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                            买卖合同“调包”纠纷中证明责任由谁承担

                            时间:2019-01-21 来源:法制博览 作者:王国征 本文字数:3139字

                              摘    要: 实践中对买卖合同“调包”纠纷的证明责任分配并不相同,有的判决认为应由买方对自己没有实施“调包”的事实承担证明责任,有的判决则认为应由卖方对买方实施“调包”的事实承担证明责任。2015年《民诉解释》第91条所依据的规范说自身的不足使其不能适用于买卖合同“调包”纠纷案件。应当明确规定由买方对自己没有实施“调包”的事实承担证明责任。

                              关键词: 买卖合同; 调包; 证明责任;

                              MAIMAIHETONGZHONGZAIMAIFANGJIAOFUHETONGYUEDINGDEHUOWUZHIHOU,MAIFANGSHENGCHENGHUOWUZHILIANGYOUWENTISHENZHISHIJIAHUO,MAIFANGZHUZHANGMAIFANGDUIJIAOFUDEHUOWUSHISHILE“DIAOBAO”,ERMAIFANGZHUZHANGANSHEHUOWUJIUSHIMAIFANGSUOJIAOFUDEHUOWU。ZAIGAIZHENGYISHISHINANYICHAMINGDEQINGKUANGXIA,RUHEYIJUZHENGMINGZERENZUOCHUPANJUE,YOUTANTAOZHIBIYAO。

                              一、买卖合同中“调包”纠纷证明责任分配的两种不同的做法

                              ZHENGMINGZERENFENPEI,SHIZHIZAIYAOJIANSHISHIZHENWEIBUMINGQINGXINGXIA,GENJUYIDINGBIAOZHUNJIANGQIBULIHOUGUODECHENGDANZAIDANGSHIRENZHIJIANJINXINGFENPEI。[1]BENWENTONGGUOCHAYUEZHONGGUOCAIPANWENSHUWANG,FAXIANSHENPANSHIJIANZHONGDUIMAIMAIHETONG“DIAOBAO”ZHENGMINGZERENFENPEIYOULIANGZHONGBUTONGDEZUOFA:

                              (一)由买方对自己没有实施“调包”的事实承担证明责任

                              ZAILIAONINGSHENGSHENYANGSHIZHONGJIRENMINFAYUAN(2017)LIAO01MINZHONG5256HAOMINSHIPANJUESHUZHONG,FAYUANRENWEI,“BEISHANGSURENDEKANGBIAN,YISHIZHANGMOUCHUJUDEPUTAOJIUSHIFOUWEIZAIBEISHANGSURENCHUGOUMAIYIDAIZHENGSHISHICHUYUZHENWEIBUMINGDEZHUANGTAI,GENJU《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHIYONG<ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA>DEJIESHI》DIYIBAILINGBATIAOGUIDING:DUIYIFANGDANGSHIRENWEIFANBOFUYOUJUZHENGZHENGMINGZERENDEDANGSHIRENSUOZHUZHANGSHISHIERTIGONGDEZHENGJU,RENMINFAYUANJINGSHENCHABINGJIEHEXIANGGUANSHISHI,RENWEIDAIZHENGSHISHIZHENWEIBUMINGDE,YINGDANGRENDINGGAISHISHIBUCUNZAI。JUCI,SHANGSURENZHANGMOUYINGJIXUJIUQITIJIAOSHANGPINJIWEIZAISHANGSURENCHUGOUMAIFUZHENGMINGZEREN,XIANSHANGSURENTIJIAODEZHENGJUBUNENGZHENGMINGQIDAIZHENGSHISHI,YINGCHENGDANBULIHOUGUO。”BENZHENGTICHUDEZHUTISHIFUYOUZHENGMINGZERENDEYIFANGDANGSHIREN,ERFANZHENGTICHUDEZHUTIZESHIBUFUZHENGMINGZERENDEYIFANGDANGSHIREN。《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHIYONG〈ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOMINSHISUSONGFA〉DEJIESHI》(FASHI[2015]5HAO)(JIANCHENG2015NIAN《MINSUJIESHI》)DI108TIAODUIBENZHENGHEFANZHENGDEZHENGMINGBIAOZHUNZUOCHULEQUFENGUIDING,BENZHENG,XUYAOSHIFAGUANDENEIXINQUEXINDADAOGAODUKENENGXINGDECHENGDU;FANZHENGZEZHIXUYAOSHIBENZHENGDUIDAIZHENGSHISHIDEZHENGMINGXIANYUZHENWEIBUMINGDEZHUANGTAI。GAIPANJUEMINGQUERENDINGZHANGMOUDUIANSHEPUTAOJIUSHICONGBEISHANGSURENCHUGOUMAISUOTIGONGDEZHENGJUSHUYUBENZHENG,QIEPANJUEMINGQUEZAIDAIZHENGSHISHIZHENWEIBUMINGQINGXINGXIAYOUZHANGMOUCHENGDANBULIHOUGUO。KEJIANGAIPANJUERENWEI,DUIMAIMAIHETONGZHONG“DIAOBAO”JIUFENSHIYOUMAIFANGDUIZIJIMEIYOUSHISHI“DIAOBAO”DESHISHICHENGDANZHENGMINGZERENDE。

                              (二)由卖方对买方实施“调包”的事实承担证明责任

                              在北京市第二中级人民法院(2018)京02民终7916号民事判决书中,法院认为,“某新风店上诉主张涉案商品不是某新风店所售、涉案商品被刘某调包且刘某不是普通消费者,但未提供充分证据加以证明,应承担相应的不利后果。”该判决实际上将买方实施“调包”的事实证明责任分配给了卖方。
                             

                            买卖合同“调包”纠纷中证明责任由谁承担
                             

                              二、关于买卖合同中“调包”纠纷证明责任的讨论

                            星云棋牌官网下载   MAIMAIHETONGZHONG“DIAOBAO”JIUFEN,QIZHONGYINGXIANGJIAODADEYOUMOUDISHUIJINGQIUAN。GAIANXIGUMOUYU1999NIANZAIMOUDIMOUSHANGSHAYI2944YUANDEJIAGEGOUMAILEBIAOQIANSHANGZHUMINGWEI“TIANRANHUANGSHUIJINGQIU”YIKE,HOUYISUOGOUSHUIJINGQIUGENBENBUSHITIANRANSHUIJINGQIUERSHIFANGJIESHIWEIYOUXIANGFAYUANQISUSUOPEI。BEIGAOFANGBIANCHENG:YUANGAOSHISHILE“DIAOBAOJI”,JIJIANGZAIBEIGAOCHUGOUMAIDESHUIJINGQIUHUANCHENGLEZAIFATINGSHANGCHUSHIDEJIASHUIJINGQIU,JI“CIQIUFEIBIQIU”;ERYUANGAOZEZHUZHANGZAIFATINGCHUSHIDEJIASHUIJINGQIUJIUSHICONGBEIGAOCHUMAILAIDE,JI“CIQIUNAIBIQIU”。[2]DUIYUGAIANDEZHENGMINGZERENFENPEI,YOUZHUZHANGYINGMAIFANGJIMOUSHANGSHADUI“CIQIUFEIBIQIU”SHISHICHENGDANZHENGMINGZERENDE,[3]YEYOUZHUZHANGYINGYOUFAGUANGENJUGONGPINGYUANZEHECHENGSHIXINYONGYUANZEJINXINGZIYOUCAILIANGDE。[4]JIAOYOUYINGXIANGDEANLIHAIYOUSHANGHAIMOURIHUAYOUXIANGONGSIYUSHANGHAIMOUSUJIAOYOUXIANGONGSIHUANGSULIAOTONGJIUFENAN,[5]DUIYUGAIANYOURENZHUZHANGYINGYOUMAIFANGDUIMAIFANGSHISHILE“DIAOBAO”CHENGDANZHENGMINGZEREN。[6]

                              LILUNSHANG,YOUDEYIJUFALVYAOJIANFENLEISHUORENWEI,YINGYOUMAIFANGDUIANSHEHUOWUSHIYOUMAIFANGTIGONGDESHISHICHENGDANZHENGMINGZEREN。[7]YEYOUXUEZHERENWEI,YINGDANGYOUMAIFANGDUIBIAODEWUBEIDIAOBAODESHISHICHENGDANZHENGMINGZEREN。[8]

                              三、本文的观点:由买方对自己没有实施“调包”的事实承担证明责任

                              “DIAOBAO”JIUFENANDUOFASHENGYUDAITIWUMAIMAIHETONG。BUDAITIWURU,TUDI、TEDINGYISHUPINDENG,JINANDIAOBAO。[9]DIAOBAOSHUYUXIACIJIFU。XIACIJIFUSHUYUBUDANGLVXINGDEQINGXINGZHIYI,SHIZHIZHAIWURENDEJIFUHANYOUXIACIDEJIFU。XIACIJIFUYOUSHULIANGBUZU、ZHILIANGBUFU、LVXINGFANGFABUDANG、LVXINGDIDIANBUDANG、LVXINGCHIYANDENGDUOZHONGBIAOXIANXINGSHI。ANSHEHUOWUSHIFOUWEIMAIFANGSUOTIGONGWENTI,YINGWEIXIACIJIFUZHONGDEZHILIANGBUFUWENTI。

                              2015NIAN《MINSUJIESHI》DI91TIAOGUIDINGLEWOGUOMINSHIANJIANZHENGMINGZERENFENPEIDEYIBANGUIZE。“DIAOBAO”JIUFEN,YEKEYISHUOSHIMAIFANGSHIFOULVXINGLEDUIWUDEXIACIDANBAOYIWUWENTI。WUDEXIACIDANBAOYIWUSHIZHIMAIFANGYINGDANBAOSUOJIAOFUDEBIAODEWUDEPINZHIFUHEYAOQIU,JIPINZHIWUXIACI。GENJU《MINSUJIESHI》DI91TIAODI(1)XIANG,MAIFANGQISUYAOQIUMAIFANGCHENGDANWEIYUEZEREN,YINGDUICHANSHENGGAIWEIYUEZERENFALVGUANXIDEJIBENSHISHIJIMAIFANGMEIYOULVXINGWUDEXIACIDANBAOYIWU(YEJIUSHIMAIFANGZIJIMEIYOUSHISHI“DIAOBAO”)DESHISHICHENGDANZHENGMINGZEREN。TONGSHI,MAIFANGZHUZHANGANSHEHUOWUFEIYOUQITIGONG(YEJIUSHIMAIFANGSHISHILE“DIAOBAO”),ZHEISHIWEIYUEZERENFALVGUANXIXIAOMIEHUOZUAIDESHISHI;YIJU《MINSUJIESHI》DI91TIAODI(2)XIANG,YINGYOUZHUZHANGWEIYUEZERENFALVGUANXIXIAOMIEHUOZUAIDESHISHIDEMAIFANGDUIGAISHISHIDECUNZAICHENGDANZHENGMINGZEREN。XIANRAN,2015NIAN《MINSUJIESHI》DI91TIAOGUIDING,BUSHIYONGYUDIAOBAOZHEILEIXIACIJIFUZHENGMINGZERENWENTI。2015NIAN《MINSUJIESHI》DI91TIAOGUIDINGSUOYIJUDEGUIFANSHUOBINGFEISHIWANMEI,QIYOUZISHENDEBUZU,CHANSHENGFALVGUANXIJIBENSHISHIDEBUCUNZAI,YEJIFANGHAIHUOXIAOMIEQUANLIDEJIBENSHISHI;FANGHAIHUOXIAOMIEQUANLIDEJIBENSHISHIDEBUCUNZAI,YEJICHANSHENGFALVGUANXIDEJIBENSHISHI。ZHEIYEXUSHIXUDUOMAIMAIHETONG“DIAOBAO”JIUFENCAIPANBUSHIYONG2015NIAN《MINSUJIESHI》DI91TIAODEYUANYIN。

                              BENWENRENWEI,YINGTONGGUOLIFAHUOZHESIFAJIESHIGUIDINGYOUMAIFANGDUIZIJIMEIYOUDIAOBAOJIANSHEWUPINJIUSHIMAIFANGJIAOFUDEWUPINCHENGDANZHENGMINGZEREN,LIYOUYOU:(1)CONGHETONGYIWULVXINGLAIKAN,MAIFANGLVXINGJIAOHUOYIWU,MAIFANGYUYIJIESHOU,JIYINGTUIDINGQILVXINGYIWUWUXIACIERBUYINGTUIDINGQILVXINGYIWUYOUXIACI。RUOJIANGMAIFANGMEIYOULVXINGXIACIDANBAOYIWUDEZHENGMINGZERENFENPEIJIMAIFANG,WUYIJIUSHITUIDINGQILVXINGYIWUYOUXIACI。RUGUOCUNZAIZHEIYANGDETUIDING,YEJIUYIWEIZHEMAIFANGJIAOHUOMAIFANGJIEHUO,ZAIJIAOJIEGUOCHENGZHONGDEHUOWUSHIBUFUHEPINZHIYAOQIUDE。ZHEIXIANRANSHIXINGBUTONGDE。YINCI,BUYINGYOUMAIFANGJIUQILVXINGBUCUNZAIXIACICHENGDANZHENGMINGZEREN。JIRANMAIFANGYIJINGJIESHOUMAIFANGDEJIFULVXING,SHUOMINGMAIFANGSHIRENKEJIAOYIBIAODEWUDE,FOUZEQIKEYIJUJUEJIESHOU。JIESHOUHOUFAXIANBIAODEWUYOUXIACIDE,JICUNZAIMAIFANGXIACIJIFU,DANGRANYINGYOUMAIFANGDUICUNZAIXIACIJIFUCHENGDANZHENGMINGZEREN。(2)CONGWEIYUEZERENKAN,DAITIWUMAIMAIHETONGZHONGXIACIJIFUSHUYUWEIYUEXINGWEI。WEIYUEXINGWEISHIWEIYUEZERENDEZHUYAOGOUCHENGYAOJIAN,SHENZHISHIWEIYIDEGOUCHENGYAOJIAN。MAIFANGQISUZHUIJIUMAIFANGDEWEIYUEZEREN,JIUYAODUIWEIYUEZERENDEGOUCHENGYAOJIANCHENGDANZHENGMINGZEREN。FOUZE,MAIFANGJIUMEIYOUQITAZHENGMINGZERENKEYICHENGDANDELE。(3)CONGJUZHENGNENGLIKAN,ZAIMAIFANGYIJINGLVXINGJIAOHUOYIWUMAIFANGYIJINGJIESHOULVXINGDEQINGKUANGXIA,SHUANGFANGDANGSHIRENDUIJIAOYIBIAODEWUDOUYOUYIDINGDELEJIE,KEYISHUOSHUANGFANGDIWEIDUIDENG。JIAOHUOHOU,ANSHEWUPINZAIMAIFANGDEKONGZHIZHIXIA,KEYISHUO,XIANGDUIERYANMAIFANGJULIZHENGJU(ANSHEWUPIN)GENGJIN,JUZHENGNENGLIJIAOQIANG。

                              四、结语

                              MAIMAIHETONG“DIAOBAO”JIUFENZHENGMINGZERENFENPEIBUWANQUANXIANGTONG,DAOZHIDESUSONGJIEGUOBUTONGSHENZHIWANQUANXIANGFAN。CIZHONGXIANXIANGJISUOWEIDE“TONGANBUTONGPAN”。ZHEIYIXIANXIANGDECUNZAI,XIANRANSHIBULIYUWOGUOFAZHIJIANSHEDE。BENWENDUICITICHUZIJIBUCHENGSHUDEKANFA,JINGQINGPIPINGZHIZHENG。

                              参考文献

                              [1]王国征.侵权法中证明责任价值取向研究[M].北京:法律出版社,2018.15.
                              [2]王国征.民事证据法学[M].湘潭:湘潭大学出版社,2015:120-121.
                              [3]卢申玲.对民事诉讼证明责任分配的实证分析[J].政治与法律,2005(01):124.
                              [4]丛玉红.法官运用自由裁量权分配举证责任之我见———水晶球案例分析[J].北京市政法管理干部学院学报,2002(04):38.
                              [5]傅长禄.新型民商事暨金融纠纷判案评述[M].北京:人民法院出版社,2003:50-53.
                              [6]杨路,鞠晓红.从一起合同纠纷案看民事诉讼举证责任的分配[J].法学,2003(11):128.
                              [7]李浩.民事判决中的举证责任分配———以《公报》案例为样本的分析[J].清华法学,2008(06):34。
                              [8]陈雯.论合同不当履行的证明责任分配[D].上海:复旦大学硕士学位论文,2013:26-27.
                              [9] 实践中也存在买方是否对不代替物实施“调包”的案例,参见深圳市福田区人民法院(2013)深福法民一重字第20号民事判决书.

                              王国征.谈谈买卖合同中“调包”纠纷证明责任分配[J].法制博览,2019(36):70-71.
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