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                    浅谈食品生产加工过程的污染状况与来源

                    时间:2019-01-15 来源:食品工业 作者:王殿华,李峻垚 本文字数:6823字

                      摘要:食品污染事件的不断涌现与曝光, 使食品污染成为人们日常饮食中无法忽视的一个问题。食物的污染源可能来自各方各面, 综述了包括原材料生产、运输、清洗、加热、包装和贮藏六个食品生产加工环节在内的食品污染情况以及引发食品污染的主要污染物, 为有效防范食品污染提供参考。

                      关键词:食品加工,污染,分析

                    食品加工论文

                      SHIPINANQUANSHIGUANGUOJIMINSHENG, ERYUCIXIXIXIANGGUANDESHIPINWURANWENTIYEYINFAQUANQIUGAODUZHONGSHI。SUIZHEYINSHIWENHUARIQUDUOYANGHUA, GUANYUSHIPINWURANSHIJIANDEPUGUANGYECENGCHUBUQIONG, SHIPINWURANYANRANCHENGWEIMUQIANGUOJIASHEHUIGAODUZHONGSHIDEWENTI。SHIJIEWEISHENGZUZHIHEJIBINGKONGZHIZHONGXINDEBAOGAOXIANSHI, MEIGUOMEINIANCHAOGUO7 600WANRENKOUHUANSHIYUANXINGJIBING, BINGZAOCHENG5 000RENSIWANG。FADAGUOJIADUISHIPINJIANGUANHECHENGFALIDUJIDA, SHIPINANQUANWENTISHANGQIERUCIYANZHONG, WOGUOGENGSHIPINFANFASHENG, JUBUWANQUANTONGJI, ZI2008NIANYILAI, JIEZHI2017NIAN3YUEBIANYIBAOFA82 540CI。WEICI, SHENRUYANJIUSHIWUDEWURANYUANYIJIKONGZHIFANGFAKEBURONGHUAN。YANJIURENYUANYIZHIZHILIYUYANFAWURANWUJIANCEZHUANGZHIHEJIANCEJISHU, YIBIANNENGGOUJIANCEHESHIBIEZHEIXIEWURANWU。ZHANGMINHUIYUNYONGWEICUIQUJISHUKUAISUJIANCECHUSHIPINSESULUODANMING、YINLIAOHELAJIAOFENYANGPINZHONGDESUDANHONGYIJIFENGMI、NIUNAIZHONGDEFUKUINUOTONGLEIYAOWU, BINGJINXINGCUIQUHUISHOU, JIANGDILEDUIHUANJINGDEWURAN[1]。JINGUANYIJINGYANFACHUBUTONGDEFENXIGONGJU, DANJIANSHEXINGDEJIEJUEFANGANRENGRANXUANERWEIJUE。DANGWURANWUYIZHISHI, JISHISHIDINONGDUDEMUBIAOHUAHEWU, YEKEYISHIYONGYANGPINCHULIJISHUYIJIFENXIYIQILAIWANCHENGFENXI。RANER, DANGWURANWUWEIZHISHI, FENXIJIUBIANDESHIFENKUNNAN。YINCICONGSHIPINSHENGCHAN、JIAGONGGEGEHUANJIEJIANBIEFENXIWURANWUDERENWUYIRANJIANJU, GAIWENJIESHAODEYANGPINCHULIJISHUHEZHIPUJISHUWEISHIBIEWEIZHIWURANWUTIGONGLEQIANGYOULIDEGONGJU。XIANJIESHAOLESHIPINSHENGCHANJIAGONGHUANJIE:YUANLIAOSHENGCHAN→YUANLIAOYUNSHU→QINGXI→GAOWENJIARE→SHIPINBAOZHUANG→SHIPINYUNSHU→SHIPINZHUZANG;JIEXIALAI, GAIWENXIANGXIJIESHAOLESHIPINSHENGCHAN、JIAGONGGEGEHUANJIEDEZHUYAOWURANWU, YIJIRUHEJINXINGFANGYUKONGZHI, ZHIZAIWEIQUEDINGSHIWUZHONGWURANWUDELAIYUANTIGONGCANKAO, YIBIANSHIQIANCAIQUFANGFANCUOSHIJIANGWEIHAIJIANGDAOZUIDI。

                      1 食品生产加工环节的污染

                      1.1 YUANCAILIAOSHENGCHAN

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                    星云棋牌官网下载   1.2 YUANLIAOYUNSHU

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                    星云棋牌官网下载   1.3 QINGXI

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                      RUJIN, WEIBOJIAREZHENGZHUJIANCHENGWEIDADUOSHUJIATINGHEGONGYESHENGCHANJIARESHIPINDEXUANZE, MUQIANBEIGUANGFANSHIYONGYUDADUOSHUSHICAIDEJIARE。CHULESHIPINBAOZHUANGSHANGBIAOMINGJINZHIZHIJIEJIARE, DADUOSHUWEIBOJIAREDOUSHIDAIBAOZHUANGPENGRENHUOJIARE。ZHEIZHONGWEIBOBAOZHUANGCAILIAOBAOKUOSULIAO、ZHIBANHEFUHECAILIAO, YOUZHENGJUBIAOMINGYONGWEIBOPENGRENSHIBAOZHUANGZHONGDEHUAXUEWUZHI (ZENGSUJI、KANGYANGHUAJI、DANTIHEWENDINGJIDENG) HUIQIANYIDAOSHIWUZHONG, DAOZHISHIPINZHILIANGHESHIPINANQUANXINGXIAJIANG, ZENGJIAHUANAIFENGXIAN。MUQIAN, LIYONGWEIBOJIAREDEYIDAZHUYAOTIAOZHANJIUSHIJIAREWENDUBUJUNYUNDEWENTI, DANGZAIWEIBOLUZHONGJIARESHIWUSHI, TONGCHANGHUIZAIDUANSHIJIANNEIXUNSUSHENGWEN, SHISHIWUCHANSHENGREDIANHELENGDIAN, ZAOCHENGSHOUREBUJUN, ZHEIWUYIHUICHANSHENGQIANZAIDESHIPINANQUANXINGWENTI。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   1.5 SHIPINBAOZHUANG

                    星云棋牌官网下载   SHIPINBAOZHUANGKEYIBAOHUSHIPINMIANSHOUWAIBUHUAXUE、SHENGWUDEWURAN, FANGZHISHIPINPINZHIDELIEBIANHEXIJUNDEZISHENG, DANSHIPINBAOZHUANGZAISHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGHUITIANJIADUOZHONGHUAXUEWUZHI, QIZHONGYIXIEYOUHAIHUAXUEWUZAIYUSHIPINJIECHUDEGUOCHENGZHONGHUISHIFANGCHULAI, JIYIDUISHIPINZAOCHENGWURAN, JINERDUIRENTIJIANKANGCHANSHENGWEIHAI[10]。2017NIANCHU, MOUPINPAIQIAOKELIBEIJIANCHUKUANGWUYOUHANLIANGYANZHONGCHAOBIAO, QIZHONGKUANGWUYOUCHENGFENHENKENENGYUANZISHIPINBAOZHUANGZHISHANGDEYINSHUAYOUMO。JINQI, YIKUANYOUZHONGGUOZHIZAODETUCENGZHIHEZHIBANZHIPINZONGQIANYILIANGGAODA291 mg/dm2, YANZHONGCHAOBIAO, ZAIYIDALISHICHANGBEIZHAO。ERWOGUOGB 4806.8—2016“SHIPINANQUANGUOJIABIAOZHUNSHIPINJIECHUYONGZHIHEZHIBANCAILIAOJIZHIPIN”ZHONGMINGQUEYAOQIU, ZONGQIANYILIANGBUDECHAOGUO10 mg/dm2。MUQIANYIYOU175ZHONGYOUDUWUZHIYUXIANDAIBAOZHUANGCAILIAO (LVBO、YILAGUANHESULIAOBAOZHUANGDENG) YOUGUAN。BIRUJIAQUAN, ZHONGSUOZHOUZHIJIAQUANSHIYIZHONGZHIAIWUZHI, DANSHAOLIANGDEJIAQUANZAITANSUANYINLIAODESULIAOPINGZHONGCUNZAISHIFALVSUORONGXUDE。HAIYOUYIXIESHIPINBAOZHUANGZHONGHANYOUSHUANGFENA, ZAITINEIZHANGQILEIJIHUIZAOCHENGTINEIJISUWENLUAN, DUIRENTICHANSHENGJIDADEWEIHAI。WEILETIGAOBAOZHUANGCAILIAODEXINGNENG, TONGCHANGHUIZAIBAOZHUANGSHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGJIARUTIANJIAJI, BAOKUOKANGYANGHUAJI、WENDINGJI、ZENGSUJIDENG。SHIPINHEBAOZHUANGCAILIAOZHIJIANDEZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEJIECHUDOUYOUKENENGDAOZHIBAOZHUANGZHONGDEKENENGQIANYIWUQIANYIDAOSHIPINZHONGLAI, CONGERDUIBAOZHUANGNEIDESHIPINCHANSHENGYINGXIANG。KENENGQIANYIWUDEQIANYICHENGDUZHUYAOYOUBAOZHUANGCAILIAODEXINGZHIHESHIWUDETEXINGLAIJUEDING。WEILEBAOZHANGXIAOFEIZHEDEHEFAQUANYI, BIMIANBAOZHUANGCAILIAOYUSHIPINJIECHUZAOCHENGWURAN, OUZHOU、AODALIYADENGGUOJIADESHIPINYAOPINJIANDUGUANLIJUZHIDINGLEYANGEDEFAGUI。2004NIAN, OUMENGBANBUZHENDUIYUSHIPINJIECHUWUZHIDEKUANGJIAFAGUI (EC) No1935/2004, GUIDINGYUSHIPINJIECHUDECAILIAOBIXUQUEBAOANQUAN, QIZHUANYIZHISHIPINDECHENGFENZAILIANGFANGMIANBUYINGDUIRENTIJIANKANGZAOCHENGWEIHAI。2011NIAN, OUMENGBANBULEGUANKONGSULIAOLEISHIPINJIECHUCAILIAODEXINFAGUI (EU) No 10/2011, MINGQUEZHICHUSULIAOLEISHIPINJIECHUCAILIAOCHANPINYINGDANGFUHEGUIDINGDEQIANYICESHIYAOQIU[10], QIZHONGJIAQUAN、SANJUQINGANHESHUANGFENADETEDINGQIANYILIANGFENBIEBUDECHAOGUO15, 30HE0.6 mg/kg, QIEYINGERNAIPINGZHONGBUDEJIANCHUSHUANGFENA。JINSHUGUANBAOZHUANGSHIPINSHI, JINSHUBIAOMIANDEFUSHIXIANXIANGKENENGHUIDAOZHIJINSHULIZIDEQIANYI, RUTIE、XIDENG。JINSHUGUANYIBANNEITUYOUJIJUHEWUTUCENGYIFANGFUSHI, DANYOUYUTUCENGDECUNZAI, TUCENGZHONGDESHUANGFENA、SHUANGFENAERSUOSHUIGANYOUMIDENGJIUYOUDUYOUHAIWUZHIHENRONGYIQIANYIZHISHIPINZHONG, DUIRENTIJIANKANGZAOCHENGYINGXIANG[11]。

                      BAOZHUANGZHONGSHIYONGDELINGYIZHONGCHANGYONGCAILIAOSHIBOLI。QIKENENGQIANYIWULAIZIYUBOLIGUANDEMIFENGJINSHUGAI, WEIQUEBAOLIANGHAODEMIFENG, GAIZHONGTONGCHANGHANYOUJULVYIXI (Polyvinyl chloride, PVC) DIANQUAN, ERPVCZHONGDEHUANYANGDADOUYOUSHIYIZHONGYINGYONGSHIFENGUANGFANDEZENGSUJI, MUQIANYIYOUDUOWEIXUEZHEYANJIUZENGSUPVCZHONGHUANYANGDADOUYOUDEQIANYI, MAODI[12]DENGTONGGUOGUANCHAHUANYANGDADOUYOUQIANYICHENGDUYUWENDUDEGUANXI, FAXIANHUANYANGDADOUYOUZAIDIWENGUOCHENGZHONGHUICHUXIAN“QIANYIYOUDAOQI”, QIESUIZHEWENDUSHENGGAO, YOUDAOHUIQISUODUAN。

                      ZHIBANZECHANGYONGYUBAOZHUANGGANZAOSHIPIN, RUMIANFEN、TANG、MI、GUWUHUOLENGDONGSHIPIN。YOUDUYOUHAIHUAXUECHENGFENKECONGZHIBANTIANJIAJIYIJIYINSHUAYOUMOQIANYIDAOSHIPINZHONG。ERQIEYOUYUZHIBANSHIYIZHONGKEZAISHENGLIYONGDEBAOZHUANGCAILIAO, QIHUISHOUGUOCHENGYEHUIZAOCHENGSHIPINWURAN。

                    星云棋牌官网下载   FUHEBAOZHUANGCAILIAOJINNIANLAIBEIDALIANGYINGYONGZAISHIPINBAOZHUANGLINGYU, BINGZHUBUQUDAICHUANTONGDEBAOZHUANGCAILIAO。YONGYUSHIPINBAOZHUANGCAILIAODEDIANXINGJUHEWU, RUJUYIXI、JUDUIBENERJIASUANYIERCHUNZHI、JULVYIXI、JUBENYIXIYIJIJUTANSUANZHIDENG, KEZUHECHENGFUHECAILIAO, WEILEGAISHANJUHEWUXINGNENG, JINERGAISHANZUIZHONGDEBAOZHUANGXINGNENG, CHANGZAIQIZHONGJIARUTIANJIAJI, ERSUOYOUDETIANJIAJIJIANGSHIQIANZAIDEQIANYIWU。FUHECAILIAOBUJINBAOHANBUTONGDEJUHEWU, HAIBAOHANZHANHEJI、YOUMODENGZAINEI。YOUYUCUNZAIKENENGQIANYIWUDEKUOSANJIBAOZHUANGCAILIAODEFENGEGUOCHENG, JISHIBUYUSHIWUZHIJIEJIECHU, QIZHONGHANYOUDEHUAXUEWUZHIYEKEYIQIANYI。JIWEIXUEZHEYANJIULESHIPINBAOZHUANGZHONGGEZHONGZHANHEJIDEQIANYI, RUBINGXISUAN、RERONGJIAO、XIANGJIAOHEJUANZHIJIAOZHANJI[13]。YOUMOZHONGDEKENENGQIANYIWUYEDEDAOGUANGFANDEYANJIU, TEBIESHIZIWAIXIANGUHUAYOUMOZHONGDEGUANGYINFAJI (ERBENJIATONGHEYIBINGJILIUZAENTONG) DEQIANYI。CIWAI, SULIAOHUISHOUCAILIAOJUYOUTESHUXING, YINWEITAMENKENENGHANYOULAIZIXIANQIANBAOZHUANGDESHIPINCANLIUWU, HUOHUISHOUGUOCHENGCHANSHENGDEWURANWU (HUAXUETIANJIAJI) , HUIZHIJIEWEIXIESHIPINDEANQUAN。WEICI, OUZHOUSHIPINANQUANJUMUQIANZHENGDUISULIAOZAISHENGSHIJIANJINXINGPINGGU, BINGMINGQUEBIAOMINGYONGYUSHIPINBAOZHUANGHEQITASHIPINJIECHUCAILIAOZHONGDEZAISHENGSULIAOBIXUANQUANWUDU。

                      CHULEYOUYITIANJIADAOSHIPINZHONGDEWUZHIWAI, FEIYOUYITIANJIAWUZHI (Non intentionally added substance, NIAS) YEKENENGYOUSHIPINBAOZHUANGCAILIAOQIANYIDAOSHIPIN, JINERDUISHIPINCHANSHENGBULIANGYINGXIANG[14]。NIASSHIQIANZAIDEYOUHAIWUZHI, TAMENKENENGSHIJUHEWUJINGGUOGAOWEN、GAOFUSHEHOUJIANGJIECHANSHENGDE, YEKENENGSHIJUHEWUYUSHIPINZHONGDEMOUXIEHUAXUEWUZHIDEFANYINGSHENGCHENG。LIRU, DANGYONGJUANZHIZHANHEJIZHIZAODEBAOZHUANGCAILIAOYUHANSHUISHIPINJIECHUSHI, HUIXINGCHENGCHUJIFANGZUAN (KENENGZHIAI) BINGQIANYIDAOSHIWUZHONG[15]。YOUYUNIASZHONGDEKENENGQIANYIWUSHULIANGZHONGDUO, BINGKENENGDUISHIPINHEXIAOFEIZHECHANSHENGBULIANGYINGXIANG, QIEDADUOSHUQINGKUANGXIA, NIASDENONGDUFEICHANGDI, HUAXUEXINGZHIBUTONG, YINCIDUINIASDEJIANCEHEJIANDINGFEICHANGGUANJIAN, RENWUYIRANJIANJU。DUIYUHUIFAXINGNIAS, ZHUYAOCAIYONGQIXIANGSEPU-ZHIPULIANYONGYIFENXIJIANCE。WEILETIGAOFENXIDEZHUNQUEDUHEWENDINGXING, KEYICAIYONGGUXIANGWEICUIQUJIEHEQIZHILIANYONGFAFENXI。MUQIAN, DADUOSHUHUIFAXINGNIASDOUKEYIJINGGUOWileyZHIPUKUHUONISTZHIPUKUJIANSUOCHULAI, ERFEIHUIFAXINGNIASMEIYOUXIANCHENGDEZHIPUKU, XUYAOSHIYONGYEXIANGSEPUSIJIGAN-FEIXINGSHIJIAN (Quadrupole-time-of-flight, Q-TOF) CHAOGAOFENBIANLVZHIPULIANYONGYIHUOLIZIJING-FEIXINGSHIJIAN (Ion trap-time-offlight, IT-TOF) ZHIPUYI[16], ZHEIXIEYIQIKEYIJIANCEDAOHUAHEWUDEJINGQUEZHILIANGSHU, JIEHERUANJIANHEHUAXUESHUJUKU, BIANKEYIJINXINGJIEGOUJIEXI, JINERJIANDINGCHUHUAHEWU。

                      1.6 SHIPINZHUZANG

                      SHIPINZHUZANGTIAOJIANGUANXIDAOSHIPINDEZHILIANGANQUAN。SHIDANGDEZHUZANGKEYIYANZHANGSHIPINDEBAOZHIQI, ZHEIQUJUEYUSHIPINDEZHONGLEI、BAOZHUANG、WENDUHESHIDUDENG。ZAIGAOWEN、GAOSHIDEHUANJINGLI, BAOZHUANGCAILIAODEXINGNENGHUISHOUDAOYINGXIANG, YOUHAIWUZHIDEQIANYIHEXIFUXIANXIANGSUISHIKENENGCHUXIAN。SHIPINZAICHUCUNQIJIANGANGUANBUYINGFASHENGBIANHUA (OUZHOUWEIYUANHUI, 2011) , YINCIYONGYUZHANGQICHUCUNDESHIPINBAOZHUANGCAILIAOYINGJUYOULIANGHAODEDEZUGEXINGNENG, BAOKUOO2、CO2、SHUIZHENGQIYIJIHUIFAXINGYOUJIHUAHEWU。YOUYUSHIDUKONGZHIZHEWURANWUZAISHIWUZHONGDEKUOSAN, QIESHUIFENHUIDAOZHIMOUXIEBAOZHUANGCAILIAODEPOLIE (ZHIZHANGJIANGJIE、JINSHUSHENGXIU) , SUOYISHIPINYINGZAIDISHIHUANJINGXIACHUCUN。YIBANZUIJIACHUZANGWENDUZAI4℃~21℃ZHIJIAN, YINLIANGTONGFENGCHUBAOCUN。CIWAI, GAOZHIFANGHEGAODANBAISHIWURONGYISHOUDAOWEISHENGWUWURAN, FASHENGFUBAIBIANZHI, CHANSHENGSUANBAIWEI, ZAOCHENGQIWEIWURAN, YAOJIAQIANGFANGFAN。TUOSHUISHIPINHEGUANTOUSHIPINYOUHENZHANGDEBAOZHIQI, DANSUISHIJIANDETUIYI, SHIPINDEYANSE、FENGWEIHEYINGYANGJIAZHIDOUKENENGFASHENGBIANHUA。ROU、YU、DANHERUZHIPINDENGZEXUYAOLENGDONGCHUCUN, JIANGSHIPINDEWURANJIANGDAOZUIDI。

                      2 结语

                      DANGQIANNAIZHIJINHOUYIDUANSHIJIAN, JIAQIANGDUISHIPINSHENGCHANJIAGONGGUOCHENGZHONGWURANYUANDEJIANCEYUKONGZHI, YANJIUJIANSHAOSHIPINZHONGWURANWUDEKENENGTUJING, TANSUOJIANGDINAIZHIKENENGXIAOCHUSHIPINZHONGYOUHAIWUZHIWEIHAIDEFANGFARENGRANSHIWOMENYANJIUGONGZUODEZHONGZHONGZHIZHONG。

                      参考文献
                      [1]张敏慧.基于离子液体复合材料/离子液体的微萃取技术在食品样品分析中的应用研究[D].沈阳:辽宁大学, 2016:4-6.
                      [2]CHUNG S W C, CHEN B L S.Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in fatty foods:A critical review on the analytical methods and their testing capabilities[J].Journal of Chromatography A, 2011, 1218 (33) :5555-5567.
                      [3]曹珺, 赵丽娇, 钟儒刚.原子吸收光谱法测定食品中重金属含量的研究进展[J].食品科学, 2012, 33 (07) :304-309.
                      [4]马昊楠.抗生素残留与人体健康——警惕禽类养殖中抗生素的滥用[J].首都医药, 2014, 21 (23) :23-24.

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