星云棋牌官网下载

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                      我国森林火灾的特点、问题及预防措施

                      时间:2018-08-23 来源:国家林业和草原局管理干部学院学 作者:余明洋 本文字数:5671字

                        摘要星云棋牌官网下载:由于森林火灾会造成包括大气、水、土壤和气候生态环境的多重破坏。目前世界各国都将森林防火作为一项极其重要的工作来抓。我国森林火灾防范的社会规制缺乏事前预防措施, 且事后惩处机制也有待完善。建议采取预防与惩罚并举的森林火灾防范规制路径, 多途径加强宣传教育, 提升森林防火意识, 从源头上减少森林火灾风险。建立科学的森林火灾防范机制, 从过程上强化森林火灾防范与处理。同时, 加大法律的惩罚力度, 严厉制裁相关违法行为, 从结果上提升震慑效应。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   GUANJIANCI:SENLINHUOZAI; YUFANG; GUIZHILUJING;

                        ZUOZHEJIANJIE: YUMINGYANG (1995-) , NAN, HENANSHENGZHENGYANGXIANREN, SICHUANDAXUEFAXUEYUANXINGZHENGFASHUOSHIYANJIUSHENG。;

                        SHOUGAORIQI:2018-04-10

                      星云棋牌官网下载   Punishment and Prevention: The Regulatory Path of Forest Fire Prevention in China

                      星云棋牌官网下载   Yu Mingyang

                        Sichuan University

                        Abstract星云棋牌官网下载:Multiple damage is caused by forest fires including the atmosphere, water, soil, climate and ecological environment. At present, forest fire prevention is an extremely important task in all countries of the world. The social regulation of forest fire prevention in China lacks preventive measures beforehand, and the post-mortem punishment mechanism needs to be improved. It is recommended to take preventive and punitive measures for forest fire prevention and regulation, strengthen publicity and education through multiple channels, raise awareness of forest fire prevention, and reduce the risk of forest fires from the source. Establish a scientific forest fire prevention mechanism to strengthen forest fire prevention and treatment from the process. At the meanwhile, increase the punishment of the law, severely sanction relevant illegal activities, and enhance the shock effect from the results.

                        Keyword:forest fire; prevention; regulatory path;

                      星云棋牌官网下载   Received: 2018-04-10

                        一、问题提出

                        SENLINHUOZAIBUDANSHAOHUICHENGPIANDESENLIN, SHANGHAILINNEIDEDONGWU, ERQIEHAIHUIJIANGDISENLINDEFANZHINENGLI, YINQITURANGPINJI, POHUAISENLINHANYANGSHUIYUANDENENGLI, SHENZHIHUIDAOZHISHENGTAIHUANJINGSHIQUPINGHENG。ZAIGUOJIATUIJINSHENGTAIHUANJINGBAOHUDEBEIJINGXIA, SENLINFANGHUOWENTIYICHENGWEISHEHUIGEJIEGUANZHUDEREDIANHUATI。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   2019NIAN3YUE30RI, SICHUANSHENGLIANGSHANZHOUMUXIANJINGNEIFASHENGSENLINHUOZAI, ZAOCHENG27MINGXIAOFANGYUANJI4MINGDIFANGPUHUORENYUANSIWANG, YISHIYINFAGUORENNEIXINSHENSHENDEBEITONG。HUIGULISHI, 1986NIAN, YUNNANSHENGANNINGXIANSENLINHUOZAI, ZAOCHENG56RENDANGCHANGSHAOSI, GUOHUOMIANJI2300MU, QIZHONGSENLINMIANJI2000MU。1987NIAN, DAXINGANLINGSENLINHUOZAI, ZAOCHENG211RENSIWANG, SHAOHUISENLINMIANJI101WANGONGQING, ZHEISHIXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIYILAIZUIYANZHONGDEYICISENLINHUOZAI。2003NIAN, SHANXIFOPINGXIANFASHENGSENLINHUOZAI, DAOZHI9RENXISHENG, 5RENZHONGSHANG, GUOHUOMIANJI600MU。2004NIAN, GUANGXIYULINSHIXINGYEXIANMAIJIUXIANG“1.3”SENLINHUOZAI, SIWANG11REN, GUOHUOMIANJI93GONGQING。DANZHEIJINJINSHIWOGUOZHONGDUOSENLINHUOZAIANLIZHONGDEYIXIAOBUFEN。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   GENJU《ZHONGGUOLINYETONGJINIANJIAN》SHUJU (JIANBIAO1) , 2013-2017NIANWUNIANJIAN, WOGUOSENLINHUOZAIGONGFASHENG15825CI, QIZHONGYIBANHUOZAI9681CI, JIAODAHUOZAI6107CI, ZHONGDAHUOZAI13CI, TEBIEZHONGDAHUOZAI4CI。HUOCHANGZONGMIANJIDADAO193896GONGQING, SHOUHAISENLINMIANJIGONGJI76500GONGQING, SHANGWANG275REN, ZAOCHENGQITASUNSHI63708.6WANYUAN。[1,2,3,4,5]TONGGUOYISHANGSHUJU, KEYIDAZHILEJIEDAOWOGUOSENLINHUOZAIDEJIBENQINGKUANG。SENLINHUOZAIBUJINHUIZAOCHENGDAMIANJIDESENLINZIYUANHUISUN, POHUAIDANGDIDESHENGTAIHUANJING, ERQIEHUITUNSHIWUGUDESHENGMING, HUIHUAIRENMINDECAICHAN。WUSHUXUEHELEIDESHISHIGAOSUWOMEN:SENLINHUOZAIFANGFANBIXUYAOTIDAOSHEHUIGUANZHUDEZHONGDIANSHANGLAI, BIXUYAOCAIQUYOUXIAODECUOSHIFANGFANSENLINHUOZAI。

                        BUTONGDIFANGDICHUBUTONGDEDILIHUANJINGDANYUAN, YONGYOUBUTONGDEZIRAN、RENWENTEDIAN, QISENLINHUOZAIDEXINGCHENGJIWEIHAICHENGDUYEGEYOUCHAYI。JIYUCI, WOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFANGFANYAOLIZUYUWOGUODIFANGSHIJI。BENWENTONGGUOFENXIWOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFASHENGDETEDIAN, YIJIDANGQIANWOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFANGFANZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTI, BINGJIEHEWOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFANGFANSHIJI, TICHUXIANGGUANJIANYI, YIWANSHANWOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFANGFANTIXI。

                        二、我国森林火灾的特点分析

                      星云棋牌官网下载   (YI) SENLINHUOZAIFASHENGTEDIAN

                        SENLINHUOZAIDEFASHENGJIWEIHAICHENGDUSHOUDIXING、RENKOU、JIJIEDENGYIXILIEFUZAYINSUDEYINGXIANG, HUIGUWOGUOJINNIANLAISENLINHUOZAIFASHENGDEJUTIQINGKUANG, BUNANFAXIANWOGUOSENLINHUOZAIJIBENCHENGXIANCHUYIXIAJIGETEDIAN:

                        1.QUYUXING。CONGQUYUSHANGLAIKAN, WOGUOSENLINHUOZAIDUOFASHENGZAINEIMENGGU、HEILONGJIANG、JILIN、LIAONING、SICHUAN、YUNNAN、GUANGXIDENGSHENGFEN。[6]JINCONG2013NIANDAO2017NIANQIJIAN, QUANGUOGONGFASHENGZHONGDA、TEDASENLINHUOZAI17CI, ERNEIMENGGUJIUFASHENG13CI。ZHEIXIESHENGFENDILIWEIZHIXIANGDUIPIANYUAN, QIEJINGNEISENLINZIYUANFENGFU, SENLINHUOZAIFASHENGDEFENGXIANJILVJIAODA, ZAOCHENGDESUNSHIYEXIANGDUIJIAODUO。ERQIEYUNNAN、SICHUAN、GUANGXIDENGSHENGFEN, DUOSHANDIHEQIULING, FUZADEDIXINGTIAOJIANZENGJIALESENLINHUOZAIDEKEKONGXINGYIJISENLINJIUHUOGONGZUODENANDU。[7]QICI, SENLINHUOZAIDEDUOFAQUYIBANYESHISHAOSHUMINZURENKOUXIANGDUIJIZHONGDEQUYU, RUSICHUAN、YUNNAN、GUIZHOUDENGDIQU。ERSHAOSHUMINZUYOUYUZISHENHUANJINGDEXIANZHI, SHENGCHAN、SHENGHUOFANGSHIXIANGDUILUOHOU, DUOJIUDIQUCAI, YOUSHIYONGMINGHUODEFENGSUXIGUAN, SENLINFANGHUOYISHIBUZU。ZAIFASHENGSENLINDAHUOZHIJI, YIFANGMIAN, QUEFAYOUXIAODEMIEHUOGONGJU;LINGYIFANGMIAN, YOUYUWEIZHIPIANYUAN、JIAOTONGBUBIAN、XINXICHUANDIBUJISHIDENG, WANGWANGHUIZAOCHENGGENGWEIYANZHONGDEHOUGUO。

                        BIAO1 2013-2017NIANSENLINHUOZAIQINGKUANG DAOCHUDAOEXCEL

                      星云棋牌官网下载   SHUJULAIYUANYUZHONGGUOLINYETONGJINIANJIAN (2013-2017)

                        2.JIJIEXING。CONGJIJIEFASHENGSHANGKAN, WOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFASHENGYIBANJIZHONGZAICHUNQIULIANGJI。CHUNQIULIANGJI, YUSHUIXIANGDUIJIAOSHAO, QIHOUYEBIJIAOGANZAO, BINGQIECHUNQIUJIJIEDUOJIERI, BIJIAOSHIHECHUXING, YEWAIYOUWANZHONGDEXIANGGUANHUODONG, BIRUYECHUI、SHAOKAODENG, ZAICHULIBUDAOWEIDEQINGKUANGXIA, HUIJIAJUSENLINHUOZAIFASHENGDEFENGXIAN。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   3.RENWEIXING。CONGQIHUOYUANYINSHANGKAN, GENJU《ZHONGGUOLINYETONGJINIANJIAN》DESHUJU, 82.5%DESENLINHUOZAISHIYOURENWEIYUANYINDAOZHIDE。JUTIERYAN, SHAOHUANGSHAOTANZHAN31.23%, SHANGFENSHAOZHIZHAN18.94%, YEWAIXIYANZHAN6.57%, XIAOHAIWANHUOZHAN3.49%, QITASHENGCHANXINGYONGHUOZHAN5.55%。ERZIRANYUANYINDAOZHISENLINHUOZAIJINZHAN1.3%, HAIYOUBUFENSENLINHUOZAIWEITANMINGYUANYIN。[8]DANSHI, ZHENGTILAIKAN, SENLINHUOZAIFASHENGDEZUIZHUYAODE、ZHANZUIDABILIDEYUANYINSHIRENWEIYUANYIN。YINCI, GUIZHISENLINHUOZAIDEGUANJIANHEZHONGDIANZAIYUCAIQUDUOYANGXINGDECUOSHI, JINKENENGJIANSHAORENWEIYINSUDEYINGXIANG, BINGZAICIJICHUSHANGZUIDAXIANDUQUXIAOJIANZIRANYINSUDEYINGXIANG。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   (ER) CONGSENLINHUOZAITEDIANCHUFA, CAIQUXIANGYINGFANGFANCUOSHI

                        CONGSHANGSHUWOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFASHENGDETEDIANLAIKAN, CONGSENLINHUOZAIQUYUXING、JIJIEXING、RENWEIXINGDENGTEZHENGCHUFA, KONGZHIHUOZAIYINFAZHIYUAN, BIJIAOFUHEWOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFANGFANSHIJI。

                        YISHIZHENDUISENLINHUOZAIDEQUYUXING, YINGHELIHUAFENSENLINHUOZAIFANGFANQUYU。KEYIGENJUSENLINHUOZAIFASHENGCHENGDUYIJIWEIHAICHENGDU, JIANGQUANGUOHUAFENWEIRUOGANGESENLINHUOZAIFANGFANQUYU, BAOKUOZHONGDIANFANGFANQUYUHEYIBANFANGFANQUYU。RUHEILONGJIANG、LIAONING、NEIMENGGUDENGDIWEIBEIBUSENLINHUOZAIZHONGDIANFANGFANQUYU;SICHUAN、YUNNANDENGDIWEIXINANBUSENLINHUOZAIZHONGDIANFANGFANQUYU;QITASENLINHUOZAIFASHENGLVJIAODIDEDIFANGWEIYIBANFANGFANQUYU。YIJUDIYUTEXING, ZAIFANGHUOJIUHUOSHESHI、XIAOFANGJIUYUANJIWUZHUANGSENLINJINGCHABUDUIPAIZHUDENGFANGMIANSHIXINGXIANGDUIHELIDECHABIEHUAPEIZHI, DUIZHONGDIANFANGFANQUYUBIXUYUYIYOUXIANBAOZHANG。

                      星云棋牌官网下载   ERSHIZHENDUISENLINHUOZAIDEJIJIEXING, KEYIZAISENLINHUOZAIFASHENGXIANGDUIPINFANDECHUNQIUJIJIE, JIANLICHANGTAIHUADEXUNHUJIZHI, JIADASENLINXUNHULIDU, BIANYUJISHIFAXIANSENLINHUOZAIFENGXIAN, BINGJISHIJINXINGCHULI。TONGSHI, YAOJIAQIANGYINGJIFANGFANCHULIJIZHIJIANSHE, TIGAOYINGJICHULIXIAOLVHENENGLI。

                        SANSHIZHENDUISENLINHUOZAIDERENWEIXING, YINGDUOJUCUOBINGJU, CONGSHEHUIXUANCHUANJIAOYU、WEIFAXINGWEIZHICAIDENGFANGMIANJINXINGGUIZHI, ZUIDAXIANDUJIANQINGRENWEIYINSUDUISENLINHUOZAIXINGCHENGDEYINGXIANG。

                        三、我国森林火灾防范存在的主要问题

                      星云棋牌官网下载   (YI) SENLINFANGHUOYISHIBUZU

                        SENLINHUOZAIZHONGZAIYUFANG, ERYUFANGDEGUANJIANJIUZAIYURUHETISHENGSENLINFANGHUOYISHI。DANGQIAN, WOGUOSENLINFANGHUOYISHIZHUYAOCUNZAILIANGGEFANGMIANDEWENTI。DIYI, GONGZHONGDESENLINFANGHUOYISHIBUZU。[9]ZAISENLINFANGHUOXUANCHUANGONGZUOBUDAOWEIDEQINGKUANGXIA, GONGZHONGQUEFADUISENLINFANGHUODEZIJUEXING。YOUQIZAISHAOSHUMINZUDIQU, YOUYUWEIZHIPIANYUAN、YUYANBUCHANG, SENLINFANGHUOXUANCHUANGONGZUOBUDAOWEI, ZAOCHENGSHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDESENLINFANGHUOYISHIGENGWEIQUESHI。ERQIE, ZAIXUEXIAOJIAOYUZHONG, YEMEIYOUPUBIANJIANGSENLINFANGHUOZHISHINARUXUESHENGDEANQUANJIAOYUTIXIZHONG, QINGSHAONIANDESENLINFANGHUOYISHIYEWEIYOUXIAOQIANGHUA。DIER, DIFANGGUANYUANDESENLINFANGHUOYISHISONGXIE。DIFANGGUANYUANDESENLINFANGHUOYISHIZHIJIEYINGXIANGDAODIFANGSENLINFANGHUOGONGZUODECHENGXIAO。SHIJIANZHONG, BUFENDIFANGGUANYUANBINGMEIYOUCHONGFENYISHIDAOSENLINFANGHUODEZHONGYAOXING, SENLINFANGHUOZIYUANPEIZHIHESENLINFANGHUOJINGFEITOURUBUDAOWEI, ZAIZHENGFUXUANCHUANSHANGYEMEIYOUZUODAOWEI, ZHISHIDIFANGSENLINFANGHUOGONGZUOZHENGTIKAIZHANBUZU。

                        (ER) SENLINHUOZAIFANGFANJIZHIBUJIANQUAN

                        SENLINFANGHUOSHIYIGEXITONGXINGDEGONGCHENG, XUYAOJINXINGZHENGTIMOUHUA、QUANMIANBUJU。ERMUQIAN, WOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFANGFANJIZHIQUECHENGXIANCHUSUIPIANHUADEZHUANGTAI。ZAISHISHIZHUTISHANG, RENGRANTINGLIUZAIJINJINYIKAOZHENGFUZUOWEIDANYIFANGFANZHUTIDEZHUANGKUANG, QUEFASHEHUILILIANGDECANYU。WULUNZAIJUTISHISHIGONGZUOSHANG, HAISHIZAIJUTISHISHIXIAOGUOSHANG, DOUCUNZAIHENDUODEJUXIAN。CHUANTONGDEDANYIFANGKONGZHUTIMOSHIYIRANBUNENGMANZUSENLINFANGHUOGONGZUODEXUYAO。ZAISHEJIKUAQUYUSENLINFANGHUOZHONG, MEIYOUJIANLIYOUXIAODEKUAQUYUSENLINFANGHUOLIANFANGZHIDU, QUYUSENLINFANGHUOZHUTIXIETONGXINGBUGOU。[10]ZAISHISHINEIRONGSHANG, SHIQIANDESENLINHUOZAIYUFANGGONGZUOBUCHONGFEN。JUTILAISHUO, BAOKUOSENLINHUOZAIFANGFANGELIDAIJIANSHE、SENLINHUOZAIYUJINGJIZHIJIANSHE、JIUYUANSHESHIPEIZHI、YINGJIYUANDEJIANLIYIJIZHUANYEDESENLINHUOZAIJIUYUANGONGJUKAIFADENG, DOUGUANXIDAOSENLINHUOZAIDEFANGFANGONGZUO。

                        (SAN) FALVCHENGFALIDUBUGOU

                        FALVSHIGUIZHIXINGWEIZUIYOUXIAODEGONGJU。ZAIRENWEIYINSUYINQISENLINHUOZAIPINFADEQINGKUANGXIA, YOUBIYAOTISHENGFALVDECHENGFALIDU, FAHUIFALVDEZHENSHEXIAOYING。CONGWOGUOGUANYUSENLINDEXIANGGUANLIFALAIKAN, ZHUYAOYOU《SENLINFA》HE《SENLINFANGHUOTIAOLI》, ERZAI《SENLINFA》HE《SENLINFANGHUOTIAOLI》ZHONG, ZUIZHUYAODECHENGFAFANGSHISHIJINGGAOHEFAKUAN, QINGJIEYANZHONGDE, JIANGZHIJIEMIANLINXINGSHICHUFA。[11]DANZHEICUNZAIWENTIDESHI:DIYI, FALVZERENFUDUQIFUGUODA。CONGJIAOWEIQINGWEIDEJINGGAO、FAKUANDEXINGZHENGCHUFAZHIJIESHANGSHENGDAOXINGSHIZHICAI, ZHONGJIANQUEFAXINGZHENGJULIUDENGGUODUXINGCHUFACUOSHI, HUIDAOZHIDUIRENWEISENLINHUOZAIXINGWEIDEZHICAICHENGXIANLIANGGEJIDUAN, JICHUFAGUOQINGHUOCHUFAGUOZHONG。ERJIYUDANGQIANXINGSHIZHENGCEDEYINGXIANG, DUIXINGSHICHUFAYIZHIBAOCHISHENSHENDETAIDU。YINCI, YOUYURENWEIYINSUZHISENLINHUOZAIJIUJINGCHANGHUIYIJINGGAO、FAKUANDEFANGSHIJINXINGCHULI, ERZHEIZHONGGUOQINGDECHUFALIDUHUIDADAJIANGDIZHENSHEXIAOLI, BULIYUSENLINHUOZAIFANGKONG。DIER, GENJUXINGZHENGCHUFAFADEGUIDING, DIFANGQUANLIJIGUANJIDIFANGZHENGFUMEIYOUQUANXIANZAISHANGWEIFAWEIGUIDINGDEFANWEINEIZENGSHEXINGZHENGCHUFACUOSHI, ZHINENGZAISHANGWEIFADEFANWEINEIZUOJUTIGUIDING, DIFANGYEJIUWUFAZHIDINGXIANGYINGDEGUIFAN, YANLIZHICAIRENWEIYINQISENLINHUOZAIDEXINGWEI, SHIDEDIFANGZAISENLINHUOZAIFANGKONGZHONGQUEFABIYAODEQIEJIAOWEIYANLIDEFALVCHENGFAYIJU。

                        四、惩罚与预防:我国森林火灾防范的两个路径

                        CONGWOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFASHENGDETEDIANYIJIFANGFANZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTILAIKAN, WOGUOSENLINHUOZAIFANGFANYINGJIANCHILIANGGEJIBENLUJING:YUFANGWEIZHU, CHENGFAXIANGFU。YUFANGDEZHONGDIANZAIYUSENLINFANGHUOYISHIDEZHENGTITISHENG, YIJITIQIANZUOHAOSENLINFANGHUOGONGZUODEZHUNBEI。ERCHENGFADEZHONGDIANZAIYUTIGAOFALVDECHUFALIDU, JIEZHUFALVDEQIANGZHIXING、ZHICAIXING, YIQIDAOLIANGHAODEZHENSHEXIAOYING, DADAOJIAOYUDEMUDE。

                        (YI) YUFANGSHISENLINHUOZAIFANGFANDEZHONGXIN

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                        CONGLIFASHANGKAN, 《SENLINFANGHUOTIAOLI》SHUYUGUOWUYUANZHIDINGDEXINGZHENGFAGUI, ANZHAOXINGZHENGCHUFAFADEGUIDING, ZHIYOUSHEDINGJINGGAO、FAKUANDENGFEIXIANZHIRENSHENZIYOUDECHUFACUOSHI, ERWUSHEDINGXINGZHENGJULIUDEQUANXIAN。SUOYI, KEYIZAIFAKUANSHUESHANGYUYITIGAO。ER《SENLINFA》SHUYUQUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUIZHIDINGDEFALV, YOUSHEDINGXINGZHENGJULIUDEQUANXIAN。YINCI, KEYITONGGUOXIUGAI《SENLINFA》, ZAIFALVZERENZHONGZENGSHEXINGZHENGJULIUDECHUFACUOSHI, JINYIBUWANSHANCHUFAZHONGLEISHEZHI, JIAQIANGCHUFALIDU, TISHENGZHENSHEXIAOGUO。CONGZHIFASHANGKAN, YAOJIADAZHIFALIDU, JIANLICHANGTAIHUAXUNLUOJIZHI, DUIWEIFANXIANGGUANSENLINFANGHUOGUIFANDEXINGWEI, YINGYIFAYUYICHULI。TONGSHI, YAOJIAQIANGZHIFAJIANDUJIANCHALIDU, LUOSHISENLINFANGKONGGONGZUOZERENJIZHI, DUIYUDAIYULVXINGSENLINFANGHUOZHIZEDELINGDAOJIGONGZUORENYUAN, YINGJIYUYANLIDEXINGZHENGCHUFEN。

                        CANKAOWENXIAN

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                        [6]苏立娟, 何友均, 陈绍志.1950—2010年中国森林火灾时空特征及风险分析[J].林业科学, 2015, 51 (01) :88-96.
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                        [8]徐毅.我国森林火灾的特点及原因分析[J].森林防火, 2016 (01) :36-38.
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                        [10]张伟, 王红燕, 陈恒达, 王英博.新常态下森林防火预防工作分析[J].科学技术创新, 2018 (11) :143-144.
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                      星云棋牌官网下载   [14]田维民.当代森林火灾防控措施探讨[J].农村实用技术, 2017 (04) :18-19.

                        余明洋.惩罚与预防:我国森林火灾防范之规制路径[J].国家林业和草原局管理干部学院学报,2019,18(02):42-45+50.
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