星云棋牌官网下载

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        日韩两国的老年教育成功经验对比研究

        时间:2019-03-21 来源:成人教育 作者:朱政 本文字数:9814字

          摘    要: 面对未来我国日益严峻的人口老龄化趋势,积极发展老年教育成为有效对策。通过从立法保障、办学主体、教学内容和形式、师资队伍建设等四个方面比较和借鉴日韩两国老年教育发展的成功经验,得到启示:我国应建立健全老年教育法制、鼓励形成多元办学格局、丰富教育内容和学习方式、培养充足的专业化师资队伍。

          关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 老年教育; 人口老龄化; 发展经验;

          Abstract: Facing the increasingly severe trend of population aging in the future, developing the elderly education actively has become an effective countermeasure. By comparing and drawing lessons from the successful experience of the development of the elderly education in Japan and South Korea from four aspects: legislative guarantee, school-running subject, teaching content and form, and the construction of teaching staff, it is concluded that China should establish and improve the legal system of the elderly education, encourage the formation of a pluralistic school-running pattern, enrich the content of education and learning methods, and cultivate sufficient professional teachers.

          Keyword:星云棋牌官网下载 the elderly education; population aging; development experience;

          SUIZHEKEJIDEXUNMENGFAZHAN,RENKOULAOLINGHUAYICHENGWEIQUANQIUXINGDEWENTI。JIEZHI2018NIANMO,WOGUO60ZHOUSUIJIYISHANGDERENKOU24 949WANREN,ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE17.9%,QIZHONG65ZHOUSUIJIYISHANGDERENKOU16 658WANREN,ZHANQUANGUOZONGRENKOUDE11.9%。[1]BIAOMINGWOGUOBUJINZAOYIJINRULAOLINGHUASHEHUI,QIE“WEILAI20NIANWOGUORENKOULAOLINGHUAXINGSHIJIANGGENGJIAYANJUN”。[2]WOGUOZUOWEIZUIZAOJINRULAOLINGHUASHEHUIQIELAOLINGHUACHENGDUZUIGAODEFAZHANZHONGGUOJIAZHIYI,RENKOULAOLINGHUAXIANXIANGBIAOXIANCHURENKOUJISHUDA、LAOLINGHUASUDUKUAI、WEIFUXIANLAODENGTEZHENG,YINCI,JIAOSHIJIESHANGQITALAOLINGHUACHENGDUGAODEGUOJIAERYAN,CHENGXIANCHUDEWENTIHEMAODUNGENGWEITUCHUHEJILIE。DUICI,JIJIFAZHANLAONIANJIAOYUCHENGWEIGUOJISHANGPUBIANCAIQUDEYOUXIAOYINGDUICELVE。CONGSHEHUICENGMIANKAN,LAONIANJIAOYUNENGTUIJINZHONGSHENXUEXITIXIGOUJIANHEXUEXIXINGSHEHUIJIANSHE。CONGGERENCENGMIANKAN,LAONIANJIAOYUNENGTIGAOLAONIANRENDESHENGHUOZHILIANGHESHIXIANRENSHENGYIYI。RENKOULAOLINGHUACHENGWEISHIJIESHANGDEPUBIANXIANXIANGHOU,GEGUOLAONIANJIAOYUCHENGXIANCHUYUELAIYUEDUODEJIAOCHAHEGONGXING。WEILEJIJIYINGDUIWOGUORIQUYANZHONGDELAOLINGHUAXIANZHUANG,TONGGUODUIRIHANLIANGGUODELAONIANJIAOYUCHENGGONGJINGYANJINXINGBIJIAOHEJIEJIAN,YICUJINWOGUOLAONIANJIAOYUSHIYEDEFAZHAN,TUIJINZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXIGOUJIANHEXUEXIXINGSHEHUIJIANSHE。

          一、日本老年教育的发展经验

          1. 教育保障立法完善

          日本制定了一系列完善的老年教育法律法规,用以保障老年教育事业的可持续发展。日本政府在20世纪60年代实施的“高龄者学籍”制度,保障了老年人的受教育权,体现了社会教育公平。进入老龄化社会后,更是出台了《老人福祉法》《高龄者保健福祉推进十年战略》等一系列政策法规。除在《宪法》《教育基本法》等基础的法律中规定老年人具有参与教育的权利与不得歧视老年人受教育外,日本还在1990年颁布了《终身学习振兴法》,使之成为与《学校教育法》和《社会教育法》并列的教育基本法律,自此,终身教育成为了日本的基本国策。之后,又相继出台了《高龄社会对策基本法》和《高龄者就业安定法》,前者强调对老年人学习和社会参与的支持,后者强调对老年人力资源的再开发。这些法律除了规定终身教育的中心地位外,还从税收优惠政策、科研教育技术支持、经费保证等方面来支持终身教育。日本政府不断在实践中完善这些老年教育法律法规,使之能适应当今老年教育发展潮流并为老年教育事业保驾护航。
         

        日韩两国的老年教育成功经验对比研究
         

          2. 办学主体多元化

          RIBENZUICHUDELAONIANJIAOYUSHIYOUGELEIMINJIANZUZHIZIFAXINGCHENGDE。ZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYULINIANZHIYINXIA,RIBENZHENGFUZAI20SHIJI70NIANDAIZHENGSHICANYUHEZHIDAOLAONIANJIAOYU,GULISHEHUIGEJIECANYULAONIANJIAOYU。ZICI,JIAOYUXINGZHENGBUMEN、GAODENGJIAOYUJIGOU、FULIXINGZHENGBUMENJIGELEIMINJIANJIGOUDOUZHUJIANCHENGWEILAONIANJIAOYUBANXUEZHUTI。JIAOYUXINGZHENGBUMENHEFULIXINGZHENGBUMENBUGUANGFUZELAONIANJIAOYUGONGZUOGUIHUADEZHIDINGHESHISHI,HAIYUGAODENGJIAOYUJIGOUHEMINJIANJIGOUDENGHEZUO,TONGGUOKAIZHANGELEILAONIANJIAOYUKECHENGHEHUODONG,XIYINLAONIANRENCANJIAXUEXIHUODONG,MANZUTAMENBUTONGCENGCI、DUOYANGHUA、BIANLIHUADEXUEXIXUQIU。LIRU,JIAOYUXINGZHENGBUMENZHUBANZHANGSHOUDAXUE、ZHANGSHOUXUEYUAN、GAOLINGZHEJIAOSHIHEGONGMINGUANDENG;GAODENGJIAOYUJIGOUZHUBANGONGKAIJIANGZUO、YUANCHENGJIAOYUHEFANGSONGDAXUEDENG;FULIXINGZHENGBUMENZHUBANLAONIANDAXUEHELAONIANRENJULEBUDENG;MINJIANJIGOUCANYULAONIANJIAOYUREQINGFEICHANGGAO,ZHUBANLAONIANRENJISUSUO、LAONIANRENWANGZHANJULEBU、GEZHONGHUODONGBANHEPEIXUNBANDENG。CIWAI,ZAIZHENGFUJINGFEIZIZHUXIA,YIXIEPUTONGGAOXIAOSONGJIAOSHANGMEN,LIYONGDANGDISHEQUZHONGXIAOXUEJIAOSHIJINXINGJIZHONGSHOUKE,KAIZHANLAONIANJIAOYUGUANLIPEIXUNYEWU。MUQIAN,RIBENGELEILAONIANDAXUESHULIANGDADAO400DUOSUO。ZHEIXIELAONIANJIAOYUBANXUEZHUTIHEBANXUEFANGSHIDEDUOYANGHUAFANGBIANRIBENLAONIANRENDEXUEXI,ZHIJIECUJINLERIBENLAONIANJIAOYUDEFAZHAN。

          3. 教育内容丰富,授课方式灵活

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          RIBENLAONIANJIAOYUZHUZHONGJIAOYUDUIXIANGXUEXIZHUTIDIWEIDETIXIAN,JIFATAMENDUIXUEXIHUODONGDECANYUXING,SHOUKEFANGSHILINGHUO,CUSHITAMENZAIJIAOXUEGUOCHENGZHONGJIAOLIUHUDONG。HAITONGGUOJUBANYANTAOHUI、YOUXUE、XUEYUANZIZHIHUIHUODONGDENGXINGSHI,JIFAXUEYUANDEXUEXIREQING,LILUNLIANXISHIJI,BINGYICILAITISHENGLAONIANRENDEXUEXINENGLIHESHENGHUONENGLI。CIWAI,YUANCHENGJIAOYU、FANGSONGDAXUEDENGYUNYONGXIANDAIHUADUOMEITIFANGSHIJINXINGSHOUKE。ZHEIXIELINGHUODUOYANGDESHOUKEFANGSHIWEILAONIANRENCANYUXUEXITIGONGLEBIANLI,YOUXIAOGAISHANLAONIANRENSHENGHUOZHILIANG,FENGFUTAMENDETUIXIUSHENGHUOFANGSHIHETISHENGTAMENDESHEHUISHIYINGNENGLI。

          4. 师资建设聘培结合

        星云棋牌官网下载   RIBENDELAONIANJIAOYUSHIZILAIYUANBUJINXIANGTONG,PINPEIJIEHE。RUZHANGSHOUDAXUEHEZHANGSHOUXUEYUANDESHOUKEJIAOSHILAIZIPUTONGGAOXIAOZAIZHIJIAOSHI、MINJIANJIAOYUPEIXUNJIGOUJIAOSHIYIJIBUFENJUYOUFENGFUZHUANYEZHISHIHEGONGZUOJINGYANDETUIXIURENYUAN。GONGMINGUANDESHOUKEJIAOSHIXUYAOJUBEIZHASHIDEZHUANYEZHISHI、JIAOQIANGDEZHIYEJINENGHEFENGFUDEGONGZUOJINGYAN,TONGGUOYANGEKAOHEHOUFANGKEPINREN。YIBANLAIZIGEXINGGEYEDETUIXIURENYUAN。LAONIANDAXUEPINRENJUYOUFENGFURENSHENGYUELIHEYIJIZHIZHANGDETUIXIURENYUANZUOWEISHOUKEJIAOSHI。GONGKAIJIANGZUO、YUANCHENGJIAOYUHEFANGSONGDAXUEDESHOUKEJIAOSHIZEYOULAIZIGAODENGJIAOYUJIGOUDEZAIZHIRENYUANDANREN。LAONIANRENJISUSUO、LAONIANRENWANGZHANJULEBU、XUEYUANZIZHIHUICHUYOUMINJIANJIGOUPINQINGDESHAOLIANGJIAOSHIWAI,XIANGDANGBUFENDESHOUKEJIAOSHIYOUBIYEXUEYUANZHONGDEJIAOJIAOZHEDANREN,ZHEIYESHIRIBENLAONIANJIAOYUDEYIDATEDIAN。[4]RIBENHAIZHUZHONGLAONIANJIAOYUZHIYUANZHEDEPEIYANG,TONGCHANGYIJIANGZUODEXINGSHIJIAOSHOUWENHUAXIUYANG、SHEHUIFUWUHUODONGJIZHIYUANZHEDEYIYIDENGNEIRONG,WANSHANLAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIDUIWUJIEGOU。LAONIANJIAOYUBUGUANGCHUANSHOULAONIANRENTONGSHIZHISHI,GENGZHONGSHILAONIANRENQIANNENGDEKAIFA,QIZHONGJIUYOUDUILAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIJINXINGZHUANMENHUAPEIXUN,YIXUECUJIAO,CONGERNULISHIQIZHONGXINHUANFAQINGCHUNHETIXIANRENSHENGJIAZHI,DAIDONGQITAXUEYUANCANYUXUEXI,JINYIBUTUIDONGLAONIANJIAOYUSHIYEDEFAZHAN。

          二、韩国老年教育的发展经验

          1. 法律法规完善细致

          HANGUO《XIANFA》GUIDINGGUOJIAYAOZHENXINGLAONIANJIAOYUZAINEIDEZHONGSHENJIAOYU。《LAONIANRENFULIFA》DECHUTAISHILAONIANFULIHUIGUANCHENGDANQIFULIYUAN、JINGLAOYUAN、LAONIANDAXUE、LAONIANRENXIEHUINAIZHILAONIANGONGGONGGONGZUOSHI、JUJIAZHAOGUDENGGONGNENGHEZHIZE,QUEBAOLAONIANRENXIANGYOUGENGDUOXUEXIJIHUIHEZIYUAN。《SHAOZIHUA·GAOLINGHUASHEHUIJIBENFA》ZAIGUANAILAONIANRENDETONGSHI,TEBIEQIANGDIAONVXING、CANJIJINONGCUNLAONIANRENDENGRUOSHILAONIANQUNTIPINGDENGXIANGYOUJIAOYUJIHUIHEZIYUANDEQUANLI。《CHENGRENJIJIXUJIAOYUFA》HE《SHEHUIJIAOYUCUJINFA》DUIBAOKUOLAONIANRENZAINEIDECHENGNIANRENDESHOUJIAOYUQUANJINXINGLEMINGQUE。SUIZHESHIDAIFAZHAN,HANGUOZHENGFUJIANGQIHEERWEIYI,BANBULELAONIANJIAOYUZUIZHONGYAODELIFA《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFA》,YOUCI,HANGUOCHENGWEISHIJIESHANGJIMEIRIZHIHOUDISANGEZHIDINGZHONGSHENJIAOYUFADEGUOJIA。WEISHIXIANMEIGERENDOUYOUNENGLIQIEYINGBEIGULIZHONGSHENXUEXIDELINIAN,《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFA》GUIDINGLAONIANJIAOYUYOUHANGUOJIAOYUBUHEFULIBUGONGTONGGUANXIA,FENGONGHEZUO。QIANZHEZHUYAOFUZELAONIANJIAOYUXIANGGUANZHENGCEDEZHIDING、LAONIANJIAOYUNEIRONGDEKAIFAJIDUILAONIANJIAOYUJIGOUDEJIANGUANDENG,[5]HOUZHEZEZHUYAOFUZEDUILAONIANJIAOYUCHANGDIHESHESHIDEGUANLI、JIAOSHIDEPEIZHI、CAIZHENGDEZHICHIDENG。LIANGZHEGONGTONGXUANCHUANLAONIANJIAOYUSHIYEDEFAZHAN。ZAI《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFA》DI23TIAO“WEICUJINGUOMINDEZHONGSHENJIAOYUYIJIRENLIZIYUANKAIFA、GUANLI,YINGGAIJIJITUIDONGXUEXIZHANGHUZHIDU(BAOHANGUOMINGERENDEZONGHEXINGXUEXIJINGYAN,YIJIZHONGGUANLI)”ZHIDAOXIA,ZHIDINGDE《XUEFENRENZHENGXIANGGUANFALV》GUIDINGLEXUEXIGUOCHENGDEPINGGURENZHENG、XUEXIJINGLIJILU、XUEFENXUELIRENZHENGHEXUEXIJIEGUODEYUNYONGDENGSHIXIANG。CIWAI,HANGUOHAIZHIDINGLE《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFASHISHIFAANJIGUIDING》《CUJINZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEZONGHEAN》DENGPEITAOSHISHIXIZE,YIJIMEINIANFABUDE《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUBAIPISHU》,[6]BUCHONG、WANSHANLAONIANJIAOYUFALVFAGUI,BAOZHANGLEHANGUOLAONIANJIAOYUDUOYUANHUA、GUIFANHUAFAZHAN。

          2. 办学主体多元化

          HANGUOLAONIANJIAOYUYOUZHENGFUZHUDAO,SHEHUIGEFANGCANYU。ZAIFULIBUHEJIAOYUBUDEXIETONGZHIDAOHEJIANGUANXIA,LAONIANJIAOSHI、LAONIANFUZHIGUAN、SHEHUIFUZHIGUAN、DAXUEZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUEYUANDENGJIGOU、QIYEHEYIXIEMINJIANTUANTIFENFENCANYUKAIZHANLAONIANJIAOYU。LAONIANJIAOSHIBANXUEZHUTIWEIDAHANLAORENHUI、ZHONGXIAOXUE、ZONGJIAOTUANTIYIJISHEHUIZHIYUANZHETUANTIDENG。FULIBUXIAXIALAONIANFUZHIGUANHESHEHUIFUZHIGUAN,KAISHEDEKECHENGSHEJIWENHUAXIUYANG、ZHIYEJINENG、WEISHENGBAOJIAN、GUONEIWAIXINGSHI、TUIXIUHOUSHENGHUO、XINGQUAIHAO、LVXINGDENGFANGMIAN。JIAOYUBUXIAXIAZHONGSHENXUEXIGUAN,YINGJIAOYUDUIXIANGNIANLINGBUTONGTIGONGBUTONGDEJIAOYUKECHENG,QIZHONGYEYOUZHUANMENZHENDUILAONIANRENKAISHEDEKECHENG。DAXUEZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUEYUANDELAONIANJIAOYUZHUYAOSHEJIWENHUAXIUYANGLEI、ZHIYEPEIXUNLEIHEXUEWEIJIXUEFENHUOQULEI。ZAICIJICHUSHANG,HAIWEIYOUZHIYUCANYULAONIANJIAOYUDEZHIYUANZHETIGONGLAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIPEIXUN。WEICI,HANGUODAXUEZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUEYUANLIANHEHUITEDIKAISHELELAONIANJIAOYUZHIDAOSHIPEIYANGKECHENG,JUBANLELAONIANJIAOYUZHIDAOSHIZIGEZHENGKAOSHI。WEIMANZUYIXIELAONIANRENTISHENGZIWODEXUYAO,YIXIEDAXUEKAISHEZHUANMENLAONIANJIAOYUKECHENG,KAOHEHEGEHOUSHOUYUXUEFEN,YOUXIESHENZHISHOUYUXUEWEI。CIWAI,YIXIEHANGUOZHENGFUJIGOUHEQIYEDENGHAIYINBUTONGLAONIANQUNTIXUYAO,FENBIETIGONGLAONIANJIAOYUXIANGMU。RULAONIANRENLIZIYUANKAIFAYUANHEGUOMINNIANJINGUANLIGONGTUANDENGJIGOUHEQIYEFENBIETIGONGZAIJIUYEJIAOYU、TUIXIUZHUNBEIJIAOYUHELAONIANJIAOYUCONGYEZHEPEIXUNXIANGMUDENG。

          3. 教育内容丰富全面

          HANGUOLAONIANJIAOYUDENEIRONGZHUYAOBAOKUOWENHUAXIUYANG、TUIXIUHOUSHENGHUO、ZAIJIUYEJIAOYU、DAIJIGOUTONGHESIWANGJIAOYUDENG。JIHUSUOYOUJIAOYUJIGOUKAIZHANDELAONIANJIAOYUDOUBAOKUOWENHUAXIUYANG。LAONIANJIAOSHIKAISHEKECHENGZHUYAOSHEJIRICHANGQIJU、SHIPINANQUAN、WEISHENGBAOJIAN、SHEHUICANYUHEJIATINGDAIJIGOUTONGDENGNEIRONG;LAONIANFUZHIGUANHESHEHUIFUZHIGUAN,KAISHEDEKECHENGSHEJIWENHUAXIUYANG、ZHIYEJINENG、WEISHENGBAOJIAN、GUONEIWAIXINGSHI、TUIXIUHOUSHENGHUO、XINGQUAIHAO、LVXINGDENGFANGMIAN;DAXUEZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUEYUANDELAONIANJIAOYUZHUYAOSHEJIWENHUAXIUYANGLEI、ZHIYEPEIXUNLEIHEXUEWEIJIXUEFENHUOQULEI。TAHAIZHUANMENWEIYOUZHIYUCANYULAONIANJIAOYUDEZHIYUANZHEKAISHELAONIANJIAOYUZHIDAOSHIPEIYANGKECHENGJIJUBANLAONIANJIAOYUZHIDAOSHIZIGEZHENGKAOSHI,XUEYUANQUDEZIGEZHENGHOUFANGKECONGSHILAONIANJIAOYUXIANGGUANGONGZUO。QIYEKAISHEDETUIXIUZHUNBEIJIAOYUSHIZHENDUI3—5NIANNEITUIXIURENQUNKAIZHANJINGJIZHUANGKUANG、JIANKANGZHUANGKUANG、XINLIDIAOSHI、TUIXIUHOUSHENGHUOJINENGDENGFANGMIANDEJIAOYU,YISHIQINENGYOUGENGHAODETUIXIUSHENGHUOZHILIANG。HANGUOZAIDUONIANMIANLINSHAOZIHUAHELAOLINGHUASHEHUIBEIJINGXIA,QUEFAZUGOUDELAODONGLIZIYUAN,JIAZHILAONIANRENTUIXIUHOUHAIXUJIXUZHAOGONGZUOLAIBUTIERICHANGSHENGHUOFEIYONG。YINCI,HANGUOZHENGFUJIGOUHAIWEILAONIANRENTIGONGZAIJIUYEJIAOYU。LIMIANBAOKUOLAONIANRENDEZHIYEJINENGPEIXUN、XINLIJIANKANGSHUDAO、ZHICHANGRENJIGUANXI、JIUYEXINXIZIXUNHEXUANJIANGZHENGFUCUJINLAONIANRENZAIJIUYEDEYIXILIECUOSHI。RUGUIDINGQIYEBUDEWUZHENGDANGLIYOUCITUI5NIANNEIJIJIANGTUIXIUDELAONIANREN,JIYUQIYEYIDINGDEZIJINBUZHUYIGULIQIYEKAIFASHIHELAONIANRENZHIYENENGLIDEGANGWEIBINGPINYONGYIDINGBILIDELAONIANRENDENG。LAONIANRENZAIJIUYEYUDAOWENTISHI,HAIKEXIANGGEDIGUYONGYUANZHUZHONGXIN、LAOLINGRENCAIYINXINGDENGZHENGFUJIGOUHUODAHANMAOYITOUZIZHENXINGGONGSHE、HANGUOGUOJIXIELITUANDENGMINJIANTUANTIQIUZHU。[7]DAIJIGOUTONGJIAOYUZHIZAIBANGZHULAONIANRENGENGHAODIRONGRUDAOSHEHUISHENGHUOZHONG,TEBIESHILAONIANRENZAIJIATINGZHONGYUZISUNBEIDELIANGHAOJIAOLIUNENGYOUXIAORONGQIAJIATINGDAIJIGUANXI。SIWANGJIAOYUTONGGUOJIAOSHOUSIWANGXIANGGUANZHISHI,RANGXUEYUANRENSHIDAORENSHENGDEYIYIHESHENGLAOBINGSIDEGUILV,CONGERSHITAMENHELIGUIHUAYIZHU、QIGUANJUANZENGDENGSHENGQIANANPAI,XIAOCHUDUISIWANGDEKONGJU,SHULIKEXUEDESHENGMINGGUAN。

          4. 师资建设分层培养

          YURIBENLAONIANJIAOYUGONGZUOZHEHESHIZIPEIYANGMOSHIBUTONG,HANGUODUILAONIANJIAOYUDECONGYERENYUANJINXINGLEFENCENGPEIYANG,YISHIQISHIXIANZHUANYEHUA、ZHIYEHUA、ZHUANJIAHUAFAZHAN。ZAILAONIANJIAOYULINGYU,HANGUOYIFAYOUXIANJIANSHELISHUYULAONIANRENXIEHUIDELAONIANDAXUE,WEILAONIANSHESHIGONGZUORENYUANHEGUANLIRENYUANKAISHEKECHENG,MANZUTAMENDEJIXUXUEXIXUQIU,SHIQIGENGHAODIFUWULAONIANREN。SHIXINGZHONGSHENJIAOYUSHIZHUNRUJIZHI,DUIYOUYICONGSHILAONIANJIAOYUDERENYUANJINXINGCONGYEZIGEKAOSHI。ZHENDUILAONIANRENDEJINGSHENXUQIU,JINNIANLAIKAISHELELAONIANCHIDAIYUFANGZHIDAOSHI、LAONIANRENXINLIPINGJIAZHIDAOSHI、SIWANGJIAOYUZHIDAOSHIDENGYIXILIEPEIXUNKECHENGHEZIGEKAOSHI,TONGGUOYANGEDEZIGESHENHE,TIGAOLELAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIDUIWUDEZHENGTISUZHI。HANGUOHAIZHIDINGLEZHUANMENDE《LAONIANJIAOYUZHUANJIAPEIXUNJIHUA》,JIAOYUFAZHANYUANZHONGSHENXUEXIZHONGXINSHOUQUANZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUEXIAOTIGONGLAONIANJIAOYUZHUANJIAPEIXUNXIANGMU,ZHENGFUTIGONGCAIZHENGZHICHI,WEILAONIANSHESHIDEGONGZUORENYUANHEGUANLIRENYUAN、LAONIANDAXUEJIAOSHIHUOYOUYICONGSHILAONIANJIAOYUDEZHIYUANZHEDENGJINXINGPEIXUN,JINGGUOJICHUJIAOYU、SHENHUAJIAOYUHEZHUANYEJIAOYUSANGEJIEDUANDEXUEXI,[8]TONGGUOKAOSHIQIEKETANGCANYULVCHAOGUO80%YISHANGFANGKAOHEHEGE,ZHIZAIWEILAONIANJIAOYULINGYUPEIYANGZHUANJIAHUADEGAOJISHIZI。CIWAI,HANGUODAXUEZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUEYUANZUZHIYANJIURENYUANYILAONIANJIAOYUWEIDUIXIANG,ZHENDUILAONIANRENDETEDIANDUIJIAOYUSHIZIDENGFANGMIANJINXINGZHUANMENYANJIU,YICUJINLAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIDUIWUZHENGTISHUIPINGDETIGAO。

          三、日、韩老年教育发展经验对我国的启示

          1. 建立健全老年教育法制

        星云棋牌官网下载   RIHANLIANGGUOFAZHANJINGYANBIAOMINGLAONIANJIAOYUFAZHANLIBUKAIWANSHANDELAONIANJIAOYUFAZHIDEBAOZHANG。LIANGGUOZHENGFUJUNCONGFALVCENGMIANDUILAONIANJIAOYUDEGUIHUAXIEDIAO、GUANLIGUISHU、ZUZHISHISHIDENGWENTIJIYUMINGQUEHEZHICHI。

        星云棋牌官网下载   JINNIANLAI,WOGUOYEZHUJIANZHONGSHIRENDEZHONGSHENFAZHANHEXUEXIXINGSHEHUIDEJIANSHE,YOUCIDUILAONIANJIAOYUXIANGGUANDEFAZHIYOULEYIDINGWANSHAN。RU《GUOJIAZHONGZHANGQIJIAOYUGAIGEHEFAZHANGUIHUAGANGYAO(2010—2020NIAN)》ZHICHU“YAOZHONGSHILAONIANJIAOYU”,DANGDESHIJIUDABAOGAOZHICHU“YAOBANHAOJIXUJIAOYU,JIAKUAIJIANSHEXUEXIXINGSHEHUI”,《LAONIANRENQUANYIBAOHUFA》DIQISHIYITIAOGUIDING“LAONIANRENYOUJIXUSHOUJIAOYUDEQUANLI”。WOGUOSUIRANRIYIZHONGSHILAONIANJIAOYU,DANQUEFAZHUANMENDELAONIANJIAOYUFALV,DUIYULAONIANJIAOYUDEZHIDAOHEGUANLIRENGTINGLIUZAI“GANGYAO”“BAOGAO”“YIJIAN”“GUIDING”“TONGZHI”DENGZHENGCEXINGWENJIANCENGMIANSHANG,MEIYOUDUILAONIANJIAOYUDESHISHIZHUTI、JINGFEIBAOZHANG、ZUZHIYUNXING、FAZHANMUBIAOHEYUANZEDENGFANGMIANJINXINGXITONGDEMINGWENGUIDING,SHIDELAONIANJIAOYUFALVJIANSHEDEZHIHOUCHENGWEIWOGUOLAONIANJIAOYUFAZHANDEZHIYUEHEZUAI。SUIZHEWOGUOLAOLINGHUAQUSHIRIQUYANZHONG,JIAQIANGJIAKUAILAONIANJIAOYUFAZHIJIANSHE,BAOZHENGDALIFAZHANLAONIANJIAOYUYICHENGWEISHOUYAOZHIWU。YINCI,WOGUOYINGZHIDING《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFA》《CHENGRENJIAOYUFA》《LAONIANJIAOYUFA》《LAONIANJIAOYUZHUANYERENCAIPEIYANGJIHUA》DENGZHUANMENFALVFAGUI,TONGGUODUIFALVZHIDU、ZHENGCEZHIDUHEGUANLIDEWANSHAN,JILAONIANJIAOYUFUQUANZENGNENG,[9]CONGERSHILAONIANJIAOYUFALVJIANSHEJINDUHESHEHUILAOLINGHUAJINCHENGXIANGPIPEI,ZAIFALVCENGMIANBAOZHANGHEGUIFANLAONIANJIAOYUDEFAZHANZHUANGDA。

          2. 鼓励形成多元办学格局

          WOGUOLAONIANJIAOYUQIBUJIAOCHI,MUQIANRENGYIGEJIZHENGFUHELAOGANBUXITONGBANXUEWEIZHU。JINGFEIYIBANYUANYUZHENGFUCAIZHENGZHICHI。ZHEIZHONGBANXUEMOSHIZAIWOGUOZHANJUEDUIZHUDAODIWEI。DANSHI,MUQIANLAONIANDAXUEDEBANXUEGUIMOYUANYUANBUNENGMANZULAONIANRENDEXUEXIXUQIU,ZHENGFUDEJINGFEIYEBUNENGWANQUANMANZUBANXUEXUYAO,SHEHUIGEFANGBANXUELILIANGHAIMEIYOUCHONGFENZHENGHE,ZHEIZHONGYITOUDUDADEBANXUEMOSHIBIRANBUKECHIJIU。《LAONIANRENQUANYIBAOHUFA》ZHICHU“YAOGULISHEHUIBANHAOGELEILAONIANXUEXIAO”。HUANYANZHI,LAONIANJIAOYUDEBANXUEZHUTIYINGCONGYOUZHENGFUHELAOGANBUXITONGWEIZHUXIANGSHEHUIHUA、DUOYUANHUABANXUEZHUANBIAN。[10]BANXUEZHUTIDUOYUANHUAYESHIDANGJINSHIJIESHANGRIHANDENGFADAGUOJIALAONIANJIAOYUFAZHANDEZHULIU。ZHENGFUYINGGAIJIANLISHEHUILILIANGCANYULAONIANJIAOYUBANXUEDEJIZHI,TONGCHOULAONIANJIAOYUZIYUAN,GULISHEHUIGEFANGLILIANGFAZHANLAONIANJIAOYU。GAODENGYUANXIAOYONGYOUDALIANGFUYUDEYOUZHIJIAOYUZIYUANHEJIAOGAOQIDIANDEJIAOYUPINGTAI。TONGGUOJIYUZHENGCEZHICHIHEJINGFEIBUZHU,YINDAOTAMENZHUJIANJIAKUAICHENGDANLAONIANJIAOYUDEBILIHESUDU,JIANGLAONIANJIAOYUHEGAODENGJIAOYUYOUXIAORONGHEZAIYIQI。CUJINGELEIJIAOYUJIGOUDUILAONIANJIAOYUKAIFANG,KAIZHANZHIYEJINENGPEIXUN、LAONIANJIAOYUZHUANYEKECHENGDENG。JIYUMINJIANTUANTIZHENGCEZHICHIHEBOFUYIDINGDEZIJIN,GULITAMENCHENGLILAONIANRENFULIHUI、MINJIANLAORENYANGLAOHUZHUHUI、LAONIANRENDUSHUJULEBU、LAONIANRENYOUXUEHUIDENG,YINDAOTAMENJUANZIZHUXUE。YISHANGJILEIBANXUEZHUTIDESHOUKEDIANBUJUXIANYUBENSHEN,HAIKEYINFANGBIANLAONIANRENJIUJINXUEXIDEXUYAO,JIANGLAONIANJIAOYUBANZAISHEQU、XIANGZHENCUNJIGOU、DIFANGZHONGXIAOXUEXIAO、TUSHUGUANDENGDIDIAN,JIAQIANGXUEXIFUWUZHICHI,TIGAOSHEQULAONIANJIAOYUZHUANYEHUASHUIPING。[11]TEBIESHIZENGJIANONGCUNPIANYUANDIQUDESHOUKEDIANGUIMOHELAONIANJIAOYUZIYUAN,YOUHUACHENGXIANGLAONIANJIAOYUBUJU,TUIJINCHENGXIANGLAONIANJIAOYUXIEDIAOFAZHAN。ZAI“HULIANWANG+”SHIDAI,HAIKEYITUODIANDAXITONGDEWANGLUOYOUSHI,JIAKUAILAONIANKAIFANGDAXUEDEJIANSHEBUFA,KAIBANLAONIANJIAOYUWANGZHANHEKONGZHONGLAONIANJIAOYUKETANG,XINGCHENGFUGAICHENGXIANGDEYUANCHENGJIAOYUWANGLUO,[12]BINGQIECUJINDUIWEIXIN、ZHANGSHANGXUEXIAPPDENGXINXIHUASHOUDUANDEYUNYONG,KUODALAONIANYUANCHENGJIAOYUDEFUGAIMIAN。YIFAZHIFAGUIDEXINGSHIGUIDINGQIYEBIXUKAIZHANTUIXIUZHUNBEIJIAOYU,JIYUZHEIXIEQIYEYIDINGBILIDEZIJINBUZHUHUOSHUISHOUYOUHUI,GULITAMENPINQINGYIDINGBILIDELAONIANRENZAIJIUYE。DAXUEDEKEYANJIGOUZAIZHIJIECANYULAONIANJIAOYUZHIWAI,HAIYAODUILAONIANJIAOYUGONGZUOJINXINGQUANMIANDE、SHENRUDELILUNYANJIU。TONGGUOZHENGHEGEFANGBANXUEZIYUAN,TUIDONGLAONIANJIAOYUSHIYEDEDUOYUANHUAFAZHAN。

          3. 丰富教育内容和学习方式

          LAONIANJIAOYUNEIRONGDEGUIHUAHEJIAOYUKECHENGDESHEJIYINGZUNXUNLAONIANRENDESHENXINTEDIANHESHENGMINGFAZHANGUILV,CONGLAONIANRENDEXUEXIXUQIUCHUFA。MEIGUOHoward McCluskyDEXUQIUFUDULILUNWEICIDAJIANLEKEXUEDEKUANGJIA。GAILILUNBAOKUOYINGFUDEXUQIU、BIAODADEXUQIU、GONGXIANDEXUQIU、YINGXIANGDEXUQIU、ZIWOCHAOYUEDEXUQIU。[13]TARENWEI,WEIWEICHIGUOQULIANGHAODEZHUANGKUANG,LAONIANRENYOUBIYAOCANYUJIXUJIAOYU,CONGXUEXIZHONGHUODEXINDEZIYUAN,ZHUANBIANJIAOSEHEZEREN,TISHENGSHENGHUOZHILIANGHESHENGMINGFAZHANCENGCI。XIANGBIRIHANLIANGGUOERYAN,WOGUODELAONIANJIAOYUNEIRONGJIAOWEIDANYI,ZHUYAOBAOHANXINGQUAIHAO、YILIAOBAOJIANHEXIUXIANYULEDENGNEIRONG。CENGCIJIAODI,JINXIANYUMANZUXUEYUANYINGFUHEBIAODADEXUQIUCENGCI,ERDUIYUGENGGAOCENGCIXIANGGUANDETUIXIUZHUNBEIJIAOYU、DAIJIRONGHEJIAOYU、SIWANGJIAOYU、ZAIJIUYEJIAOYU、SHEHUICANYUJIAOYUDENGFANGMIANNEIRONGSHEJIJIAOSHAO。[14]YINER,WOGUOYINGCHUANGXINLAONIANJIAOYUNEIRONG,SHIZHIGENGJIAFENGFUQUANMIAN。ZHENGFULIANHEQIYETUIXINGTUIXIUZHUNBEIJIAOYU,BAOKUOTUIXIUQIANHOUXINLIDIAOSHI、JIAOSEZHUANHUAN、TUIXIUSHENGHUOGUIHUADENG,XIAOCHUTAMENDESHEHUITUOJIEGANYUJIAZHIQUESHIGAN。ZHEIYESHIWOGUOLAONIANJIAOYUJIDAIMIBUDENEIRONG。DAIJIRONGHEJIAOYUYOUZHUYUJIANLILIANGHAOSHEHUIRENJIGUANXI,CONGERTISHENGTUIXIUSHENGHUOZHILIANG。ZHUJIANTUOZHANSIWANGJIAOYU,RANGLAONIANRENNENGGOURENSHISHENGLAOBINGSIDEZIRANGUILV,XIAOCHUTAMENDUISIWANGDEKONGJU,TANRANMIANDUISIWANGXIANXIANG。JIJILAOLINGHUALILUNSHIDELAONIANRENBUZAIBEISHIZUOSHISHEHUIDELEIZHUIHEFUDAN,ERSHIBAOGUIDECAIFU。WOGUOKEJIEJIANRIHANLIANGGUOLAONIANRENLIZIYUANZAIKAIFAJINGYAN,DUIBUFENYOUYOUGONGZUONENGLIHEGONGZUOREQINGDEJIANKANGLAONIANRENKAIZHANZAIJIUYEJIAOYU,BAOKUOZHIYEJINENGPEIXUN、JIUYEXINXIZIXUN、GULIQIYEKAIFASHIHELAONIANRENNENGLIDEGANGWEIDENGNEIRONG,JIEJUELAOLINGHUASHEHUIBEIJINGXIARENLIZIYUANDUANQUEDENANTI。KAIZHANSHEHUICANYUFUWUJIAOYU,GULILAONIANRENYIZHIYUANZHEDENGFANGSHIJIJICANYUSHEHUIFUWU,BINGWEITAMENCANYUSHEHUIHUODONGDAJIANPINGTAI,TIGONGJIAOYUZHICHI。CHONGFENFAHUIQIQIANNENG,TIXIANQIZISHENJIAZHI,CONGERYOUXIAOTIGAOLAONIANRENDESHENGMINGZHILIANGHESHENGMINGYIYI。RUWEISHENGYILIAOXINGYEDETUIXIULAONIANRENJINGGUOJIAOYUGONGZUOPEIXUNHOU,KEYILIYONGZIJIDEJINENGLAIXUANCHUANTUIGUANGWEISHENGBAOJIANDEZHISHI。FEIZHUANYEDELAONIANRENYIKEYUNYONGZISHENDEZHIHUIHEJINGYAN,CANYUDAOSHEQUFUWU、CHUANGWENCHUANGWEIJIANSHEZHONGQU。CIWAI,《DI43CIZHONGGUOHULIANWANGLUOFAZHANZHUANGKUANGTONGJIBAOGAO》ZHICHU,WOGUO60SUIYISHANGDEWANGMINJINZHAN11.8%。KEJIAN,LAONIANRENDUIXINXIJISHUDESHULIGANSHIDETAMENZAI“HULIANWANG+”SHIDAILAONIANRENDEXUEXIQUANDEBUDAOBAOZHANG。YINCI,ZAIJIAOYUNEIRONGSHANGHAIXUZENGJIAJIAOSHOURUHESHANGWANG、ZHINENGSHOUJIYINGYONGDENGXINXIHUASHOUDUANDESHIYONG,SHIXIANXINXIJISHUSHENRUDAOZHONGSHENXUEXI“ZUIHOUYIGONGLI”,CONGERCUJINJIAOYUGONGPING。

          NUOERSICHENGRENXUEXILILUNRENWEI,CHENGNIANRENYOUDULIDEZIWOGAINIANBINGNENGZHIDAOZIJIXUEXI,TAMENDESHENGHUOJINGYANSHITAMENXUEXIDEFENGFUZIYUAN。[15]KEJIAN,JUYOUFENGFURENSHENGJINGYANDELAONIANRENYINGJUBEIYIDINGDEZIZHUXUEXINENGLI,TONGSHIHAISHIZHISHIDEJIJIJIANGOUZHE。YINCI,YINGGOUJIANXUEXIGONGTONGTI,TUOZHANRENJIWANGLUO,[16]SHELITUANDUIXUEXIMUBIAO。JIEJIANRIBENLAONIANJIAOYUCAIYONGDESHIDIKAOCHA、TAOLUNFAYAN、JUHUIJIAOTANDENGXUEXIFANGSHI,[17]DALIKAIFAYANJIANG、BIANLUN、KAOCHA、YOUXUE、CHENGGUOHUIYAN、SHEHUISHIJIANDENGTIXIANLAONIANRENZIZHUXUEXITEDIANDEDUOYUANHUAXUEXIFANGSHI,XIYINYUELAIYUEDUODELAONIANRENCANYUXUEXIHUODONGZHONG,XIANGSHOUXUEXIDELEQU,TIHUISHENGMINGDEYIYI。

          4. 培养充足的专业化师资队伍

        星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIWOGUOLAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIYANZHONGDUANQUEDEDANGXIA,PEIYANGCHONGZUDEZHUANYELAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIDUIWUCHENGWEISHOUYAORENWU。RIHANLIANGGUODOUSHIFENZHONGSHILAONIANJIAOYUZHUANYERENYUANDEPEIYANG,RUHANGUOZHIDING《LAONIANJIAOYUZHUANJIAPEIXUNJIHUA》,BINGZAIGAOXIAOFUSHUZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUEYUANKAISHELELAONIANJIAOYUZHUANYERENYUANDEPEIXUNKECHENG,BINGSHEYOUGEZHONGZIGEZHENGJIAOYU,CONGYERENYUANBIXUCHIZHENGSHANGGANG,BAOZHENGLELAONIANJIAOYUGONGZUOZHEDEZHUANYESUZHI。YINCI,ZHENGFUKEYIJIANGLAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIPEIYANGNARUDAOZHENGGEJIAOYUSHIZIPEIYANGTIXIZHONGPEIYANG,CHUTAI《LAONIANJIAOYUZHUANYERENCAIPEIYANGJIHUA》,WEITUOYIXIEGAOXIAOHEJIAOYUJIGOUZHENDUILAONIANRENDESHENXINTEDIANHEDUOYANGXINGXUEXIXUQIU,KAISHEXUEZHI3—5NIANDELAONIANJIAOYUZHUANYEHEYANGLAOFUWULEIZHUANYE,JIAOSHOUJIAOYUXUE、LAONIANXINLIXUE、SHEHUIXUE、LAONIANJIAOYUGUANLI、YINGYANGYUBAOJIAN、SHEHUISHENGHUOJINENG、SHENGMINGYIYIDENGZHISHIHEJINENG,CANZHAOSHIFANSHENGPEIYANGYAOQIU,QUANMIAN、XITONGDIPEIYANGZHUANYEHUALAONIANJIAOYURENCAI,ZHUANGDAZHUANZHILAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIDUIWU。PINQINGGAOXIAO、SHEHUIJIAOYUJIGOU、QIYEXINGYEJISHURENYUANDENGGEJIERENSHI,WANSHANLAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIDUIWUCENGCIHEJIEGOU。JIJITUOKUANZHIYUANZHEZHAOMUQUDAO,SHENRUWAJUEXIANYOUDELAONIANRENLIZIYUAN,[18]JIANLILAONIANYUANCHENGJIAOYUZHIYUANZHERENCAIKU,PEIYANGYIZHILAONIANJIAOYUZHIYUANZHEDUIWU。RURIBENLAONIANJIAOYUZHONGSHISHENGJIAOSEJINGCHANGHUHUAN,ZHEIMENKEDEXUESHENGKEYIZAILINGYIMENKEZHONGCHENGWEIJIAOSHI。[4]DUIXIWANGZISHENJIAZHIDEYITIXIANDELAONIANRENLAISHUO,WOGUOKEXUANPINLAONIANYOUXIUXUEYUANCHONGDANGJIAOSHI,HAIYINGWEITUOGAOXIAOHEJIAOYUJIGOUKAISHEZHIYUANZHEJIANGZUO,[20]YIKETONGGUODUANQIPEIXUNHUOGUIHUAJICHUHEZHUANYEDEZHIYUANZHEPEIXUNYUYANXIKECHENG,JIAQIANGTAMENDEZHUANYEZHISHIJINENGHEFUWUXUEXI,[21]ZAIFUZHIYIGANGQIANPEIXUN,WANCHENGXUEXIHOUCANJIALAONIANJIAOYUCONGYEZIGEKAOSHI,SHIXINGLAONIANJIAOYUSHIZHUNRUJIZHI,BAOZHANGCONGYERENYUANDEZHUANYENENGLI、ZHIYESUZHIJIZHIYEDAODE。[22]CIWAI,WANSHANCHIZHENGSHANGGANGJIZHI,DINGQIKAIZHANCONGYERENYUANJIXUJIAOYUPEIXUN,KAOHEBUHEGEZHE,QUXIAOQIJIXUCONGSHILAONIANJIAOYUDEZIGE。TONGGUODUOYANGHUADEPEIYANGJUCUO,DAZAOYIZHIZHUANJIANJIEHEDEGAOSUZHI、ZHUANYEHUADELAONIANJIAOYUSHIZIDUIWU。

          参考文献

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          论文来源参考:朱政.日韩老年教育发展经验及其启示[J].成人教育,2020,40(03):88-93.
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