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          农业种植中沼液的使用情况综述

          时间:2018-12-12 来源:中国农学通报 作者:石吕,刘建,魏亚凤,李 本文字数:16681字

            摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 沼液目前已逐渐成为农业种植领域炙手可热的新型有机肥料和研究热点,不管是对作物本身,还是土壤的修复机制或大气、水环境都有着不可忽视的影响;沼液肥用的方式亦多种多样,包括液体喷施和根部施肥等;同时在浸种和生物农药领域沼液应用覆盖面较广,发挥了至关重要的角色作用。无可避免地,沼液肥用过程利弊共存,一些在沼液实际应用中尚需注意和无法忽视的细节问题还有待进一步研究商榷,以真正意义上达到一个最终和谐安全高效使用的原则,从而保障沼液这一经济肥源切实做到效益最大化。因此,作者通过大量文献资源调查统计,概述了沼液农用的主要方式和方法、取得成果、环境效益评价及存在问题的研究进展,并对沼液今后的资源化利用研究方向及预期成效进行了展望,以期为沼液在农业领域的全面普遍化和安全稳定化发展应用提供一定参考。

            关键词: 沼液; 农业领域; 作物; 环境; 资源化利用;

            Abstract: Biogas slurry has gradually become a new type of organic fertilizer and research hotspot in the field of agricultural planting, which has significant impacts on the crop itself, the soil repair mechanism and the atmosphere and water environment. There are many ways to use biogas slurry, including liquid spraying and root fertilization; at the same time, biogas slurry application has a wide coverage and plays a vital role in the field of soaking and bio-pesticide. Inevitably, pros and cons coexist in the process of biogas slurry application as fertilizer, some details that need to be highlighted in the practical application have yet to be further studied for achieving a harmonious, safe and efficient use principle, and thus ensure the maximize benefits. The authors outlined the research progress of main ways and methods, the results obtained, the evaluation of environmental benefits and the existing problems of biogas slurry application in agriculture through literature research, and discussed the research direction and expected results of future resource utilization of biogas slurry, to provide a reference for the comprehensive universalization and safe and stable development of biogas slurry in the agricultural field.

            Keyword: biogas slurry; agricultural field; crop; environment; resource utilization;

            0、 引言

            沼气工程在解决相关农村生活用能的问题上充分考虑和利用了农业废弃物的可再生循环使用特点,这对生态型农业工作开展的逐步推进功不可没。近年来随着沼气事业的蓬勃发展和日益兴旺,已有越来越多的农民群众开始关注和使用沼气,沼气一时间成为众多科研者不谋而合的热点话题之一。截至2011年,已有近3850万户沼气池在全国范围内相继诞生,其中包括将近73032处大中型沼气池[1],而每年的沼液排放量也已高达近1.3亿t[2]。同时,鉴于中国养殖业的快速发展,沼液的排放量日益急剧递增。据不完全统计,规模化畜禽养殖场每万头生猪存栏需要日处理沼液废水120~180 m3,全国每年排放沼液超过2亿t,且呈快速增长趋势[3]。众所周知,如若未经过后期繁杂的一系列加工处理程序及适宜的施用方法而将沼液直接排放,这对于四周环境的保护来说无疑是一件得不偿失的事,对环境造成的破环也是极其严重甚至无法挽回的。因此,如何行之有效地将沼液进行循环利用已成为影响沼气工程正常运行以及制约畜牧业健康发展的瓶颈之最[4,5,6]。另一方面,中国人均耕地面积不及全世界平均水平的1/2,但化肥施用量已然为全世界施用总量的1/3左右,这种因过度施用化肥所带来的日益严峻的农业面源污染,将使我们面临土壤重度酸化、作物各方面品质等急剧下降的后果。而沼液是人、畜禽粪污以及秸秆等有机物在沼气池中经过充分无氧发酵产生沼气后的残留液体,含有植物生长所需的多种水溶性养分,除氮、磷、钾等常量元素丰富外,还含有铁、锰、铜、锌和钙等多种微量营养,以及腐殖质、水解酶和氨基酸等多种活性物质,无疑属于一种优质的有机肥料[7,8,9,10,11]。此外,沼液具有提高种子发芽率,促进作物茁壮生长,降低病虫害发生率,提高农产品产量和品质等一系列特殊性能[12]。因此,沼液在种植业领域的资源化利用,有望于部分或全面替代无机肥料成为更清洁,更优质,更高效的新型肥料,同时是解决沼液资源过剩问题的一个为之有效的快捷途径,也是中国农业可持续发展道路的重要组成部分。目前,沼液在种植业领域的资源化利用因耕作制度、作物类型和种植地域等因素的不同存在较大差异。从而本文通过大量文献调研,总结了沼液目前在种植业领域的应用现状、应用效果和存在问题,并对中国沼液的资源化利用前景进行前瞻性展望,以期为沼液在农业种植领域的高效利用提供一定参考。
           

          农业种植中沼液的使用情况综述
           

            1、 沼液的主要利用方式

            ZONGGUANQIANRENYANJIUZHONGZHAOYECHULIFANGSHI,GUINAQILAIDATIYOUSILEI,CONGDACENGMIANLAIJIANGZHUYAOBAOKUODICHENGBENHEGAOCHENGBENCHULILIANGZHONG,ZAIJINXINGXIFENDEHUA,DICHENGBENCHULIYIKEFENWEIZIYUANHUAGAOXIAOLIYONGHEZIRANSHENGTAIJINGHUAFANGSHI,GAOCHENGBENCHULIZEWUWAIHUGONGCHANGHUACHULIHEGAOFUJIAZHIDEKAIFALIYONG。ZHONGGUODANGQIANDENONGYESHENGCHANYUFADAGUOJIAXIANGBIRENGYOUJIAODACHAJU,SHENGCHANCHENGBENYIRANSHINONGMINZAISHENGCHANSHIJIANZHONGKAOLVDESHOUYAOYINSU,CONGERJIDADIXIANZHIHEYUESHULEXUDUOGAOCHENGBENGAOXIAOLVTUJINGDETUIGUANGYINGYONG。YINCI,ZHAOYEZAIZHONGZHIYELINGYUDEZIYUANHUALIYONGRENGYIDICHENGBENLIYONGWEIZHU。

            1.1、 沼液肥用

            ZHAOYEZHONGDEN、P、KDENGYUANSUSHIWEICHIZHIWUSHENGZHANGGUOCHENGZHONGBUKEHUOQUEDEYINGYANGZUCHENG,TONGSHI,YIXIEWEILIANGYUANSU(ZHURUTIE、XIN、GAIDENG)HEXIANGGUANSHENGZHANGSUYIJIANJISUAN、WEISHENGSUZHONGLEIDESHENGWUHUOXINGWUZHIZAICUJINZHONGZIMENGFA、DIAOJIEZHIWUSHENGZHANGHEZENGQIANGZHIZHUKANGXINGFANGMIANJUYOUZHIGUANZHONGYAOSHENZHIWUKETIDAIDEZUOYONG。YOUYANJIUBIAOMING,SHIYONGYIDINGLIANGDEZHAOYEBUJINNENGGOUTIGAOZUOWUCHANLIANG、GAISHANNONGCHANPINZHILIANG,ERQIEYOULIYUTURANGPEIFEI[13,14,15]。YINERZHAOYEFEIYONGSHIBAOZHANGSHENGWUZHIZIYUANKEXUNHUANLIYONGDEYIGEYOUXIAOTUJING[16,17,18]。

            1.1.1、 沼液喷施后的沼液含有全

            JINGGUOCHONGFENFUSHUHEFAJIAOJIADEANJISUAN、FENGFUDEFUZHISUANYIJITIE、MENG、TONG、XIN、PENGDENGDUOZHONGWEILIANGYUANSU,TONGSHIQIZHONGBAOHANLEYISUXIAOCHENGFENZHUANGTAICUNZAIDEDAN、LIN、JIADENGDALIANGYUANSU,KELIYONGLVJIAOGAO,SHIYIZHONGBUKEDUOQIUDEDUOYUANSUXIAOFUHEFEILIAO,KEBEIZUOWUJINGYEDENGQIGUANXUNSUXISHOUHELIYONG[19,20]。

            YUANYIDENG[21]YIGANJUHESHENGCAIZUOWEIYANJIUDUIXIANG,FAXIANZAIZHAOYEPENSHIQINGKUANGXIA,YITIANSHIJIANNEI,YEMIANDAYUEKEXISHOUPENSHIZONGLIANGDE80%。TONGSHIZHAOYEFUHANBAICAISHENGZHANGSUOXUDEGEZHONGYINGYANGZUCHENGHEWEILIANGYUANSU,JIANJUMIEJUNSHACHONGDEXINGNENG,PENSHIYIDINGLIANGDEZHAOYEBUJINSHIDEHUAFEISHIYONGLIANGJIANGDI,YITIGAOLEBAICAIDECHANLIANGJIGELEIPINZHIXINGZHUANG[22]。GANLANSHANGYEYOUSUOYINGYONGFAXIAN,SUIZHEZHAOYEPENSHINONGDUDEZENGDA,GANLANYEMIANJIYOUZENGJIAQUSHI,GAONONGDUDEZHAOYESUIRANYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGKEYICUJINGANLANSHENGZHANG,DANQUEYIZHILEKAIZHANDU,ZHAOYEGENWAIZHUIFEIYINGKONGZHIZAI1.25 t/hm2ZUOYOU,YEMIANPENSHINONGDUYINGDIAOPEIWEI50%[23]。LIMINGJUAN[24]ZAIYANJIUZHAOYEPENSHIMALINGSHUDEXIAOGUODUIBISHIYANZHONG,FAXIANMALINGSHUDEDANZHUKUAIJINGSHUJISHUZHONGDEDAOMINGXIANTIGAO,CONGERCHANLIANGJISHANGPINLVYIDEDAOXIANZHEGAISHAN。XIHONGSHIZHAOYEPENSHISHIYANYIYOUHENDUO,QIJIEGUOZONGHEBIAOMING,YEMIANPENSHIZHAOYE,KEDIAOJIEXIHONGSHIDESHENGZHANGDAIXIE、ZENGQIANGGUANGHEXINGNENG,YOULIYUHUAYADEFENHUA,TIGAOZUOHUAZUOGUOLV,SHUQIYIZHI,GUOSHIGUANGZEDUHAO,TONGSHIKEFANGZHIBINGCHONGHAIDENG,QIEJINGJIXIAOYIHESHEHUIXIAOYIYICHANGTUCHU[25]。SHIYONGZHAOZHAZUOJIFEI,SUIRANPENSHIZHAOYENONGDUZAI20%~50%SHI,JUNLIYUFANQIENONGYIXINGZHUANGHEGUOSHIPINZHIDEGAISHAN,TIGAOGUOSHIFENGWEI,JIANGDIGUOSHIZHONGDEXIAOSUANYANHANLIANG,DANQIZHONGYI50%NONGDUSHIXIAOGUOZUIJIA[26]。WANGXIAOJIN[27]FAXIAN,ZHAOYEPENSHIBUJINKEYIGAISHANLAJIAODESHENGZHANGFAYUQINGKUANG,ERQIEZENGCHANZENGSHOUXIAOGUOXIANZHE,YUPENSHILINSUANERQINGJIAXIANGBI,ZENGCHAN1680.0 kg/hm2,ZENGSHOU2016.0YUAN/hm2;YUPENSHIFENGCHANSUXIANGBI,ZENGCHAN1759.5 kg/hm2,ZENGSHOU2111.4YUAN/hm2。HEMEIDENG[28]CAIYONGBUTONGNONGDUDEZHAOYEDUI‘XIZHOUMI17HAO’TIANGUAJINXINGYEMIANPENSHIFAXIAN,SHIYINONGDUDEZHAOYEPENSHIKETIGAOYEPIANZHONGDEYINGYANGZUCHENG,JIANGDIYEPIANDEKANGYANGHUAMEIHUOXING,CONGERTIGAODANGUAZHONGDADAOZENGCHANFENGSHOUDEMUDE,QIZHONGYI75%DEPENSHINONGDUXIANGDUIXIAOGUOZUIJIA。SONGBINGWEIDENG[29]FAXIANYEMIANPENSHIZHAOYEDUIYUTIGAOHAMIGUADANGUAZHONGJIPINZHIHENYOUXIAO,QIZHONGBINGYI75%DEPENSHINONGDUZUIJIA,KESHIDANGUAZHONGZENGJIA21.62%,TIGAOKERONGXINGGUXINGWUDAYUE16.67%,LEIHULUOBUSU16.65%ZUOYOU,ERXIANWEISUHANLIANGJIANGDI19.37%。PANJUNDENG[30]YANJIUFAXIAN,YEMIANPENSHIZHAOYEKEYOUXIAOGAISHANPINGGUOSHUTIDEYINGYANGZHUANGKUANG,DUIYUGUOSHISHANGPINXINGZHUANGDEGAILIANGYEXIAOGUODUDAO,QIENENGJIAODACHENGDUSHANGJIANQINGBINGCHONGWEIHAI;TONGSHI,PINGGUOYEPIANDEZHANG、KUAN、MIANJIHEBAIYEZHONGJIXINSHAOZHANGDU、CUDUDOUCHENGXIANZENGJIADEQUSHI[31]。DONGXIAOHONGDENG[32]DECHU,YUCHANGGUISHIFEIGUANLIXIANGBI,CHAYUANYEMIANPENSHIZHAOYECHANLIANGGENGGAO,YUEKEZENGCHAN11.2%,JINGJIXIAOYIXIANZHE。ERZAIDATIANGENGZUOTIAOJIANXIA,PENSHIZHAOYEKETIQIANXIAOMAISHUQI,ZENGJIAXIAOMAIGANWUZHIJILEILIANG,TIGAOCHANLIANG,GAISHANPINZHI,JIANSHAOBINGCHONGHAI。YOUQIXIAOMAISHENGYUHOUQIWEIPENSHIZHAOYEDEGUANJIANSHIQI,QIXIAOGUOYUANYUANYOUYUQIANQIZHAOYEPENSHI[33]。ZONGSHANGKEKANCHU,ZHAOYEPENSHIJISHUZAIGUAGUOSHUCAIJILIANGSHIZUOWUDENGLINGYUYIDEDAOJIAOWEIGUANGFANDESHIYANYINGYONGHELILUNRENKE,WULUNSHIZAICUJINZUOWUBENSHENDEYINGYANGHESHENGZHISHENGZHANGFAYUFAMIAN,HUOSHIZAIJINGJIXIAOYIHESHANGPINXIAOYIFANGMIAN,DOUSHIDEZHAOYELIYONGTUJINGKEQUANKEDIAN,ZHUJIANZOUSHANGLEYITIAORANGGUANGDAMINZHONGGENGWEIXIWENLEJIAN,YIYUJIESHOUDEZHAOYEFEIYONGDAOLU,GENGJIAXIANDEYOUJIAZHIYIYI。DANZHENDUIBUTONGZUOWU,YINGZHUNQUEBAWOHAOZHAOYESHIYONGDENONGDUHESHIYISHIQI,ZUIDAHUAZHAOFEIXIAOYIDEFAHUI。

            1.1.2、 根部施肥

            ZHAOYESHIYIZHONGFUHANDUOZHONGSHUIRONGXINGYANGFENDEWUGONGHAISUXIAOFEILIAO,JUYOUFANGBIANSHIYONG、DICHENGBEN、YIXISHOU、FEIXIAOYOUDENGTEDIAN,KEXUNSUSHUCHUYANGFEN,CUJINGUANGHEZUOYONG,ZENGJIAGANWUZHIJILEI,BEIGUANGFANYUNYONGYUGENBUSHIFEI[34]。MUQIANZHAOYEGENBUSHIFEIDEZHUYAOFANGSHIYOUZHAOYEGUANGAI,ZHAOYEXUEZHU,ZHAOYEYUWUJIFEIPEISHI,ZHAOYEYUJIEGANPEISHI,WUTUZAIPEIYINGYANGYEDENG。ZHAOYESHIYIZUOWEIGENBUFEILIAOSHIYONG,DANBUNENGZHIJIEYONGYUGENBUZHUISHI,FANGZHISHAOMIAO。QIZHONGZUIJIANBIANYIXINGDEFANGSHIDANGSHUYUSHIDANGBILIDESHUIHUNHEJUNYUN,ZHIJIESHIRUNONGTIANJINXINGGUANGAI[35]。ZHAOYEXUEZHUSHIZHAOYEGENBUSHIFEIDELINGYIZHONGFANGSHI。QICUILINGDENG[36]ZHENDUIYINGTAOSHUSHENGZHANGXUNSU,FAYUJIEDUANXINGMINGXIANERQIEJIZHONGDETEDIAN,LIYONGZHAOZHA、JIEGANDENGXISHUIXUFEIDEXINGNENG,BINGJIEHEZHAOYEQUANFANGWEIYINGYANGQIQUAN、SHUIFEIPEIBISHIYIDETEXING,TONGGUOTURANGMAITIANDEFANGSHIZAIGUOSHUGENXISIZHOUBUSHEYIGESUOWEIDE“SHUIFEIXUE”。YOUSHIXIANJINZUZHAOYEDEXUSHUIBAOFEICAILIAOGOUJIANDE“SHUIFEIXUE”YUZHOUWEITURANGZAIXISHUIXINGNENGFANGMIANJUYOUXIANZHECHAYI,YINERSHUIFENKEBAOCHIGENGWEIZHANGJIU,CONGERJIANSHAOZHENGFASANSHISUNHAO,YOULIYUHUANJIEGUOSHUDEGANHANXIEPOZHENGZHUANGBINGZAICIJICHUSHANGXIANGYINGTIGONGZUGOUDEYANGFENYONGYUYINGTAOSHUTIDEJIANZHUANGSHENGZHANG。WANGSHUHE[23]YANJIUBIAOMING,GENJIZHUIFEISHI,ZHAOYEYONGLIANGYINGKONGZHIZAI30 t/hm2ZUOYOU,SHIYONGSHIBAOCHIDIMIANPINGZHENG,CAIYONGXUANGENGJIXUANGENGYIDINGSHENDU,BINGANZHAOYIDINGBILIKAIGOU,DAIJIANGZHAOFEIDAORUGOUZHONGHOU,ZAIANZHAOYIDINGBILIFENGTUQILONG。ERMUQIANGUONEIWAIDADUOSHUYANJIUZHUYAOJIZHONGYUTANTAOBUTONGZHAOYEYUWUJIFEIPEISHIBILIDUIZUOWUCHANLIANGDEJUTIYINGXIANG,DUOSHUYANJIUZHECHIYIZHONGBINGFEIZHAOYESUOZHANBILIYUEGAOYUEHAODETAIDU,ERSHIKENENGCUNZAIYIGEHUOYIDUANZUIJIAHUNHEBILI[37]。BENZHEGAOCHANHEQINGJIEDEJIBENSHIFEIYUANZE,ZHAOFEIJIYONGSHIYINGKONGZHISHIYONGLIANGDAYUEZAI45 t/hm2,TONGSHIWEILEZUIDAHUAJINGJIXIAOYIHESHEHUIXIAOYI,KEPEIHEJIARUNIAOSU300 kg/hm2,BIANNENGYOUXIAOTIGAOGANLANDEYEMIANJI、KAIZHANDUHEYELVSUHANLIANG,JINERCUJINQIGUANGHEZUOYONG,JIANJIETIGAOCHANLIANG[23]。WANGJIDONGDENG[38]TONGGUODUIZIYEWOJUZHUISHISHUIHULUFAJIAOZHAOYEFAXIAN,DENGDANLIANGQIANTIXIA,XIANGJIAOYUDANSHIHUAFEICHULI,ZHAOYEPEISHIHUAFEIDEXIAOGUOGENGWEITUCHU,QIEZHAOYETIDAI75%HUAFEIDANSHIZUIJIASHIYONGBILI,CUJINWOJUDESHENGZHANGHEYANGFENXISHOUDETONGSHI,SUODUANLEQISHENGZHANGQI,TIGAOLESHANGPINLV。HUANGHONGYINGDENG[39]YEFAXIAN,HUAFEIZHONGDENGBILITIDAI(SHUIDAON75%TIDAI,XIAOMAIN 50%TIDAI)ZHAOYEBINGFEN3CISHIYONG,KEHUODEYUCHUNHUAFEICHULIXIANGDANGDECHANLIANG,QIEZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGTIGAOLEDAOMAIDANSULEIJILIANGHEDANSUDANGJIBIAOGUANLIYONGLV、JINGSHENGWULEIJILIANGHECHANLIANG。ZAIQITAZUOWU[40,41,42]DEYANJIUZHONGTONGYANGYEZHENGMINGZHAOYETIANJIABILIGUOGAOHUOGUODIJUNBULIYUZUOWUDEZENGCHAN。ZHAOLIDENG[43]TONGGUODUIDAOTIANYANJIUFAXIAN,ZHAOYEYUJIEGANPEISHI,JIASULEJIEGANDEFUJIEJINCHENG,BINGQIETONGGUOLIANGZHEXIAOYINGHUZUO,CHUANGZAOCHUSHIYUSHUIDAOSHENGZHANGFAYUDEFEIXIAOHUANJING,YOUXIAOJIEJUELEYOUJIZAIPEITEBIESHIJIEGANHAITIANTIAOJIANXIASHUIDAOQIANQISHENGZHANGDANSUGONGYINGDUANQUEDEMAODUN,BINGDUIBINGCHONGCAOHAIJUYOUYIDINGDEFANGKONGZUOYONG,HELIDIAOKONGLESHUIDAOSHENGZHANGJIZHI,QUEBAOLEZHONGHOUQIWENJIANSHENGZHANG,JIANLILESHIYIDEQUNTISHULIANGHEKONGJIANFENBUJIEGOU,CONGERTIGAOLESHUIDAODANCHAN。YOUYANJIUBIAOMING[44]ZHAOYEDEYINGYANGZUCHENGFENGFU,CHUXIAOTAIDANHELIUHANLIANGJIAODIWAI,ANDAN、CUDANBAI、CUZHIFANGHECUXIANWEIDENGCHENGFENFEICHANGFENGFU,BINGQIEFUHANDUOZHONGMEILEI、WEISHENGSUDENGLIYUZUOWUSHENGZHANGFAYUDECHENGFEN,HAIYOUDALIANGDECHANG、WEILIANGYUANSU,JUNGAOYUZHUANYONGWUTUZAIPEIYINGYANGYE,ZAISHUCAIWUTUZAIPEIFANGMIANYOUHENDADEYOUSHI。ERGENJUSHUCAIZAIZHONGPINZHONG、PINZHIJIDUIWEILIANGYUANSUDEXUQIUCHAYIBUTONG,LIYONGZHAOYEJIQITAWEILIANGYUANSUPEIZHICHENGWUTUZAIPEIYINGYANGYELAIZHONGZHISHUCAI,KEMANZUZHIWUDEDUOZHONGYINGYANGXUQIU,ZENGCHANYOUZHIXIAOGUOYOUWEIXIANZHE。TONGSHI,ZHEIZHONGYINGYANGYEJISHUZHIZUOJIANDAN、CHENGBENDI,QIEYIYUTUIGUANGHEYINGYONGYUSHENGCHANZHONG[35]。KEJIAN,ZHAOYEGENBUSHIFEIYIZHAOYEYUWUJIFEIPEISHIDEFANGSHIGENGWEIPUBIANHEXIANGDUICHENGSHU,YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDUIZUOWUDESHENGZHANGHUANJINGGENGJIAYOULI,CUCHENGZUOWUSHOUCHENGPOFENGYUZHAOYEHELILIYONGDE“SHUANGYINGJUMIAN”,TONGSHIYECUNZAIYIGESHIDANGHELIDEPEISHIBILI,YINCIZAISHIJISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGYAOYUYIZHONGSHI,BINGSHENRUWAJUEQITAGENBUSHIFEIFANGFADEGAIJINCUOSHIYIBIANKUAISUYUNYONGYUGELEIZUOWUDESHENGZHANGFAYUJINCHENGZHONG。

            1.2 、沼液浸种

            ZHAOYEHANYOUDUOZHONGYINGYANGYUANSU,ANJISUAN、SHENGZHANGSUHEWEISHENGSUDENGSHENGWUHUOXINGWUZHIYEHANLIANGFENGFU,LIYONGQIJINZHONGJUYOUMINGXIANDEKANGBING、ZHUANGMIAOJIZENGCHANZUOYONG。JIANGZHONGZIZHIYUZHAOYEZHONGJINPAOHOUZAIBOZHONG,YUQINGSHUIJINZHONGXIANGBI,KEMINGXIANTIGAOZHONGZIFAYALV(5%~10%)HECHENGYANGLV(10%~15%)[12,35]。YONGFUSHUJIAOHAODEQIEFAJIAOSHIJIANJIAOZHANGDEZHAOQI100%YUANYELAIJINZHONGCHULIXIAOMAIZHONGZI,JIAODUIZHAOQINGSHUICHULIFAYALVTIGAOLE13GEBAIFENDIAN,ZHONGZITIQIAN3TIANCHUMIAO,YESENONGLV,YEZHANGZENGJIA1.7 cm,YEKUANZENGJIA0.1 cm,YOUMIAOGANZHONGZENGJIA0.7 g,CHENGSHUQISUODUAN2TIAN,CHANLIANGZENGJIA379.5 kg/hm2,ZENGCHANLVWEI9.2%[45]。LAJIAOJINGZHAOYEJINZHONGHOUJIAOQINGSHUIJINZHONGDECHULIZENGCHAN5.17%~9.09%,QIZHONGYIJINZHONG16 hDECHULICHANLIANGZUIGAO,XIANJIAOCHANLIANGDA2429.79 t/hm2,ZENGCHANLV9.09%,ZENGCHANXIAOGUODADAOXIANZHESHUIPING。TONGSHIZAIZHAOYEJINZHONGGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHONGTULIANGSHAIBINGBUHUIDUILAJIAODECHANLIANGCHANSHENGXIANGGUANZUOYONG[46]。ERSHIYINONGDUHESHIJIANDEZHAOYEJINZHONGHUICUJINYOUCAIHEWANSHOUJUZHONGZIMENGFAYIJIHOUQIDESHENGZHANG,GUOGAONONGDUJITAIZHANGDEJINZHONGSHIJIANDUIYUZHONGZIMENGFAJUNSHIBULIDE,QIZHONGYI50%ZHAOYEJINZHONG5XIAOSHIDUIWANSHOUJUZHONGZIFAYAJIYOUMIAOSHENGZHANGDEZONGHEXIAOGUOZUIJIA[47,48]。

            1.3、 生物农药

          星云棋牌官网下载   ZHAOYEBUJINHANYOUNH4+,JIAOFENGFUDEYINGYANGYUANSU(WEISHENGSU、CHIMEISU、YINDUOYISUANDENG)HEWEISHENGWUDAIXIECHANWU,ERQIEHANYOUMOUXIEJISUHEKANGJUNSU(RUYIJUNHUOZHETIGAOZHIZHUKANGNIXINGNENGLEI)DENGHUOXINGWUZHI,JIANJUYINGYANGHESHAJUNGONGXIAO,BINGNENGJIAOHAODIFAHUICIJIHEKANGNITEXING,YINCIBEIRENWEISHIWUWURAN、WUCANDUHEWUKANGYAOXINGDE“SHENGWUNONGYAO”,KEYINGYONGYUFANGZHIBINGCHONGHAIHETIGAOZHIWUKANGNIXING,ERQIEDANGZHAOYEYUYIDINGLIANGDEYAOWUHUNHESHIYONGHOUHAINENGMINGXIANZENGQIANGFANGZHIXIAOGUO[35]。ZHEIZHUYAOGUIYINYUZHAOYEYANGHUAHAIYUANDIANWEIDI,QIZHONGSUOHANDEZHONGDUOHAIYUANXINGWUZHIKEYIYUHAICHONGCHANSHENGSHENGLIDUOYANGJIYUNDONGQUZHIDENGJILIEFANYING,CONGERYOUXIAOQUSHAHAICHONG。ERYIXIEWEISHENGWUJUNZHONGZETONGGUOPIRUJIEKANG、JINGZHENGJIZHONGJISHENGZUOYONGLAIYOUXIAOZUZHIQITAJUNZHONGDEFANYAN,QIZISHENFENMIDEMOUXIETESHUWUZHIYENENGGAOXIAOYIZHIYOUHAIBINGJUNDESHENGZHANGFANZHI[1,49,50,51]。ZHAOYEZHONGHANYOUDEDUOZHONGKANGSHENGWUZHIDUIYUHONGZHIZHU、YACHONG、BAIFENSHIJISHUANGMEIBING、BAIFENBING、HUIMEIBINGDENGBINGCHONGHAIJUNYOULIANGHAODEFANGZHIZUOYONG。NONGTIANPUBIANFASHENGBINGHAIFANGMIAN,ZHAOQIFAJIAOCANLIUWUDUIMUQIANJIAOCHANGJIANDE30ZHONGBINGHAIJUNYOUXIANZHEDEFANGZHIXIAOGUO,QIZHONGDUIZHISHAO20DUOZHONGBINGHAIDEFANGZHIYIDADAOHUOYUANCHAOXIANXINGSHIYONGNONGYAODEXIAOGUO;CHONGHAIFANGMIAN,19ZHONGCHONGHAIYIDEDAOMINGXIANDEEZHIYUYUFANG;BINGYUANJUNFANGMIAN,YIYOUYANJIUFAXIAN,ZHAOQIFAJIAOCANLIUWUDUIYIXIEZHIBINGJUNJUYOUJIQIXIANZHEDEYIZHIXIAOGUO,ZHURUFUSHANGHANGANJUN、DACHANGGANJUNJIZHUDANDUGANJUNDENG,ERDUINVMEI、10ZHUQINGMEIJI17ZHONGNONGZUOWUBINGYUANJUNZECHANSHENGBUTONGCHENGDUDEJIERANBUTONGDEYIZHIZUOYONG[52,53]。SHENGCHANZHONGZHUYAOCAIYONGZHAOYEJINZHONG、ZHAOFEIJIYONGHEZHUIFEIDENGCUOSHILAIJINXINGBINGHAIDEFANGZHI,ERCHONGHAIDEFANGZHIFANGFAZHUYAOYOUZHIJIESHIYONGZHAOFEIHEPENSAZHAOYE[35,53]。

            2、 沼液的正面应用效果

            ZHAOYEZHONGBUJINHANYOUFENGFUDEYINGYANGYUANSU,TURANGGAILIANGLEIYOUJITAIWUZHIYEYICHANGCHONGZU,TONGSHIHAIJIANJUGELEIYIYUZHIWUKEKUAISUDALIANGXISHOULIYONGDEXIAOFENZIFUZHIZHI,YINCIZAIBAOZHANGSHENGWUZHIZIYUANKEXUNHUANLIYONGFANGMIANZHAOYESHIZHONGFAHUIZHEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。YOUYANJIUBIAOMING,ZHAOYEDESHIYONGYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGQUESHIKEYIZENGJIAZUOWUCHANLIANG,BINGTONGBUTIGAONONGCHANPINZHILIANG,QIEHAIYOUYIYUTURANGFEILIDECHIXUBAOCHIHEWANSHANXIUFUGUOCHENG[14,17,18,54]。

            2.1、 沼液对土壤的改良作用

            ZHAOYEZHONGCHULEDAN、LIN、JIADENGYINGYANGYUANSUKEYOUXIAOTIGAOTURANGFEILIWAI,FUZHISUANDENGYOUJIZHIYEKECUJINTURANGTUANLIDEXINGCHENG,CONGERDADAOSHUSONGTURANGDEZUOYONG,YIXIEHUOXINGWUZHIYIKEZENGQIANGWEISHENGWUHUOXINGHEMEIHUOXING,JINERQIDAODIAOJIETURANGLIHUAXINGZHIDEZUOYONG,CONGYUANTOUSHANGYOUXIAOGAISHANZHIWUDESHENGZHANGHUANJINGHEYINGYANGXUQIU[55,56]。GENJUDIAOCHAXIANSHI,SHIYONGZHAOYEZHAOZHAHOU,TURANGYOUJIZHIHANLIANGBIANHUAZUIMINGXIAN,KETIGAODAYUE0.17%~0.60%,QUANDANZENGJIAZUISHAO,WEI0.003%~0.005%,QUANLINZEZENGJIA0.01%~0.03%。TONG、XIN、TIEDENGWEILIANGYUANSUYESUIZHIFASHENGBUTONGCHENGDUDEHUOHUAZUOYONG,CONGERZENGJIAHUOTUCENGDESHENDU,YOULIYUTURANGWULIXINGZHUANGDEGAISHAN。QICUILINGDENG[36]YANJIUFAXIAN,FEISHUIXUEZHU2NIANHOU,SHIYONGZHAOYENENGGOUXIANZHEZENGJIAYINGTAOSHUTISIZHOUBIAOCENGTUDEYOUJIZHIHANLIANG,YOUYUZHAOYEJIDALIANGYOUJIWUZHIDETIANJIA,TURANGZHONGDEZHENGTIYINGYANGJIEGOUFASHENGMINGXIANGAISHAN,CHENGXIANWEIJIANJIEDAN、YOUXIAOLINHEYOUXIAOJIADEHANLIANGXIANZHETIGAO,DIANDAOLVZHIYEBIAOXIANDAFUDESHANGSHENG。YEYOUYANJIU[54]BIAOMINGZHAOYEYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGKEYIZENGJIATURANGZHONGSHUIRONGXINGYANFEN,DUANQINEIMINGXIANTIGAOTURANGpHZHIJIXIJUNSHULIANG,XIANZHEJIANGDITURANGZHENJUNJIFANGXIANJUNSHULIANG;QIESUIZHEZHAOYESHIYONGLIANGDEZENGJIA,TURANGQUANDAN、SUXIAOLIN、SUXIAOJIAJIYOUJIZHIHANLIANGCHENGCHAYIBUXIANZHEXINGZENGJIA;BINGQIEXINXIANZHAOYEHECHENFANGZHAOYEZAIDUITURANGXIANCHONGDEYIZHIXIAOGUOSHANGCUNZAIXIEXUBUTONG,YIZHILVFENBIEWEI49.3%HE37.2%,QIZHONGXINXIANZHAOYEDUISHESHITURANGZHANGAIYINZIDEYINGXIANGYOUYUCHENHUAZHAOYE。YOUCIKEJIAN,ZHAOYEGUANGAIKEMINGXIANGAISHANTURANGDELIHUAXINGNENG,ZENGJIATURANGYOUJIZHI,TIGAOTURANGp HZHISHENZHIQUXIANGYUZHONGXING,CONGERYOUXIAOWEICHITURANGYANGFENPINGHENG,YIJINYIBUZENGQIANGTURANGFEILI[57]。DANTONGSHIYECUNZAIYIXIEQITAGUANDIAN,SUNGUOFENGDENG[58]ZERENWEI,50%HE100%ZHAOYETIDAIHUAFEICHULIXIANGBIYUCHANGGUISHIFEICHULI,GENGCENGTURANGRONGZHONG、QUANDAN、QUANLIN、SUXIAOJIAJIYOUJIZHIHANLIANGBINGWEICHANSHENGXIANZHEXINGCHAYIBIANHUA。

            2.2、 沼液对不同作物的影响

          星云棋牌官网下载   YANJIUBIAOMING,TONGGUOHELIDEDIAOPEIHUOXISHITUJING,SHIYONGZHAOYEKEMINGXIANTIGAOSHUCAIDECHANLIANG[59]。BIRUSHUOZAISHIYONGYIDINGLIANGHUAFEIDEJICHUSHANG,ZAIBUYIHELIDEZHAOYEFEILIAO,BIANKEZUIDACHENGDUHUAJIANGDIPENZAIWOSUNSHENGZHANGQIYEPIANZHONGXIAOSUANYANDEHANLIANG,YOUXIAOYIZHIWOSUNZHONGVCJIKERONGXINGTANGDEJILEI,TIGAOSHOUHUOQIWOSUNZHUGAO、ANJISUANHANLIANGJIZUIZHONGCHANLIANG,QIZHONGYOUYINONGZUOWUJIEGANFAJIAOHOUCHANSHENGDEZHAOYENENGMINGXIANHUODELIANGHAODEWOSUNYINGYANGPINZHI[60]。LEISIDI,ZAIQINGJIAOYOUJIZHIZAIPEISHIYANZHONGFAXIAN,DANGCAIYONGBUTONGNONGDUDEZHAOYEDAITIWUJIYANGFENHOUKEJIXIANZHETIGAOQINGJIAOSHANGPINGUODEHEGELVJICHANLIANGSHUIPING,KERONGXINGTANGWUMINGXIANBIANHUA,TONGSHIMINGXIANJIANGDIQINGJIAOZHONGXIAOSUANYANZUCHENGJIWEISHENGSUCHANLIANG,DANYOUYUGUOSHISUANDUYOUSUOJIANGDI,FANERSHIDEQINGJIAODEFENGWEIKOUGANDADATIGAO[61]。GUOSHUFANGMIAN,WANGWEINANDENG[62]ZHICHU,RUZAIQIADANGDESHIFEIQIDUIPINGGUOSHUHEXINGSHUPENSHIYISHIYINONGDUDEZHAOYEYOULIYUGUOSHIZONG、HENGJING、YINGDU、DANGUOZHONG、GUOXINGZHISHUJIKERONGXINGGUTAIWUHANLIANGDETIGAO,BINGJIANSHAOKEDIDINGSUANSHENGCHENG,CONGERGAIBIANGUSUANBI,TIGAOGUOZHIHESHIWEI。BINGDECHU,PINGGUOSHUZAIYEPIANZHANKAIQIHESHENGZHANGQIYIJIGUOSHIPENGDAQIFENBIEPENSHIYICINONGDUWEI75%DEZHAOYEHUIHUODEZUIJIAXIAOGUO,ERXINGSHUZEYIZAIYEPIANZHANKAIQIHESHENGZHANGQIFENBIEPENSHIYICINONGDUWEI50%DEZHAOYEXIANGDUIZUHEJIAOYOU。DATIANLIANGSHIZUOWUFANGMIANYESHEJIJIAODUO。JIUNASHUIDAOLAISHUO,ZAIYIZHAOYEWEIJIFEIDEJICHUSHANG,ZHUIFEISHIYONGFUHEFEIHUIHUODEJIAOGAOSHUIDAOCHANLIANG,JINGUANYUJI、ZHUIFEIJUNSHIYONGFUHEFEICHULIXIANGBIWUXIANZHECHAYI,DANYONGZHAOYETIDAIFUHEFEIZUOJIFEIXIANZHEJIANSHAOLESHENGCHANCHENGBEN,HAIMINGXIANCUJINLESHUIDAOFENNIEDEXINGCHENGHESHENGZHANG,ZUIZHONGDAOMIZHONGSUIRANTONGHEGEHANLIANGBIANHUABUMINGXIAN,DANQIANHANLIANGXIANZHEJIANGDI,BINGQIANGHUALETIE、XINYINGYANG,BIAOXIANCHUYOULIANGDEDAOMIPINZHI。KESHIZAIYIDINGYIYISHANG,ZHAOYEWANQUANTIDAIFUHEFEIDENGHUAXUEFEILIAOSHIBUKEXINGDE,ZHEIDUIYUSHUIDAODESHENGZHANGFAYUJIQICHANLIANGXINGCHENGSHIBULIDE[3]。DANSUNGUOFENGDENG[58]TONGGUOSHIYANFAXIAN,50%HE100%ZHAOYETIDAIHUAFEICHULIYUCHANGGUISHIFEICHULIJIJIEGANHAITIANCHULIXIANGBI,BINGWEIFAXIANSHUIDAOJIANCHANDENGXIANXIANG,CHUBUPANDINGZHAOYEKEQUANLIANGTIDAIHUAFEI。XIAOMAIYEBEIZUOWEISHIYANDUIXIANGYANJIUJIAODUO,FENGWEIDENG[63]FAXIAN,ZAIJISHIZHAOYEDEQIANTIXIA,ZHUISHIHUAFEIDANKEZENGJIAXIAOMAICHANLIANG,QIZHONGYI1/2U+1/2B(ZHAOYEDANZUOJIFEIZHANZONGDANYIBAN,NIAOSUDANZUOZHUIFEIZHANZONGDANYIBAN)ZUHEZUIYOU,NENGGOUTONGSHITIGAOCHANLIANG,FENZHICANSHU、LASHENCANSHU、DIANFENHUHUATEXINGHEDANBAIZUFENDENGPINZHIZHIBIAO,ZUODAOGAOCHANHEYOUZHIJIANGU,XIANGFANCHUNSHIZHAOYEZEXIAOGUOQIANJIA。TONGSHIZAIDONGXIAOMAISHENGZHANGDEFANQINGQISHIYONGZHAOYEKEXIANZHECUJINQISHENGZHANGHEGANWUZHIJILEI,CONGERDADAOZENGCHANDEMUDE,ZENGCHANFUDUKEDA23.3%[64]。

            3、 沼液应用的环境效益评价

            JINNIANLAI,QUANQIUWENSHIXIAOYINGBUDUANJIAJU,JIDUANTIANQIRIYIZENGDUO。ZAIZHONGGUONONGYESHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,SUIZHEHUAXUEFEILIAODEGUOLIANGSHIYONG,NONGTIANSHENGTAIXITONGYICHENGWEIWENSHIQITIDEZHONGYAOPAIFANGYUANZHIYI,ZHIYUZHAOQISHIYONGYUWENSHIQITIZHIJIANDEGUANXIYEYOUSUOSHELIE。ERZHAOYEZHONGHANYOUDALIANGDETAN、DANYUANSU,NENGGOUGAIBIANTURANGDETANDANBI,BINGYINGXIANGQIZHONGDETANDANZHUANHUAGUOCHENG,CONGERZHIJIEDUITURANGHUANJINGHUOJIANJIEDUISHUI、QIHUANJINGCHANSHENGBUTONGCHENGDUDEYINGXIANG。

            3.1、 大气环境

            MUQIAN,PUBIANRENWEIZHAOYESHIYONGZENGJIALETURANGZHONGDETANSUHANLIANG,JINERTIGAOCH4PAIFANGLIANG。DANDUIYUTURANGN2OPAIFANGDEYINGXIANG,YOUYUTURANGXIAOHUAFANYINGJIFANXIAOHUAFANYINGGUOCHENGRONGYISHOUDAOTURANGWEN、SHIDU、pHZHIHEDANSUHANLIANGDUOSHAODENGDUOZHONGYINSUDEYINGXIANG,YINCIJIELUNGEYI[65]。HUANGHONGYINGDENG[66]ZAIYANJIUZHAOYEDUIDAOMAILUNZUONONGTIANXITONGTURANGHUANJINGZHONGN2OPAIFANGLIANGJIPAIFANGGUILVDEYINGXIANGSHIFAXIAN,DAOJIWANQUANSHIYONGZHAOYEDECHULIN2OLEIJIPAIFANGLIANGXIANZHEGAOYUWANQUANSHIYONGHUAFEIDECHULI,MAIJIWANQUANSHIYONGZHAOYECHULIN2ODELEIJIPAIFANGLIANGYUWANQUANSHIYONGHUAFEICHULIWUXIANZHECHAYI。JINHONGMEIDENG[67]TONGGUOZAIBUTONGpHTURANGZHONGSHIYONGZHUFENZHAOYE,JIEGUOYEZHENGMINGSHIYONGZHAOYEHUIXIANZHETIGAON2OCONGTURANGZHONGPAIFANGDESULV,QIEp HZHIYUEGAO,XIAOGUOYUEMINGXIAN。ERSUNGUOFENGDENG[68]ZEFAXIAN,50%HE100%ZHAOYETIDAIHUAFEICHULIYOUYUXIANZHEJIANSHAOLEDAOTIANMAIJIN2ODELEIJIPAIFANGLIANG,CONGERJIANSHAOMAIJIQUANQIUZENGWENQIANSHI(GWP)JIDANWEICHANLIANGDEQUANQIUZENGWENQIANSHI,JINERJIANGDIDAOCHAMAIJIDEZONGHEWENSHIXIAOYING。CIWAI,ZHAOYEDEQIANCHULITUJINGHESHIYONGFANGFADEBUTONG,DUITURANGN2OPAIFANGDEYINGXIANGYEDAXIANGJINGTING。YIYOUYANJIUJIEGUOBIAOMING,SHIYONGYANYANGTIAOJIANXIAFAJIAOWANQUANDEZHAOYEKEYOUXIAOJIANGDINONGTIANDEN2OPAIFANG[65],CAIYONGJINGTAICHILAIXIAOCHUZHAOYEZHONGDEXUANFUWUDUINONGTIANN2ODEPAIFANGLAISHUOBINGWUXIANZHEYINGXIANG[69],ERZHAOYESHIYONGFANGSHIDUINONGTIANN2OPAIFANGDEYINGXIANGBAODAOBUTONGYANJIUZHEYEGECHIJIJIAN[70,71]。

            3.2、 土壤环境

          星云棋牌官网下载   ZHAOYESHIFAJIAOCHANSHENGZHAOQIHOUDECANLIUWUZHIYI,YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGNENGGOUCUJINTURANGYOUJIZHIDETIGAO,ERYOUJIZHIKETONGGUOXIFUJIAODUOYANGLIZILAIBAOCHITURANGDEFEILIHEHUANCHONGXING,BINGSHIDETURANGJIEGOUBIANDESHUSONG,CONGERGAISHANTURANGWULIXINGZHUANG,TONGSHITAYESHITURANGWEISHENGWUWEICHISHENGMINGHUODONGSUOBUKEHUOQUEDEZHONGYAONENGYUANHETANYUAN。BIRUXIAOMAI、YUMIHUODONGJIZHONGDASUAN,ZHAOYEBIANNENGGOUTIGONGJIZHEIXIEZUOWUCHONGZUDEYANGFENYONGYUSHENGZHANGFAYU[72]。DANSUIZHEBUDUANDEZHAOYESHIYONG,ZHAOYEZHONGYUANBENJIUHANYOUDEZHONGJINSHUWEILIANGYUANSUBIANZHUJIANKAISHICANLIUHEJILEIYUTURANGZHONG,JINGUANZHIWU-TURANGXITONGDUIYUYIXIEZHONGJINSHULIZIJUYOUJIAOQIANGDEZIWOJINGHUAZUOYONG,DUANSHIQIZAISHILIANGFANWEINEIBUHUIWURANTURANG,KEKUYUBINGWUXIANGYINGDEZHAOYEHAITIANGUIFANCUOSHI,YINCIRUGUOJIXUZHANGQIDALIANGDESHIYONGZHAOYE,HUIJIAZHONGTURANGDUIYUZHONGJINSHUCHENGFENDECHENGSHOULI,CONGERDADAZENGJIATURANGBEIWURANDEFENGXIANHEJILV[14]。SUIZHEJIAOGUANSHIJIANDELEIJI,QIAN、GEDENGZHONGJINSHUYUANSUHANLIANGCHENGHUANMANZENGJIAQUSHI,KENENGHUIZUIZHONGDAOZHIQIAN、GEDEFUJI,WURANTURANG,ZAOCHENGBUKEWANHUIDESUNSHI。TURANGYOUJIZHIHEZONGDANHANLIANGYEDATIBIAOXIANCHUXIAJIANGDEQUSHI,ZONGLINQUECHENGXIANHUANMANDESHANGSHENGQUSHI,CONGERKENENGDAOZHITURANGYINGYANGJIEGOUSHIHENG[73,74]。DUANRANDENG[75]DUILIANXUSHIYONGLEZHAOYE6NIANDETURANGJINXINGQUYANGCEDING,FAXIANTURANGZHONGZnHECuHANLIANGXIANZHETIGAO,QITAZHONGJINSHUHANLIANGYEJUNGAOYUDUIZHAOTURANG。HUANGZHIPINGDENG[76]YANJIU,GUANGAIZHUCHANGFEISHUIZHUYAOZAOCHENGTURANGCuHEZnDEJILEI。LIANXUGUANGAI8NIANHOUJINGUANTURANGZHONGDECu、Zn、Cr、Pb、AsHENiHANLIANGBAOCHIZAIANQUANFANWEINEI,DANZHONGJINSHUYOUXIAOTAIHANLIANGBUJINYUQUANLIANGCHENGZHENGXIANGGUAN,ERQIEFUXIANGGUANYUTURANGpHZHI,YOUYUGUANGAIZHUCHANGFEISHUIHUISUANHUATURANG,CONGERTURANGZHONGJINSHUYOUXIAOTAIHANLIANGYEHUIXIANGYINGYOUSUOZENGJIA,ERZHONGJINSHUZHONGSHUYOUXIAOTAIDUIZUOWUDEYINGXIANGQIZHUYAOZUOYONG。YINCI,ZHANGQIGUANGAIZHUCHANGFEISHUISHI,BUDANYAOGUANZHUTURANGCuHEZnDEFUJI,HAIYAOLIUYIZHUCHANGFEISHUIDUICu、ZnJIQITAYIXIEZHONGJINSHUYOUXIAOTAIHANLIANGZENGJIADEYINGXIANG。CIWAI,ZHAOFEIZUOWEIYOUJIFEINENGGOUMINGXIANJIANGDISHUCAITINEIDEXIAOSUANYANHEZHONGJINSHUHANLIANG,QIZHONGFENGFUDEYOUXIAOYANGFENHEZHIWUHUOXINGWUZHI,DUIYUTIGAOSHUCAIDEPINZHI,BINGZENGQIANGQIDUISHENGWUHEFEISHENGWUXIEPODEKANGNIXING,YOUXIANZHEDEZUOYONG[52,77]。RANER,YOUYUZHAOYEDECHENGFENHENFUZA,RUHEYUWUJIFEIGAOXIAOPEIHECAINENGGOUSHIZHAOYEFEIXIAOZUIGAODIZUOYONGYUSHUCAIDENGZUOWUYIJIZUIDACHENGDUDIZUZHIXIAOSUANYANHEZHONGJINSHUDENGYOUHAIWUZHIZAITURANGZHONGDEJILEI,HAIYOUDAIJINYIBUSHENRUYANJIU。

            3.3、 水环境

            ZHAOYESHICHUQINFENWUJINGYANYANGCHULIDEHOUXUCHANWU,YINCIQIZHONGSUOHANDEGUTIXUANFUWU、DANLINDENGYOUJIWUDEHANLIANGYAOXIANGDUIJIAOGAO,ZISHENJIUSHISHUITIWURANDEWEIXIEZHIYI,SHIRUTURANGHOUJIEZHUNONGTIANSHUIFENDEYUNYIZUOYONG,TONGGUODIBIAOJINGLIUHEDIXIASHENLOUDENGFANGSHIJINRUZHOUWEIHUODIXIASHUITIHUANJING,GAIBIANSHUITIDEWU、HUAJISHENGWUQUNLUODEJIEGOUHEZUCHENG。ZHAOYEZHONGDEYOUJIWUZAISHENGWUJIANGJIEGUOCHENGZHONGHUIXIAOHAODALIANGSHUITIRONGJIEYANG,JIANJIEZAOCHENGSHUISHENGSHENGWUDESIWANG,DAOZHIHUBOHELIUSANGSHISHIYONGGONGNENG,SHUITIBIANHEISHUIZHIFACHOU,DUIZHOUBIANSHUIYOUQIANZAIDEWURANFENGXIAN,YOUQIHUIWEIXIEDAODIXIASHUIDEANQUAN,DIXIASHUIYIDANSHOUDAOWURAN,ZHILIHEZAIXIUFUDEGUOCHENGJIANGYICHANGJIANXINHEKUNNAN。YINCIZHANGQIGUOLIANGDEZHAOYEGUANGAIZAIDUINONGTIANSHUIHUANJINGDEYINGXIANGFANGMIANRENGCUNZAIHENDUOYINHUAN,ZHISHIZHAOYENONGYONGTUJINGDEYANJIURENZHONGDAOYUAN[72]。QIAOXIAOSHANDENG[78]YANJIUFAXIAN,DAOTIANDANJIZHAOYEGUANGAILIANGWEI2250 mL/kgDEQIANTIXIA,GUANGAICHUQI,WANQUANZHAOYETIDAICHULIDESHANGFUSHUIZHONGYANGFENHANLIANGMINGXIANGAOYUZHIGUANSHUICHULI,ZHISHIYANGFENLIUSHIDEKENENGXINGZENGDA;ERZHONGJINSHUHANLIANGJIBENWUBIANHUA,DADUOBEISHUIDAOXISHOU,YINCIDUITURANGDEWURANJILVYEXIAO。DANHOUQIFAXIANDAOTIANXIASHENSHUIZHONGDEYANGFENHANLIANGJIJUSHANGSHENG,QIEYUANCHAODIXIASHUIFUYINGYANGHUADEYUZHI,YANZHONGWEIXIEDAODIXIASHUIDEANQUAN。YINCI,TAMENRENWEIZAISHIJISHENGCHANZHONGZHAOYEDEZONGDANHEZONGLINHANLIANGYINGFENBIEKONGZHIZAIXIAOYU1199.0 kg/hm2HE62.5 kg/hm2。WANGZICHENDENG[79]TONGGUOXIANGGUANSHIYANDECHU:(1)GUANSHIZHAOYEHOUDEZUIKAISHI3TIANWEISHUIDAOTIANXIAOJIEZHAOYEDEGUANJIANJIEDUAN,KEJIANGJIEYIBANSHENZHIGENGDUODEZONGDAN(46.7%~78.4%)HEANTAIDAN(47.5%~85.3%),YANJIUBUTONGSHENGYUQIDEZHAOYEXIAOJIESULVBUNANFAXIANJINIEQIYUANXIAOYUSUIFEISHIYONGQI;TONGSHI,WEILEZUIDACHENGDUSHANGJIANGDIZHAOYEGUANGAICHUQIYOUYUDIBIAOJINGLIUDENGYUANYINSUOZHIJIEZAOCHENGDESHUITIFUYINGYANGHUAWEIXIANXISHU,TONGCHANGKEDUSAIDAOTIANCHUSHUIKOUHUOZHEZENGGAOBUTONGTIANKUAIDEGENGGAODUDAYUE5~10 cm,DADAOYANGEXIANZHIDIBIAOJINGLIUDEZHAOYEZONGLIANGHELIUDONGSULV,BAOZHANGXIAOJIELIUCHENGDEZHENGTIANQUANHUA,CONGYUANTOUJIEJUENONGYEMIANYUANWURANDEZHIMINGDIAN。(2)DANGZHAOYEXIAOJIELIANGDADAO706 t/hm2YISHANG,JIZHAOYEZHONGDANHANLIANGGAOYU2BEIDECHANGGUISHIFEIDANHANLIANGSHI,JINIEQIHESUIFEIQIYUANYUANBUDUANDEZHAOYELIURUDUIDATIANZHOUWEISHUITIHUANJINGWEIHAIYUANYUANBICHANGGUISHIFEIZHUANGKUANGXIAYANZHONGXIE;ERXIAOJIELIANGZAI353 t/hm2SHI,ZUIZHONGSUOZHIDEFENGXIANSHAODI。YOUCIBIAOMING,SHAOLIANGDUOCIDEFANGSHISHIWEIDAOTIANZHAOYEXIAOJIEGONGCHENGDEXIANGDUIZUIJIAXUANZE。(3)DAOTIANZHAOYEXIAOJIEGUOCHENGZHONGJINIEQIZHEIYIJIEDUANDUIXIASHENSHUIDEWURANKENENGXINGZUIDA,QIZHONGYOUYINH4+-NWURANZUIWEIYANZHONGQIEJIZHONG,ERNO3--NWURANFENGXIANXISHUZEXIANGDUIJIAOXIAO,ZAICITUJINGZHONG,XIASHENSHUIDESHENDUBUTONGYEHUIZAOCHENGWURANDECHENGDUGEYI。TONGSHI,JINIEQIDAOTIANZHAOYEXIAOJIENENGLIJIAORUO,DANCIZONGLIANGYINGKONGZHIZAI211.8 t/hm2YINEI,ERSUIFEISHIYONGQIYUZHIXIANGFAN,MEICIZHIYAOBUGAOYU423.5 t/hm2ZAIZHENGGESHUIDAOSHENGYUQINEIDOUSHIKEXINGDE。YIYOUYANJIUFAXIAN,YIDINGLIANGDEZHAOYETOURUYUTANG,BUJINNENGCUJINFUYOUSHENGWUDEFANZHISHENGZHANG,TIGAOSHUIZHONGRONGJIEYANGDEHANLIANG,HAIKEYIJIANSHAOFANTANGFASHENG,GAISHANYULEIDESHENGZHANGHUANJING[16]。

            4、 沼液应用存在的一些问题

            SHOUXIAN,YIBANDAXINGDEZHAOQIGONGCHENGSUOCHANSHENGDEZHAOYELIANGJUDA,ZHAOYEDECHUCUNYUYUNSHUSHEBEIYEXIANGDUIBUWANSHAN,JIAZHIZHONGGUORENKOUZHONGDUO,MEIGENONGHUSUOZHANNONGTIANTUDIMIANJIXIAO,GUANLIBUJIZHONG,BINGBUNENGDADAODAMIANJIXIAOJIELIYONGZHAOYEDEYAOQIU。ERQIEDANYIDEZHAOYENONGYONGTUJINGCUNZAIJIDADEGONGXUSHIHENGXIANXIANG,XIANYOUTIAOJIANXIAZHONGGUODENONGYONGTUDIZONGLIANGHAINANYIMANZURIYICHANCHUDEZHAOYEXIAOHAO,NONGMINZAINONGYESHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGZHUDONGJIJIDICAIYONGZHAOFEIDEYIYUANHAIXIANGDUIDANBO,YINCIJIJIEXINGZHAOYEGUOSHENGCHENGWEIYIGEJISHOUDEWENTI。TONGSHIBANSUIZHEZHAOQIDENGYANYANGFAJIAOGONGCHENGDAGUIMOFAZHANDESHIZHAOYEZHAOZHADENGCANLIUWUDEKUAISUDALIANGLEIJI,YINCIRUHETUOSHANCHUZHIFAJIAOCANLIUWUYIJINGCHENGWEIXIANZHIYANYANGFAJIAOJISHUFAZHANDEPINGJINGZHIYI[16,17]。

            QICI,YINWEIZHAOYESHIYANYANGFAJIAODECHANWU,QISUOYUNHANDEYINGYANGWUZHIHEWEISHENGWUZAIJIECHUYANGQIHOUHUIFASHENGZHIBIAN,YINGYANGWUZHI(RUDAN)HANLIANGJIANGDI,HUOXINGWUZHISANGSHIHUOLIHUOBIANZHI,DADAJIANGDIQILIYONGJIAZHI。ERSUIZHEGUIMOHUAZHAOQICHANYEDEXUNSUFAZHANHEDALIANGZHAOYEDECHANSHENG,YIDIXIAONASHIDEZHAOYEDEZHANGTUYUNSHUHEZHUCUNWENTIBUKEBIMIANDIRUQIJINXING。YINCI,YANJIUYINGXIANGZHAOYEXINGZHIBIANHUADEYINZI,YANZHIXIANGGUANZHAOYEWENDINGJI,SHIZHAOYEZHONGDEYINGYANGCHENGFENBAOXIANQIGENGZHANGJIU,CONGERCHENGWEIGAOXIAOQIEWENDINGDEZHAOFEIYINGYONGYUNONGYESHENGCHANZHONG,DUIYUBAOZHANGZHAOQICHANYEHUADEJIANKANGFAZHANYIJIZUOWUDEWENCHANZENGCHANJUNJUYOUSHENYUANDEYIYI[64]。

            DANZUIZHUYAODESHI,YOUYUZHONGGUOQIHOU、TURANG、JIANGSHUIJIZUOWULEIXINGZAIBUTONGDIQUCUNZAIHENDABUTONG,QIESHANGWEICHUTAIXIANGGUANZHAOYEQUANCHENGGUANGAIDECHENGSHUJISHUGUIFANCUOSHI,TONGSHIZHAOQIFAJIAOGUOCHENGZHONGTOUFANGYUANLIAODELEIXING、SHULIANGHECHANSHUILIANGCUNZAIYIDINGCHAYI,ZHEIJIANGXINGCHENGBUTONGCHENGFENHEYANGFENDEZHAOYECHENGPIN,SHIDEZHAOYEZAISHIYONGHUANJIEQIANZANGJUDADEFENGXIANXISHU。BIRUDANGZHAOYEZUOWEIYEMIANFEI、JINZHONGJIHUOPEIZHIWUTUZAIPEIYINGYANGYESHI,XUJINXINGSHIDANGDEXISHILAIDIAOJIEDIANDAOLV,GAISHANHAIYUANXINGHUANJING[44]。GUOGAONONGDUDEZHAOYEHUIYIZHIZUOWUZHONGZIDEMENGFAHESHENGZHANGFAYUGUOCHENG[80]。ERBUHELISHENZHILIANXUGUOLIANGHUOZHANGQIDEZHAOYESHIYONGJIANGHUIZAOCHENGLIN、XIAOSUANYANYIJIZHONGJINSHUDECHENJIHELEIJIA,CONGERDUITURANG、ZUOWU、SHUITIGOUCHENGWUXINGDEWURAN,ZAOCHENGTURANGHESHUITIZHILIANGZHENGTIXIAJIANG,JIANJIEWEIXIEDAORENLEIDEJIANKANGFAZHAN[7,12,16]。YANJIUHAIFAXIAN,ZHAOYEZHONGYOUDALIANGWEISHENGWUSHENZHIYOUHAIWEISHENGWUCUNZAI,ERQIEKENENGHANYOUDUOHUANFANGTING、FENLEIHUAHEWU、EREYING、LVHUASHILAHELINBENERJIASUANZHIDENGCHIJIUXINGYOUJIWU,CHUQINDENGPAIXIEWUJINGYANYANGFAJIAOHOUKEJIANCEDAOJIAOGAODEKUIYICHUNJISUHESIHUANSULEIKANGSHENGSU。YINCINONGYONGGUOCHENGZHONG,ZHAOYEZHIJIEZUOYONGYUNONGZUOWU、CHUQINHUOTURANG,MIQIEJIECHUSHIWULIAN,HENDACHENGDUSHANGHUICUNZAISHIPINANQUANYINHUAN,SHENZHIWEIJIDAOSHENGTAIYUHUANJINGDEHEXIE[16],TONGSHISHIYONGGUOZHAOYEDETURANGHAIHUICHANSHENGLEISIKANGSHENGSUWURANDEFENGXIAN[75]。YINCI,CHEDIQIANGHUAZHAOYEHAITIANLIYONGDEHUANJINGXIAOYIPINGJIAPOZAIMEIJIE,BINGXUCONGZHENGGESHENGTAIXITONGCENGMIANYOUQISHIZHIWU-TURANG-DIXIASHUIXITONGLAILIANXIZHAOYEDEHELIYOUHUASHIYONG,JIANCHIZUIDACHENGDUQINGJIEHUASHIYONGYUANZE,JIANGDIZHAOYEZAINONGLINMUYUYEDENGLINGYUSHISHIDEWEIZHIFENGXIAN,ZUODAOCONGGENBENSHANGBAOZHANGSHIPINDEANQUANYOUZHI,ZUIXIAOHUAHUOCHEDIXIAOCHUZHAOYESHIYONGDUISHENGTAIHUANJINGDESHANGHAICHENGDU。

            5、 研究展望

            ZHAOYEZIYUANHUALIYONGSHIXIANLEYOU“FEI”DAO“BAO”DEZHUANBIAN,SHIZHAOYECHUZHIDEYOUXIANXUANZE。DANZHAOYEZAISHIJIYINGYONGGUOCHENGZHONGYEZAOYULEZHONGZHONGZUAIHEJISHOUWENTI,BIRUZHAOYEZIYUANGUOSHENG、ANQUANPINGJIA、GAOFUJIAZHIXIAOYINGHEYUNSHUCHUZANGWANSHANDENGDENG。YINCIBIZHEJIANYIJINHOUJIAQIANGHUOZHEYANYUYIXIAJIFANGMIANDEZHONGDIANYANJIUHEGONGZUO:(1)JIZHONGYUYANJIUZHAOYESHIYONGDUITONGYIZHONGZUOWUHUOTURANGLEIXINGDEXIAOYING,QUEBAOZHAOYEYUANDEXIANGTONG,ZHEYANYUDENGZHIWURANWUTANTAO,CONGERJIANXIAOBUTONGYANJIUZHESHIYANJIANDEZHENGYI,DECHUJIAOWEIYIZHIKEKAO、LINGRENXINFUDEJIELUN,YIJINYIBUMINGQUEZHAOYELIYONGDUINONGLINMUYUYEDENGLINGYUDEANQUANXINGPINGJIA。(2)SHENRUFAJUEZHANGQISHIYONGZHAOYEDEXIAOYINGPINGGUHETIDUZHAOYECHULITIXI,ZHUBUMINGXIZHAOYEZHONGNAXIEKANGSHENGSULEIYOUJIWUDEQUEHUIDUIHUANJINGZAOCHENGPOHUAI,QUANMIANHUAHEDINGLUNHUAZHAOYELIYONGANQUANXINGPINGJIAGONGZUO。(3)TANSUOGENGJUDUOYANGXINGHEANQUANXINGDEZHAOYEZIYUANHUALIYONGDEGAOJIAZHIHEJIANJIEXIAOFEIMOSHI,TONGGUOYIXIETUJINGBUDUANTIGAOZHAOYEDEFUJIAZHI,RUCAIYONGWUHUAFANGFAHUOMOUGEZHONGJIANMEIJIESHOUJIZHAOYEZHONGDEYOUYONGCHENGFEN,CHULIHEDIAOPEIZHAOYEYONGYUSHENGCHANGAOXINGNENGBIDEWEISHENGWUPEIYANGJI,CHONGFENHUALIYONGZHAOYEDELIHUAXINGZHUANGHEWEISHENGWUZIYUAN,TUOKUANZHAOYEQUANFANGWEILIYONGDESHIJIAO,JIANSHAOSHENZHIWANQUANBIMIANZHAOYEZHIJIELIUTONGYUSHIWULIAN,ZAOCHENGBUKEWANHUIDESUNSHI。(4)JIQUGUOWAIXIANJINLINIANHEJINGYANFANGFA,ZHUAJINZHIDINGBINGJIANQUANZHAOYEZIYUANHUALIYONGDEXIANGGUANBIAOZHUNLIUCHENGHEJISHUGUIFANCUOSHI,CONGYUANTOUSHANGKONGZHIFAJIAOYUANLIAODEWURANHUA,YANGEBAKONGFAJIAOYEWURANWUHEZUIZHONGZHAOYEWURANWUBUHUICHAOBIAO,YOUHUAZHENGGEYANYANGFAJIAOGUOCHENG,CONGERZUIDAXIANDUDIEZHIZHAOYELIYONGGUOCHENGZHONGWURANWUDEKUOSAN,SHIXIANDABIAOPAIFANGHEWUZHIFUJIPINGHENGFAZHAN。(5)DUOXIANGNONGMINXUANCHUANZHAOYELIYONGDEHAOCHUHEYUQIHUODEDEZUIDAXIAOYI,DIAODONGTAMENZHUDONGZAINONGYESHENGCHANZHONGJIENAHESHIYONGZHAOFEIDEJIJIXING,HUOKAIFANONGSUODENGXIANJINSHOUDUANLAIJIANXIAOZHAOYECHANPINDETIJI,SHENZHIYANZHIYIXIEFANGFUJILAIYANZHANGZHAOYEDEBAOXIANQI,WEICHIZHANGJIUDESHENGWUHUOXINGHEFEILIXIAOGUO,BINGJINYIBUWANSHANZHAOYEYUNSHUSHEBEIJIJU,CONGERZAIGENBENSHANGJIEJUEZHAOYEZIYUANGUOSHENGDENANTI,JISHIGAOXIAOJIEJUEZHAOYEDEGONGXUPINGHENGMAODUN。(6)SHIJIYINGYONGZHONG,ZHENDUIBUTONGZUOWU,YINGXUANYONGHELIDEZHAOYENONGDU,QUEDINGSHIYIDESHIYONGSHIQIHEFANGSHI,ZAIYUJIEGANHUOWUJIFEIDENGPEISHIGUOCHENGZHONGYANGEBAWOHAOTIDAIBILI,CONGYUANTOUSHANGKONGZHIHAOZHAOYEZHONGZONGDAN、ZONGLINDENGYOUJIWUHANLIANG,CHONGFENXIAOJIE,ZAIZUIDAHUAZHAOYEFEIYONGXIAOYIHESHEHUIXIAOYIDETONGSHI,PINGHENGHAOZHAOFEIYUHUANJINGDEYOUHAOJIANKANGFAZHAN。

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            石吕,刘建,魏亚凤,李波,薛亚光,毕智超.沼液在农业领域的资源化利用现状[J].中国农学通报,2019,35(35):109-117.
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