星云棋牌官网下载

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                        学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 历史论文 > 鸦片战争论文

                        鸦片战争时期英国对舟山的重视探析

                        时间:2019-03-13 来源:宁波大学学报(人文科学版) 作者:王文洪 本文字数:10480字

                          摘    要: 在中英第一次鸦片战争中, 舟山是英国想夺取的主要对象。在第一次占领舟山后陷入困境, 英国军队才不得不退出舟山而强占香港。英军第二次攻占舟山后, 英国宣布香港和舟山为自由贸易港。在签署《南京条约》之后, 英国又有了用占领的香港换回舟山的想法。最终, 英国在名义上将舟山交还中国, 实质上仍置于其保护之下。

                          关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 鸦片战争; 英国; 舟山; 香港;

                          Abstract: In the first Sino-Britain Opium War, Zhoushan was the object that Britain wanted to seize. After its first occupation of Zhoushan, the British army was forced to withdraw from Zhoushan because of the trouble they met, so they moved to Hong Kong. After its second occupation of Zhoushan, Britain announced that Hong Kong and Zhoushan were free trade ports. After signing the "Treaty of Nanjing", Britain wanted to exchange the occupied Hong Kong for Zhoushan. In the end, Zhoushan was returned to China only in name, and it was actually still controlled by Britain.

                          Keyword:星云棋牌官网下载 Opium War; Britain; Zhoushan; Hong Kong;

                          YINGGUOTONGGUOYAPIANZHANZHENGZHANLINGXIANGGANG, SHIXIANGGANGCHENGWEIYINGGUOZAIYUANDONGDIQUDEZHIMINDI, ZHEISHIZHONGSUOZHOUZHIDE。BUGUO, ZAIYAPIANZHANZHENGSHIQI, YINGGUOGENGWEIGUANZHUDONGNANYANHAI、ZHANGJIANGLIUYUYIJIGUANGDADEBEIFANGDIQU, CENGJINGDIYIGEYAOQINZHANDEZHONGGUODAOYUJIUSHIZHOUSHAN, YINGGUOZAIJIAOZHANGSHIQINEIDOUMEIYOUJIANGXIANGGANGKANCHENGSHIZUILIXIANGDEZHANLINGMUDEDI。19SHIJI40NIANDAI, ZHOUSHANBUJINCHENGWEIYINGGUOFADONGDUIHUAYAPIANZHANZHENGZUIZHUYAODEGONGJIMUBIAO;ZHANHOU, YOUZHANGQIBEIYINGJUNZHANLING, CHENGWEIZHONGYINGLIANGGUOWAIJIAODEZHENGJIE。YINGGUOZHISUOYIDUOQULEXIANGGANG, QIZHONGJIANGUOCHENGFASHENGLEDUOGEBIANHUA, CAIXINGCHENGLEZHEIGEJIEGUO。ZHEIBIAOMINGLEYINGGUODUIZHOUSHANDERENZHIFASHENGLEZHONGYAOBIANHUA, YEBIAOMINGLEYINGGUODUIZHOUSHANDEZHENGCEZUOCHULEHENDADEDIAOZHENG。

                          一、英国将舟山作为进攻的首要目标

                          1830NIANZHIHOU, ZHONGYINGGUANXIBIANDEYUELAIYUEJIANGHUA, ZHOUSHANQUNDAOCHENGWEIYINGGUOZHENGFUXIANGWULIZHANYOUDEDUIXIANG。47MINGYINGJIFANMAIYAPIANDESHANGRENZAI1830NIAN12YUEGONGTONGXIANGBENGUOYIHUISHANGSHU, TICHU“CAIYONGTONGYINGGUOXIANGFUDEJUEYI, ZHANLINGZHONGGUOYANHAIYIGEDAOYU, QUEBAOYINGGUODUIZHONGGUOZHANKAIDEMAOYIDEDAOBAOHU”。[1]178TAMENDEJITISHANGSHUDEDAOLEYINGGUOZHENGFUDERENKE, JINGUANYINGGUOZHENGFUDASUANZAIZHONGGUOLINGTUSHANGLVEDUOYIGEDAOYU, DANSHIQUEMEIYOUQUEDINGQINZHANMUBIAO, TAMENZAITAIWAN、XIANGGANG、ZHOUSHAN、SHAMEN、FUZHOUZHEIJIGEDIQUZHONGYOUYUBUJUE。

                          BALUO (John Barrow) SHIDANGSHIYINGGUODEHAIJUNBUCIZHANG, TARENWEI, CONGMIANJISHANGSHUO, TAIWANDEMIANJIGUODA, ZAIZHANGQIZHANYOUSHANGYINGGUODEBINGLIBUGOU。[2]TADEYIJIANDEDAOLEYINGGUOYAPIANMAOYISHANGRENDEZANTONG, YOUYUTAMENCHANGCHANGZAIHUAHUODONG, HENSHUXIZHONGGUODEQINGKUANG, CHADUN (William Jardine) SHIZHEIPIRENYUANDEDAIBIAO。TARENWEIRUGUOXIANGYAOZHANGQIZHANYOUTAIWAN, JIUSHOUXIANYAODEDAODAOSHANGYUANYOUJUMINDEZHICHI, ZHEINANDUFEICHANGDA。1839NIAN10YUE, CHADUNTICHUYIGEFANGAN, ZHANLINGXIANGGANG, YINWEIXIANGGANGCONGMIANJISHANGLAISHUOBURUTAIWANDA, YOUGUANGKUODEHAIWANTINGBO, BINGQIEYIGONGYISHOU, SHUIYUANCHONGZU。[2]39CHADUNDEJIANYIBINGMEIYOUSHOUDAOZHENGFUDEZHONGSHI, TAMENBUXIEYUZHEIGEPIANYUANHUANGPIDEXIAODAOYU。DANGSHIYINGGUOZHENGFUZHONGDEHENDUOZHONGYAORENWU, BUJINDUIXIANGGANG, ERQIEDUIGUANGZHOUYESHIBUXIEYIGUDE。1840NIAN3YUE18RI, MANCHESITESHANGHUIZHUXIMOKEWEIKA (John Macvicar) ZHIHANYINGGUOWAIJIAODACHENBAMAIZUN (Palmerston) , RENWEIGUANGZHOUBUSHIYIGEJINXINGTANPANDEHAODIFANG, ZHEIBUDANSHIYOUYUGUANGZHOUTONGQINGCHAOHUANGGONGJULIJIAOYUAN, ERQIEGUANGZHOUDIFANGZHENGFUHUICAIQUGEZHONGCUOSHIZUNAOHEDIKANGZHONGYINGTANPAN, GENGYANZHONGSHIHUIQIPIANTAMEN。TAZHICHU, RUGUORANGTAXUANZE, TAHUIXUANZEFUZHOU、ZHOUSHANHESHAMEN。BAMAIZUNYEJUEDESHAMENSHIBIJIAOHAODEXUANZEMUBIAO, DANSHIDANGSHIDEYINGGUOZHIMINDIYINDUZONGDUAOKELAN (Auckland) QUERENWEISHAMEN、FUZHOUDENGLIZHONGGUODESHOUDOUTAIYUAN, WEIZHIYOUXIEKAONAN, MEIYOUZUGOUDEWEISHELI。[3]480

                          在选择中, 舟山的地位与优势日渐突出。曾任广州英国商馆负责人的厄姆斯顿 (J.B.Urmston) 、传教士郭士立 (Gützlaff) 等人强烈建议英国当局占领舟山。[4]英国驻华海军上校、商务监督义律 (Charles Elliot) 在1837年11月9日, 采取备忘录的方式把“英国派发武装队伍‘并非在广州, 而是在舟山以及以北的地方创建根据地’”的这一建议提交给巴麦尊。[3]480义律在1839年4月3日写信给海军少将梅特兰 (F.L.Maitland) , 称“舟山群岛良港众多, 靠近也许是世界上最富裕的地区, 当然还拥有一条最宏伟的河流和最广阔的内陆航行网”, 其腹地江浙是当时中国最重要的出口商品丝茶的主产区。如果把舟山辟为自由港, 它将成为“大不列颠的商业中心”, 该中心不但面对中国, 而且面对日本, “所以舟山不久便会成为亚洲最重要的贸易场所, 也许是世界上最重要的商业基地之一”。[5]
                         

                        鸦片战争时期英国对舟山的重视探析
                         

                          YINGGUOGEFANGSHILIGUANGFANRENKEYILVTICHUDEYIJIAN。BINGQIEAOKELANZAIZHANLVEHEZHENGZHISHANGBUCHONGYILVDEJIANYI, TARENWEI, YINGGUOYAOXIANGXIANGDANGSHIDEQINGCHAOZHENGFUSHIJIAYIDINGDEYALI, JIUYAOSHOUXIANZHANLINGZHOUSHAN, “ZHEIYANGKEYIGENGHAODIHUODEDAHAIHEDAYUNHEJIANDEJIAOYUNKONGZHIQUAN, BINGQIEZHENGZHIYINGXIANGLIHUIDAFUTISHENG”。[3]480BAMAIZUNZHICHU, YINGGUOZAIXUANZEZHANLINGDIDESHIHOU, YAOCHONGFENKAOLVDAOJINENGZUODAOQUEBAOANQUANTINGBOCHUANZHI, HAINENGDIYUZHONGHUADIGUODEGONGDA, TONGSHIHAIKEYIYIJUXINGSHIDEXUYAOZHANGQIZHANLING, ZHOUSHANQUNDAOZHONGDEMOUGEDAOKEYIFUHESHANGSHUTIAOJIAN。ZUOWEIZUOLUOZAIBEIJINGHEGUANGZHOUZHONGDUANDEZHOUSHANQUNDAO, BUDANKEYIMANZUSHUILUJIAOTONGDEYAOQIU, HAIKEYIWEIYUANZHENGJUNJIANLIYIGEFANGSHOUYOUXIAODEJUDIAN。[3]470

                          1839NIAN10YUE18RI, BAMAIZUNCONGYINGGUOWAIJIAOBUFACHUYIFENGMIHANJIYILV, XIANGTAXIADALE“JIKELINGBINGGONGZHANZHOUSHANQUNDAOMOUGEDAO”DEMINGLING, SHIGAIDAOBIANCHENGYINGGUOQINLVEZHONGGUODEXINGDONGGENJUDIHEGONGYINGZHONGXIN, BINGZAIWEILAIDANGZUOYINGGUODESHANGWUANQUANJIDI。BAMAIZUNHAIYOUWEIQIANGDIAO, YAOYIZHANYOUZHOUSHANYAOXIEQINGZHENGFUDAYINGYINGGUOZHENGFUSUOTICHUDEGEZHONGTIAOJIAN:“CHECHUZHOUSHANJUYOUKENENGXINGDETIAOJIANWEI:ZAIZHOUSHANDAOYUZHONG, XUNUOBAMOUZHONGLEISIAOMENDEJULIUDIJIYINGGUO, BINGYONGTIAOYUEDEXINGSHIBAOZHENGSUOYOUYINGGUORENKEZAIZHONGGUODONGBUYANHAIDEQUANBUGANGKOUHUOMOUYILEIZHONGYAOGANGKOUZUOSHENGYI。”[2]44

                          BAMAIZUNZAI1840NIAN2YUE20RIXIEJIZUOWEIYINGGUOZHENGFUQUANQUANDAIBIAODEYILVHEYILVDEYIFENGHANJIANZHONG, CHULEXIANGXILIEMINGJUNSHIXINGDONGDEXIJIE, BAOKUOYAOFENGSUOGUANGZHOU、ZHANLINGZHOUSHANDENG, LINGWAIHAIFUYOUXIEJIZHONGGUOGUANYUANDEYIFENGGONGHAN。ZAIGONGHANZHONG, TAGENGZHIJIEMINGQUETICHUYAOZHONGGUOJIANGYANHAIYIGEHUODUOGEHAIDAOJIYUYINGGUO, RANGYINGGUORENKEYIJUZHUJIZIYOUMAOYI, MIANSHOUBUHELIDEDUIDAIHESUOQU。TAZHICHU, SUIRANZIJIBUTAISHUXIZHONGGUODEQINGKUANG, DANYINGGUOZHENGFUQINGXIANGYUYONGJIUGERANGZHOUSHANDEYIGEHAIDAO。DANSHIYUCITONGSHI, BAMAIZUNZAIGERANGDAOYUDEWENTISHANGYOUTICHULINGYIXIANGXUANZE, JIUSHIRUGUOZHONGGUOYUANYIKAIFANGXINDETONGSHANGKOUAN, NEIBIANKEYICHECHUGERANGHAIDAODEYAOQIU。“RUGUOZHONGGUOZHENGFUBUYUANYIJIANGZHOUSHANDEZHUQUANGERANGJIYINGGUO, ERSHIYUANYIYITIAOYUEDEFANGSHIBAOZHENGYINGGUOGUOMINNENGGOUZAIZHONGGUOLINGTUSHANGJINXINGZIYOUSHANGYEHUODONG, BINGQIEBAOZHENGYINGGUORENDEANQUAN, YINGGUOZHENGFUKEYITONGYIZHEIYIFANGAN, BINGQIEZAIZHEIYIFANGANZHANGQIYOUXIAODEQIANTIXIA, YINGGUOKEYIZUODAOYONGBUQINZHANZHONGGUOYANHAIDAOYU。”[6]

                          1840NIAN2YUEDI, YINGGUOZHENGFUKAISHIDUIZHONGGUOYANHAIFADONGWUZHUANGGONGJI, SHOUXIANSHIJIANGZHUJIANGKOUFENGSUOLE, ZHIHOUYIZHULIGONGDABINGZHANLINGLEZHOUSHAN, JIANGZHOUSHANBIANCHENGJUNSHIDABENYING, ZUIHOUXIANGTIANJINBAIHEKOUJINXINGLEGONGJI。1840NIAN7YUE6RI, YINGJUNJINGGUOSHUXIAOSHIDEJIZHANGONGZHANLEZHOUSHAN。LUNDUN《TAIWUSHIBAO》GAOXINGDIBAODAO:“YINGGUOGUOQIDIYICIZAIZHONGHUADIGUODEYIBUFENTUDISHANGPIAOYANG, ZHOUSHANYU7YUE5RIXINGQITIANLUORUYINGGUORENSHOUZHONG, YINGGUOZHENGFUZAIYUANDONGYOUZENGJIALEYIKUAIZHIMINDI。”[7]ZHICI, ZHOUSHANCHENGWEIDIYICIYAPIANZHANZHENGSHIQIZHONGYINGSHUANGFANGZHENGDUOZUIZHONGYAODEDIQUZHIYI, ZHANHOU, YOUYIDUCHENGWEIZHONGYINGLIANGGUOWAIJIAODEZHENGJIE。

                          二、英军撤出舟山占据香港的缘由

                        星云棋牌官网下载   1841NIAN1YUE7RI, YINGJUNTURANXIANGGUANGDONGSHAJIAOJINGONG, ZAISHAJIAODESHOUHOUYIXIANGGANGDEMATOUHEHAIANDIAOHUANWEITIAOJIAN, DAYINGCONGDINGHAICHEJUN。QISHANSHANZIZUOZHU, YIYINGJUNGUIHAIZHOUSHANWEITIAOJIANZUOCHUZHONGDARANGBU。20RI, YILVDANFANGMIANGONGBULESUOWEIDE《CHUANBICAOYUE》 (SHIJISHANG, QISHANBINGWEIZAICAOYUESHANGQIANZI, QINGZHENGFUYEMEIYOUPIZHUNZHEIGETIAOYUE) , DAYINGYIPEICHANGYANJIA600WANLIANG, GERANGXIANGGANG, KAIFANGGUANGZHOUDENGWEITIAOJIAN, YINGJUNCHECHUDINGHAI。1YUE26RI, YILVPAIBINGQIANGXINGZHANLINGLEXIANGGANG。2YUE25RI, YINGJUNCHELIZHOUSHAN。YINGGUOZHENGFUHEYIJIANGZHANLINGDEMUBIAOZHUANXIANGLEYUGUANGZHOUXIANGLINDEXIANGGANG, QIYUANYINSHIFUZADE, DUOFANGMIANDE。

                          (一) 传染病给英军继续占领舟山造成了巨大的麻烦

                        星云棋牌官网下载   “YINGJUNFANGQIZHOUSHAN, DUIYUJUNDUIJIANKANGFANGMIANDEKAOLVKONGPASHIBIJIAOZHONGYAODEYUANYIN。ZHONGGUODANGDIBINGYUANWEISHENGWUHEYINDUHUOLUANJUNSHIZHANZHENGZHONGYINGJUNZAOSHOUCHENZHONGDAJIDEYUANYIN, JIBINGJIUXIANGWUXINGDEDASHOU, DUIZHENGGEZHANZHENGGUOCHENGCHANSHENGLEJUEDINGXINGDEYINGXIANG。”[8]1840NIANXIABANNIAN, ZAIDINGHAIDEYINGJUNZHONGKAISHILIUXINGYANZHONGDEBINGYI。“ZAIYIZHIBUCHAOGUO4000RENDEJUNDUILI, BINGYUANZHUYIYUANLIAOBINGJIUYOU5329RENCI;SIWANGYOU448REN。”[6]301

                          QINHUAYINGJUNSHIGUANBINHAN (J.E.Bingham) ZAI《YINGJUNZAIHUAZUOZHANJI》ZHONGYEXIEDAO:“SUGELANLAIFUQIANGLIANDUIWANQUANXIAOSHOUDAOPIBAOGUTOU, ……WUYI, ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGDANGGUIGENYUQUEFAXINXIANERYOUYIDESHIWU, YIZHISHIBINGDETIZHIRONGYIGANRANZHEILISUOLIUXINGDENVEJIHEFAREZHENG, YINWEIWOMENFAXIANJUNGUANZHONGJIANBINGQINGJIAOQING, ERTAMENDESHIWUSHIBIJIAOFENGFUDE。”[9]CONG1840NIAN7YUE13RIZHI12YUE31RI, JIUSIWANGDERENSHUSHUO, YINGJUNZAIZHOUSHANBINGSIDERENSHUSHIQILIANGNIANDUOZHANZHENGZHONGZHANSIRENSHUDE5BEI, YI1841NIAN1YUEZHOUSHANZHUJUNSHULIANG1762RENDEHUA, NEIMEPINGJUNMEIRENZHUYUAN3CIYISHANG。YUCITONGSHI, ZHOUSHANMINZHONGZAIYINGJUNZHANLINGQIJIANJINXINGLEBUQUBUNAODEDOUZHENG, TAMENZAISHUIYUANXIADU, JUJUETIGONGXINXIANSHIWU, HAIYOUXIANGMINZUZHIXIRAOYINGJUN, ZHEIXIEDOURANGZHUSHOUZAIDINGHAIDEYINGGUOJUNDUIDANZHANXINJING。

                          (二) 清政府对于割让舟山的坚决反对

                        星云棋牌官网下载   1840NIAN8YUE30RI, QISHANZAIYUYILVDETANPANZHONGQIANGDIAO“HUANGSHANGBUKENENGGERANGYIGEDAOYU”JIYINGGUO。ZAITANPANZUICHUJIEDUANZHITONGYIPEICHANGYANJIA500WANYUAN, FENSHINIANCHANGQING, JUJUEQITAYAOQIU, TABIAOSHIRUGUOYINGFANGJIXUZHANLINGZHOUSHAN, ZESHUANGFANGMEIYOUHEPINGDESHANGYEJIAOWANGKEYAN。12YUE11RI, QISHANDEZHAOHUIZHENDUIDINGHAIWENTITEBIEZHICHU:“DINGHAITUDIMIANJIYOUXIAN, RENMINPINQIONG, ……DANSHIZHIYAOGUIGUOJIXUZHANYOUNEIGEDIFANG, BIANBUNENGYOUGONGSHUNZHICHENG, ERQIEBUKENENGZOUQINGHUANGSHANGHUIFUTONGSHANG。DUIGUIGUOLAISHUO, ZHANLINGGAIDIYOUSHENMEHAOCHUHUOLIYI?”[10]801

                        星云棋牌官网下载   QINGZHENGFUSHENZHIHAIMEINENGNONGQINGCHUYINGGUOFADONGYAPIANZHANZHENGCHUYUHEZHONGMUDE, DANDUIYUQILINGTUDEYAOQIURENGSHIYUYIJUJUE, BINGYIZHONGDUANSHUANGFANGMAOYIWEIYAOXIE。12YUE15RI, QISHANTONGYIZAI500WANYUANDEJICHUSHANGZAIZENGJIA100WANYUAN, DANJIANCHI“GERANGLINGTUSHITIANCHAOQIJINCONGLAIWEIYOUZHISHI——ZHEIYIQINGKUANGSHIWULUNRUHEXINGBUTONGDE”。TAJINERTICHU“KEYIDAIWEIQINGQIUZAIZENGJIAKAIFANGYIGEKOUAN, BINGSHIFANGZAIZHOUSHANBEIFUDEYINGREN, YICIJIAOHUANDINGHAI”。SUIHOU, YILVYUQISHANZHIJIANDEZHAOHUIJIUCHANYUZENGKAISHANGBUDEWENTISHANG, BINGDOUYIGUIHAIZHOUSHANYUFOUZUOWEIBIYAOTIAOJIAN。KEYISHUO, QINGZHENGFUZAIZHOUSHANWENTISHANGDEJIANCHIPOSHIYILVTUIERQIUQICI, JIANGTANPANYAODIANZHUANYIZHIZENGJIAKAIFANGCHUGUANGZHOUYIWAIDEBEIFANGKOUAN。

                          (三) 割让岛屿并非英国的唯一目标, 争取开放贸易才是最终目标

                          1840NIAN2YUE20RI, ZAIBAMAIZUNDEZUIZHONGXUNLINGZHONG, TATICHURUGUOZHONGGUOZHENGFUYUNXUYINGGUOJIANLISHANGGUANBINGWEISHUANGFANGMAOYIZUOCHUYONGJIUANPAIERBUYUANYIGERANGDAOYUDEHUA, NEIMEZAICAONIDETONGZHONGGUODINGLITIAOYUEZHONGGUANYUGERANGDAOYUYITIAOKEYIHULVE, ERZUOWEIMIBUXIANGYINGZENGJIAWUTIAOGUANYUSHANGWUFANGMIANDETIAOKUAN, QINEIRONGBUWAIBAOHUYINGSHANGZAIKOUANDEZIYOUSHANGYEHUODONG, HEZHUNGUANSHUI, DENGDENG。ERBEIZHANLINGDIZUIDADEZUOYONGZEZAIYUCI, JIRUGUOSHUANGFANGDACHENGYOUGUANXIEYI, NEIMEZAILINSHITIAOYUEZHONGYI“NVWANGBIXIADEJUNDUIJIANGJIXUZHANYOUZHOUSHANQUNDAOHUOKENENGYIBEIZHANLINGDEQITADIFANG, YISHIWEIXIE, ZHIDAOZHONGGUOZHENGFUWANQUANLVXINGQIYIQIETIAOKUANWEIZHI”。[11]51YEJIUSHISHUO, YIZHOUSHANZUOWEIJIANDUZHONGGUOLVXINGTIAOYUEDEYIGE“ZHIYA”。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   8YUE30RI, YILVYUQISHANZAITIANJINDAGUJUXINGLEDIYICIHUITAN, ZAIHUITANZHONG, QISHANJIANJUEFANDUIJIANGZHOUSHANDEZHUQUANGERANGJIYINGGUO, ZAIZHEIYIBEIJINGXIA, YILVZHITICHULEJIANGZHOUSHANZUOWEILAIHUAYINGJUNDELINSHIJIDI。“ZHANLINGZHOUSHANSHIWEIBUDUIXINGDONGFANGBIANHEXUYAO, ZHEISHIYINZHONGGUOGUANYUANDEBAOXINGERYINQIDE”, ERQIE“YINGGUONVWANGJINGCHANGZHANLINGBIEGUODELINGTUHUOZHEDAOYU, YECHANGCHANGGUIHAI。RUGUOZHONGGUOZHENGFUNENGGOUZUOYIXIERANGBU, GUIHAIZHOUSHANYEBUSHIZUOBUDAODE”。[11]ZHEIWUYISHIDUIYONGJIUZHANLINGZHOUSHANLICHANGDEZHONGYAOXIUZHENG, ERQIESHUANGFANGTAOLUNDEJIAODIANBINGBUZAILINGTU, LINGTU (ZHOUSHAN) ZAIYILVDEBIAOSHUZHONGBINGMEIYOUBEIQIANGDIAOWEIBIYAOTIAOJIAN。

                          (四) 英国政府赋予其中国远征军司令的自由权限

                          ZHANZHENGQIANXI, SHEDINGDIYIMUBIAOWEIZHANJUZHOUSHANZAIYINGZHENGFUZHONGBAOCHITONGYIKOUJING, BUGUO, ZAIZHANJUZHIHOURUHECHUZHIMEIYOUDADAOYIZHIYIJIAN。BAMAIZUNZAI1839NIAN10YUE18RIMINGLINGYILVGONGZHANZHOUSHAN, ZAIZHANSHIZUOWEIJUNYONG, “QIEWEILAIHAINENGZUOWEIYINGGUOSHANGWUDEWENGUGENJUDI”, QUEQIEBIAOMING“XIANGYAOYONGJIUPANJU”DEYEXIN。ZHIQIAN, DABULIEDIANNEIGEYEZHUANMENZHAOKAILEYUCEZAIHUAJUSHIDEHUIYI, BAMAIZUNBINGFEIZHISHIDAIBIAOZIJIDEJIANYI。BUGUOJITIANZHIHOU, BAMAIZUNGAIBIANLEZIJIDESHUOFA, ZAI1839NIAN11YUE14RIBAMAIZUNFACHU“ZHIYAO‘QINGZHENGFUKEYIYUANMANJIEJUESUOYOUDESHIQING’, JIUKEYICONGZHOUSHANCHEBING, ZHEIYIWEIZHEZHOUSHANCHENGWEILESUOQINGZHENGFUDECHOUMA”。LINGWAI, BAMAIZUNHAITICHUBAZHOUSHANBIANWEIYUAOMENXIANGSIZUJIEDIDESHEXIANG。[10]525

                        星云棋牌官网下载   AOKELANQIANGLIEFANDUIBAMAIZUNDEZHEIYISHEXIANG, BINGZHICHUCHUANGJIANJINSIYUAOMENDESHOUZHONGGUOZHENGFUYUESHUDE“HUNHEZHENGFU”, HUIBAWOMENXIANGYAOZAIZHEIKUAIZHIMINDISHANGXIANGHUODEDESUOYOULIYIHUIHUAI, TAHAITICHU, YINGDANGBAZHOUSHANCHUANGJIANWEIZAIZHONGGUODULICHULAIDEYIGEDABULIEDIANZHIMINDI。[3]483YINCIDEZHI, YINGGUOZHENGFUTICHULEZUJIEDI、ZHIMINDI、LINSHIZHANLINGDIZHEISANZHONGFANGZHENLAICHUZHIZHOUSHAN。YINGZHENGFUYOUZAI1840NIAN2YUEFEN, BADUIZHONGGUOQUANBUDAOYUSHIXINGZHANJU、QIANGPOGERANG、CHEJUNDEFOUJUEQUANFUYUYINGGUOZHUZHONGGUODAIBIAO。GENJUGAIGUIDING, YILVDENGYINGGUOZHUHUADAIBIAOYIFANGMIANNENGGOUXIANGSHOUDAOZAIHUAXINGDONGDEZIYOUJUEDINGQUAN, LINGWAIYOUXIANRUGEZHIYICIDEJINGDI。GUCI, YILVZAIQUXIANGGANGSHEZHOUSHANSHANGZHANJUZUQINGZHONGDEDIWEI。

                          三、英国宣布舟山和香港为自由贸易港

                        星云棋牌官网下载   DANGDEZHIYILVZIZUOZHUZHANGFANGQIZHOUSHANZHIHOU, YINGGUOCHAOYEXINGQIYIPIANFANDUILANGCHAO, RENWEI《CHUANBICAOYUE》ZHONGYINGGUOSUOHUOTAISHAO。AOKELANZAI1841NIAN2YUEZHONGXUNDEDAOXIAOXIHOU, JIUBUMANYIYILVCAIQUDEJUCUO。4YUEFEN, XIAOXIDAODAYINGGUOHOUYINFALEJIAODADEFANXIANG, 4YUE12RI, LUNDUN39JIAGONGSIHELIWUPU50JIAQIYEDESHANGRENFENBIELIANMINGSHANGSHUBAMAIZUN, RENWEICONG《CHUANBICAOYUE》ZHONG“KANBUJIANSHIXIANLENVWANGBIXIAZHENGFUZAIQUNIANPAIQIANPANGDAJUNDUIQIANWANGZHONGGUOGONGKAIXUANBUQITUDADAODERENHEYIXIANGZHONGDADEMUDE”, [12]CHANGYIYINGGUOZHENGFUDUIZHONGGUOSHITAICAIQUGANYUCUOSHI。YINGGUOWAIJIAOBUZAI20RI, BAYILVZHIXINGZHENGFUGUIDINGMUBIAOQINGKUANGDIJIAOJIYINGZHENGFU, ZAIDIJIAODEWENSHUZHONGZHANPIANFUZUIDADEJIUSHIYUZHOUSHANXIANGGUANDENEIRONG, ZUIHOUXIADEJIELUNSHIYILVMEIYOUWANCHENGSHIMING。ZUIRANGYINGZHENGFUGANDAONAONUDESHIYILVJINGRANWEILEYIGEHAOWURENYANDEXIAODAOXIANGGANGERSHEQILEZHOUSHANDAO, KUANGQIE, DANGXIAXIANGGANGDIWEIYEHENBUQUEDING。JIRANYUNXUQINGZHENGFUZAIDAOSHANGSHOUSHUI, NEIJIUBUSHIYINGGUODEZHIMINDI。4YUE21RI, BAMAIZUNJIBUKEDAIDIXIELEYIFENGSIXINCHUANJIYILV, BINGGAOZHIYILV, YINGDANGJUZAICHULIZHONGGUOSHIWUSHANGDEZUIZHONGJUEDING。BAMAIZUNZAIXINSHANGYANLICHIZELEYILVBAMINGLINGDANGFEIZHIDEXINGWEI, ZEBEITAMEIYOUCHONGFENLIYONGSHOUZHONGDEWUZHUANGLILIANGQUSHIXIANQUANBUMUDE。YOUQIDUIYILVTONGYIJIAOHAIZHOUSHANGANDAOFENNU。TASHUO, WOGUOYOUZHEQUANQIUWURENNENGDIDEHAIJUN, YIGEXIAOXIAODEZHOUSHAN, WOMENXIANGLIUCUNDUOJIUMEIYOURENGANZULAN。BAMAIZUNBIAOSHIMEIYOUZHANLINGXIANGGANGDEYIYUAN。TAZHICHUZHEIGEZUOLUOZAIDONGNANYANHAIDEDAOYUSHIZAIZHONGGUOFAZHANMAOYIDEZUIJIAQUYU, ZAIMAOYISHANGXIANGGANGMEIYOUYIDIANJIAZHI, JIBIANZAIHUANANDIQUZHANKAIMAOYI, YEZHINENGSHIGUANGZHOU, YUXIANGGANGMEIYOUGANXI。LINGWAI, XIANGGANGYUZHONGGUOJINGJI、ZHENGZHIZHONGXINXIANGJUSHENYUAN, XIANGGANGZHIYOUZAIMAOYIDANJISHIWEIYINGGUOSHANGRENTIGONGFANGWUJUZHUDEJIAZHI。JIANYUYILVJUBUZHIXINGZHENGFUDEXUNLING, BAMAIZUNZAIXINMOXUANBU, TABUNENGJIANGZHONGRENTUOFUJIYILVZHEIYANGDEREN, YILVJIANGBEICHEXIAOTAZAIZHONGGUODANRENDEYIQIEZHIWU。[13]SUIHOU, BAMAIZUNZHAOJINEIGEHUIYI, ZUOCHUTINGZHIGUANGDONGTANPAN、KUODAQINLVEZHANZHENGDEJUEYI, GAIPAIPUDINGCHA (Henry Pottinger) QUDAIYILV, CHURENZHUHUAQUANQUANSHICHENJIANSHANGWUJIANDU, FUZEKUODAQINHUAZHANZHENGYILVEDUOGENGDUODELIYI。

                          ZHIHOUYOUXIAOXIZHENGMING, XIANGGANGBINGFEISHIYIWENBUZHIDEHUANGDAO。BAMIANLEYILVZHIHOU, YINGSHANGMADICHEN (James Matheson) DENGRENDANXINXIANGGANGBEIYINGGUOZHENGFUPAOQI, JIAQIANG“XIANGGANGSHIWUKEQUDAIDEMAOYIQU”DEXUANCHUAN, JI“JINZAIXIANGGANGDENGDIQUYINGGUORENCAIHUIBEIZHONGGUORENSHUZHI, ZAIZHOUSHANHUOZHEQITADIQU, ZHONGGUORENJIANDAOYINGGUORENTONGCHANGHUIJIUPAODIAO”。[1]194AOKELANSUIRANDUIYUCHELIZHOUSHANBINGBURENKE, DANBINGMEIYOUSHEQIXIANGGANGDEYIYUAN, ZHICHUXIANGGANG“YONGYOUHESHITINGCHUANDEGANGKOU, QIHOUSHIYI、JUNSHIJIAZHIJIAOQIANG, DUIYINGERYANBAOLIUXIANGGANGYOUBUKEHUOQUEDEYIYI。”。[14]ZAIGEFANGDESHUOFUXIA, YINGGUONEIBUDEQINGXUYIBUXIANGYIWANGNEIYANGQIANGLIE。1841NIAN5YUE31RI, BAMAIZUNZAIJIPUDINGCHADEZHISHIZHONGSHUO, XIANGGANGDAOBUBIFANGQI, GAIDAOZAIXUDUOFANGMIANJUBEIYOULITIAOJIAN, KEYICHENGWEIYINGGUODUIHUAMAOYIDEYIGEJUDIAN。ZHEIJIUGAIBIANLEYINGGUOYUANXIANDUIXIANGGANGDECELVE。BUGUO, BAMAIZUNYIRANJIANCHI, XIANGGANGBIBUSHANGZHOUSHANZHONGYAO, DIDAZHONGGUODEPUDINGCHA, “SHOUYAOJUNSHIXINGDONGSHIZHONGXINZHANLINGZHOUSHAN”, BINGQIEZAIZHOUSHANZHUJUN, TONGQINGZHENGFUZHANKAITANPAN。TADUIPUDINGCHASHUO:“WOMENBUNENGRENWEIZHANLINGXIANGGANGBIZAIZHONGGUODONGHAIANZHANLINGYIGEDAOYUHEQUDEYIXIEDACHENGSHIDEJUZHUQUANGENGWEIZHONGYAO。”[6]794PUDINGCHAZAI8YUE10RIDAODAAOMEN, 22RILINGJUNBEISHANG, 10YUE1RIZHOUSHANZAICIBEIYINGJUNZHANLING。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   QIAFENGCISHI, YINGGUOGUONEIZHENGJUCHANSHENGJIDADEBIANDONG。ABODINGZAI1841NIAN9YUEFENJIETIBAMAIZUNCHURENYINGGUOWAIJIAODACHEN, JIUDUIHUAZHENGCEZUOLEYIXIEDIAOZHENG。TAJIPUDINGCHADEXINHANZHONGQIANGDIAO, YINGGUODELIYIZAIYUKUOZHANMAOYIHEHUODEYUCIXIANGGUANDEQUANYI, ERBUZAIYUGEQUZHONGGUOLINGTU;ZANSHIZHANLINGYIXIEDAOYU, BIRUZHOUSHANHEXIANGGANG, ZUOWEIDUIHUAZHANZHENGDEJUNSHIJIDISHIBIYAODE, DANSHITABUZANCHENGYONGJIUZHANLING, YINWEIZHEIJIANGDALIANGZENGJIAYINGGUOZHENGFUDEKAIZHI, ERQIEHUIJIASHENZHONGGUOZHENGFUDEYUANHEN, BULIYUDUIHUAMAOYIDEFAZHAN。1842NIAN1YUE, YINGWAIJIAOBUXIANGPUDINGCHAZHENGSHIXIADAMINGLING:TINGZHIJIANSHEXIANGGANGDIQUDESUOYOUFEIJUNSHIJIANZHUWU;BAZHOUSHANDANGZUOYAOXIEQINGZHENGFUDEFAMA, POSHIQINGZHENGFUDUIYINGFANGZUOCHUZUIDADERANGBU, TONGYIBUPINGDENGTIAOYUE。YINGGUOZHENGFUSIHUXIANGFANGQIZAIHUADUOQUZHANLINGDIDEZHENGCE。

                          DUIYUZHOUSHAN, PUDINGCHAJIBENANLINGXINGSHI。ERDUIXIANGGANG, PUDINGCHAQUEWEIANYINGGUOZHENGFUDEZHIYIXINGSHI, GANGDAODEMINYONGJIANSHEWEIYUTINGZHI, FANERDAGUIMOZHANKAI。PUDINGCHAZAI1842NIAN2YUE16RIMINGMUZHANGDANDEXUANBU:BADINGHAIHEXIANGGANGSHEWEIZIMAOGANG, BUSHOUQUSUOYOUGUOJIADEYIQIECHUANZHIDEGANGKOUSHUI、GUANSHUIYIJIQIYUJUANSHUI。“ZHAODEYUEZHIXIANGGANG, ZHEZHIDINGHAIDENGCHU, DISHUHAIGANG, WEIYANGCHUANLAIWANGZHIQU, YINGZHUNGECHUANZAIBIRENBIANMAOYI。YUANCISHIYANGZHURENZHIXI, RENHEGUOCHUANZHI, JUNNENGJINRUGANGKOUMAOYI。DAIFENGJUNZHUJIANGMINGZHIXIAN, SUOYOUCHUANCHAOHUOSHUI, JIYILVGUIFEIDENGXIANG, BUGUANNAGUOCHUANZHI, JUNBUYONGJIAONA。”[3]535

                          1842NIAN8YUE, GENJUYINGGUOXINNEIGECHUTAIDEFANGZHEN, ZAIZHONGYINGTANPAN《NANJINGTIAOYUE》SHI, YINGGUOXIANGZHONGGUOZHENGFUTICHULEJUKUANPEICHANG, YAOZHONGFANGJIANGSHAMENDEGULANGYU、ZHOUSHAN、ZHENHAIDEZHAOBAOSHANZHEIJICHUBEIYINGGUOZHANLINGDEDIQUZUOWEIDIYA。ZHONGGUOZHENGFURENWEI, LIANGGUOJIRANYIJINGTINGZHANQIANYUE, JIUYAOYIXINRENWEIJICHU, BUNENGJINXINGDANBAO, RUGUODANBAOSHUOMINGLIANGFANGHAIBUGOUXINREN, ZHEIHUIYINGXIANGDAOSHUANGFANGJINHOUDEYOULIHEZUO。YINGFANGZERENWEI, PEIKUANYERUTONGHAIZHAIYIYANG, BUGUANSHIFOUXIANGHUXINREN, DOUYAOLIXIAZIJUBINGQIEJIAOFUDIYAWU, ZHEIYANGCAISUANHESHI, LIANGGUOZHIJIANDESHANGDINGGENGBUZAIHUAXIA。ZAIZHONGGUONULIZHENGQUXIA, YINGGUOYUANYIJIANGZHAOBAOSHANJIANDIAO, BUGUOJUJUEZHONGGUOYAOQIUDE“ZHOUSHANZHIYUKAIBULIANXI, BUYUPEIKUANLIANXI, DENGKAIFANGWUKOUYIHOU, JIUJIAOHAIZHOUSHAN”DEJIANYI。《NANJINGTIAOYUE》QIANDINGSHI, DISHIERKUANGUIDING, ZHOUSHANJIAOHAIRIQIDINGWEI1846NIAN1YUE, JIEZHINEISHI, QINGZHENGFUYAOFUQINGPEIKUAN, BINGKAIFANGWUKOU。“ZHIYOUDINGHAIXIANDEZHOUSHANHAIDAO, SHAMENTINGDEGULANGYUXIAODAO, YIRANGUIYINGJUNZANSHIZHUZHA;DENGDAOSHUANGFANGTAOLUNDEYANGYIN (JIZHONGFANGPEICHANGJIYINGGUODE2100WANLIANGYINZI) QUANBUFUQING, ERZHIQIANSHANGDINGDEGEGEKOUANDOUYIKAIFANG, YIJIYINGRENTONGSHANGHOU, JIUTUICHUZHUSHOULIANGCHUDESHIBING, BUZAIZHANLING。”ER《NANJINGTIAOYUE》DISANKUANZEWANCHENGLEDUIXIANGGANGDAODEFAQUANGERANG。“YINYINGGUOSHANGCHUAN, YUANLUSHEYANG, WANGWANGYOUSUNHUAIXUXIUBUZHE, ZIYINGJIYUYANHAIYICHU, YIBIANXIUCHUANJICUNSHOUSUOYONGWULIAO。JINDAHUANGDIZHUNJIANGXIANGGANGYIDAO, JIYUYINGGUOJUNZHUJISIHOUSHIXIZHUWEIZHE, CHANGYUANZHUZHANG, RENBIANLIFAZHILI。”[15]

                          四、舟山成为英国的一块“保护地”

                          ZHONGYINGLIANGFANGZAI1843NIANNIANZHONG, JINXING《NANJINGTIAOYUE》WENBENDEHUHUAN, YINGGUONEIBUZAIDUIXIANGGANGHEZHOUSHANDEYIJIANSHANGYOUYOULEFENQI。SUIZHEZHANSHIDEJIESHU, JUNDUIDECHELI, WUKOUDEKAIFANG, XIANGGANGJINGJIKAISHIMANMANSHUAILUO, QIQIANTUBIANDEFENGYUPIAOYAO。YUZHOUSHANXIANGBI, XIANGGANGYOUZHEHENDADECHAJU, ZHOUSHANZHEIKUAIDIFANGDICHUXIANGGANGDEBEIBU, WUCHANFENGFU, RENLIZIYUANFENGZU, HENYOUFAZHANQIANJING, YUANYUANQIANGGUODANGSHIDEXIANGGANG, YINCI, ZHOUSHANSHOUDAOLEGENGDUOYINGGUORENSHIDEHUANYING。QIANTEPAIWEIYUANHUIZHUXI、RIHOUDANGSHANGDONGYINDUGONGSIDONGSHIHUIZHUXIDEEMUSIDUNJUESHI, YIRANLIZHUZHANLINGZHOUSHAN, BAOYUANXIANGGANG“YIJINGBEICHENGZANHECHUIPENGDAOLEJIQIBUKESIYIDECHENGDU……CONGMAOYIJIAODUKAN, ZAIMUQIANDEZHUANGKUANGHETIAOJIANXIA, ZHEIGEDAOYUBUDANDUIWOMENHAOWUYONGCHU, YEHENNANSHEXIANGHUOZHIWANGTAYOUCHAOYIRINENGBIANCHENGYIGESHANGYEZHONGXIN”。[16]

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YIZHAOTIAOYUE, ZHONGGUOZHENGFUZAI1845NIAN8YUEJIANGSHAMEN、GUANGZHOU、SHANGHAI、NINGBO、FUZHOUZHEIWUGETONGSHANGKOUANKAIFANG, BINGBA2100WANLIANGYINZIQUANBUFUJIYINGGUO, YINGGUOZAIYEMEIYOULIYOUJIXUZAIZHOUSHANZHUSHOU。ERZHEISHI, SHAOSHUYINGGUORENQUEYOUYOUJIYUZHOUSHANKENENGDAILAIDEJUDASHANGYESHOUYI、FENGFUTECHANZIYUAN、DUTEDILIWEIZHIDEMIAOTOU, DANGSHIZUIWEIQIANGLIEDESHIRENXIANGGANGCAIZHENGJUJUZHANGDEMENGGEMALI·MADING (R.M.Martin) , TASHIZHONGZHUZHANGFANGQIXIANGGANGERZHANJUZHOUSHAN。1845NIANQIUXIERENHOU, TACENGZHUANCHENGCONGXIANGGANGJINGYINDUFUYINGGUO, YANTUYOUSHUO, “TACIXINGDEMUDESHIQUANSHUOBIXIAZHENGFUJIANGXIANGGANGHAIJIZHONGGUO, DAIZHIYIZHOUSHAN。XIANZAIFAXIANZHOUSHANZAISHANGYEFANGMIANYAOHESHIDEDUO, GENGYOULIYUJIANKANG, ERQIEHAOWUYIWENGENGFURAO。XIANGGANGZHISHIYIPIANPINJIDEYANSHI, ERZHOUSHANZEXIANGFAN, SUOCHANDAOMINENGGOUYANGHUOHENDUORENKOU”。[17]303YISHIJIAN, ZAIYINGGUOBENDI、YINDU、JUZHUZAIZHONGGUOHEXIANGGANGDEYINGGUORENZHONGDUIXIANGGANGHUANZHOUSHANZHEIYITIYIZHANKAIREYI。

                          《YINDUZHIYOU》SHIYIFENYINDUBAOZHI, 1845NIAN9YUE18RIZHEIFENBAOZHISHANGFABIAOLEGUANYUZHOUSHANDEZHUANLUN。ZUOZHEFENXILEBAZHOUSHANJIANCHENGZHIMINDIDEYOULITIAOJIAN, BUDANJUYOUYOUYUEDEQIHOU, GUANGKUODEGANGKOU, CONGDILIWEIZHISHANGSHUO, ZHOUSHANKAOJINLEWUCHANFENGFU、RENKOUMIJIDEJIANGNANSHUIXIANG。ZHUANLUNYUYANCHENG, ZAIDUANQINEIZHOUSHANHUIYIYUECHENGWEISHIJIEJIDESHANGYEZHONGXIN, RUGUOYINGGUONENGZHANYOUZHOUSHAN, JIUKEYIZHIZHIZHONGGUOZHENGFUDECHOUWAIXINGWEI, YINGGUONENGGOUHENHAODITISHENGTADEZONGHEGUOLI, CONGERSHIZISHENZAILIEQIANGZHONGCHUZAIZUIQIANGSHIDIWEI。ZHICHI《YINDUZHIYOU》GUANDIANDEBAOKANYOU《ZHONGGUOZHIYOU》《XIANGGANGGONGBAO》HE《MENGMAIXINSHIBAO》DENG。YULUNGONGJUDEXUANRANZAOCHENGLEZHEIYANGDESHENGSHI:WULUNCAIYONGHEZHONGSHOUDUAN, RUGUOBIYAODEHUA, YIXIANGGANGXIANGJIAOHUAN, YICHENGWEIDANGSHIYINGGUONEIGEYIGEZUIWEIJIXUCHULIDEWENTI。《XIANGGANGGONGBAO》ZHICHU:“ZHOUSHANZHIZHONGYAOCHENGDUYIJIQIZHIYUYIGEZHEMINGSHANGYE、HAIJUNGUOJIADEJIAZHIJUEDUIBUNENGSHIRUOWUDU。” (Chinese Repository, 1845NIAN, 14JUAN12QI) SHANGSHUBAOKANYIZHIRENWEI, JIBIANJIANGYITOURUJUEZIJINDEXIANGGANGFANGQIYEHENHUASUAN, HAOZHAOJINSUOYOUNULI, DUOHUIZHOUSHAN。

                          BUGUO, YEYOUSHAOSHUYINGGUORENZHICHU, RENMENKUADALEZHOUSHANDESHANGYESHOUYI、QIHOUDENGTIAOJIAN。JISHIZHICONGSHANGYEJIAODUZHEYAN, SHANGHAIDEKAIBUSHIZHOUSHANDEMAOYIDIWEIDAWEIJIANGDI, ZHOUSHANZUOWEIZHUANKOUGANGDEJIAZHIYIZHUJIANXIAOTUI;RUSHELIWEIJUNSHIJIDI, FEIYONGHUIYUANYUAN“CHAOCHUYIHUIYOUYIXIANGFUJIDEYOUGUANFEIYONG”;GENGHEKUANG, QINGZHENGFUBINGWUPOHUAILIANGGUOQIANDINGTIAOYUEDEYIXIANG, GUCIYINGFANGZAIKAOLVZHOUSHANYIJIZHENGGEZHONGGUODEWENTISHIYINGDANGZHANZAIGENGGAODEJIAODUSHANGQUSHENSHI。[17]TAMENZHICHU, RUGUOWEIFANTIAOYUEJUJUEJIANGZHOUSHANJIAOCHU, SHIBIYAOFUCHUJUDADEDAIJIA, ZHEIBIJIANGHUIYINFAQINGZHENGFUDEFANKANG, SHIYIHOUYINGGUOZAIGUOJISHANGDEFAZHANSHOUDAOYINGXIANG, SHENZHIHUIYINQIGUOJIFUMIANYINGXIANG, MEIGUO、FAGUOZHEIXIESHILIXIONGHOUDEGUOJIAHUOXUYEHUIQIANGLIEFANDUIYINGGUO。SUOYI, YINGGUOZHENGFUZAIZHEIZHONGKAOLVZHIXIA, JIUYANSHOUTIAOYUE, ZHONGSHIXINYUYUMINGYU。

                          ZHEISHI, YINGGUOJINXINGLEDANBAOFANGANDEDIAOZHENG, TICHUZAICHANGHAIQUANBUPEIKUANQIANJIUKEYIBAGULANGYUHAIJIQINGZHENGFU。YINGFANGZHISUOYIZUOCHUZHEIYANGDEJUEDING, YINWEIYAOZHUSHOUGULANGYU, XUYAOPAIBINGZHUZHA, FEIYONGBUFEI, YOUZHOUSHANDANBAOJIUKEYILE。ZHEIZHONGZUOFACHUHUQINGZHENGFUDEYILIAO, TAMENRENWEIYINGGUOZHENGFUZAIYONGYUQINGUZONGDEFANGFA, YIGULANGYUWEIYOUER, YINDAOQINGZHENGFUPOHUAITIAOYUE, WEIZIJIKEYIQIANGZHANZHOUSHANDIANDINGJICHU。HOULAIDESHISHIBIAOMING, QINGZHENGFUDEZHEIYANGKAOLVSHIHENYOUBIYAODE。1845NIAN10YUE, ZHONGFANGPAIRENYUYINGFANGTANPANZHOUSHANDEJIAOHAIWENTI, YINGFANGYILIJIAOHAISHIJIANHAIYOULIANGGEYUEWEIJIEKOUJUJUEJIAOHAI。ZHONGFANGBIANBO, JISHIYINGGUOYAOMASHANGJIAOHAI, ZHONGGUOYEYAOPAIRENJINXINGJIESHOU, QIJIAOJIESHOUXUYEYAOYIDUANSHIJIANWANCHENG。YINGGUOZHENGFUZAIMEIYOULIYOUDEQINGKUANGXIACAITONGYIKAITAN。

                          GENJUTIAOYUESHANGGUIDINGDEQIXIAN, 1846NIAN1YUE22RI, ZHONGGUOTIQIAN4TIANZHIFUWANSUOYOUDEPEIKUAN, YINGGUOQUEJIANJUEBUCHELIZHOUSHAN, LIANGGUOZONGGONGJINGGUOLE40DUOCIDEJIAOSHE。YINGGUOCHULESHIZHOUSHANHEPEIKUANLIANXIZAIYIQI, YOUPANGSHENGZHIJIE。YISHIZAISHANHOUWENTISHANG, YINGFANGYAOQIUZHONGFANGPAICHUDEJIESHOUGUANYUANYAODUIYINGGUORENDEMUDIJINXINGBAOHU, DUIYUYINGGUOYOUWANGLAIDEZHONGGUORENBUDEJINXINGCHENGFA, JIXUBAOCHIZHONGYINGDESHANGYEHUODONG。ERSHIBUDEGERANGZHOUSHANJIDISANGUO, YINGGUOHAIPAQITAGUOJIAYOUQISHIFAGUOXIANGDEDAOZHOUSHANDEZHUQUAN, YINCIJINGGAOZHONGFANGBUDEJIANGZHOUSHANZHUANRANGJIQITAGUOJIA, RUGUOQITAGUOJIAQINZHANZHOUSHAN, YINGGUOJIANGZUOWEIZHONGGUODETONGMENGJINXINGDIYU。SANSHIGUANYUGUANGZHOURUCHENG, SHIZHEICIJIAOSHEZHONGZUIFEIZHOUZHEDEWENTI。YINGFANGJIANJUEYAOQIUJIANGRUCHENGWENTIYUJIAOHAIZHOUSHANWENTIYIQILAITAN, RUGUOYINGGUORENMEIYOUJINRUGUANGZHOU, JIUJUJUEJIAOHAIZHOUSHAN。HENMINGXIAN, YINGGUOJUEDEZISHENFAZHANHELIYIYUZHOUSHANYOUZHONGYAOGANXI, BAZHOUSHANGUIHUADAOZIJIBAOHUQUZHINEI。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   1846NIAN4YUE29RI, YINGGUODAIBIAODAIWEISI (J.F.Davis) ZAIHUMENTONGQINGZHENGFUDAIBIAOQIYINGHUIJIAN, ZHONGYINGQIANSHULE《HUMENZHAITEYUE》 (YOUBEIJIAOZUO《YINGJUNTUIHAIZHOUSHANTIAOYUE》) 。DAIWEISIDAIBIAOYINGGUONIDINGDE《HUMENZHAITEYUE》YOUWUTIAOTIAOYUE, QIZHONGDISANTIAO:“YINGGUOZAIZHOUSHANCHEJUNHOU, QINGCHAOYONGYUANBUNENGBAZHOUSHANDENGDAOYUGERANGJIQITAGUOJIA”;DISITIAO:“RUGUOZHOUSHANDENGDAOYUZAOSHOUQITAGUOJIAQINLVESHI, YINGGUOYINGDANGBAOHUQIWUYANG……”。[18]YINGJUNZHONGYUZAI7YUE23RI, JIWEIYUE6GEYUEHOU, BAQUANBUJUNDUICHECHUZHOUSHAN, YINGGUOZAIZHOUSHANYUXIANGGANGZHIJIANDEXUANZEZUIHOUDINGJU。

                        星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIZHEILI, YINGGUOWEILEWEIHUZIJIZAIHUADEJIDELIYI, LIYONGGAITIAOYUE, BAZHOUSHANFANGZAIBAOHUDIDEWEIZHISHANG, JIZAIMINGYISHANGJIANGZHOUSHANJIAOHAIZHONGGUO, SHIZHISHANGRENGZHIYUQIBAOHUZHIXIA。

                          五、结语

                        星云棋牌官网下载   YAPIANZHANZHENGQIJIAN, ZHOUSHANDUIZHONGYINGLIANGGUODOUBUSHIYIGEWUZUQINGZHONGDEDIFANG。ZAIZHANZHENGBAOFAQIANXI, YINGGUOZHENGFUXUANZEZHOUSHANZUOWEIJINGONGDESHOUYAOMUBIAO, QIYUANYINYOULIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHIZAIZHOUSHANJIANLIJUNSHIJIDI, DUIBEIJINGDEQINGZHENGFUZAOCHENGWEIXIE;ERSHIZAIZHOUSHANJIANLIDABULIEDIANSHANGYEZHONGXIN, KONGZHIZHONGGUODEJINGJIXINZANG——ZHANGJIANGLIUYU。ZHANZHENGBAOFAHOU, YINGJUNLIANGDUGONGZHANZHOUSHAN, ZAIBEIZHANZHANGDA5NIANBANDESHIJIANLI, ZHOUSHANSHIJISHANGCHENGLEZIYOUMAOYIGANG。1846NIAN7YUEYINGJUNCHECHUZHOUSHANJIYIHOUDERIZILI, ZHOUSHANYOUCHENGWEIYINGGUOZHENGFUZAIZHONGGUONAIZHIYUANDONGDEYIKUAI“BAOHUDI”。ZHOUSHANDESHOUHUISHIYIXIANGGANGWEIDAIJIADE, YINGGUORENZHISUOYITUICHUZHOUSHAN, BUJINSHIYINWEISHOUZHONGYOULEYIGEKEYITIDAIDEXIANGGANG, ERQIESHIZAIDANGSHIQINGKUANGXIAYINGGUOCELVESHISHIERBIANDEDIAOZHENG, SHIYIZHONGTUIERQIUQICIDEWUNAIZHIJU。

                          JINDAIBEIYUWEI“HAISHANGZHIWANG”DEYINGGUO, YIKAOZISHENZHIHAIQUANDEYOUSHI, CHIXUXIANGDONGFANGKUOZHANGDEJINCHENGZHONGBUDUANQIANGZHANZHANLVEYIYIZHONGDADEBIEGUOBANDAOHEDAOYU, BAZHEIXIEDIQUHUAZUOWEIJUNSHIJIDIHETONGSHANGJUDIAN, YOU“BANDAOHEHAIDAOSHOUZANGJIA”DECHENGHAO。ZUOWEIHAIYANGMINZU, YINGGUORENSHIYONGHAIYANGSIWEICONGQUANQIUYANGUANGLAIRENZHIZHOUSHAN, TAMENYANZHONGDEZHOUSHANSHIYUANDONGDIQUZUIJIADEZIYOUGANGXUANZHI, SHIDONGXIFANGLIANGGESHIJIEPENGZHUANG、LIANGZHONGWENMINGCHONGTUDEQIANYANDAOYU。YINGGUOSHITUZHANGQIZHANLINGDESHOUYAOMUBIAOJIUSHIZHOUSHAN, SUIRANZHANZHENGJIEGUOMEIYOUSHIYINGGUODECHANGSUOYUAN, DANTAZHAOSHISHIREN, ZHOUSHANDEQUWEIYOUSHIHEGANGKOUZIYUANYOUSHISHIHEDENGZHONGYAO。

                          参考文献

                          [1]格林堡.鸦片战争前中英通商史[M].康成, 译.北京:商务印书馆, 1961.
                          [2] 严中平, 辑译.英国鸦片贩子策划鸦片战争的幕后活动[J].近代史资料, 1958 (4) :66-70.
                          [3]中国第一历史档案馆等.鸦片战争在舟山史料选编[G].杭州:浙江人民出版社, 1992.
                          [4]刘存宽.香港、舟山与第一次鸦片战争中英国的对华战略[J].中国边疆史地研究, 1998 (2) :74.
                          [5]胡载仁, 何扬鸣.鸦片战争中的舟山 (英国档案选摘) [J].浙江档案, 1997 (7) :14.
                          [6]马士.中华帝国对外关系史:第1卷[M].张汇文, 译.上海:上海书店, 2000.
                          [7]张馨保.林钦差与鸦片战争[M].福州:福建人民出版社, 1989:204.
                          [8] 齐敬霞.鸦片战争期间英军传染病[D].上海:复旦大学, 2004:48.
                          [9] 炎明.浙江鸦片战争史料:下册[G].宁波:宁波出版社, 1997:306.
                          [10]胡滨.英国档案有关鸦片战争资料选译:下册[G].北京:中华书局 1993.
                          [11]炎明.浙江鸦片战争史料:上册[G].宁波:宁波出版社, 1997
                          [12]舒国雄.明清两朝深圳档案文献演绎:第3卷[M].广州:花城出版社, 2000:1228.
                          [13] 余绳武, 刘存宽.十九世纪的香港[M].香港:香港麒麟书业有限公司, 1994:57.
                          [14]COSTIN W C.Great Britain and China:1933—1960[M].London:Clarendon Press, 1968:99.
                          [15]龚鹏程.改变中国历史的文献:下册[G].北京:中国工人出版社, 2010:698-700.
                          [16]URMSTON J B.Chusan and Hong Kong[M].London:J.Madden, 1847:56.
                          [17]广东省文史研究馆.鸦片战争史料选译[G].北京:中华书局, 1983:303.
                          [18]王尔敏.五口通商变局[M].桂林:广西师范大学出版社, 2006:261-262.

                          王文洪.鸦片战争期间英国对舟山的认知和政策转变[J].宁波大学学报(人文科学版),2017,30(02):50-56.
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