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            学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 农学论文 > 农业机械化论文

            玉米机械化种植技术推广

            时间:2018-11-18 来源:吉林农业 作者:刘东辉 本文字数:2104字

              摘    要: 玉米是舒兰市白旗镇种植面积较大的粮食作物之一,玉米生产全程机械化是实现玉米增产的主要措施,玉米种植全程机械化是一项系统技术,主要包括深耕整地,机械播种,中耕除草,机械收获及根茬还田等。在玉米种植过程中,科学运用该技术,可以省工省时,降低生产成本,提效保产,大幅度降低农民劳动强度,同时,还将有效实现玉米种植标准化、规范化,继而提高玉米的市场竞争力,促进农村经济的发展。

              关键词: 农业机械化; 种植技术; 推广;

              1、白旗镇农业机械化发展现状

            星云棋牌官网下载   BAIQIZHENDICHUSHULANSHIXIBU,SHISHULANSHIZHONGDIANCHANLIANGXIANG(ZHEN)ZHIYI,NONGZUOWUZHUYAOYIYUMI、SHUIDAOWEIZHU,QUANZHENXIANYOUGENGDIMIANJI10200GONGQING,QIZHONGYUMIMIANJI5100GONGQING,ZHANQUANZHENGENGDIZONGMIANJIDE50%YISHANG。JINNIANLAI,YOUYUGUOJIASHISHILENONGJIGOUZHIBUTIEZHENGCE,JILILEGUANGDANONGHUGOUZHINONGYEJIXIEDEJIJIXING,ZHISHIQUANZHENNONGYEJIXIEDENGZHUANGBEIXUNSUTIGAO,JIEZHI2018NIANMOTONGJI,QUANZHENXIANYOUDAZHONGXINGTUOLAJI1015TAI,PEITAONONGJIJU3510TAI,YUMISHOUHUOJIXIE32TAI,YUMITUOLIJIXIE40TAI,YUMIJIXIEHUASHOUHUOMIANJI2500GONGQING,ZHANYUMIZHONGZHIMIANJIDE50%。

              2、 种植技术

              2.1、 精心整地

              2.1.1、 地块选择

              YUMIGENXIFADA,SHIYINGXINGJIAOQIANG,DUITURANGYAOQIUBUYANGE,YINGXUANZEDISHIBIJIAOPINGTAN,TUCENGSHENHOU,TUZHISHUSONG,FEILIHAO,BAOSHUIBAOFEINENGLIQIANGDEGANGDIHUOHUANPODI,BIANYUJIXIEHUAZUOYE。

              2.1.2 、秋翻深松

            星云棋牌官网下载   NONGZUOWUSHOUHUOHOUKEJINXINGSHENSONG,QIUFANSHENDU20~25LIMI,SHENSONGYINGDAPOLIDICENG(SHARANGTUCHUWAI)SHENDU20~25LIMI,RUQIANCHASHIDADOUCHAFANGKESHENSONGPACHA,XIANSHENSONGHOUPACHA,XIANYONGZHONGPAHOUYONGQINGPA,SHENDUWEI25~35LIMI。

              2.1.3、 耙地起垄

              在正常情况下可进行两次秋耙,在重耙前先用重耙耙透,再用轻耙耙碎耢平,或者重耙两次,深度要达到15厘米以上。
             

            玉米机械化种植技术推广
             

              2.2、 品种选择

              2.2.1、 主推品种

            星云棋牌官网下载   SHULANQUYUTUIGUANGDEPINZHONGYOU:XIANGYU998,CHENGSHUQI127TIAN,ZHUXINGBANJINCOU,MUZHU4500ZHU,MUCHAN834.5GONGJIN;YOUDI503,ZHONGWANSHUPINZHONG,CHENGSHUQI127TIAN,BANJINCOU,MUCHAN834.5GONGJIN;JINONGDA819,SHENGYUQI125TIAN,BANJINCOU,MUCHAN819GONGJIN;YOUQI318,SHENGYUQI127TIAN,ZHUXINGJINCOU,MUCHAN901GONGJIN。

              2.2.2、 精选种子

              ZHONGZIZHILIANGDADAOGUOJIAYAOQIULIANGZHONGBIAOZHUN。YINGJINLIANGXUANNAIMIZHIPINZHONG,BINGZAIBOZHONGQIANJINXINGZHONGZIJINGXUAN,QUCHUPOSUNLI,BINGLIHEZALI,YAOQIUZHONGZICHUNDU98%,JINGDU98%,FAYALV95%YISHANG,HANSHUILIANGBUGAOYU16%。

              2.2.3、 药剂拌种

            星云棋牌官网下载   YINGCAIYONGSHIBANZHONG,WEIFANGZHIDIXIAHAICHONG,MIAOQIHAICHONGHEYUMISIHEISUIBING,100KEZHONGZIYONG50%XINLIULIN50~80HAOSHENGJIASHUI2000HAOSHENG、HUOMEIGONGJINZHONGZIYONG35%FUNANDANZHONGYIJI22~28HAOSHENGJIASHUI30HAOSHENGBANZHONG。

              2.3、 适时播种

              DONGBEIDIQUQIWENHUISHENGJIAOMAN,KEGENJUQIWENTIAOJIANQUEDINGBOZHONGSHIJIAN,ZHENGCHANGNIANFENDAYUEZAI4YUE25RI~5YUE10RIWEIYI。DANGTURANGGENGCENGHUAZHI5~10LIMI,DIWENWENDINGZAI10℃~12℃,HANSHUILIANGZAI20%YIXIAJIKEBOZHONG。

              2.3.1、 深浅适宜

              ZHIBOYUMIZHUYAOCAIYONGDESHIYUMIJINGSHAOLIANGBOZHONGJIXIE,YINGSHIYONGJIBOZHONG、SHIFEI、PENSACHUCAOJIDENGDUODAOGONGXUYUYICIWANCHENGDEBOZHONGJI。

              2.3.2、 精量播种

              YAOQIUXIAZHONGLIANGMEIXUE1LI,ANGUOJIAGUIDINGJINGMIBOZHONGZUOYEBIAOZHUNSHI:DANLILV≥85%、KONGXUELV≤5%、SUIZHONGLV1、5%,TONGSHIYINZHONGZIFAYALVDENGYINSU,YAOBAOZHENGCHUMIAOZHUSHU3800~4400ZHU,MEIMUYONGZHONGLIANG4500~5200LI。

              2.3.3、 合理密植

            星云棋牌官网下载   KEGENJUYUMIPINZHONGERDING,RUZAOSHUPINZHONGYUMI,TURANGFEILIGAOHUOFEILIANGDAYIMIYIXIE,FANZHIYIXI。YUMIXINGJUANYUMILIANHESHOUHUOJIDEYAOQIUZAI60~65LIMI,ZHUJU15~28LIMI,YIBANMEIMUBAOZHU4000ZHUYISHANG,GONGQINGBAOMIAO5~6WANZHU。

              2.4、 田间管理

              2.4.1、 合理施肥

            星云棋牌官网下载   YUMIBOZHONGHOUKEFENWEISANGEJIEDUANSHIFEI:YISHIGONGGANFEI。YUMIZAIBOZHONG25TIANZUOYOU,ZHUISHIGONGGANFEI,NENGGOUCUJINYEPIANZENGDA,MUZHUISHINIAOSU10~15GONGJIN(TANAN30~40GONGJIN),GUOLINSUANGAI20~36GONGJIN,LVHUAJIA10~15GONGJIN,LIUSUANXIN2GONGJIN。ERSHIGONGSUIFEI。BOHOU45TIANZUOYOU,ZHUGAO120LIMIZUOYOUZHUIFEIYICI,CISHIZHENGSHIYUMISHENGZHANGWANGSHENGSHIQI,XUFEILIANGDA,ZHEICIZHUIFEIZHANZONGLIANGDE50%~60%,ZUIHAOXUANYONGTANANHUONIAOSU,MUSHITANAN65~80GONGJINHUONIAOSU25~30GONGJIN。SANSHIGONGLIFEI。BOZHONG60TIANZUOYOU。ZAIYUMICHOUSISHIKAISHIQIZHUIFEI,KEYIYUFANGYUMIHOUQITUOFEI,DANYONGLIANGBUNENGTAIDA,YINGZHANZONGZHUIFEILIANGDE10%~20%,MUZHUINIAOSU6~8GONGJIN。

              2.4.2、 化学除草

              MIAOQISHIYAO,YAOJIPEIFANG,(1)YONG40%ATELAJINJIAOXUANYE3.75~4.5SHENG/GONGQING+72%2.4-DJDINGZHI0.5~0.7SHENG/GONGQING;4%YUNONGLE0.75~100SHENG/GONGQING+40%ATELAJINJIAOXUANJI1.25SHENG/GONGQING;(2)YUMICHUMIAOHOU3~4YEQI,ZACAO2~4YEQIYONGYAO,MEIMU(667PINGFANGMI)YONGYAO40%YUNONGLEXUANFUJI67~100HAOSHENG,DUISHUI25~35GONGJINPENWU。

              2.4.3、 机械中耕、除草

            星云棋牌官网下载   YUMIZAICHUMIAOQIANZHICHUMIAOHOUJINXINGDIYICIZHONGGENGSHENSONG,LONGGOUSHENSONGSHENDU25~30LIMI;YUMI5~8YEQI,JIEHEZHUIFEIJINXINGDIERCIZHONGGENGPEITU,ZUODAOSHENZHONGGENGQIANPEITU;FENGLONGQIANJINXINGDISANCIZHONGGENGPEITU,PEIGAOLONG。YUMICHUMIAOCHUQI,BUFENZACAOCHUTU,SHIYONGXUANFANJINXINGCHUCAO,CHUCHIRUTUSHENDUBUCHAOGUO3LIMI。

              2.5、 病虫害防治

              2.5.1、 虫害防治

              ZHUYAOCHONGHAIYOUYUMIMINGHEYACHONG。YUMIMINGFANGZHI,YINGZHANGWOZAIXINYEMOQI,KEYONG1.5%XINLIULINKELIJIANMEIMU1.5~2GONGJINYONGLIANGDIUXIN,FANGZHIXIAOGUOMINGXIAN。YACHONGFANGZHIKEYONG40%LEGUORUYOUHUO10%BICHONGLIN1000BEIYEPENWUFANGZHI。

              2.5.2、 病害防治

              ZHUYAOBINGHAIYOUWENKUBING、HEIFENBINGHEDAXIAOBANBING,FANGZHIFANGFA:HEIFENBINGKEYONG25%FENXIUNINGKESHIXINGFENJI150KEJIA50GONGJINZHONGZIBANZHONGYUFANG。RUFAXIANTIANJIANYOUFASHENGHEIFENBINGDEZHIZHU,YINGJISHIBACHU。WENKUBINGHEDAXIAOBANBING,ZAIDALABAKOUQIQIAN,MEIMUYONG50%DUOJUNLINGHUOFENXIUNING100~150KEDUISHUI50GONGJINPENWUJIKE。

              2.6、 机械化收获

              YUMIZILICHENGSHUHOU,YINGJIANGE3~5TIANJINXINGSHOUHUOZUOYE,ZHEISHIGUOSUIHANSHUILVDI,YOULIYUBOPIZUOYE。SHOUHUOQIAN10~15TIAN,YINGDUIDAOFUYUMIDEZHONGZHIMIDUJIXINGJU、GUOSUIXIACHUIDUHEJIESUIZUIDIGAODUDENGQINGKUANGJINXINGTIANJIANDIAOCHA,TIQIAN3~5TIANPINGZHENGTIANKUAIDEGOUQU、LONGTAI,YOULIYUANQUANZUOYE。

              刘东辉.玉米生产全程机械化技术推广[J].吉林农业,2019(20):38.
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