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                                        学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 社会学论文 > 食品安全论文

                                        我国食品安全监管困境与改善对策

                                        时间:2015-09-19 来源:未知 作者:学术堂 本文字数:2782字
                                        摘要

                                          一、引言

                                        星云棋牌官网下载   JINNIANLAI,SUIZHEDUSHENGJIANG、SHOUROUJING、DIGOUYOU、SUDANHONG、DUNAIFENDENGSHIPINANQUANWENTIDEBUDUANPUGUANG,RENMENDUISHIPINDEANQUANYUELAIYUEDANYOU,SUIRANXIANGGUANJIANGUANBUMENBUDUANJIADAJIANGUANLIDU,DANSHISHIPINANQUANSHIGUQUEYIRANPINFANFASHENG。

                                          RUHEJIANLIWANBEIDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXI,GUONEIWAIXUEZHEZUOLEDALIANGDEYANJIU。WANGWANQIONGYANJIULEWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIZHIXIANZHUANG[l]。WENXIAN2ZHENDUIWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTITICHUXIANGGUANJIANYI[2]。WENXIAN3CONGQUANMINCANZHENGDESHIJIAOLUNSHULESHEHUICANYULILIANGDUISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEZHONGYAOXING[3]。TONGGUOFENXIGUOWAIXIANJINSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXI,WEIWANSHANWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANFANGMIANTICHUJIANYI。MEIGUOYONGYOUXIANJINDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANXITONG,SHISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANGONGZUOZUODEZUIHAOGUOJIAZHIYIJIANG6]。YINCI,JIEHEGUOWAISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANFANGMIANDEXIANJINTIXI,FENXIWOGUOGUONEIJIANGUANDEBUZU,JIANLIFUHEZHONGGUOGUOQINGDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXI。

                                          二、我国食品安全现状

                                          1.SHIPINANQUANXIANZHUANG

                                          SHIPINSHIRENLEISHENGHUODEBIXUPIN,SHIPINANQUANWENTIYUGUOMINSHENGMINGJIANKANGXIXIXIANGGUAN,BINGDUIWOGUODEJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANZAOCHENGLEYANZHONGDEYINGXIANG。SHOUXIANSHIPINANQUANWENTIZHONGSHIYUANXINGJIBINGZAIJIBINGZHONGDEBILVXIANGDANGGAO,ZAOCHENGLELAODONGLIZIYUANDESHUCHUJIANSHAO,YIJIYILIAOXIANGGUANFEIYONGDEZENGJIA,JUTONGJI,JIN2012NIANYOUYUSHIYUANXINGJIBINGZAOCHENGDEYILIAOCHENGBENJIUYIJINGZHANDAOZHENGGESHIPINGONGYEZONGCHANZHIDE20%,YOUCIKEYIKANCHU,SHIPINANQUANWENTIYANZHONGYINGXIANGLELESHEHUISHENGCHANLVDETISHENG。QICI,DUIWOGUOSHIPINJINCHUKOUMAOYIJIXIANGGUANCHANYEDEFAZHANZAOCHENGLEBUHAODEYINGXIANG,RU2009NIANZHONGRIDE“DUJIAOZI”SHIJIANJIUYINFALEZHONGRISHIPINANQUANZONGJUJIAOSHEDEWAIJIAOFENGBO,DUIZHONGGUODECHUKOUMAOYIZAOCHENGLEJIDADESUNSHI。GUONEISHIPINYEDEFAZHANYEYINWEISHIPINWENTISHOUDAOLEJIDADEZUAI,RU08NIANFASHENGDESANJUQINGANSHIJIAN,GENGSHIZAOCHENGZHONGGUONIUNAICHANLIANGYIDUANSHIJIANNEIZHOUJIANG。DISAN,DUIGUOMINDESHENGMINGANQUANZAOCHENGLEJIDADESHANGHAI。SHIPINANQUANWENTIXIANZAIYIJINGZHUJIANCHENGWEIZHONGGUORENSIWANGDESHOUYIN。

                                          DANSHIJINNIANLAISHIPINANQUANWENTIPINPINCHUSHI,CONG2005NIANKONGQUESHILV”SHIJIANKAISHISUANQIGEZHONGSHIPINANQUANWENTIBUDUAN,2006NIANSUDANHONGYADANSHIJIAN、2008NIANSANLUSANJUQINGANDUNAI、2005NIANZHI2011NIANPIGENAISHIJIAN、2010NIANDIGOUYOUSHIJIAN、2011NIANSHOUROUJINGSHIJIANHESUHUAJICHAOBIAOSHIJIAN、2013NIANLIUHUANGXUNZHI“DUSHENGJIANG”SHIJIANHEHUNAN“HAODAMI”LIURENGUANGDONGSHIJIAN、2014NIANFUXIGONGSISHIYONGGUOQIROUSHIJIANDENGDENG。JINLIANGNIANSHIPINANQUANWENTIDEZHENGYIJIPUGUANGGENGSHICENGCHUBUQIONG,20QIAONIANWHO“HONGROUZHIAI”BAOGAO、“JINBORENJIU”、“DUDOUYA”ANJIAN、ZOUSI“JIANGSHIROU”LIURENCANZHUOSHIJIAN、HANDALIANGBINGXITAIANDEHEITANGSHIPINSHIJIANYINFAREYI,ERSHIMIAN90%WUCHANGDAMICHANJIASHIJIANPUGUANGGENGSHIRANGSHIPINANQUANWENTIBAOSHOUZHENGYI,2016NIANDUYIMIAOSHIJIANDENGDENGRANGRENMINDUISHIPINANQUANDEXIANZHUANGKANYOU。ZHUSHIFUSHI、YUROUSHUCAI,CHIHESHEJIDAODEFANGFANGMIANMIAN,DOUBEIBAOCHUGEZHONGANQUANWENTI。WEICI,TONGGUOFENXIJINNIANLAIDESHIPINANQUANWENTI,XIANJIANGSHIPINANQUANWENTIYIGONGFENWEILIANGLEI:YILEISHISHIPINZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGCHUXIANWENTIDAOZHISHIPINZHILIANGBUGUOGUAN,LINGYILEISHISHIPINCHUCHANGSHIZHILIANGHEGE,YOUYUYUNSHUGUOCHENGZHONGHUOZHECHUCUNFANGSHIBUDANGDAOZHISHIPINZHILIANGBUGUOGUAN,ZUIHOUYILEISHI,YOUXIEWULIANGDESHANGJIAMINGZHIDAOSHANGPINZHILIANGBUGUOGUAN,WEILEZHUIQIULIRUNKEYIXIAOSHOUBUHEGESHIPIN。WULUNSHINAZHONGYUANYINDAOZHIDESHIPINBUHEGE,YIDANJIANCHACHUSHIPINWENTI,YILVZHUIXUNSHIPINWENTIGENYUAN,BINGZHAOHUISUOYOUBUHEGEDECHANPIN。DUIYUBUTONGYUANYINDAOZHIDESHIPINBUHEGEFENBIECAIYONGBUTONGDECHENGFACUOSHI:“SHENGCHAN”WENTIDAOZHIDEBUHEGELEIXINGCAIYONGTINGZHISHENGCHAN,CHENGFA、GUANTINGQIYELIUSHUIXIAN;“CANGCHU”WENTIDAOZHIDEBUHEGELEIXINGCAIYONGZHAOCHUWENTIGENYUAN,CHUFABINGZHENGGAICANGCHU;“DAODE”WENTIDAOZHIDESHIPINBUHEGE,WEIFARENYUANYILVYIFACHUZHI。RUTU1。

                                        图1 食品安全问题分类
                                        图1 食品安全问题分类

                                        星云棋牌官网下载   2.SHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXIXIANZHUANG

                                          ZAI2007NIANYIQIAN,WOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJIAGOUCUNZAIZHEZEQUANBUMINGQUEDENGWENTI,ZAOCHENGSHIPINFANGMIANJIANGUANCHUXIANHENDUOWENTI。2007NIANYIHOU,GUOJIADUISHIPINANQUANWENTIKAISHIZHONGSHI,BINGCHUTAIYIXIELIEFALVFAGUI。2007NIANFABU《ZHONGGUODESHIPINZHILIANGANQUANZHUANGKUANG》,QIZHONGBAOKUO《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOCHANPINZHILIANGFARU《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOXIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》、《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOBIAOZHUNHUAFA》、《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOJILIANGFARU《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUONONGCHANPINZHILIANGANQUANFA》、《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOSHIPINWEISHENGFA》DENG。2009NIAN,FEIZHI《SHIPINWEISHENGFA》TONGSHIBANBU《SHIPINANQUANFAJIU2015NIAN,GENJUZHONGGUOSHIPINANQUANXIANZHUAN,BANBUXIN《SHIPINANQUANFA》。TONGNIANBANBU《SHIPINSHENGCHANXUKEGUANLIBANFAJIU》、

                                          三、我国食品安全监管困境的主要原因

                                          CONGJINGJIGUANLIXUEJIAODULAIKAN,WOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANXIANRENKUNJINGDEYUANYINCUOZONGFUZA,GUIGENQILAIZHUYAOYOUYIXIALIANGGEFANGMIAN:

                                          1.SHIPINANQUANJIANGUANFANGMIANSHICHANGBUZU

                                          XINXIDEBUDUICHENGXING。XINXIBUDUIDENGBAOKUOLIANGGEFANGMIAN,YISHIYOUYUSHIPINSHENGCHAN、XIAOSHOUGUOCHENGZHONGXIAOSHOUQUDAOFUZA,ZHONGJIANSHANGGUODUO。DAOZHISHIPINJIAGECHAYIJIAODA,XIAOFEIZHEDUISHIPINDEJIAGEXINXILEJIEBUZU。ERSHIZHIYOUGUANSHIPINANQUANFANGMIANZAISHIPINSHICHANGZHUTIZHIJIANDEXINXIFENBUBUDUIDENG,XIAOFEIZHEZAIGOUMAIBINGXIAOFEISHIPINZHIQIANTONGCHANGSHIWUFALEJIESHIPINZHILIANGDE,ZAISHIPINANQUANXINXIFANGMIANLEJIEBUDUO,CHUYULIESHIDIWEI,XIAOSHOUSHANGZAISHIPINJIAOYIGUOCHENGZHONGZHANJUZHUDAODIWEI,DUISHIPINDESHENGCHANXIAOSHOUXINXIJISHIPINANQUANFANGMIANXINXIZHANGWOQUANMIAN。

                                        星云棋牌官网下载   SHIPINANQUANSHEHUILILIANGCANYUBUGOU。SHIPINANQUANQUEFASHEHUIFANGMIANLILIANGDEYUJIANGUAN,SHEHUILILIANGZHUYAOYOUSANZHONG,FENBIESHIXINGYEXIEHUI、XINWENMEITIHEXIAOFEIZHECANYU。DANSHI,DANGQIANSHEHUIZHONG,XINGYEXIEHUILILIANGBUZU,XINWENMEITIPUGUANGBUDAOWEI,XIAOFEIZHECANYUYISHIBUGOU。SHIPINZHILIANGANQUANJUYOUWAIBUXINGTEXING。XIAOFEIZHEJINXINGSHANGPINGOUMAISHIRONGYIBEISHIPINDEWAIBIAOHEJINGJIFANGMIANDEXIAOSHOUSHOUDUANSUOMENGBI,CONGXIAOFEIZHEXINLIXUEJIAODULAIKAN,WAIBIAOYOUZHIDESHIPINGENGRONGYISHOUDAOXIAOFEIZHEQINGLAI,DANSHISHIPINZHILIANGWENTIQUEHENNANTONGGUOSHIPINWAIBUTEXINGJINXINGJIANCE。YINCI,XIAOSHOUSHANGTONGCHANGHUIZHUAZHUXIAOFEIZHEDEXINLIXUETEXINGJINXINGXIAOSHOU,DAOZHIXIAOFEIZHEHENRONGYISHOUDAOSHIPINWAIBUTEXINGDEWUDAO,CONGERGOUMAIDAOZHILIANGBUGUOGUANDESHIPIN。

                                          2.SHIPINANQUANJIANGUANFANGMIANZHENGFUBUZU

                                          SHIPINANQUANFALVZHICHENGBUZU。GUONEISHIPINANQUANFANGMIANFALVFAGUIJIAOSHAO,SHANGWEIZHIDINGZHENDUISHIPINTANFAN、JIAGONGZUOFANGDENGFANGMIANDEGUANLIFANGFA,SHIPINANQUANFANGMIANZHIBIAOBUHELI,FUGAIMIANBUZU,ZAOCHENGYOUGUANBUMENZHIXINGJIANDUXINGWEISHIWUFAKEYI。

                                          SHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXIYOUDAIWANSHAN。MUQIANGUONEIDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHIDU,HAIZHISHITINGLIUZAIYICHUCENGCIDEGUANLIGUIDING,YIFALVXINGSHIGUIDINGSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEJIAOSHAO。JIANDUJIGOUBUMENFENGONGQUANZEHUAFENBUMINGQUE,ZHUYAOGUANLIZHIDUYIDIFANGZHENGFUCHUTAIGUANLIBANFA,BUMENZHIJIANCHUXIANXIANGHUQIANZHI、TUIXIEZEREN、HUXIANGCHONGTUDEXIANXIANGSHIYOUFASHENG,DAOZHISHIPINANQUANGUANLIWENLUAN。

                                        星云棋牌官网下载   JIANGUANZIYUANSHEZHIBUHELI。SHOUXIAN,GUONEIGUANYUSHIPINJIANGUANDEZIYUANYOUXIAN,ZHIJIANSHEBEIHESHESHIXIANGDUILUOHOU,ZHIJIANRENYUANBIANFA,ZHIJIANDUIWURENYUANPEIXUNBUNENGZHENGCHANGJINXING。QICI,WOGUOSHIPINJIANGUANFUGAIMIANBUZU,TONGCHANGSHIMOUXINGYESHIPINANQUANWENTICHUXIANHOUCAIJINXINGSHIPINANQUANJIANDU。

                                        图2 食品安全监管困境要因
                                        图2 食品安全监管困境要因

                                          四、食品安全监管改善对策

                                          ZONGGUANFADAGUOJIADESHIPINANQUANJIANDUFADOUJUYOUYIXIAJIGETEDIAN:SHIPINJIANGUANTIXIJIAOWEIWANBEI,BUMENQUANZEHUAFENMINGQUE;LIFAHONGGUANQUANMIAN,WEIGUANJINGXI;QINQUANCHENGFACUOSHIQIANGYING,YIDANFAXIANYOUSHIPINANQUANDEQINQUANXINGWEI,YUYIGAIQIYEGAOANGDECHENGFAJINE,SHIQIYESUOCHENGSHOUDECHENGFAYUANGAOYUSHENGCHANBUANQUANSHIPINSUODAILAIDESHOUYI,GENGKENENGYINCIDAOZHIQIYEPOCHAN;LIYONGGONGZHONGHEDISANFANGSHEHUIJIGOUJIANDU,ZHENGFUDALITUIXINGDISANFANGJIANGUANJIGOUJINXINGSHIPINJIANGUAN,LIYONGMINZHONGJINXINGJIANDU,SHIXIANQUANMINJIANDUKEYIJIANSHAOZHENGFUJIANDUCHENGBEN,BINGSHIJIANDUXIAOLVXIANZHE。

                                          SUOYI,ZHENDUIWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANXIANZHUANG,JICHUXIANGGUANJIANYI。

                                          DIYI,YIFENGXIANFENLEIWEIJICHU,KEXUEHUAJIANGUAN。

                                          DIER,YIFENGXIANJIANCEWEIZHICHENG,SHIJIANGUANJUYOUQIANZHANXING。

                                          DISAN,YIZHUANXIANGZHENGZHIWEISHOUDUAN,JIANLIFUHEZHONGGUOGUOQINGDESHIPINJIANGUANTIXI。

                                        星云棋牌官网下载   DISI,JIAKUNGFALIDU,ZHUIJIUJIANGUANZEREN。

                                          DIWU,QUANMIANTIGAOQUANMINSHIPINANQUANSUZHI,ZUOHAOXUANCHUANPEIXUNGONGZUO。

                                          DILIU,DALIPEIYANGSHIPINJIANGUANRENYUAN,JIANLIWANSHANDERENYUANPEIYANGTIXI。

                                          DIQI,WANBEISHIPINANQUANFANGMIANDEFALVFAGUI,SHISHIPINJIANGUANBUMENYOUFAKEYI。

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