星云棋牌官网下载

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                                    学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 历史论文 > 鸦片战争论文

                                    鸦片战争时期镇江城陷前后的治安灾难

                                    时间:2019-03-13 来源:镇江高专学报 作者:孙洪军,高廷爱 本文字数:6119字

                                      摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 1842年7月镇江沦陷。无辜百姓惨遭英军屠杀或被当做汉奸滥杀, 土匪抢掠横行肆无忌惮。政治腐败、官不履职, 民族不睦、矛盾加剧, 道德沦丧、自相残害, 这些加重了镇江城陷落后百姓生命财产遭受损失的程度。

                                      关键词: 1842年镇江论陷; 社会治安; 政治腐败;

                                      Abstract: Zhenjiang fell in July 1842. Innocent people were slaughtered or treated as traitors, and bandits carried out wanton robberies. Political corruption, officials' negligence of duty, national hostility, worsening contradictions, moral decay and self-mutilation made civilians and their property suffer greater loss after the occupation of Zhenjiang by enemy.

                                      Keyword: Zhenjiang's fall in 1842; public security; political corruption;

                                      ZAIQINGDAI, ZHENJIANGCHENGSHICHANGZHENDAOZHI、ZHENJIANGFUZHI、DANTUXIANZHISUOZAIDI, YESHIZHUFANGQIBINGJINGKOUFUDOUTONGYAMENSUOZAIDI。DAOYUAN、ZHIFU、ZHIXIANSHISHOUTUGUAN, FUDOUTONGSHIZHUANCHENGFANGSHOUGUAN, TAMENDUIBAOWEIZHENJIANG、WEIHUZHENJIANGSHEHUIZHIANFUYOUZHONGYAOZEREN。WENWUGUANYUANDEDUZHIXINGWEIZAOCHENGLE1842NIANZHENJIANGLUNXIANQIANHOUYANZHONGDESHEHUIZHIANZAINAN。

                                      1 、城陷前后的治安灾难

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   YINGJUNGONGCHENGQIAN, ZUOWEIQINGZHENGFUZHUSHOUZHENJIANGDEZUIGAOJUNZHENGZHANGGUAN, JINGKOUFUDOUTONGHAILINGZAIQUANMINCHUCHENGYUZUMINCHUCHENGZHIJIANYAOBAIBUDING, QIZUZHIBAIXINGTAOLIZHENJIANGCHENGDEJUDONG, JIAZHONGLEZHENJIANGCHENGXIANLUOHOUBAIXINGSHENGMINGCAICHANZAOSHOUSUNSHIDECHENGDU, ZHIJIEZAOCHENGZHENJIANGRENMINMENGSHOUQIANSUOWEIYOUDEZHANZHENGZAINAN。

                                      1.1、 百姓惨遭英军屠杀

                                      DAOGUANGERSHIERNIANLIUYUECHUERRI (1842NIAN7YUE9RI) , YINGJIANJINRUZHANGJIANGKOU, ZHENJIANGCHENGFANGXINGSHIZHOURANJINZHANG。CHUBARI (15RI) , YINGJIANBIJINZHENJIANG, JUMINLUOYIBUJUEHUANGMANGWAITAO。DANSHOUCHENGQIBINGFENGMINGZHIKAIQIYISHANCHENGMENRANGBAIXINGTONGXING, KAIQISHIJIANJINYOUYIGEXIAOSHI, JISHIZAIZHEIBAOGUIDEYIGEXIAOSHILI, BAIXINGYEBUNENGSHUNLICHUCHENGTAONAN, “ZHUFANGQIBING, JIAORENDUILI, SHIXINGZHEPUFUCONGDAOXIAGUO, SHAOJUSHOUJICHUDAOLIUXUEBEIMIAN, CHUSUISHENYIFUWAI, YIWUBUXUXIEDAI, DAIZHELIXINGDUOXIA。RENFANGLUOYIXING, TURANBIMEN, YOUZIDICHUERFUXIONGBIRUCHENGNEIZHE, YOUQINVCHUERZHANGFUBIRUCHENGNEIZHE, CHENGNEIWAIHUHAOZHISHENG, CANBURENDU”[1]42。SHISIRI (21RI) , ZHENJIANGCHENGPOZHIHOU, YINGJUNDASITUSHAZHENJIANGJUNMIN, TONGSHISIYIQIANGLVE。ZAIDIFANGZHENGFUDEYICHUKUFANGNEICUNFANGZHE6WANLIANGWENYIN, YINGJUN“LIJIQIANGPOZHENJIANGJUMINTITAMENDANYUNZHUANGSHANGJUNJIAN。TAMENZAIYICHUMIAOYUNEIFAXIANLEDAPISHANGHAODENANJINGCHOUDUAN, LIJIZUOWEIZHANLIPINFENDIAO”[2]38。YINGJUNGONGRUBEICHENGZHISHI, “ZHIFUXIANGLINSUIZHI, QINGKAIMENFANGNANMIN, FUDOUTONGWEIRENZHIZHAI, YIYUDUCUAN, RENGBUYUN, FANYINIAOQIANGJIZHONG, ZHONGJINGSAN”[1]43。HAILINGZAICHENGPOZHIQIANHECHENGPOZHISHIZUMINTAOMINGDEELIEXINGJINGYINQIJUDAMINFEN, SHIRENYANGQIKONGSUHAILING“LIANGSHOULAOWOSIMENSUOYAO, XIMENPOZELVBINGKAIDONGMENZOU, BEIMENPOZELVBINGKAINANMENZOU, ERCHENGZHONGBAIXING, JINBIBUXUCHUCHENG, POCHENGRENSI, BUPOCHENGESI, DAIYUJINSIBAIXINGZHUANSHENGGUANYUBINGYE。WUGUOYANGMIN, MOCIWEISHEN”[1]46。ZHENJIANGXIANLUOHOU, HAILINGZISHASHENWANG, “YIGUITALAI, BUYISHI, FUNVSHIMANDAOSHANG, WUBUSANFACHITI, WEISIZHEDUOBEIYONGBAOERQU, SHENGSILISAN, MUBURENDU”[3]。

                                      1.2 、无辜百姓被当作汉奸滥杀

                                      鸦片战争时期汉奸问题十分严重, 是影响反侵略战争进程的重要因素之一。镇江军政当局高度重视汉奸问题, 提前采取措施严防汉奸。早在前一年 (1841年) 冬天, “数月镇江城门辰巳时启, 或未暮即闭, 严诘奸寇”[4]39。从实际情况看, 在镇江保卫战中确实有少数民族败类通敌叛国甘当汉奸, 如7月15日在焦山之战中, “英军一队就是汉奸导引下乘小艇企图在焦山南岸登陆;21日攻城时, 英军一部又在北固寺僧密指下从十三门乘虚登城”[3]。在英军攻城的关键时刻, 甚至有“登城而呼寇者”[5]680, 意欲引导英军攻击清军。这些以各种方式帮助英军攻击清军的人, 完全站在侵略者的一边, 他们助纣为虐, 残害中国人民, 成为可耻的汉奸。
                                     

                                    鸦片战争时期镇江城陷前后的治安灾难
                                     

                                      ZAIPINGMINBAIXINGKANLAI, “SHAHUKOUZHIMIN, YISUJUNLV”[5]680SHILISUODANGRANDE。CONGFALVDEJIAODUKAN, DUITONGDIPANGUODEHANJIANJINXINGYANCHENGZAIDANGSHIYEYOUFALVYIJU。《DAQINGLVLI·BINGLV·GUANJINPANJIEJIANXI》GUIDING:“JINGNEIJIANXI, ZOUTOUXIAOXIYUWAIREN……PANHUODAOGUAN, XUYAOJUWENJIEYINRUNEI、QIMOUCHUWAIZHIREN, DESHI, BULUNSHOUCONG, JIEZHAN。”[6]331DANSHI, HAILINGZAISOUBUHANJIANDEGUOCHENGZHONGFANLEKUODAHUADECUOWU。ZHENJIANGQUANCHENGJIEYANZHIQIANJIYOUHANJIANZANGNICHENGZHONGDECHUANYAN, HAILINGZHISHIQIBINGYANHUSOUSUO, BUZHUOHANJIAN, JIANGZHUOHUOZHIRENSONGDANTUXIANYAJIUBAN。BICHENGYIHOU, “FANTAYIRENCHENGZHONGXIMAOQIANZHE, CHONGGONGYIZHE, ZUOSENGDAOZHE, WEIPUJIXINGQIZHE, YIFEITUYIN, JUNBEIFUQU, LVEYIJIEWEN, JISHASHISANRENYUXIAOJIAOCHANG, QIZHONGRENJUBAOZHUANGZHENGWEILIANGMINZHE, BUDEYI, GANZHICHENGWAI, MIANYUFUYUE, FUSIYUQINGDIE。ERLIXIANGZHONGXIAOXINGZHE, MUXINGZHE, YUFUXINGCHENGXIAZHE, BUWENHEREN, XUYONGNIAOQIANGJIBICAOMANGWUSUAN”[1]42。HAILINGSIYIWANGWEILANSHAWUGU, ZAOCHENGMINXINZHENDONG, “CHENGNEIRENRENTIXI”[7]117。

                                      1.3、 土匪抢掠横行肆无忌惮

                                      LIUYUECHUBARI (1842NIAN7YUE15RI) , YINGJIANDIDACHUISHAN, ZHENJIANGFUCHENGSIMENGUANBI, SHIMINJINGJU, FENFENBASHI。ZAIDIBINGYAJING、GUANMINJINGHUANGDEHUNLUANZHUANGTAIXIA, “JIANMINYICHENGBI, FALINGBUXING, SUIJUZHONGQIANGLVE, GEDIANPUMIGU, SUOZHIYIKONG。CHENGNEIWAIYIRISHUSHIQI”。CHUJIURI (16RI) , TIDULIUYONGXIAOZAIXIMENWAIZHUDIDUIQIANGLVEZHESHIYIJUNFA, GONGKAICHUJUEBAOTUYIREN, LINGYOUYIRENBEIGEQUERDUO, ERZHENJIANGCHENGNEI“MINYULUAN, QIANGLVEGONGXING”。CHUSHIRI (17RI) , “NANMENWAIYOUQIANGLVEBUYI, BINGBEIDAOYUXIANLINGZHUDOUTIANMIAO, FENGTIDULINGZHANYIREN, BIANPOSHUREN, JIANMINNAISHAOJI”[1]77。

                                      CHENGPOZHISHI, QINGZHENGFUZHUCHENGWENWUGUANYUANHUOSIHUOTAO, CHENGSHIGUANLIWANQUANXIANRUZHENKONG, SHEHUISHIXU, JIANMINYUYINGYIXIANGHUGOUJIE, LANGBEIWEIJIAN。“JUMINDAOYIGUIJIELVE, WUSHIBUKONG, WUJIABUPO, YIGUIZHIQUJINYIN, YIFUDENGWUJIANXIGUIDAOZHE。DAOZHEDUOQIJIAZHILINYOUQINZUYUFUHUANYANGPUREN。SHIQIRI (24RI) , WEITIDUCHUSHIJINJIELVE, ERJIELVERUGU。SIXIANGNANFUWENFENGYIZHI, TUFEISHIBEIYUYI。YIGUIZHISHAOGUANFANG, ERXIMENQIAOZHIYINSHANMEN, WURIBUHUO, ZHONGYUANJUNYU, JINCHENGWALICHANG, JIETUFEISUOWEI。CHUFANGHUOSHI, YIMUCENGFUSHIWURENYUGUANYINANDASHUSHANG, BIANBEILIUXUE, ERZONGHUORUGU, YIYIWUFAKESHI。WEIYANJINGGUOSHUSHENG, RENXINZHIHUAI, WEIYOURUCIJUNZHE。”[1]GENGWEIKEEDESHI, XIANGXIAJIANMINWENZHIZHENJIANGCHENGNEIQIANGLVECHENGFENG, YECHENHUODAJIE, JIEHUORUCHENGCANYUQIANGJIE。“NIANSIRI (31RI) , YUEHEDAGANGXIANGMINERQIANFENGYONGRUCHENG, CHIXIEQIANGLVE, SHIBUKEDANG。”[1]45YINGJUNGONGCHENGSHIDEPAOHUOHONGJI、CHENGPOHOUYINGJUNYUTUFEISIWUJIDANDESHAOSHAQIANGLVE, SHIGUCHENGZHENJIANGCHENGWEIYAPIANZHANZHENGSHIQIBEIZHANDECHENGZHONGSUNSHIZUIDA、BAIXINGCHUJINGZUICANDECHENGSHI。JIAOZHIQITABEIZHANCHENGSHI, ZHENJIANG“YIRENFENLVECANYUTAXIAN”[7]117, ZHENJIANGRENMINZAOSHOULEJUDADEZHANZHENGCHUANGSHANG。

                                      DUIYUSHIXIANCHENGCHI, 《DAQINGLVLI·BINGLV·JUNZHENG·ZHUJIANGBUGUSHOU》GUIDING:FANYANBIAN、YANHAIJIFULIFU、ZHOU、XIANYUWUZHIGUANTONGZHUYICHENGZHE, BEIZEIGONGXIANCHENGCHI, JIESHAFENSHAOZHE, WUZHINIZHANJIANHOU, “QIFU、ZHOU、XIANZHANGYINBINGBUDAOGUAN, JUBIZHAOSHOUBIANJIANGSHUAIBEIZEIQINRUJINGNEILULVERENMINLV, FABIANYUANCHONGJUN。QISHOU、XUNDAOGUAN, JIAOBUFENBIEYICHUTIWEN”[6]314。JUCI, ZHENJIANGSHOUTUYOUZEDEWENWUZHONGGUANZHANHOUSHOUDAOYANSUCHULI。

                                      2 、酿成镇江城治安灾难的根源

                                      2.1 、政治腐败、官不履职

                                      《DAQINGLVLI》GUIDING:ZHUZHENWENWUGEGUANWULUNPINGSHIHAISHIZHANSHI, DUIBAOWEIZHENJIANGCHENG、DIAOHEJUNZHENGYUJUNMINGUANXI、WEIHUZHENJIANGDESHEHUIZHIANJUNFUYOUBUKETUIXIEDEZEREN。KESHI, ZAIZHENJIANGLUNXIANQIANHOUDUIZHENJIANGSHOUTUYOUZEDEGEJIGUANLIQUEWEINENGJINZHIJINZE, WEIHUYIFANGANQUAN, CUNZAIZHEHUOQINGHUOZHONGDEDUZHISHIZHIXINGWEI。

                                      ZHANQIAN, WENWUGUANYUANBEIZHANBULI, ANMINBUSHAN。ZAIYINGJIANDIDAZHENJIANGXIAYOUCHUISHANSHI, GEJIGUANLIZIGUSHENJIA, “LIANRIDOUTONGLIANFUXIANGELINGZHAIJUANCHUCHENGTAOQU”[1]76。DUIYUGUANGDASHIMINDEANWEIQUEWUDONGYUZHONG, MOBUGUANXIN。DUIZHENSHOUZHENJIANGFUYOUZHIJIEZERENDECHANGZHENDAODUISHOUTUBEIZHANCHIXIAOJITAIDU, “SHUCHANGZHENDAOZHANGQIN, JIUZHUYANGZHOU, SHOUNAKESHUI, YUDIFANGYIQIESHIYIBINGWEICHOUHUA”[3]。SHINIANLIUYUESHIERRI (7YUE19RI) , ZHENJIANGFUCHENGCHENGMENGUANBI, SHENGHUOWUZIQIQUE, SHICHANGYISUIZHIGUANBI。BAIXINGWULIANGKEMAI, WUMIXIAGUO, YINERQUANCHENGCHUIYANLIAOLIAO, MIANLINDUANCHUIAIEDEWEIXIAN。JIANSHENGWUXUEZENGBINGQINGZHIFUXIANGLIN, NISHEFAJIANGWEIYUXICHENGJIAZHONGDESIBAIDANLIANGSHIYUNRUCHENGZHONGJIEJIJIMIN。XIANGLINQINGSHIHAILING, HAILINGYI“KAICHENGWUBEIMINGJIXIU, BUNENGGUBAIXING, BAIXINGYOUWEIYAN, JISHIHANJIAN, WUBINGZUYISHAZHI”ZUODA。QISHI, HAILINGZAIGUANBICHENGMENJINZHIBAIXINGCHURUQIJIAN, MEIRIRENGKAIXIXIAOMENJINBING, RUGUOSHUNBIANJIANGMILIANGDAIRUCHENGZHONG, JISHIBAIXING, JUSHOUZHILAOJIKEANDINGMINXIN。KESHI, HAILINGQUEYANLIJUJUE, WUSHIBAIXINGSIHUO, ZHENJIANGBAIXINGYINHAILINGDECUOWUZHIHUIYUQIBINGDEYEMANXINGJINGERZAOSHOULEKONGQIANDEZHANZHENGZAINAN。HAILINGDENGRENXIANRANFANGQILEDIAOHEJUNMIN、HEMUMANHANDEZHISHOU, CUNZAIZHEMINGXIANDEDUZHIXINGWEI。FENGJIANSHIDAIDUSHUZHIRENSHUYUSHEHUIDEJINGYINGJIECENG, FUYOUJIAOHUABAIXING、ANDINGXIANGLIDEZEREN。MOURIBANGWAN, SHIDUOWEIZAICHENGXIAOLIAN、ZHUSHENGLIANGCIDAOZHIFUYAMENWEIMINQINGMING, “TAISHOUBUKENFUYUDOUTONGYAN, ZHONGNAITAIXIERGUI”[1]。ZAIBAIXINGZUIXUYAOZHIFULVXINGZHIZEANDINGMINXINDESHIHOU, ZHIFUQUEZHINANERTUI、FANGQIZHISHOU, QIDUZHIXINGWEILINGRENTONGHEN。HAILINGLANSHAHANJIANXIANYIRENDEXINGWEIDEDAOGEBIEXUEZHEDEKENDING:“ZHANZHENGSHICANKUDE, CONGZHANZHENGDEYAOQIUKANZHEIXIECUOSHISHIWUKEHOUFEI。”[3]DANSHI, ZHANZAIYINGDEMINXIN、WEIHUSHEHUIZHIAN、WEICHIFENGJIANTONGZHIDAJUDEJIAODUKAN, HAILINGYUQIBINGMENLANSHAWUGUDEXINGWEIXIANRANSHUYUJIAOWANGGUOZHENGZHIJU。YOUYUJUNZHENGDANGJUSHUSANCHENGZHONGBAIXINGDECUOSHIBULI, ZHENJIANGCHENGNEIYIBUFENSHISHEN、BAIXINGWEINENGJISHIWAITAO, ZAOSHOUBINGXIANZHIZAI;JIANZHIQIBINGZAISOUBUHANJIANGUOCHENGZHONGSHANGHAILEYIXIEWUGUPINGMIN, YINERZHANGQIYILAI, RENMENDUIHAILINGDEZHIZESHENGGUODUITADEKENDING。

                                      ZHANHOU, DIFANGGUANWANHUZHISHOU, JIXIONGBULI。SUIZHE《NANJINGTIAOYUE》DEQIANDING, YAPIANZHANZHENGXUANGAOJIESHU, YINGJUNXIANGJICHETUI。10YUE4RI, YINGJUNCHECHUZHENJIANG, QINGZHENGFUHUIFULEDUIZHENJIANGDETONGZHI。《NANJINGTIAOYUE》MINGWENGUIDING:“FANXIZHONGGUOREN……YUYINGGUORENYOUWANGLAIZHE, HUOYOUGENSUIJISHIHOUYINGGUOGUANRENZHE, JUNYOUDAHUANGDIFUJIANGYUZHI, TENGLUTIANXIA, ENZHUNQUANRANMIANZUI。QIEFANXIZHONGGUOREN, WEIYINGGUOSHIBEINAJIANJINSHOUNANZHE, YIJIAENSHIFANG。”[8]32JUCI, QINGZHENGFUSHIQULEDUIHANJIANJINXINGCHENGFADEJIHUI。DANSHI, DUIYUZHENJIANGXIANLUOQIANHOUGONGKAISHAOSHAQIANGJIEDEWEIFAFANZUIFENZI, QINGLVMINGWENGUIDINGYINGYUYANCHENG, “FANQIANGDAOYIXING……DANDESHIZHUCAIZHE, BUFENSHOUCONG, JIEZHAN”“QIANGDAOSHAREN, FANGHUOSHAORENFANGWU……BINGJIZHIBAIRENYISHANG, BUFENCENGFOUDECAI, JUZHAODECAILV, ZHAN。SUIJIZOUQINGSHENJUEXIAOSHI”[6]。FALVSUIYOUMINGWENGUIDING, DIFANGZHENGFUQUEFUYANLESHI, BINGBUSHILIZHUIJIU, “JUMINHUICHENG, ZHIJIAZHONGWEIMOUMOUSUOLVE, BUSHENGQIFEN, HUOMINGGUANZHIKONG, DAXIANYIDUOWEIGANYUANBANLI, GANYUANLVDUOCUOZHIRENYI, TINGCHAYISHANGXIA, YUSHICHAYIZHIBEIGAOJIADUOQIZANGWU, YOUZHIYUANGAOJIAEZHA, CANHUIYISHEN, SAODIWUYU, YUSHIMINFUYOUYUANHENZHISIZHE, ERCHAZHIFUHENGRUJIUYAN”[1]73。WANQINGZHENGFUFUBAICHENLUN, GUANYUANDUZHISHIZHI、XULIWANGFAZIFEI, BAIXINGYUANYINANYISHENZHANG, XUESHANGJIASHUANG, JIAJULEZHENCHENGXIANLUODEZHIANZAINANCHENGDU。

                                      2.2、 民族不睦、矛盾加剧

                                      MANGUANYUHANGUANZHIJIANMAODUNZHONGZHONG。SUIRANQINGZHENGFUYIZAIBIAOSHIMANHANYIJIA, BUFENZHENYU, DANSHI, ZHONGQINGYIDAI, MANHANMINZUMAODUNSHIZHONGSHIFENJIANRUI。ZUOWEIZHENJIANGCHENGFANGDEZUIGAOJUNZHENGZHANGGUAN, JINGKOUFUDOUTONGHAILINGSHI“GUOLUOLUOSHI, MANZHOUXIANGBAIQIREN”[9]11531。ZHENJIANGXIANLUOQIAN, HAILINGJINGHUANGSHICUO, “YIMANCHENGJIESHIHANJIAN, RIZHUASHURENSONGYILINGTIXUN, YILINGQIANYANGUIXUNMINGSHIFANG, JIZHIQIANLINGWEIHANJIAN, CHENGQICHUCHENG, BIMENBUNA”, ZHIFUXIANGLINYUHAILINGSHIYINQIN, YEJUPAHAILING, “TINGQISUOWEI, WUNENGZUZHI”[1]42。ZUOWEIZHUZHENJIANGDIQUZUIGAOXINGZHENGZHANGGUAN, CHANGZHENDAOZHOUXUYUHAILINGDEGUANXIYESHIFENJINZHANG。HAILINGSIHOU, ZHOUXUZHIZETA“WANGSHALIANGMIN”YINQIZHONGNU, DAOZHIHAILING“WEIMINSUOQIANG”[9]11531。MANHANGUANYUANZHIJIANDEMAODUN, ZAOCHENGLEKANGDILILIANGDEYANZHONGNEIHAO, XUERUOLEDUIZHENJIANGCHENGSHIDEYOULIZHANGKONG, JIAJULEZHENJIANGCHENGXIANQIANHOUDEZHIANZAINAN, ZENGJIALEZHENJIANGGEZURENMINDEBINGXIANZHIKU。

                                      HANMINDUIMANMINDEDISHIQINGXUYOUZENGWUJIAN。QINGZHENGFUTUIXINGDEMINZUQISHIZHENGCEZAOCHENGLEHANMINYUMANMINDEZHANGQIDUILI。ZHENJIANGCHENGXIANQIANHOU, HAILINGDEZHONGZHONGCUOWUXINGJINGJIASULEZHENJIANGCHENGSHIXIANLUODEJINCHENG, ZENGJIALEBAIXINGDETONGKU, BUFENHANMINJIANGDUIBAQIGUANBINGDEFENNUZHUANJIADAOZAICHENGQIRENDESHENSHANG:“QIYINGZHONGYIYOUWEIJICHUCHENGZHE, KOUHUQILIU, JIAJIAZAOZHU, WUYITIAORUKONGZHAIZHONG, ZHUICEQING, CHUSHUSHIZHESHENDUO, NIJIUZEDUOESICHENGCHENTUYANLIUJIAN。QIFUNVBUNENGYUYUAN, YOUNANNIJI, MEIFUCHINEI, DABANNISI, HUOCHUSHUIQIANTAO, FUPINGZHANMANMIANSHANG, WANGZHIRULANMIANGUIRAN”[1]43。

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   HANMINYESHIFENTONGHENHUIMINQIANGJIE。7YUE17RIZHENJIANGLUNXIANQIAN, BUFENHUIMINKAISHIQIANGJIE, “CHENGWAIQIANGJIEBUDUAN, TIDUQINWEISHOUHUIMINXIAOSHINANQIAO, JINCHENGSHILVEDING”[1]64。CHENGXIANYIHOU, QINGZHENGFUGEJIGUANYUANLANGBEITAOZOU, FANGQILEDUIZHENJIANGDEGUANKONG;YINGGUOZHANLINGJUNZAIZHENJIANGRENSHENGDIBUSHU, DUIZHENJIANGDEGUANKONGSHIXINYOUYUERLIBUZU。ZHENJIANGZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGXIANRUQUANLIZHENKONGZHIZHONG, SHEHUISHIXU, FALINGBUXING。ZAIZHEIZHONGHUNLUANZHUANGTAIXIA, BUFAZHITUCHENGJISIYISHAOSHALULVE, BUWEIHANZUDIAOMINRUCI, SHAOSHUMINZUJIANTUYIRAN。GUSHIRENRENWEIBULUNCHENGMINXIANGMIN, SIYIQIANGJIE“GUSHUTONGE, ERSHOUEYOUZAIHUIMIN。BAIBUGUOTOU, CHIDAORURENJIA, QIANBAICHENGQUN, SUODEJINBOCHONGDONG, BINGQUXIANGYIWEIZHIMANSAI, QIANHOUXIANGKOU, BUXUMINRENCHURU, YIYOUWEIZU”[1]47。SHAOSHUHUIMINSHENZHIZHUIZONGTAONANFUHU, JIATUOWEIQIKANHUJIAYUAN, SIYILESUOJUKUAN, FUHURURUOBUCONG, ZELIJIHUIHUAIQIZHAIDI, MUWUFAJI, MOCIWEISHEN。BUKEFOUREN, JINXINGQIANGJIEDEJINSHIJISHAOSHUHUIMIN;DANSHI, JINGGUOYULUNDEWUXIANFANGDA, HUIMINQUNTIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGBEIWUMINGHUA。

                                      HANMANHUIMINZHIJIANMAODUNDEJIHUA, SHIQINGZHENGFUZHANGQIYILAITUIXINGMINZUQISHIZHENGCEDEBIRANJIEGUO, MINZUGUANXIDEJINZHANGZAIZHENJIANGXIANLUOQIANHOUYOUJIAJULESHEHUIDEDONGLUAN, WEIHAILESHEHUIDEANDING, ZENGJIALEGEZURENMINDETONGKU。

                                      2.3 、道德沦丧、自相残害

                                      ZHENCHENGBAIXINGJUYOULIANPINXIGUDEYOULIANGCHUANTONG, “ZHENJIANGZHIMIN, YIFENGHANLAOZHIZAI, SUIJIAJINZHONGRENZHICHAN, WUBUJUANZHEN, DONGYIYIERSHIWANJINWEICHANG, ERPINGSHIYOUYUYING、XULI、LIUYANG、JIUSHENG、SHIYAO、SHIGUAN, YIJIJIHANYI, SANNIANQIANCHUSHANJU, WUWEIBUZHI, FUJIACHUZI, HANSHIYIDUOCHULI, SANGZIZHIQINGYIZHIHOU”[1]47。RANER, ZHENJIANGXIANLUOQIANHOU, SHAOSHUBUFAZHITUSIYIQIANGLVE、WUEBUZUO, RANGDAAIZHICHENGMENGSHOUCHIRU。

                                      JIANMINWEIEBAIHUAIRENLUN。ZHENJIANGXIANLUOQIANHOU, CHENGXIANGJIANMINCHENGJIQIANGJIE, “LIBUNENGYIZHIWU, YIBUKENLIU, BIDUANSUISHAOHUIERHOUQU, RUOSUYUANSHENSHENZHE, RENWUXINGAN, ZHICIYIJI”[1]47。《NANJINGTIAOYUE》QIANDINGHOU, JUMINFANHUICHENGZHONGJIAYUAN, MANMUCANGLIANG, BIANDIWALI, ZHISIRENJIANDIYU, ZHISUOYIRUCI, SHIYINWEIYINGYIQIANGLVEZHIHOU, BAILIZHINEITUFEIJIEHUOCHENGBAISHANGQIAN, ZHIZHANGWUQI, RUCHENGSOUGUA, QIANCAIYIWUSAODIJINGJIN, WANGGULIYI, MIEJUERENLUN, “QISHUZHANZHIZI, SHENGJUEJIUZANG, BIBIJIESHI。SHULIDAOJUE, RENMAOSHOUXIN, WUJUNHUOQIYOUWEIAIHU?”[1]72

                                      SHIDELUNSANGGANXINSHIDI。FENGJIANSHIDAISHISHENSHILIANXIGUANFUYUBAIXINGDENIUDAI, “SHIWEIQIMINZHISHOU, CHAOTINGFAJIBUNENGJINYUYUMIN, WEISHIYUMINQIN, YIYUQUXIN。RUYOUDUSHUDUNPINZHISHI, ZHENGLAIQIZHUANXIANGQUANJIE, BIGUANZHIJIAOHUADEXING”[10]165。DANSHI, ZHENJIANGLUNXIANHOU, CHENGDANJIAOHUABAIXINGZHIZEDESHISHENFASHENGFENHUA, DUSHUZHIRENCANYUQIANGJIEZHESUOZAIDUOYOU, “CHUANBIYUQIANG, WUSUOBUZHI。ZUODANYANGLINGSHIBUYIFENGXINGLAOZHUSHENG, ZANGZHISHUQIAN, FADANGZHAN, HENLOUWANGZHESHANGDUOER”[1]47。ZHENJIANGDONGMATOUYIZHANGXINGSHENGYUAN, “ZHIYICHUANBAOJIMISHI, YANYIHESHIYOUJI, DABINGYIJIANGZHIYI。YISHOUSHANGFANYINSIBAI”, GAISHENGHAIYULINGWAILIANGMINGSHENGYUANDAODANYANG, JIATUOYINGYISUOYAOJUNXUWUPIN, LESUODANYANGXIANLINGZHUNBEIDAPIWUZIJIESONGZHENJIANG, HOUYINQIYINMOUBAOLUERWEIZUIQIANTAO。DUICISHIRENKAITAN:“SHIXIZHIHUAI, WEIGUSUOWEIYOU。CISANZHESHIZHENCHENGZHICHAIHUSHEXIE。”[3]GENGLINGRENQIFENDESHI, YOUXIEDUSHUZHILIDEWENHUARENPANGUOTOUDIGANZUOHANJIAN, “YOUYIZHUSHENGFUFUSHUSHANGSHU, WEIYISUOBIN。YOUYOUZHUSHENGERSHIDUOREN, JUDIEQICHONGLIZHANG, WEITIDUZUOGULOUXIAQINJIZHIZHAO, FENCHIERQU”[3]。

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENJIANGBAOWEIZHANZHONG, QINGJUNWUGUANBUNENGTONGCHOUQUANJU、JIANSHOUCHENGCHI, WENGUANBUNENGWEIHUZHIAN、SHUSANMINZHONG;CHENGXIANGJIANMINCHENGJISIYISHAOSHAQIANGLVE;SHIRENBUNENGBIAOLVXIANGLIQUETOUDIPANGUO, CHENGJIQIANGLVE。GUSHIRENFENNUKAITAN“ZHENCHENGJINGCIFANROULIN, POSUIBUKAN, FEIYIRENPOSUIZHI, ZHENRENZIPOSUIZHIYE”[3]。

                                    星云棋牌官网下载   ZHANZHENGSHIQIDECHENGSHISHEHUIZHIANSHIFEICHANGTAIXIADESHEHUIZHIAN。JUNZHENGDANGJUZAIBUNENGJIANGBAIXINGNARUZHANSHITIZHI、SHIXIANQUANMINJIEBINGGONGFUGUONANDEQINGKUANGXIA, YINGGAIWEIYUCHOUMOU, JISHISHUSANBAIXINGCHUCHENG, JINLIANGJIANSHAOBAIXINGSHENGMINGYUCAICHANDESUNSHI。GEJIGUANLIYIXUJIANSHOUGANGWEI、LVXINGZHIZE, QIESHIWEIHUZHANSHISHEHUIWENDING, ZUIDAXIANDUQUEBAOBAIXINGSHENGMINGCAICHANDEANQUAN, ZHEIJIUSHIZHENJIANGBAOWEIZHANJIWOMENDESHENKEQISHI。

                                      参考文献

                                      [1]中国史学会.鸦片战争 (3) [M].上海:新知识出版社, 1955.
                                      [2] 范然.鸦片战争镇江之战[M].南京:南京大学出版社, 1991.
                                      [3]严其林.镇江之战中的海龄[J].军事历史研究, 2003 (1) :97-102.
                                      [4] 许进, 徐苏.陈庆年文集[M].海口:南海出版公司, 1996.
                                      [5]中国史学会.鸦片战争 (4) [M].上海:新知识出版社, 1955.
                                      [6]田涛, 郑秦.大清律例[M].北京:法律出版社, 1998.
                                      [7]梁廷枏.夷氛闻记[M].北京:中华书局, 1959.
                                      [8]王铁崖.中外旧约章汇编 (1) [M].北京:生活·读书·新知三联书店, 1957.
                                      [9]赵尔巽.清史稿[M].北京:中华书局, 1977.
                                      [10] 吕实强.中国官绅反教的原因[M].台北:文景书局, 1973.

                                      孙洪军,高廷爱.论1842年镇江沦陷前后的社会治安[J].镇江高专学报,2018,31(02):1-4.
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