星云棋牌官网下载

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                    商标先用权案件裁判问题与完善建议

                    时间:2019-02-18 来源:法制博览 作者:赵国华 本文字数:3221字

                      摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 在我国,商标作为企业销售产品或服务、对外开展经营活动的“名片”,是企业重要的无形资产。商标侵权类纠纷在我国数量频发,企业通常将自己的名称进行注册为商标以维护自身合法权益,但未注册商标、但在先使用者的权益是否应当受到保护?2013年修订的《商标法》首次明确了商标先用权制度,其立法目的在于纠正商标注册制的缺陷,规范市场的不正当竞争行为。但在司法审判实务中,对商标先用人的权利边界通常难以廓清,存在着诸多权利边界问题。本文通过深入解读我国商标先用权制度,分析现阶段法律、实务存在的问题,希望以此抛砖引玉。

                      关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 商标先用权; 权利边界; 建议;

                      一、商标先用权概述

                      GUANGGAOZHIFUAOGEWEICENGSHUO:“SHANGBIAOSHIQIYEDEMENHU,SHIXIAOFEIZHELEJIEQIYEPINPAIDECHUANGKOU。”YINCI,SHANGBIAORUGUOBEITARENQIANGZHU,HUIZAOCHENGXIAOFEIZHEDUIPINPAIDEHUNXIAO,ZUIZHONGJIQIYEZHAOZHIJUDASUNSHI。WEIBIMIANEYIQIANGZHUSHANGBIAODEBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGXINGWEI,SHANGBIAOXIANYONGQUANZHIDUYINGYUNERSHENG。

                      (一)商标先用权的概念

                    星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUO《SHANGBIAOFA》GENJUSHIFOUZHUCEJIANGSHANGBIAOHUAFENWEIZHUCESHANGBIAOHEFEIZHUCESHANGBIAO,ZHUCESHANGBIAOSHIYONGRENJUYOUPAITAXINGDESHIYONGQUAN,YOUQUANJINZHITARENSHIYONGXIANGTONGHUOLEISIXIANGTONGDESHANGBIAO。ZHEISHI,ZAIXIANSHIYONGRENDEQUANYISHOUDAOQINHAI。2013NIAN,LIFASHANGYUNXUSHANGBIAOXIANYONGRENDUIQITAYIJINGQUDEZHUCESHANGBIAODEQUANLIZHUTIXIANGYOUKANGBIANQUAN:QIRENGKEYIZAIYIDINGFANWEINEIJIXUSHIYONGGAISHANGBIAO。

                      (二)商标先用权制度的构成要件

                    星云棋牌官网下载   SHANGBIAOXIANYONGQUANZAISIFACAIPANZHONGRUHERENDINGCUNZAIZHUDUOWENTI,GENJUFALVDEGUIDING,PANDUANSHIYONGZHESHIFOUYONGYOUSHANGBIAOXIANYONGQUAN,XUMANZUSANGEGOUCHENGYAOJIAN:

                      1.在时间上须连续使用、不得中断

                    星云棋牌官网下载   WEIZHUCESHANGBIAODEXIANYONGZHEZAIYIDINGSHIJIANNEILIANXUSHIYONGGAISHANGBIAO,ZHEISHIRENDINGSHANGBIAOXIANYONGQUANDEZHONGYAOBIAOZHUN。WOGUOCAIQUZHUCEZHUYIYUANZE,WEIZHUCEERSHIYONGDESHANGBIAO,YINGDANGCHIXUSHIYONG,BUSHIZHONGZHI、ZHONGDUANDEGUIDING。

                      2.积累并拥有一定的影响力

                      《SHANGBIAOFA》DUISHIYONGSHANGBIAOXIANYONGQUANDEQIANTISHIBIXU“JUYOUYIDINGYINGXIANG”,BIZHEDUI“YINGXIANG”LIJIEWEIZAIJIDINGDEJINGYINGFANWEINEICHANSHENGLE“ZHIMINGDU”,NENGGOUWEIGONGZHONGSUORENKE。

                      3.先用者主观方面系“善意”

                      我国立法者将“善意”作为认定在先使用抗辩权一项标准,司法实践中,法院对“善意”难以作出统一的判定标准。笔者认为,可以依据《民法总则》中的“诚实信用原则”理念来判断系“善意”还是“恶意”:不知情即为“善意”;“知情”即为恶意。先用人提出抗辩时除需要证明商标已经具备一定影响外,还需要证明注册商标者具有主观恶意。2006年,美国某公司诉上海某公司商标侵权一案中,美国某公司列举了大量证据证明上海某公司系“恶意抢注”,如美国某公司在中国设立时间远远早于上海某公司;美国某公司为品牌扩张投入了大量资金作市场推广等,以此证明“某咖啡”商标在中国获得了广泛的知名度。而上海某公司明显具有攀附驰名商标的主观恶意,对该商标提前抢注,故法院最终判定上海某公司商标侵权行为成立。
                     

                    商标先用权案件裁判问题与完善建议
                     

                      二、有关商标先用权案件裁判标准不一

                      BIZHEJIANG《SHANGBIAOFA》DI59TIAODI3KUAN,SHANGBIAOXIANYONGKANGBIANQUANGUINAWEI“BIAOSHIXISHANGBIAO+YIJINGSHIYONG”+“YOUYIDINGYINGXIANG”。DANMUQIANGAIGUIDINGZAISHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONGRENGCUNZAIYIDINGWENTI,ZUIGAOFAWEIZUOCHUXIANGGUANSIFAJIESHIHEFABUZHIDAOXINGANLI,DIFANGFAYUANZAISHENLIGAILEIJIUFENANJIANSHIPINGPANBIAOZHUNBUYI,CAIPANJIAODIANRUXIA:

                      (一)“在先使用”的认定标准问题

                      《SHANGBIAOFA》DI59TIAODI3KUANGUIDING“SHANGBIAOZHUCERENSHENQINGSHANGBIAOZHUCEQIAN,TARENYIJINGZAITONGYIZHONGSHANGPINSHIYONG……”。SIFASHIJIANZHONG,“YIJINGSHIYONG”XISHIJIANGAINIAN,DUIYINGDESHIZHUCESHANGBIAOSHENQINGRI。DANYOUXIEFAYUANBUJINYAOQIU“ZAIXIANSHIYONG”YAOZAOYUSHANGBIAOZHUCERI,GENGYOUSHENZHEHAIYAOQIUZAOYUSHANGBIAOZHUCERENSHIYONGQIAN,ZHIDINGLE“SHUANGZHONGZAIXIANBIAOZHUN”。RU“MOUHUOGUOPINPAISHANGBIAOQINQUANAN”ZHONG,ZHUCESHANGBIAORENAGONGSISHENQINGZHUCE“MOUHUOGUO”SHANGBIAOZHIQIAN,ZIRANRENBXIANSHENGZAIQISUOJINGYINGDEYINSHIDIANNEIZAOYISHIYONGGAISHANGBIAO。ZHONGSHENFAYUANDUIBXIANSHENGDE“MOUHUOGUOPINPAI”ZAIXIANSHIYONGQUANBUYURENKE,YINWEIBXIANSHENGSHIYONGGAISHANGBIAOSUIZAOYUAGONGSI,DANCHIYUAGONGSIDECHENGLISHIJIAN。

                      (二)先用者“具一定有影响”的有关举证问题

                    星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUO《SHANGBIAOFA》GUIDINGZAIXIANSHIYONGSHANGBIAOXUDADAO“JUYOUYIDINGYINGXIANG”,“YINGXIANG”RUHERENDING?SHINANLIANGHUA,YINJUYOUHENDADEDANXINGKONGJIAN,TONGCHANGXUYAOFAGUANJIEHEJUTIANQINGHEYOUGUANZHUANJIAYIJIANZONGHEDUANDING。WOMENYITIXIJIESHIDEFANGSHI,YIJU《SHANGBIAOFA》YOUGUAN“CHIMINGSHANGBIAO”DEBIAOSHU:“WEIXIANGGUANGONGZHONGSUOZHIXI”;LINGYOUXUEZHEQIGUINAWEI“BEIXIAOFEIZHEGUANGWEIRENZHI”。YINCI,BIZHEPANDING:SHANGBIAOWEIZHUCEDEXIANYONGZHEXUYAOJUZHENGZHENGMINGZIJIZAIYIDINGDESHIJIANNEICHIXUSHIYONG、YOUGUDINGDEXIAOSHOUQUYU,ZHONGDIANSHIQIYOUWENDINGDECHANPINXIAOSHOUQUDAO,BEIXIAOFEIZHESUORENKE。DANYOUYUJUZHENGZERENZAIZAIXIANYONGZHEYIFANG,XIANYOUCHENGGONGKANGBIANZHE。DIANXINGDE“ZAIXIANSHIYONG”CHENGGONGDUIKANG“ZAIXIANZHUCE”ANXI“BEIJINGMOUFUZHUANGPINPAI”SHANGBIAOQINQUANAN,2014NIAN,BEIJINGMOUFAYUANSHOUCISHIYONGXIN《SHANGBIAOFA》“BAOHUSHANGBIAOXIANYONGQUANZHIDU”SHENLIMOUPINPAISHANGBIAOAN,FAYUANZUIZHONGPANDINGYIJUBEIGAOAGONGSITIGONGDEZHENGJU,RENDINGYUANGAOBNVSHIXIEYIQIANGZHU,WUQUANJINZHIAGONGSISHIYONGQISHANGBIAO。

                      (三)“商标先用权”的边界问题

                      《SHANGBIAOFA》YUNXUZAIXIANSHIYONGRENKEZAI“YUANSHIYONGFANWEI”NEIJIXUSHIYONG,JUEDINGLESHANGBIAOXIANYONGQUANSHOUDAODUODACHENGDUDEBAOHU。DIFANGFAYUANDUI“YUANSHIYONGFANWEI”LIJIEWEIXIANDINGQIJINGYINGQUYU、SHANGPINJINGYINGFANWEIHUOFUWULEIBIE、QIYEGUIMODENGDUOZHONGLEIXING。TAIWANXUEZHERENWEI:JINGUANSHANGBIAOZAIXIANSHIYONGZUOWEISHANGBIAOZHUCEZHIDEYOUYIBUCHONG,DANBUNENGYINYEFEISHI,MAIMEILESHANGBIAOZHUCEZHIDEGENBENJIAZHI。GUOJIASHIXINGSHANGBIAOZHUCEZHIDU,QIGENBENMUDEZAIYUGULISHICHANGZHUTIQIANGXIANZHUCEZIJIDESHANGBIAOPINPAI,JINKUAIDAZAOPAITAXINGDESHANGBIAOSHIYONGQUAN,CONGERRANGJINGYINGZHEQUANXINMOUFAZHAN,MIANCHUHOUGUZHIYOU。DANYINGCONGNAXIEJIAODUDUISHANGBIAO“YUANSHIYONGFANWEI”JINXINGBAKONG,YICHENGWEIMUQIANDESIFASHIWUNANTIZHIYI。

                      三、完善我国商标先用权保护的建议

                      (一)明确商标“在先使用”的时间节点

                    星云棋牌官网下载   “ZAIXIANSHIYONG”DEHANYIJIWEIZAITARENSHENQINGZHUCESHANGBIAOZHIQIANJIUYISHIYONGGAISHANGBIAO,SHANGBIAOXIANYONGQUANZHIZAICHULIZAIXIANSHIYONGZHEYUSHANGBIAOZHUCEZHEZHIJIANDEQUANYIZHENGZHI,ZAIXIANSHIYONGRENDEHEFAQUANYILIYINGDEDAOBAOHU,BUYINGDUICISHEDINGGUOGAOBIAOZHUN。“SHUANGZHONGZAIXIANBIAOZHUN”BULIYUDUISHANYISHIYONGRENDEBAOHU,《SHANGBIAOFA》DI59TIAODI3KUANYIMINGQUEGUIDING:“ZAIXIANSHIYONGXINGWEIBIXUZAOYUZHUCESHANGBIAOSHENQINGRI”,BUYINGLINGSHESHIJIANJIEDIAN。

                      (二)对“具有一定影响”的举证责任

                      SHANGBIAOZHUCEZHIDUYOULIYUXINGCHENGLIANGHAODESHICHANGZHIXU,ZUOWEIWANSHANSHANGBIAOZHUCEZHIDEXIANYONGQUANZHIDU,YAOZHENGMINGQI“JUYOUYIDINGYINGXIANG”KUNNANZHONGZHONG。BEIJINGMOUZHISHICHANQUANJUZHURENWANGXIANSHENGRENWEI,“YAOPANDUANZAIXIANSHIYONG,YINGSHIZAIDUIFANGQUANLIRENSHENQINGSHANGBIAOZHUCERIQIANJINXINGSHIYONG,ZHENGMINGYIJIANSHANGBIAOWEIZAIXIANSHIYONGBINGJUYOUYINGXIANGLI,DANCONGZHENGJUNEIRONGSHANG,XUTIGONGGAISHANGBIAOZAIQIZHIDINGSHANGPINSHANGZUIZAOSHIYONG,CHIXUSHIYONGDEZHENGJU,YIJICHANPINXIAOSHOUDEDIQUFANWEI、XIAOSHOULIANG、SHICHANGFENE、GUANGGAOXUANCHUANDENG,GUDINGXIALAIDEZHENGJUYAOXINGCHENGYITIAOWANZHENGDEZHENGJULIAN”。SHANGSHUYOUGUAN“BEIJINGMOUFUZHUANGSHANGBIAOQINQUANAN”ZHONG,YOUYUBEIGAOAGONGSIXIANGFAYUANTIJIAOLEYUANGAOTANMOUXIBEIGAOQIANYUANGONG、BEIGAO“MOUFUZHUANGPINPAI”SHANGBIAOZAI“MOUHULIANWANGWANGZHAN”BEILEIJIDIANPINGQIANYUCI,YIJIGAIPINPAIZAIMOUWEIBODENGPINGTAISHOUMAISHANGPINDENGZHENGJU,ZUYIZHENGMING“MOUPINPAI”XIBEIGAOAGONGSISUOYOU,FAYUANZUIZHONGPANJUEBEIGAO“ZAIXIANSHIYONGQUAN”CHENGLI。CIANJILE“SHANGBIAOTOUJIZHE”YIJIZHONGQUAN,DUIYUDAJIEYIQIANGZHUSHANGBIAOXINGWEISHIYOULIDE。

                      (三)完善“原使用范围”的界定

                      CANZHAOGEGUO(DIQU)LIFA,SHANGBIAOXIANYONGQUANDEYUANYOUSHIYONGFANWEIRUHEJIEDING?GEGUO(DIQU)LIFABUYI。WOGUOTAIWANDIQUDELIFAJISHUGENGWEICHENGSHUHEWANSHAN,DUICIYUYICANZHAO,TAIWANSHANGBIAOFADI23TIAO:“WEIZHUCESHANGBIAODEJIXUSHIYONGQUANXIANDINGYUYUANDIYUFANWEINEI,ZAICIFANWEINEI,XIANYONGRENKEYIKUODAJINGYINGFANWEI、ZENGJIATOUZI、BIANGENGQIYEZUZHIXINGSHI……”。YIYOUFANDUIZHETICHU,JIANGSHANGBIAOXIANYONGRENDEFANWEIXIANDINGGUOZHAI,BUYUNXUKUAJIEJINGYING,DUIQISHIFENBUGONG。TEBIESHIDIANZISHANGWUDEKUAISUJUEQI,SHANGBIAODEDIYUXINGTEZHENGZHUJIANDANHUA。RUGUOXIANDINGWEIZHUCESHANGBIAODEZAIXIANSHIYONGZHEHUADINGXIAOSHOUFANWEI,ZEWUYISHIDUIQIPANLE“SIXING”。ZAIBIZHEKANLAI,FAYUANZAIJIEDINGYUANYOUSHIYONGFANWEISHI,YINGZUNZHONGSHANGYEGUILV,ZUIDACHENGDUDIPINGHENGSHANGBIAOXIANYONGRENYUZHUCEZHEDELIYI,DUIWEIZHUCESHANGBIAOKETONGGUOFUJIAXIANZHEBIAOSHIDUIERZHEZUOCHUQUFEN,BUYIGUODUOXIANZHIQIJINGYINGDEDIYUFANWEI。

                      四、结论

                      SHANGBIAOZHUCERENYUSHANGBIAOXIANYONGRENZHIJIANDELIYICHONGTUYIYOULIFAZUOCHULEJIEJUEFANGAN,ZUOWEISHANGBIAOZHUCEZHIDUDEYOUYIBUCHONG,SHANGBIAOXIANYONGQUANZHIDUJIYUZAIXIANSHIYONGRENYIFADINGDEKANGBIANQUAN。WOGUOLIFAYUANZESHANGZUNCONG“ZHUCEYOUXIAN”,CONG“LIXINGSHANGBIAOSHIYONGREN”DEJIAODUCHUFA,RENWEISHANGBIAOSHIYONGZHENENGGOUZIFADIWEIHUZIJIDEHEFAQUANYI,DUIYUGUANHUZIJIQIYESHENGCUNHEFAZHANDESHANGBIAOQUAN,SHANGBIAOSHIYONGZHEYINGDANGTIZAOBAOHU。DUIYU“BULIXING”DESHANGBIAOSHIYONGZHE,LIFAJIYU“ZUIDIXIANDUDEBAOHU”——“SHANGBIAOZAIXIANSHIYONGQUANZHIDU”。GAIZHIDUMUQIANDEXIANGGUANFALVWENTIHAIXUYAOSIFAJIESHIJINYIBU,RU“LIANXUSHIYONG”、“JUYOUYIDINGYINGXIANG”DENG。

                      参考文献

                      [1]杨红军,李惠.论商标先用权及我国相关制度之完善[J].特区经济,2006(6):301-302.
                    星云棋牌官网下载   [2]陈智伦.论与注册商标有关的在先权利[J].四川大学学报(哲学社会科学版),2000(2).

                      赵国华.我国商标先用权问题研究[J].法制博览,2020(03):94-95.
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