星云棋牌官网下载

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                  新城镇化建设中“三农”问题的关键点分析

                  时间:2019-03-21 来源:农业经济 作者:周慧敏,王成新 本文字数:6903字

                    摘    要: 中国发展进入新型城镇化阶段,随着新时代中国主要矛盾的改变,“三农”问题的焦点也在发生历史性转型。着眼于对美好生活的向往,当前中国农民问题从温饱向实现自我转型,农业问题从数量向质量转型,农村问题从稳定向和谐转型,持续小康成为新时期“三农”问题的焦点。为破解新时代的焦点问题,打通奔向“中国梦”的“三农”之路,农民的可持续发展是根本,农业的质量提升是基础,农村的和谐稳定是载体。为此,着眼于新时代城乡不平衡不充分发展的问题,必须采取综合举措。政府宏观调控与市场机制的有效衔接,是“三农”可持续发展的机制保障;物质满足和精神需求的同步,是新时期“三农”可持续发展的基本出发点;新型城镇化和新型农村建设的协调,是“三农”问题的有效路径。

                    关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 新型城镇化; “三农”问题; 转型; 中国;

                    WOGUODENONGYE、NONGCUN、NONGMINWENTI(XIACHENG“SANNONG”WENTI)YOULAIYIJIU。ZAOZAIYIWANNIANQIAN,NONGYEHENONGMINJIUYIZAIZHONGGUODADICHUXIAN,SUIZHEJULUOWENDINGHUA,NONGCUNSUIHOUCHANSHENG。ZHONGGONGSHIYIJIESANZHONGQUANHUIZHICHU,YAOZAIJINGJISHANGCHONGFENGUANXINNONGMINDEWUZHILIYI,ZAIZHENGZHISHANGQIESHIBAOZHANGNONGMINDEMINZHUQUANLI。GAIGEKAIFANGHOU“SANNONG”WENTIBEIZHENGSHITICHU,“SANNONG”YICIZUIZAOSHI1996NIANYOUWENTIEJUNJIAOSHOUTICHUBINGCHANSHUQIGAINIAN[1,2]。2003NIAN,ZHENGFUZHENGSHIJIANG“SANNONG”WENTIXIERUGONGZUOBAOGAO,CONG2004NIANDE《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUOWUYUANGUANYUCUJINNONGMINZENGJIASHOURURUOGANZHENGCEDEYIJIAN》,DAO2010NIAN《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUOWUYUANGUANYUJIADATONGCHOUCHENGXIANGFAZHANLIDUJINYIBUHANGSHINONGYENONGCUNFAZHANJICHUDERUOGANYIJIAN》,2014NIAN《GUANYUQUANMIANSHENHUANONGCUNGAIGEJIAKUAITUIJINNONGYEXIANDAIHUADERUOGANYIJIAN》,YIJI2019NIANZHONGYANGYIHAOWENJIAN《GUANYUJIANCHINONGYENONGCUNYOUXIANFAZHANZUOHAO“SANNONG”GONGZUODERUOGANYIJIAN》,YIBUYIBUSHENHUAPOUXINONGMINHENONGYEWENTI,BANONGCUNDEGAIGE、WENDING、FAZHANSHENRUXIAQU,“SANNONG”WENTIZHUBUDEDAOJIEJUE。XIJINPINGZONGSHUJITICHUQUANMIANJIANCHENGXIAOKANGSHEHUI,GONGXIANGXINGFUMENG、MEILIXIANGCUNSHENGTAIMENGHEXIANDAINONGCUNQIANGNONGMENGDEMEIHAOZHONGGUOMENGZHENGSHIJIANLIZAI“SANNONG”DEFAZHANQIANTIXIA[3]。《GUOJIAXINXINGCHENGZHENHUAGUIHUA(2014-2020NIAN)》JIUZHICHU,CHENGZHENHUASHIJIEJUENONGYENONGCUNNONGMINWENTIDEZHONGYAOTUJING。KEYISHUO,ZHONGGUOXINXINGCHENGZHENHUADEJIANSHELIBUKAI“SANNONG”WENTIDEJIEJUE。

                    TONGGUOZHONGGUOZHIWANGSOUSUOPIANMING“SANNONG”+“WENTI”DEWENZHANG,KEYIFAXIANXIANGGUANYANJIUREDIANDEBIANHUA。GAIGEKAIFANGHOU,“SANNONG”DEXINGYUNQIPAIGUANWANGXIAZAIXIANGGUANDEWENZHANGZHUBUCHUXIAN,1994NIANQIMEINIANDOUYOUXIANGGUANLUNWENFABIAO,ZHI2004NIAN“SANNONG”XIANGGUANYANJIUDADAODINGFENG,WEI1158PIAN;ERHOUYOUZHUNIANJIANSHAO。SUIZHEGUOJIALIANXUCHUTAIDEXIANGGUANZHENGCE,GUOQUDE“SANNONG”WENTIZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDEDAOLEJIAOHAOJIEJUE,SUIYIQUDEJIAOHAOCHENGXIAO,DANZAIXINXINGCHENGZHENHUASHIQI,“SANNONG”WENTIJIAODIANFASHENGZHUANXING,GENGSHENCENGCIDE“XINSANNONG”WENTIDEYITUXIAN,BINGBEIRENMENSUOSHUZHI。BAWOSHIDAIDASHI,HUIYINGSHIJIANYAOQIU,ZAIDANGQIANXINXINGCHENGZHENHUABEIJINGXIATANTAO“SANNONG”WENTIBINGXUNQIUQIJIAODIANZHUANXING,JUYOUFEICHANGZHONGYAODEYIYI。

                    一、新型城镇化时期“三农”问题焦点发生历史性转型

                    ZHONGGUOYUAN“SANNONG”WENTIDESHIZHIZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAI:NONGMINSHULIANGDUO、NONGYELUOHOU、NONGYESHENGCHANBUWENDINGQIEJIAGEQIFUDA、NONGCUNWENMINGZHENDANG,JIEJUEQILAIKUNNANDA[4]。SHIZHIJINRI,“SANNONG”WENTIYIRANCUNZAI,DANSUIZHEGONGYEHUAHECHENGZHENHUADEFAZHAN,QIJIAODIANYIZAIQIANYIMOHUAZHONGFASHENGZHUANXING。

                    (一)农民问题焦点的转型:从温饱问题到实现自我问题

                    GAIGEKAIFANGYILAI,ZHONGGUOSHISHIDENONGCUNFANPINKUNCUOSHIQUDELEJUSHIZHUMUDEZHONGDACHENGGUO。2001NIANZHONGGUOZHENGFUZAIQIFABIAODE《ERLINGLINGLINGNIANZHONGGUORENQUANSHIYEDEJINZHAN》BAIPISHUZHONGBIAOSHI,WOGUONONGCUNPINKUNRENKOUYIYU2000NIANDIJIBENJIEJUELEWENBAOWENTI[5]。2011NIAN,GUOJIAXINSHEDINGPINKUNXIANWEI2300WANREN,ZHI2018NIANYIXIAJIANGZHI1660WANREN。NONGCUNPINKUNFASHENGLVYOU30.7%JIANGZHI1.7%。NONGMINRENJUNKEZHIPEISHOURUYEZAIRIJIANSHANGSHENG,YOU1978NIANDE133.6YUANZENGJIAZHI2018NIANDE14617YUAN。SHENGHUOZHILIANGFANGMIAN,NONGCUNJUMINXIAOFEISHUIPINGYOU1978NIANDE138YUANSHANGSHENGZHI2018NIANDE12124YUAN。WOGUOXINXINGNONGCUNSHEHUIYANGLAOBAOXIANSHIDIANGONGZUOYU2009NIANKAISHISHIXING,ZHI2012NIANXINNONGBAOYIJIBENSHIXIANZHIDUQUANFUGAI[6]。NONGCUNWEISHENGJISHURENYUANYOU1980NIANDEMEIQIANKOURENPEIBEI1.81MINGZENGZHI2017NIANDE4.28MING,NONGCUNZHUCEHUSHIYOUMEIQIANKOU0.20MINGZENGZHI1.62MING。KEYISHUO,NONGMINYIJINGJIBENSHIXIANLEWENBAO。

                    已经实现温饱的农民今后的问题焦点将是如何更好地实现自身发展,其中最大群体是农民工[7]。1978年农村就业人数为30638万人,至1997年达到巅峰,为49039万人,而后却又逐年下降,至2017年农村就业人数已降至35178万人。这些农民工大多具有一技之长,他们流转于城市与乡村,成为城乡两漂。但由于难以改变固有的农业思想观念及生活方式,他们难以适应现代化、产业化、商品化生产方式和城市化生活,存在农民身份转换、农民的权益保障、无创新能力和城乡收入差距等问题转型[8]。他们的小康路在何方?另在信息化社会时期如何适应时代发展、提高自身收入实现美好生活?这都成为温饱之后的中国农民亟待解决的问题。
                   

                  新城镇化建设中“三农”问题的关键点分析
                   

                    (二)农业问题焦点的转型:从数量问题到质量问题

                    NONGYEWENTICENGSHISHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIAGONGYOUDEWENTI。LISHISHANG,QIANSULIANHEQITASHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIADELIANGSHIHENONGCHANPINDEDUANQUEWENTIJIUYIZHIWEINENGHENHAODIJIEJUE,YEDAILAILEJINGJISHEHUIDEJIDABUWEN。ZHONGGUOGAIGEKAIFANGYILAI,WOGUOYIZHIZHILIYUNONGYEZHENGCEGAIGE,GEZHONGNONGCHANPINCHANLIANGZHENGTICHENGBUDUANSHANGSHENGFAZHAN。RUBIAO2,DAO2018NIAN,ZHONGGUONONGYEZONGCHANZHIWEI64734YIYUAN,GENGDIGUANGAIMIANJIWEI66.593WANPINGFANGGONGLI。NONGCHANPINZHONGLIANGSHIRENJUNCHANLIANGWEI471GONGJIN,MIANHUAWEI4.4GONGJIN,YOULIAOWEI24.6GONGJIN,ZHUNIUYANGROUGONG46.7GONGJIN,SHUICHANPIN46.4GONGJIN。KEYISHUO,ZHONGGUONONGCHANPINYIJINGFENGFUDUOCAIQIEDADAOZIJIZIZU。

                    GAIGEKAIFANGZHIJIN,LIANGSHICHANLIANGWENTISUIYIJIBENJIEJUE,DANSHINONGCHANPINZHILIANGQUERIYIYINFALEGUORENDEDANYOU,NENGGOUMANZUXINSHIDAIRENMINXUYAODEYOUZHINONGCHANPINQUEFA,NONGCHANPINGONGYINGDEJIEGOUXINGMAODUNFEICHANGTUCHU。WOGUONONGYEJIEGOUYOUGUOQULIANGSHIDUANQUE、GONGBUYINGQIUZHUANBIANWEIGONGQIUPINGHENG、FUYOUYULIANGDEGEJU,GUOQUDANCHUNZHUIQIUCHANLIANGZENGZHANGDESHENGCHANFANGSHIYIBUFUHESHIDAICHAOLIU。ZHONGGUONONGYEWENTIYIYOUGUOQUDEMANZUSHULIANGZHUANXINGWEIMANZUJUMINGAOZHILIANGSHENGHUOXUQIU。PINZHINONGYEXIANYIBEINARUZHENGFUGONGZUO,ZHONGGUONONGYEFAZHANJINRUXINDEJIEDUAN。

                    (三)农村问题焦点的转型:从稳定问题到和谐问题

                    GAIGEKAIFANGHOU,SUIZHECHENGXIANGJINGJIJIANSHEDEFAZHAN,NONGCUNDEGEXIANGJICHUJIANSHESHIYEFAZHANQILAI。1978NIAN,NONGCUNYONGDIANLIANGJIN253.1YIQIANWASHI,ZHI2017NIANYIDA9524.4YIQIANWASHI。JIEZHI2018NIANDI,NONGCUNGONGLUZONGLICHENGYIJINGDADAO405WANGONGLI,YOU99.1%DEXIANGZHENHE96.5%DEJIANZHICUNDOUTONGLEKECHE。WOGUONONGCUNFAZHANQUDELELISHIXINGDEJINBU。DANXINXINGSHIXIA,WOGUONONGCUNRENGMIANLINZHEXINDETIAOZHAN,CUNMINZHIJIANDESHOURUCHAJULADA,NONGCUNKONGXINHUAJIAJU,CHUANTONGWENHUASHOUDAOQINSHI,HUANJINGWENTIYANZHONG,RUHEXIEDIAOGERENYUNONGCUNZHIJIAN、NONGCUNCHUANTONGWENHUAYUXIANDAIHUAZHIJIAN、NONGCUNJINGJIJIANSHEYUHUANJINGBAOHUZHIJIANDEGUANXI,SHIXIANNONGCUNHEXIEFAZHAN,CHENGWEIXIANDAINONGCUNDEXINWENTI。

                    二、可持续发展成为新型城镇化时期“三农”问题的焦点

                    “FAYUSHIZHUANZEZHI,ZHIYUSHIYIZEYOUGONG。”XINXINGSHIXIAJIEJUE“SANNONG”WENTIDEXINJIAODIAN,YINGZHUANBIANSILU,JIYAOJIANCHIGUOQUXINGZHIYOUXIAODEZHIDUHECUOSHI,YEYAOJIEHEXINSHIDAITEDIANYUSHIJUJIN,CAIQUXINDEJUCUO。SHIXIAN“SANNONG”DEKECHIXUFAZHANSHI“SANNONG”WENTIDEXINJIAODIAN。

                    (一)农民的可持续发展是根本

                  星云棋牌官网下载   BAWONONGMINWENTIDEBIANHUAHEZHUANXING,WANCHENGNONGMINSHENFENSHUNLIZHUANHUAN,WEIHUBAOZHANGNONGMINQUANYI,SUOXIAOCHENGXIANGSHOURUCHAJU,SHIXIANNONGMINDEKECHIXUFAZHAN,SHIJIEJUEXINSHIQI“SANNONG”WENTIDEGENBEN。WOGUOSHIXINGDECHENGXIANGERYUANZHIHUJIGUANLIZHIDU、XIANXINGDETUDIZHENGCE、NONGCUNJIAOYULINIANJINONGMINCHUANTONGDEWUNONGSIXIANGDAOZHILEXINNONGMINWENTI。ZHUYAOBIAOXIANYOU:DIYI,NONGMINYUCHENGZHENJUMINZHIJIANRENGRANCUNZAIYIDINGDESHENFENRENTONGBIANJIE,DUOYOUXIANYOUDEHUJIZHIDUZAOCHENGDE[9]。JIAZHINONGCUNSHENGHUOYUXIANDAIHUACHENGSHIZHIJIANCHAJUJIAODA、SHEHUIRENJIJIAOWANGMOSHIDENGJUNBUXIANGTONG,SHINONGMINDUICHENGSHIMEIYOUGUISHUGAN,ZAOCHENGLENONGMINSHENFENZHUANHUANYIRANKUNNAN。DIER,NONGMINJINCHENGHOU,XIANGGUANSHEHUIBAOZHANGHEGONGGONGFUWUWEINENGJISHIGENJIN。NONGMINZAIZINVSHANGXUE、CHENGZHENYILIAOBAOXIAN、JUZHUHUANJINGDENGWENTIDENGFANGMIANYUCHENGSHIJUMINJUNJUJIAODACHAYI。DISAN,NONGMINZHIYEYUSHENGHUOSHANGBUWENDING,CHENGXIANGSHOURUCHAJUDA。XIANXINGTUDIZHIDUSHIFENSANDEJIATINGJINGYINGNANYIXINGCHENGGUIMOJINGJI,ZHIJIEDAOZHILEZHIYENONGMINDEPINKUN。ZAIZHE,NONGYESHINONGMINWEIYIJUBEIDEJINENG,ZAICHENGSHIZHONGJIUYEYIBANZHINENGXUANZETILIHUO,JIAZHICHENGXIANGZHIJIANJINGJIFAZHANBUPINGHENG,SHISHOURUCHAJULADA。

                    (二)农业的可持续发展是基础

                  星云棋牌官网下载   JIANGUOYILAI,NONGYECUFANGSHIDEZENGZHANGFANGSHIDUIZIYUANHUANJINGCHENGZAILIZAOCHENGLEJIDADEPOHUAI。WEITIGAONONGYEGONGJITIXIDEZHILIANGHEXIAOLV,DANGDESHIBADADUI“SANNONG”GONGZUOZUOLEXINDERENWUBUSHU,JIGOUJIANXINXINGNONGYEJINGYINGTIXI,JIAKUAIFAZHANXIANDAINONGYE[10]。NONGYEKECHIXUFAZHANSHIKECHIXUFAZHANGAINIANZAISHEHUI、SHENGTAI、NONGYEHENONGCUNJINGJIDENGLINGYUDETIXIAN[11]。WOGUONONGYEMIANLINZHEZIRANZAIHAIPINFA、RENKOUJISHUJIAODA、NONGYEZIYUANHUANJINGCHENGZAIRONGLIANGJIJUXIAJIANGYIJIDISHAOSHUIQUEDEZIRANTIAOJIANYUESHUDENGDUOZHONGTIAOZHAN,BIXUZHUANHUANNONGYEFAZHANFANGSHI,GOUJIANXINXINGNONGYEJINGYINGTIXI,SHIXINGNONGYEDEKECHIXUFAZHAN,ZHEIJIFUHEWOGUODISHAORENDUO、JIANGUGUONEIYUGUOJINONGYEFAZHANHUANJINGDEFUZAGUOQING,YOUKEQUANMIANTIGAONONGCHANPINDEZHILIANG、SHIXIANNONGYEFAZHANDEZHIDEFEIYUE。DIYI,SHIXIANNONGYECONGZONGLIANGDAOJIEGOUDEZHUANBIAN。ZUOHAOCONG“ZONGLIANG”DAO“JIEGOU”DEYOUXIAOZHUANBIAN,JIANCHIJIANSHEXINXINGNONGYEJINGYINGTIXI,YOUHUADIAOZHENGNONGYEJIEGOU,TIGAONONGYESHENGCHANDEZUZHIHUACHENGDU,SHIXIANSANDACHANYEXIEDIAOFAZHAN。DIER,SHIXIANNONGYECONGDIXIAODAOGAOXIAODEZHUANBIAN。WEIMANZUNONGYEDUIZHILIANGDEXUQIU,BAGUOQUWUXIAODE、DIXIAODEGONGJITONGGUOYOUHUAGONGJIJIAGOU,SHENRULEJIEXIAOFEIXUQIU,ZHUJIANBIANCHENGYOUXIAODE、GAOXIAODEGONGJI。SUIZHENONGYEXIANDAIHUADESHENRUFAZHAN,SHIYONGXIANDAINONGYEJIXIEJINXINGNONGZUOSHENGCHAN,RANGNONGYESHENGCHANCONGDIDUANZOUXIANGZHONGGAODUAN,SHINONGYEJIXIEHUAKUAISUFAZHANYUNONGYEKECHIXUFAZHANDEYOULIZHICHENG。

                    (三)农村的可持续发展是载体

                  星云棋牌官网下载   KAIZHANMEILIXIANGCUNJIANSHE,JIEJUENONGCUNXINFUXIANDEWENTI,SHIXIANNONGCUNDEKECHIXUFAZHAN,SHIJIEJUEXINSHIQI“SANNONG”WENTIDEZAITI。GUOJIAZHANLVEDEZHELIDIANZIRANERRANDILUOZAILEXINNONGCUNJIANSHESHANG[12]。ZAIJIAKUAIFAZHANXIANDAINONGYEDEBEIJINGXIA,NONGYEXIANDAIHUADEFEISUFAZHANHEBUKECHIXUDESHENGHUOFANGSHIDUINONGCUNHUANJINGCHANSHENGLEJIDADEPOHUAI,QINGZHUANGRENKOUDALIANGLIUCHU,NONGCUNFAZHANYUSHENGTAIHUANJINGDEMAODUNRIYITUCHU,NONGCUNCHUANTONGWENHUAZAODAOQINSHI。DIYI,RENKOUKONGXINHUAWENTIXIANZHE。SUIZHECHENGSHIHUADEKUAISUFAZHAN,DALIANGNONGMINGONGYONGRUCHENGSHIGONGZUO,NONGCUNQINGZHUANGNIANLAODONGLIDALIANGLIUCHU,CUNNEILAOREN、FUNVHEERTONGBILISHANGSHENG[13],ZHISHIZHENGFUGEXIANGZHENGCEWUFAYOUXIAODIGUANCHESHISHI。DIER,WENHUAQINSHIYANZHONG。SUIZHENONGCUNRENKOUDELIUCHUHESHICHANGJINGJIDESHENRU,NONGCUNGUYOUDENONGJIASHENGHUOWENHUASHOUDAOQINSHIYUGAIBIAN。YUANYOUDEXIANGCUNKONGJIAN、NONGZUOSHIJIANZHANGQIYANGCHENGDEXIGUANYUCHENGSHISHENGHUOSUOJUYOUDE“SHENSHENG、ANQUANHEFANMANG”SANDAJIAZHI[14]CHANSHENGPENGZHUANGBINGZHUJIANBEIQUDAI,TUDISUOFUYUNONGMINDEDUTEWENHUAXUNSULIUSHI。DISAN,HUANJINGJIDAIBAOHU。NONGMINZAICONGSHINONGYE、GONGYESHENGCHANHUODONGJIRICHANGSHENGHUOZHONGPOHUAIHEWURANLENONGCUNSHENGTAIHUANJING[15]。ZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEI,NONGYESHENGCHANZHONGNONGYONGHUAXUEWUZHIDEWURAN,RUNONGYAO、HUAFEICHAOBIAODENG,YIJIWUSHUIBUDANGPAIFANG;GUODUKAIFANONGTIANZAOCHENGDETUDITUIHUAHETUDIHUANGMOHUA;NONGCUNLUANDALUANJIAN,POHUAINONGCUNWUSHEWAIGUAN。

                    三、新型城镇化时期“三农”可持续发展的途径探索

                    XIJINPINGZONGSHUJITICHUDEQUANMIANJIANCHENGXIAOKANGSHEHUIDEGONGXIANGXINGFUMENG、MEILIXIANGCUNSHENGTAIMENGHEXIANDAINONGCUNQIANGNONGMENG,JUNSHIZAIKEXUEYANPAN“SANNONG”FAZHANQUSHIDEQIANTIXIAGOULEDE。WEICI,JIEJUEDANGXIAXIN“SANNONG”WENTI,TANSUO“SANNONG”KECHIXUFAZHANTUJING,DUIYUXINSHIQIQUANMIANJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYI、GONGZHUZHONGGUOMENGJUYOUZHONGYAODELILUNJIAZHIYUSHIJIANYIYI。

                    (一)政府宏观调控与市场机制的有效衔接,是“三农”可持续发展的机制保障

                    1. 加强农业供给侧的改革。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   2016NIANFABUDEYIHAOWENJIANTICHU,ZAINONGYEXIANDAIHUADEFAZHANZHONGYAOJIADACHUANGXINQUDONGLIDU,TUIJINNONGYEGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGE,JIAKUAIZHUANBIANNONGYEFAZHANFANGSHI,BAOCHINONGYEWENDINGFAZHANHENONGMINCHIXUZENGSHOU,ZOUCHANCHUGAOXIAO、CHANPINANQUAN、ZIYUANJIEYUE、HUANJINGYOUHAODENONGYEXIANDAIHUADAOLU[16][17]。TUIJINNONGCUNHUANJINGZONGHEZHILISHISHISHINONGYEGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGEHESHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEDEBIRANYAOQIU,ZHEIYAOQIUWOGUOBUJINJINXUYAODIAOZHENGNONGYEZHONGZHIJIEGOU,ZHUIQIULVSEKECHIXUFAZHAN,HAIXUZHUANHUANSHENGCHANFANGSHI,ZHONGSUZHENGGECHANYELIAN。

                    2. 彻底革除城乡二元结构。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   CHUANGXINHUJIZHIDU,DAPOCHENGXIANGERYUANJIEGOUGEJU,JIANLICHENGXIANGTONGYIDEHUKOUDENGJIZHIDU,BOLIHUJIZHIDUDUIGONGGONGFULIDEXIANZHI,YOUXUTUIJINNONGCUNRENKOUSHIMINHUA,SHIGONGMINHUODETONGYISHENFEN,SHIXIANCHENGXIANGXIEDIAO、YITIHUAFAZHAN;TIGAONONGCUNJUMINDESHOURU,SUODUANCHENGXIANGPINFUCHAJU,TUOZHANNONGMINJIUYETUJING。

                    3. 解决土地流转与规模经营难题。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   NONGCUNTUDICHENGBAOJINGYINGQUANDELIUZHUANSHIDAPOCHENGXIANGERYUANJIEGOUDEYOUXIAOFANGFAZHIYI[18]。WOGUOXUZHIDINGZHUANXIANGZHENGCEDALIFUCHIGUIMOJINGYINGYUTUDILIUZHUAN,SHISHICHANGZAINONGYEZIYUANPEIZHIZHONGQIJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG;YOUZHENDUIXINGDIJIYUNONGHUXIANGGUANBUTIEYOUHUI,JILINONGMINCANYUDAOTUDILIUZHUANZHONGLAI;BUDUANYOUHUAHEWANSHANTUDILIUZHUANDEZHENGCEZHIDUJIHOUXUXILIEXIANGGUANFUWU,JIAQIANGSHICHANGJIANGUAN,WEITUDICHENGBAOQUANLIUZHUANTIGONGFALVBAOZHANG。

                    (二)物质满足和精神需求的同步,是新时期“三农”可持续发展的基本出发点

                    1. 完善基础设施建设,满足农民的物质需求。

                    NONGCUNJICHUSHESHIJIANSHESHANGBUWANSHAN,ZINVDUSHU、KANBINGJIUYI、SHEBAOBUTIEDENGWENTIRENGSHINONGMINXINGFUSHENGHUODEZUAI。XUTUIJINCHENGXIANGLIANGDIDEJICHUSHESHIHEFUWUJUNDENGHUAFAZHAN,RANGGUANGDANONGMINQUNZHONGDOUXIANGSHOUDAOXIANDAIHUACHENGGUO,ZHELIGAISHANNONGCUNZHONGXIAOXUEJICHUSHESHIJIANSHE、JIADASHIZILILIANGTOURU,JIANHUAKANBINGLIUCHENG、WANSHANYILIAOSHESHI,JIANQUANNONGCUNSHEHUIBAOZHANGTIXI。

                    2. 推进文化教育建设,同步提升农民精神需求。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   NONGCUNWENHUASHINONGMINRICHANGSHENGHUODEZHONGYAOJINGSHENJITUO,YAOZAIBAOHUCHUANTONGWENHUADEQIANTIXIAJIAQIANGNONGCUNWENHUAJIANSHE,CUJINCHENGXIANGZIYUANHUDONGLIUTONG,GULINONGMINTONGGUOBUDUANXUEXILAITISHENGZIWOWENHUAHANYANG、FENGFUNEIXINJINGSHENSHIJIE,YICIJIYUNONGMINFAZHANDESIWEI[19];JIAQIANGNONGMINZHIYEJIAOYU,PEIXUNNONGMINZHIYEJINENG,BANGZHUNONGMINZHENGQUERENSHIZISHENZHIYE,ZHIYOURANG“NONGMIN”CHENGWEILEYIXIANGZHENGSHIDEZHIYE,CAINENGXIYINPEIBEIZHUANYEZHISHIJINENGDEYOUZHILAODONGLIJINXINGNONGYESHENGCHANHUODONG[20]。

                    (三)新型城镇化和新型农村建设的同步,是“三农”问题的有效切入途径

                    1. 加强新型城镇化建设,推进城乡一体化。

                    DANGDESHIBADAZHONGMINGQUETICHUYAOJIANLIMEILIZHONGGUO,DAZAOMEILIXIANGCUN。FAZHANXINXINGCHENGZHENHUAHEJIANSHEXINXINGNONGCUNSHIJIEJUE“SANNONG”WENTI、SHIXIAN“SANNONG”KECHIXUFAZHANDEBIJINGZHILU[21][24]。2014NIAN,ZHONGGONGZHONGYANG、GUOWUYUANYINFADE《GUOJIAXINXINGCHENGZHENHUAGUIHUA(2014-2020NIAN)》QIANGDIAO,WOGUOYIJINRUCHENGZHENHUASHENRUFAZHANDEGUANJIANSHIQI。GAIGUIHUAMINGQUETICHUJINJINWEIRAOQUANMIANTIGAOCHENGZHENHUAZHILIANG,ZOUYIRENWEIBEN、SIHUATONGBU、YOUHUABUJU、SHENGTAIWENMING、WENHUACHUANCHENGDEZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGCHENGZHENHUADAOLU。ERQIQIANTIZESHIZHUNQUEYANPANCHENGZHENHUAFAZHANDEXINQUSHI、XINTEDIAN,TUOSHANYINGDUICHENGZHENHUAMIANLINDEFENGXIANTIAOZHAN。

                    2. 推进乡村振兴战略,建设美丽中国乡村。

                  星云棋牌官网下载   CHUANGXINWANSHANNONGCUNSHEHUIGUANLIZHIDU,TIGAOXIANGCUNZHILIJIXIAO,YITUIJINSHEHUIZHUYIXINNONGCUNJIANSHEDEJIANKANGFAZHAN;YOUNEIERWAI,ZISHANGERXIADAZAONONGCUNNEIHAN,XINGCHENGYOUJI、YOUXIAODEZHILITIXI,ZHENGZHIPOBAIDECANZHUANBAIWA,WEIGOUJIANHEXIEXIANGCUNDAZAOWENGUDEJICHU;GEJUEJINJIAOYIXIENONGCUN“ZANGWUNAGOU”DEXIANXIANG,CUJINNONGCUNRENJUHUANJINGHENONGTIANHUANJINGDETISHENG,GAISHANNONGCUNWEISHENGTIAOJIAN,KEXUEHELIDEKAICAI、ZHONGZHI,ZAIYIBAOHUSHENGTAIHUANJINGWEISHOUWEIDEQIANTIXIAFAZHANNONGCUNJINGJI,CUJINNONGCUNJINGJIDEKECHIXUJIANKANGFAZHAN。

                    JIEYU:XINXINGCHENGZHENHUA,ZHUYAOZHEYANDIANZHIYIJIUSHI“SANNONG”WENTIDEJIEJUE。WOGUO“SANNONG”WENTIYIYOUGUOQUDECUFANGSHIJIEJUEZHUANXINGWEIJINGZHUNHUAJIEJUE,WENTIJIAODIANYEFASHENGLEZHUANXING,ZHEIJIZHONGTIXIANLEDANGQIANWOGUONONGYE、NONGCUNHENONGMINDEFAZHANXIANZHUANG,GUANHUDAOWEILAIWOGUOQUYUNAIZHIZHENGTIJINGJISHEHUIDEKECHIXUFAZHAN,SHIQUANMIANJIANCHENGXIAOKANGSHEHUI,SHIXIANZHONGHUAWEIDAFUXINGZHONGGUOMENGDEGUANJIANYIBU。QIZHONG,NONGMINDEKECHIXUFAZHANWEIGENBEN,NONGYEDEKECHIXUFAZHANWEIJICHU,NONGCUNDEKECHIXUFAZHANWEIZAITI。QIHEXINJIUSHIYINONGMINDEKECHIXUFAZHANWEIGENBEN,SHIXIANCHENGXIANGYITIHUA,WANSHANJICHUSHESHIJIANSHE,TUIJINWENHUAJIAOYUJINCHENG;YINONGYEDEKECHIXUFAZHANWEIJICHU,BAOCHINONGCHANLIANGDABIAODETONGSHIZHUIQIUCHANPINZHILIANG,GOUJIANXINXINGXIANDAIHUANONGYEYIBAOHUNONGTIANHUANJING;YINONGCUNDEKECHIXUFAZHANWEIZAITI,DAZAOMEILIXIANGCUNMENG,YONGXIANDAIJISHUQUGAIZAONONGCUNMIANMAO。ZONGERYANZHI,NONGMIN、NONGYE、NONGCUNSANGEFANGMIANQUEYIBUKE,YAOMINGQUE“SANNONG”WENTIDEZHONGYAODIWEI,YIKAOZHENGFUDELILIANGYUMINZHONGDEPEIHE,SHIXIANZHIDUDEGAIGEHEZHENGCEDEJUJIAO,RANGWOGUONONGMINGENGFU,NONGYEGENGQIANG,NONGCUNGENGMEI。

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                    周慧敏,王成新.新型城镇化时期中国“三农”问题焦点的转型[J].农业经济,2020(01):34-36.
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