZHAIZHITONGYIXINGYIRAN[23]。ERZHAIZHIGENGXINSHUOZERENWEIZAICIQINGXINGXIA,FEIJINZHAIZHIZHUTIBIANGENG,ZHAIZHITONGYIXINGYIWANG,SHOURANGRENYUCHENGZURENZHIJIANYIXINZHAIQUDAIJIUZHAI。WUQUANBAOHUSHUOZEJIANGZULINQUANSHIWEIYONGYIWUQUAN,GUKECHANSHENGDUIKANGSUOYOUQUANRENZHIXIAOLI[24]。YOUQUANZHANYOUWEICHISHUOZERENWEICHENGZURENDEYIJIXUZULINXIJIYUZULINHETONGSUOCHANSHENGZHIYOUQUANZHANYOULAIDUIKANGSHOURANGRENZHIFANHAIYUANWUQINGQIUQUAN[25]。

                                  BENWENRENWEI,SHOUXIAN,CHENGRANCICHUZULINQUANJUYOUWUQUANHUAZHIXIAOLI,DANZULINQUANBENZHIRENGSHUZHAIQUAN,QIZAIZHUDUOFANGMIANBINGBUJUYOUWUQUANTEZHENG。GUWUQUANBAOHUSHUOGUOYUPIANJI,SHANGNANGOUTONG。YOUQUANZHANYOUWEICHISHUOQUESHIZAIWOGUOZULINDENGJIZHIDUSHANGBUWANSHANZHIJIAOYIHUANJINGXIA,WULUNSHIJIANGDIDAODEFENGXIAN,YIHUOJIANQINGDUIDANGSHIRENYISIZIZHIZHIXIANZHIFANGMIAN,XIANGJIAOQITASANXIANGXUESHUOWEIYOU。DANSHI,YOUQUANZHANYOUDEQUANYUANRENGXIYUANCHUZURENYUCHENGZURENZHIJIANQIANDINGDEZULINHETONG,QIYOUQUANZHANYOUDEQIXIANZHANGDU、ZUJINJIAONADENGYINSURENGDEYIYUANZULINHETONGWEIJUHUO。YINCI,DUIYUYUANZULINHETONGZHONGDEBIBEIHETONGYAOSUERYAN,JIAOYIFENGXIANRENGRANWUFAWANQUANBIMIAN。LINGYIFANGMIAN,CISHIYUANCHUZURENYIRANZHUANRANGBIAODEWUZHISUOYOUQUANYUSHOURANGREN,DANGAISHUOQIANGZHIQIBUDETUICHUZULINGUANXI,ERSHISHISHANGCISHIZULINGUANXIZHONGCHUZUFANGDELIHAIGUANXIRENYIBIANWEISHOURANGREN,YIDANCHENGZURENZAIZULINQIJIANYOUZHONGDAWEIYUEXINGWEI,LIRUHUISUNZULINWU、ZHANGQIRAOLUANZHOUWEIJUMINSHENGHUO,SHOURANGRENQUEYINFEIWEIZULINHETONGDANGSHIRENERWUFAZHUZHANGJIECHUHETONGJIXIANGYINGDEWEIYUEZEREN。CISHISHOURANGRENYAOMEDEQIUZHUYUYUANCHUZUREN,YAOMEDEJIEDAOFUBAOHUDISANRENXIAOLIHETONGHUODISANRENSUNHAIQINGSUANZHIDUYUYIBUJIU,TUZENGQUANLIJIUJIZHIRAODAOCHENGXU。GAISHUOZAILIYIHENGLIANGSHANGYIBUZUQU。

                                星云棋牌官网下载   ZHIYUFADINGQIYUECHENGSHOUSHUOYUZHAIZHIGENGXINSHUO,YIWEISHOURANGRENJIARUJIUZHAI,YIWEISHOURANGRENGOUJIANXINZHAI,ERZHEZAIFALISHANGXIANGLEI。DANCONGXUELIPUJIDUHESHIJIKECAOZUOXINGERYAN,FADINGQIYUECHENGSHOUSHUOJIAOYOUYOUSHI。SHENYANZHI,ZHAIZHIGENGXINSHUOJINGUANMINGYISHANGBURANGSHOURANGRENSHOUJIUZHAIYUESHU,JILEZHONGXIUQIYUENEIRONGZHIZIYOU。DANSHIZHEIZHONGQIANGZHISUOSHENGZHIZIYOUFANERRANGDANGSHIRENNANYISHICONG。SHIXIANG,YIDANSHOURANGRENYUCHENGZURENWEINENGDACHENGZHONGDINGZULINHETONGZHIHEYI,JIANYUCISHISHUYU“XIANZUHOUDI”QINGXING,SHIFOUYINGDANGYINGYUNCHENGZURENYIFANGQINGQIUFAYUANYIQITIGONGDEZULINHETONGYUSHOURANGRENQIANGZHIDINGLI?RUSHI,SHOURANGRENRENGRANKENENGZAOSHOUBUCEFENGXIAN。RUFOU,ZHAIZHIGENGXINSHUOJIANGYUGAIXIANGGUIZEDEGUIFANYIZHIXIANGWEI。SHISHISHANG,JIAOYIFENGXIANZHIYUBINGFEIFADINGQIYUECHENGSHOUSHUOZHIDUYOUXIACI,ERSHIYISHANGSISHUOJIEWUFABIMIANZHIGONGTONGQUEDIAN,JIAOYIFENGXIANDEJIANGDIYUXIAOCHUDUANLAIYUGONGSHIJIZHIDEWANSHAN。YINCI,SHANGWENYIYOUTIJI,JIASUFANGWUZULINWANGQIANBEIANZHIDUZAIQUANGUOFANWEINEIDEPUJI,JIAKUAIJIANLIBAOHANTESHUDONGCHANHEBUDONGCHANZAINEIDEZULINDENGJIZHIDUCAISHIJIANGDIJIAOYIFENGXIAN,BAOZHANGJIAOYIANQUANDEZHIBENZHICE。QICI,CONGMINFAYUANLIERYAN,ZULINHETONGDEJISHOUBAOHUYEZUIWEIFUHEZULINQUANWUQUANHUAZHITEXING[14],CIYIGAISHUOCHENGWEITONGSHUOZHIZHUYIN。ZHIYUZAIDENGJIZHIDUQUERUQINGXINGXIASUOSHENGDEBULITIAOKUANWENTI,KEYIJIEZHU《CAOAN》DI323TIAO(QINGSHIBIANGENGYUANZE)YUYIDIAOZHENG,YUANCHUZURENYUCHENGZURENGOUCHENGEYICHUANTONGDE,HAIKEZHUZHANG《MINFAZONGZE》DI154TIAOYUYIJIUJI。TONGSHI,ZAIYUANCHUZUREN(CHUMAIREN)、CHENGZURENYUSHOURANGRENSANFANGGUANXIZHONG,YUANCHUZURENDUIYUBIAODEWUDEZULINHEDIYAQINGXINGQUANRANZHIXI,SHOURANGRENYINYUANCHUZURENWEIYUGAOZHIZULINQUANDEZAIXIANCUNZAIERZAOSHOUSUNHAIDE,LIYINGLEITUISHIYONGFASHI[2000]44HAODI66TIAOXIANGYUANCHUZURENZHUZHANGSUNHAIPEICHANGZEREN,GAIDIANZAIHOUXULIFAZHONGYEYINGYUYIMINGQUE。

                                  (二)“先抵后租”:除去权之行使规则

                                  1.除去权之行使主体。

                                  ZAI“XIANDIHOUZU”QINGXINGXIA,QINGSHIJIYOUBIANGENG。CHENGZURENYUSHOURANGREN、DIYAQUANRENZHIFALVGUANXIGEYOUNIUZHUAN。CHAFASHI[2000]44HAODI66TIAODI1KUANGUIDING,“DIYARENJIANGYIDIYADECAICHANCHUZUDE,DIYAQUANSHIXIANHOU,ZULINHETONGDUISHOURANGRENBUJUYOUYUESHULI”。QIZHONGSUOWEI“ZULINHETONGDUISHOURANGRENBUJUYOUYUESHULI”,XIZHIDIYAWUDESHOURANGRENJIEKEYIJIYUZIJIDEYISI,XUANZEHUOWEICHIZULINGUANXI[26]。HUANYANZHI,CISHISHOURANGRENJUYOUZULINGUANXIZHICHUQUQUAN。RAN,ZAISHANGWENYOUQUANZHANYOUWEICHISHUOZHILUOJIQIANTIXIA,CISHIWUFAXUNDESHOURANGRENJUBEICHUQUZULINQUANZHIQINGQIUQUANJICHU。ZHIYUCHUQUQUANZHISHUOFA,GENJUFASHI[2004]16HAODI31TIAODI2KUANGUIDING,“PAIMAICAICHANSHANGYUANYOUDEZULINQUANJIQITAYONGYIWUQUAN,BUYINPAIMAIERXIAOMIE,DANGAIQUANLIJIXUCUNZAIYUPAIMAICAICHANSHANG,DUIZAIXIANDEDANBAOWUQUANHUOZHEQITAYOUXIANSHOUCHANGQUANDESHIXIANYOUYINGXIANGDE,RENMINFAYUANYINGDANGYIFAJIANGQICHUQUHOUJINXINGPAIMAI”。GAIQUANLIZHIXINGSHIZHUTIYINGXIYUDIYAQUANRENERFEISHOURANGREN,GUSHANGZHONGLIJIEZHIDESHANGQUE。

                                  BINGQIEGAIJIESHIDI10TIAOMINGYAN,ZAIFAYUANQIANGZHIZHIXINGGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHIXINGRENYUANYINGDANGDUIPAIMAICAICHANDEQUANSHUZHUANGKUANG、ZHANYOUSHIYONGQINGKUANGDENGJINXINGBIYAODEDIAOCHA,ZHIZUOPAIMAICAICHANXIANZHUANGDEDIAOCHABILUHUOZHESHOUJIQITAYOUGUANZILIAO。JUCITUIDUAN,SHOURANGRENLIYINGDUIPAIMAIWUZHIQUANSHUZHUANGTAIYIQINGERCHU。TAFANGMIAN,GENJU《PAIMAIFA》DI18TIAO、27TIAOZHIGUIDING,ZAIDANGSHIRENXIESHANGPAIMAIZHIQINGXINGXIA,WEITUORENDUIPAIMAIREN、PAIMAIRENDUIJINGMAIRENJUNYOUDUIPAIMAICAICHANXIACIYUYISHUOMINGZHIYIWU,PAIMAIWUSHANGZHIZULINFUDANYIKEZHIQING。YAOYANZHI,JIRANZAILIANGZHONGPAIMAIQINGXINGXIASHOURANGRENJIEMINGZHIZULINGUANXIZHIQUANLIFUDANERGANYUANCHENGSHOU,JISHIDIYAQUANSHIXIANHOU,SHOURANGRENRENGDESHOUZULINHETONGYUESHU,CIYIXIAOJIELEFADINGQIYUECHENGSHOUSHUOZHIQIANZAIFENGXIAN。GUZAIGAIZHONGYUJINGXIA,YINDIYAQUANRENZHILIYIZUIZHIYOUXIANBAOHU,FALVYIFUYUQIWEICHUQUQUANZHIWEIYIZHUTI。NEIME,WENTIZHIGUANJIANZHUANHUAWEI:DIYAQUANRENDEZAIHEZHONGQINGXINGXIAFANGKEXINGSHICHUQUQUAN?

                                  2.除去权行使之判断标准。

                                  YOUXUEZHERENWEI,《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAOHOUJUZHONG“ZULINGUANXIBUDEDUIKANGYIDENGJIDEDIYAQUAN”SHIZHI,DIYAQUANRENZAISHIXIANDIYAQUANSHI,DIYAWUSHANGSHELIDEZULINGUANXIWUTIAOJIANSHIQUXIAOLI,FOUZEYUWUQUANYOUXIANXIAOLIGUIZEXIANGBEI。QILIYOUWEI:JIRANMOUXIANGCAICHANYIBANLIDIYAQUANDENGJI,ZECHENGZURENKECONGBUDONGCHANDENGJIBUZHONGCHAXUNDAONIZULINZHICAICHANSHANGSHIFOUCUNZAIDIYAQUANDENGQUANLIFUDAN。RUOCHENGZURENMINGZHIDIYAQUANZHICUNZAI,RENGYUCHUZURENCHENGLIZULINGUANXI,QIYINGZIDANFENGXIAN。TANGFEIRUCI,CAICHANBEIDIYAHOUCHUZUDE,RUOYIRANSHIYONG“MAIMAIBUPOZULIN”GUIZE,DIYAQUANXIAOLIJIANGDADAZHEKOU,SHELIDIYAQUANDEYIYIYIDANGRANWUCUN5。YOURURIBENXUEZHESUOYAN,ZAIXIANDIYAQUANZHISHIXINGZAOYUCIDENGKUNJINGSHI,JIYUDIYAQUANDE“CHUFENYUANZE”,YINGSHIDIYAWUJINLIANGHUIFUZHIDIYAQUANSHELISHIZHIZHUANGTAI;WEICI,DIYAQUANRENKEYIGANSHEDIYAWUSHANGZULINDENGYONGYIGUANXI,QINGQIUPAICHUDIYAQUANRENSHELIHOUZAIDIYAWUSHANGSUOZENGFUDAN,SHIDIYAWUDEYI“JINGSHENPAIMAI”[27]。CHENGRAN,ZAIGAIQINGXINGXIA,JISUANZULINJUYOUWUQUANHUAXINGZHI,DANYEJINSHIHOUCHENGLIZHIYONGYIWUQUAN,GENJUDUOZHONGDINGXIANWUQUANJINGHESHIQIANSHOUYOUXIANYUHOUSHOUYUANZE,ZAIXIANCHENGLIZHIDANBAOWUQUANZIDANGJUYOUYOUXIANXIAOLI。

                                  GAISIWEIMOSHIZAISIFASHIWUZHONGYIYOUMINGXIANFANYING。JUBIZHESUOCHA,DUIYUXIANDENGJIDIYAQUANCHENGLIYUXIAN,ZULINCHENGLIYUHOUZHE,FAYUANYIBANHUIJINGZHIPANJUEDIYAQUANRENKECHUQUZULINGUANXI,ZELINGCHENGZURENXIANQINEIFANHAIZULINWUYUNYUNZHISHUOFA6。ZONGSHANG,GUANJIANYIWEI,CHENGRENDIYAQUANRENQUANLIZHIYOUXIANSHIXIANBINGFEIYIWEIZHEZAIFALVSHIYONGSHANGXUDUIDIYAQUANRENYIFANGYIBIANDAOZHIQUSHI,GAIZHONGLIJIEYIRANCHAOGUOQIBIYAOBAOHUXIANDU,NANMIANHUIZAOCHENGBUBIYAOZHICHENGBENHAOSUN,YASUOYISIZIZHIKONGJIAN。

                                  TUIYIBUERYAN,JIEHEFASHI[2004]16HAODI31TIAODI2KUANZHIGUIDING,CICHUYIDEYOUHUANCHONGDIDAIZHICUNZAIKENENG,JI“ZULINGUANXIBUDEDUIKANGYIDENGJIDEDIYAQUAN”YIZHI,“GAIZULINGUANXIBUDEDUIYIDENGJIDIYAQUANZAOCHENGBULIYINGXIANG”[28]。CANKAOWOGUOTAIWANDIQU“MINFA”DI866TIAOGUIDING:“BUDONGCHANSUOYOURENSHEDINGDIYAQUANHOU,YUTONGYIBUDONGCHANSHANG,DESHELIDISHANGQUANHUOQITAYISHIYONGSHOUYIWEIMUDEZHIWUQUAN,HUOCHENGLIZULINGUANXI。DANQIDIYAQUANBUYINCIERSHOUYINGXIANG”。QIZHONGSUOWEI“QIDIYAQUANBUYINCIERSHOUYINGXIANG”ZHE,XIZHIZULINGUANXIZHICUNZAI,SHIDIYAQUANZHISHIXINGSHOUYINGXIANGZHE,ZAIDIYAQUANRENSHENGQINGPAIMAIDIYAWUSHI,DESHENGQINGZHIXINGFAYUANZHONGZHIZULINGUANXIYIHUOYOUZHIXINGFAYUANYIZHIQUANWEIZHI。ERSUOWEI“DIYAQUANZHISHIXIANSHOUYINGXIANG”ZHE,XIZHIZULINGUANXIYINGXIANGDIYAWUZHIJIAOHUANJIAZHI,DIYAWUJIAZHIYINERJIANSHAO,FASHENGWURENYINGMAIHUOCHUJIABUZUYIQINGCHANGDANBAOZHAIQUANZHIQINGXING[29]。LINGWAI,ZAICHENGXUSHANGKEYICANZHUORUISHIFADESHUANGZHONGBAOJIACHENGXU,JISHOUCIPAIMAIFUZHEZULIN,RUOSUODEJIAZHIZUYIDICHANGDIYAQUAN,ZEZULINCUNXUDUIDIYAQUANBINGWUBULIYINGXIANG;SUIHOUJINXINGDIERCIWUZULINFUDANPAIMAI,RUODIERCIPAIMAISUODEGUJIAGAOYUSHOUCI,ZEKERENDINGZULINCUNXUYOUYINGXIANG,KEYUCHUQU[20] 。

                                  QIAQIAXIANGFANDESHI,JISUANDIYAQUANRENTONGYIDAIZUYUEZHIDIYAWUPAIMAI,WOGUOMOUFAYUANRENGWEIJIANGCIFANGKAI,QILIYOUWEI:“YOUYUAGONGSIWUQITACAICHANKEGONGZHIXING,AGONGSISHEANFANGDICHANZUOZHIXINGBIAODE,QIPAIMAICHENGJIAOJIABUJINYINGXIANGDIYAQUANRENDELIYI,ERQIEYINGXIANGQITAZHAIQUANRENDELIYI。JIDAIZUYUEFUDANPAIMAIJIAJIANGMINGXIANDIYUCHUQUZULINQUANDEPAIMAIJIA,ZAIYOUXIANQINGCHANGDIYAZHAIQUANHOU,SHENGYUDEJIAKUANYOUQITAZHAIQUANRENPINGJUNFENPEISUODEJIAKUANYEBIRANXIANGYINGJIANSHAO。BGONGSIZUOWEIDIYAQUANRENSUIMINGQUEBIAOSHITONGYIDAIZUYUEPAIMAI,DANBENANZULINQUANBUNENGDUIKANGDIYAQUAN,RUODAIZUYUEPAIMAIJIANGSUNHAIQITAZHAIQUANRENDELIYI,GENJUFASHI[2004]16HAODI31TIAODI2KUAN,YIFACHUQUZULINQUAN”7。YOUGAIPANCIKEZHI,JIBIANDIYAQUANRENRENWEIZULINGUANXIDUISHIXIANQIGERENDIYAQUANWEIYOUBULIYINGXIANG,DANGAIDIYACAICHAN(ZULINWU)FEIJINDIYAQUANRENYIRENSHOUCHANG,QITAZHAIQUANRENZHIKEDELIYIYIKONGZAOJIANSHA,GURENGYINGCHUQUZULINQUAN。BENWENRENWEI,YISHANGWENFENXI,ZULINGUANXIJINBUDEDUIKANGYIDENGJIZHIDIYAQUAN,RUODIYACAICHANSHANGCUNZAIRUOGANYIDENGJIDIYAQUANZHIJINGHE,QIZHONGRENYIYIRENZHIDIYAQUANSHIXIANZAOZHIBULIYINGXIANG,JUNKECHUQU,ZANWUYIWEN;DANRUOJINSHIQITAPUTONGZHAIQUAN,YIZHAIQUANPINGDENGYUANZE,QIEBENANFAGUANYOUWEIYANMINGCIZHAIQUANJUBEIFASHI[2004]16HAODI31TIAODI2KUANZHONG“QITAYOUXIANSHOUCHANGQUAN”ZHITIAOJIAN,ZEQIBINGBUJUYOUYOUXIANYUZULINGUANXIZHIQINGQIUQUANJICHU,BENANFAGUANJIANGCIZUOWEICHUQUZULINQUANZHILIYIKAOLIANGJIDIAN,SHIZHISHANGQUE。

                                  ZONGSHANG,CHUQUQUANZHISHIYONGTIAOJIANBUYIYIGAIERLUN,YOUQIZAISIFASHIWUZHONGSHIYONGCUFANGWENTI,YOUYINGZHENZHUO。《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAOHOUJUYUFASHI[2004]16HAODI31TIAODI2KUANZHENGGOUCHENGCHUQUQUANSHIYONGQIANTIZHIPANDINGBIAOZHUN,WEI“DIYAWUJIAZHIYINERJIANSHAO,FASHENGSHOUCILIUPAI、WURENYINGMAIHUOCHUJIABUZUYIQINGCHANGDANBAOZHAIQUAN”DENGXIANGDANGCHENGDUZHIBULIYINGXIANGFANGYOUSHIYONGYUDI。ERQIJUTISHIXIANFANGFA,JIQIANSHELILUNSHANGZHIZHENGDANGXING,YOUGUANHUSHIWUCAOZUOZHIKEXINGXING,XIAWENJIANGXIANGSHUZHI。

                                  3.除去权之实现方式。

                                星云棋牌官网下载   GENJU《WUQUANFA》DI195TIAOZHIGUIDING,DIYAQUANZHISHIXIANFANGSHI,JIKEYOUDANGSHIRENYUEDING,YIKESHENQINGFAYUANQIANGZHIZHIXING。ZAIDANGSHIRENTONGGUOYUEDINGFANGSHISHIXIANDIYAQUANSHI,YOUXUEZHERENWEI,CISHIDIYAQUANRENKEYAOQIUDIYAREN(CHUZUREN)YUCHENGZURENJIECHUZULINHETONG,ERCHENGZURENBUDEYI“MAIMAIBUPOZULIN”YUYIKANGBIAN[30]。DIYAQUANRENJIFEIZULINHETONGZHIDANGSHIREN,YOUFEIGONGGONGLIYIQIANGSHIJIERUZHIDAIBIAOZHE,HELAIJIECHUQITAMINSHIZHUTIJIANHETONGGUANXIZHIQUANBING8?YEYOUXUEZHERENWEI,ZULINHETONGYINSHOURANGRENZHONGZHIZULINHETONGERXIAOMIE[26]。QIANWENYIZHENG,CHUQUQUANJINXIYUDIYAQUANRENZHISHOU,SHOURANGRENWUQUANZHONGZHIZULINHETONG。LINGYOUGUANDIANRENWEI,YIDANDIYAQUANSHIXIAN,ZULINGUANXIZIRANERWANG[31]。WEIJINGRENHEYISIBIAOSHI,FALVGUANXIQIKEJIARANERZHI?ZHEIXIESHUOFAJIECUNZAIBUTONGCHENGDUZHIQUELOU,ZHISHANGQUE。

                                星云棋牌官网下载   CIWAI,CHENGXIAOJIAOSHOURENWEI,CIZHONGQINGXINGYINGRENDINGWEIZULINHETONGZHIXIANGDUIWUXIAO,BENWENYUYIZANTONG[6]。XIANGYANZHI,XUESHUOSHANG“HETONGZHIXIANGDUIWUXIAO”XIZHI,HETONGJINXIANGDUIMOUGETEDINGRENBUSHENGXIAOLI,DUIQITARENRENGSHENGXIAOLI,HUOHETONGZHIWUXIAOBUNENGDUITEDINGRENZHUZHANG[32]。BIJIAOFASHANG,HETONGZHIXIANGDUIWUXIAOZHIDUXIWEIBAOHUTEDINGRENLIYIERSHEDING,RU《DEGUOMINFADIAN》DI135TIAODI1XIANGQIANDUANGUIDING,DUIMOUYIBIAODEDECHUFENWEIFANJINYIBAOHUMOUXIETEDINGRENWEIMUDEDEFADINGRANGYUJINZHIDE,GAIXIANGCHUFENZHIDUIZHEIXIETEDINGRENBUSHENGXIAOLI[33]。ZAIFENLEISHANG,XIANGDUIWUXIAOYUJUEDUIWUXIAOXIANGDUIYING,QIEHETONGWUXIAOXIYIJUEDUIWUXIAOWEIYUANZE,XIANGDUIWUXIAOWEILIWAI,BINGXIANYUFALVMINGDINGZHIQINGXING[34]。WOGUOGUIFANSUIWEIDUIXIANGDUIWUXIAOZHIDUYUYIGUIDING,DANQIZAIWOGUOSIFASHIJIANZHONGQUEYIYOUYUNYONG9。JUBIZHESUOCHA,WOGUOSIFASHIJIANZHONGDE“XIANGDUIWUXIAO”HANYIZHUYOUER:QIYISHIZHIZANSHIDEWUXIAO,HOUXUHAIYOUBUZHENGKENENG,ZHUYAOSHIZHIKEBIANGENG、KECHEXIAODEHETONG10;QIERZESHIZHIMOUXIEGUIFANSHIWEIBAOHUTEDINGDISANRENLIYIERSHE,HETONGYINWEIFANGAIGUIFANZHIXIANGDUITEDINGDISANRENWUXIAO11。XIANRAN,WOGUOSIFASHIJIANZHONGYIJINGFAZHANCHUJIAOWEIXITONGMINGQUEDEXIANGDUIWUXIAOLEIXING。JUZHIBENWEN,FASHI[2004]16HAODI31TIAODI2KUANSUOFUYUZHICHUQUQUANJISHIDUIBAOHUTEDINGREN——QUEBAODIYAQUANRENSHUNLIBAOJIASHIXIANDIYAQUANZHIZUOZHENG,GUWEIYOUDIYAQUANREN,ZAIZULINGUANXIZHICUNXUDUIDIYAQUANSHIXIANZAOCHENGBULIYINGXIANGSHI,KEXIANGCHENGZURENZHUZHANGZULINHETONGWUXIAO。

                                星云棋牌官网下载   ERZAIFAYUANQIANGZHIZHIXINGZHISHIXIANLUJINGZHONG,QINGKUANGSHIFOUYOUSUOQUBIE?SHOUXIAN,ZAISUSONGCHENGXUSHANG,《MINSHISUSONGFA》DISHIWUZHANG“TEBIECHENGXU”ZHONGDIQIJIE,YIZHUANSHE“SHIXIANDANBAOWUQUAN”ZHIFEISUCHENGXU,HOU《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHIYONG<ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA>DEJIESHI》(FASHI[2015]5HAO)YOUJIAYIQUANPANXIHUA。GENJU《MINSHISUSONGFA》DI196TIAO、DI197TIAOHEFASHI[2015]5HAODI361TIAOZHIGUIDING,DIYAQUANRENYINGXIANXIANGDANBAOCAICHANSUOZAIDIHUOZHEDANBAOWUQUANDENGJIDIJICENGRENMINFAYUANSHENQINGSHIXIANDANBAOWUQUAN,RUOFAYUANSHENCHAFUHEFALVGUIDINGDE,ZEKEYIFAYUANCAIDINGSHENQINGQIANGZHIZHIXING;RUOCAIDINGBOHUISHENQINGDE,DIYAQUANRENKELINGXINGTIQISUSONGCHENGXU,RUOHUOZHISHENGSUPANJUE,ZIKEZAIYIGAIPANJUESHENQINGFAYUANQIANGZHIZHIXING。JINGUANSHENQINGFAYUANQIANGZHIZHIXINGTUJINGYOUER,DANDUIYUDEFOUXINGSHICHUQUQUANERYAN,FAYUANSHIZEZAIDIYAQUANRENSHENQINGSHIXIANDANBAOWUQUANJIEDUANYIYINGZHIXI。YIFASHI[2015]5HAODI367TIAODI4XIANGZHIGUIDING,DIYAQUANRENSHENQINGSUOXUTIJIAOCAILIAOBAOKUO“DANBAOCAICHANXIANZHUANGDESHUOMING”,YIYANZHI,RUODIYACAICHANSHANGCUNYOUZULINDENGYONGYIGUANXI,DIYAQUANRENLIYINGXIANGFAYUANYUYISHUOMING。BINGQIEGAIJIESHIDI370TIAOJINYIBUGUIDING,“RENMINFAYUANSHENCHASHIXIANDANBAOWUQUANANJIAN,KEYIXUNWENSHENQINGREN、BEISHENQINGREN、LIHAIGUANXIREN,BIYAOSHIKEYIYIZHIQUANDIAOCHAXIANGGUANSHISHI”。JIZAIYIBANQINGXINGXIA,DUIYUDIYAQUANSHIXIANTIAOJIANDEFOUCHENGJIU、DIYACAICHANSHIFOUCUNYOUQITAQUANLIFUDANDENGSHENCHAYAOJIAN,FAYUANYINGXIQUANPANZHIXI。

                                  RUOFAYUANZHUNYUSHIXIANDIYAQUAN,NEIME,CHUQUQUANZHIXINGSHIQIJIAN,YINGZAIFAYUANZUOCHUQIANGZHIZHIXINGCAIDINGSHUHOU,JUTIQIANGZHIZHIXINGZHIQIAN。YOUXUEZHERENWEI,ZAIGAIZHONGQINGXINGXIA,“CHUQU”YILIJIEWEIJIECHUHETONG,JIFAYUANQIANGSHIJIERUZULINHETONGSHIHETONGDANGSHIRENBUNENGYUJIAN、BUNENGBIMIANBINGBUNENGKEFUDEKEGUANQINGKUANG,YI《HETONGFA》DI94TIAODI1XIANG“YINBUKEKANGLIZHISHIBUNENGSHIXIANHETONGMUDE”ZHIGUIDING,DANGSHIRENRENHEYIFANGKEYITICHUJIECHUHETONG12。BENWENRENWEI,CIZHONGQINGXINGXIA,FAYUANXINGSHICHUQUQUANYUSHANGWENDIYAQUANRENZHUZHANGZULINHETONGZHIXIANGDUIWUXIAOBINGWUSHIZHICHABIE,JIFAYUANXIANGCHENGZURENFACHUSHUMIANTONGZHI,GAOZHIQIZULINHETONGWUXIAO,ZELINGQIXIANQIBANLIDIYACAICHAN。BIJINGDIYAQUANRENFANGXICIZHONGFALVGUANXIZHILIYIZUIQIANGGUANLIANZHE,“DUISHIXIANDIYAQUANDEFOUYOUBULIYINGXIANG”ZHIZHUGUANPANDINGZAIYUDIYAQUANRENBENRENERFEIFAYUAN。HUANYANZHI,CICHUFAYUANZHIZHIXINGQIANGZHICUOSHIWUNINGSHIYIZHONGLEISIYUWUZHUGUANDULIYISHIZHICHUNCAOZUOXINGWEI,QISHENCHAZHUXIYUDIYAQUANSHIXIANTIAOJIANSHIFOUCHENGJIUYIJIGEXIANGJIBENSHISHISHIFOUSHUSHI,ERDUIYUSHIFOUCHUQUZULINQUAN,QIZHIZAIGUANCHEDIYAQUANRENZHIYIZHI。RUOCHENGZURENDUIGAICAIDINGCHIYOUYIYI,GENJU《MINSHISUSONGFA》DI225TIAO、FASHI[2015]5HAODI374TIAOZHIGUIDING,KEXIANGZHIXINGFAYUANTICHUYIYI13。

                                星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANG,WULUNSHIYUEDINGSHIXIANDIYAQUANQINGXINGXIADIYAQUANRENXINGSHICHUQUQUAN,YIHUOFADINGSHIXIANDIYAQUANQINGXINGXIAFAYUANDAIWEIXINGSHICHUQUQUAN,ZAIDIYAQUANSHUNLISHIXIANHOU,SHOURANGRENFANGYOUQUANYAOQIUCHENGZURENFANHAIZULINCAICHANHUOBANLIBUDONGCHAN14。DANGRAN,YOUQIZAIBIAODEWUWEIZHUFANGSHI,CHUYUDUICHENGZUFANGZHISHEHUIXINGBAOHU,YINGJIYUCHENGZURENXUNZHAOQITAZHUFANGDESHIDANGSHIJIAN,DANGRANZAICIQIJIANCHENGZURENYINGXIANGSHOURANGRENJIAOFUYISHICHANGZUJINWEICANZHAODEZHANYOUSHIYONGFEI。ZHEIDIANZAISIFASHIJIANZHONGKEYIJIYUCHENGSHIXINYONGYUANZE,LEITUISHIYONGHETONGQUANLIYIWUZHONGZHIHOUDEHOUHETONGYIWU(《HETONGFA》DI92TIAO)YUYIBAOZHANG。

                                  四、结论

                                  “FALVDEZUOYONGHERENWUZAIYUCHENGREN、QUEDING、SHIXIANHEBAOZHANGLIYI,HUOZHESHUOYIZUIXIAOXIANDUZHIZUAIHELANGFEILAIJINKENENGMANZUGEZHONGXIANGHUCHONGTUZHILIYI”[35]。DIYAQUANYUZULINQUANZHIJINGHE,QIANSHEDUOFANGZHUTIZHILIYIKAOLIANGYUQUANLICHONGTU,BUDEBUCHUZHIJINSHEN,CHAQIJINGXI。JIYUCI,BENWENYIMINFADIANBIANZUANHEWANSHANWEIQIJI,ZONGJULIFA、PANLIYUXUESHUO,DUI“DIYABUPOZULIN”GUIZEJINXINGZHONGXINJIANSHIYUTANTAO,XIANCHANGSHIDECHURUXIAJIELUN,YISHIDUIKAIPIANSUOLIEWENTIZHIJIEDA:

                                  QIYI,DUIYUDIYAQUANHEZULINQUANDEXIANHOUSHUNXURENDINGWENTI,XUCONGDIYAQUANHEZULINQUANLIANGMIANKAOLV。DIYAQUANFANGMIAN,《WUQUANFA》DI190TIAOZHONG“DIYAHETONGCHENGLIQIAN”YU“DIYAQUANCHENGLIHOU”ZHISHIJIANDIANCUNYOUFALVLOUDONG,《CAOAN》DI196TIAOZHIXIUZHENGFANGSHIRENGXIANBUZU,YIYI“DIYAQUANDENGJI”ZUOWEIPANDINGJIDIAN。ZULINQUANFANGMIAN,《CAOAN》DI196TIAOHEDI516TIAOSUIBUCHONGLEYIZHUANZHANYOUZHIYAOSU,RAN,JIEHEXUESHUOYUSHIJIAN,ZHANYOUZHIRUOGONGSHIXINGYEYIQIANGHAIJIAOYIANQUAN。YINCIRENGYINGJIANGDENGJIZUOWEISHOUYAOPANDINGBIAOZHUN,ZHANYOUJINNENGZAIDONGCHANQINGXINGXIAZUOWEICIWEIRENDINGYAOSU。ZHIYUDENGJIZHIDUDETUIXINGFANGAN,CONGDUANQIKAN,KEYIJIASUZULINHETONGWANGQIANBEIANDENGJIZHIDUDEXINXIXITONGJIANSHE;ZHANGQIERYAN,KEYIZHUBUQUELIZULINDENGJIZHIDU。

                                星云棋牌官网下载   QIER,《CAOAN》DI516TIAO(《HETONGFA》DI229TIAO)ZHONG“BUYINGXIANGZULINHETONGDEXIAOLI”JUTIJIESHIRUXIA:ZAI“XIANZUHOUDI”ZHIQINGXINGXIA,CHENGZURENPINGJIEZULINQUANZHIWUQUANHUAXIAOLIKEDUIKANGDIYAQUANRENZHIHOUSHOUDANBAOWUQUAN,YIKEJIYUZULINHETONGZHIJISHOUBAOHUDUISHOURANGRENZHUZHANGJIXULVXINGZULINHETONG。ZAI“XIANDIHOUZU”ZHIQINGXINGXIA,RUOZULINGUANXIZHICUNXUDUIDIYAQUANZHISHIXIANYOUBULIYINGXIANG,GENJUDIYAQUANZHIBUTONGSHIXIANFANGSHI,DIYAQUANRENKEZIXINGHUOSHENQINGFAYUANXINGSHICHUQUQUAN,ZHUZHANGZULINHETONGZHIXIANGDUIWUXIAO。ZULINGUANXIXIAOMIEHOU,CHENGZURENCONGYOUQUANZHANYOUZHUANWEIWUQUANZHANYOU,SHOURANGRENFANGKEXIANGCHENGZURENZHUZHANGFANHAIDIYACAICHAN。CISHIKEYILEITUISHIYONGHOUHETONGYIWU,DUICHENGZURENDEZHENGDANGLIYIYUYISHIDANGBAOHU。

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                                  [35] [美]罗斯科·庞德.通过法律的社会控制[M].沈宗灵,译.北京:商务印书馆,1984:33.

                                  注释

                                  1 据笔者在北大法宝数据库以《物权法》第190条(抵押权与租赁权关系)作关联法条式搜索,共搜得305个案例,且具体纠纷案由各异,法院处理方式也不尽相同,后文着重示范之案例皆源于此(,最后访问日期:2018-05-17)。
                                  2 《民法典草案》(合同编)第516条:“租赁物在承租人依据租赁合同占有期间发生所有权变动的,不影响租赁合同的效力”。
                                  3 法释[2015]10号第31条第2款:“承租人与被执行人恶意串通,以明显不合理的低价承租被执行的不动产或者伪造交付租金证据的,对其提出的阻止移交占有的请求,人民法院不予支持”。
                                  4 “上海全面实施住房租赁合同网签备案制度”,载上海市住房租赁公共服务平台,http://www.shzfzl.gov.cn/news/news2.html.,2019年5月24日。
                                  5 参见广州市中级人民法院(2013)穗中法民五终字第357号民事判决书;上海市第一中级人民法院(2013)沪一中民二(民)终字第2351号民事判决书等。
                                  6 参见上海浦东新区人民法院(2011)浦民一(民)初字第13348号民事判决书;南京市江宁区人民法院(2012)江宁民初字第1810号民事判决书;贵港市中级人民法院(2011)贵民二终字第33号民事判决书等。
                                  7 参见广东省高级人民法院(2013)粤高法民二终字第61号民事判决书。
                                  8 参见贵港市中级人民法院(2011)贵民二终字第33号民事判决书,本案中二审法官明确指出,抵押权人非租赁合同之当事人,依合同相对性原理,其无权主张解除或撤销合同。
                                  9 据笔者在北大法宝数据库以“相对无效”为关键词作关联检索,与之相关的民事案例共465例,其中合同纠纷共计165例(,最后访问日期:2018-05-25)。
                                  10 参见贵州省贵州省中级人民法院(2018)黔01民终766号民事判决书;河南省光山县人民法院(2017)豫1522民初2404号民事判决书;“赵军辉与浙江现代商贸物流发展有限公司房屋租赁合同纠纷上诉案”,载《人民司法·案例》第2012年第16期。
                                  11 参见“广东省深圳市盛联按揭代理有限公司与中国银行股份有限公司深圳市分行合作协议纠纷上诉案”,载《人民司法·案例》第2012年第22期。“陈翠玉诉黄少荣、庞伟侵犯房屋优先购买权纠纷案”,载《人民法院案例选》2007年第3辑;上海市第二中级人民法院(2018)沪02民终3903号民事判决书。
                                  12 刘恒军.是否应该除去拍卖财产上原有的租赁权[EB/OL].[2018-05-24].中国法院网.
                                  13 在该案中,法院做出执行裁定后,对承租人发出《通知》,“百货公司起湾道房地产变现成交后,百货公司起湾道房地产各占用人应当按照本院通知在十五日内就占用场地向买受人移交,拒不移交的,原审法院将予以强制执行”。后承租人对该《通知》提起执行异议之诉。参见广东省高级人民法院(2013)粤高法民二终字第61号民事判决书。
                                星云棋牌官网下载   14 具体至实务中,在租赁权除去后,受让人提起诉讼之诉因各异,有“损害赔偿、排除妨害之诉”,参见 (2011)浦民一(民)初字第13348号民事判决书;有“占有返还之诉”,参见上海市第一中级人民法院(2013)沪一中民二(民)终字第2351号民事判决书等;有“侵权之诉”,参见贵港市中级人民法院(2011)贵民二终字第33号民事判决书;有“物权保护之诉”,参见南京市江宁区人民法院(2012)江宁民初字第1810号民事判决书。

                                  袁野.“抵押不破租赁”之利益衡量与规则完善[J].商业研究,2019(12):145-152.
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