星云棋牌官网下载

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                学术堂专业论文学习平台您当前的位置:学术堂 > 法学论文 > 法律论文 > 食品安全法论文

                中国和欧盟关于食品安全监管的对比

                时间:2018-06-12 来源:食品工业科技 作者:贺彩虹,周子哲,李德胜 本文字数:10533字

                  摘    要: 食品安全是事关国计民生的大问题,一直以来都得到了全社会的广泛关注。论文提出了食品安全监管体系的总体框架;从法律法规、标准体系、监管主体、监管机制、保障体系五个方面,对中欧食品安全监管体系进行了对比分析;在此基础上,提出了加强我国食品安全监管的对策建议。

                  关键词: 食品安全; 欧盟; 监管机制; 风险预警;

                  Abstract:星云棋牌官网下载 Food safety is a big issue that affects the national economy and the people's livelihood. It has always received widespread attention from the whole society. The paper put forward the overall framework of the food safety supervision system. From the five aspects of laws and regulations, standards system, supervision subject, supervision mechanism and guarantee system, the paper analyzed the food safety supervision system in China and Europe. On this basis, the countermeasures and suggestions for strengthening China's food safety supervision were put forward.

                  Keyword: foodsecurity; EU; regulatorymechanism; risk warning;

                星云棋牌官网下载   “MINYISHIWEITIAN,SHIYIANWEIXIAN”,SHIPINANQUANWENTIYIJINGCHENGWEIWOGUOZHENGFU、QIYEHEGUANGDAXIAOFEIZHEGONGTONGGUANZHUDEJIAODIANWENTI,QUANFANGWEIJIAQIANGSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANYICHENGWEIQUANSHEHUIDEGONGSHI。WEIRAOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANYICHANSHENGDALIANGYANJIUCHENGGUO,XIANYOUYANJIUCHENGGUOZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIJIANGUANTIXI、JIANGUANZHUTI、ANQUANBIAOZHUN、JIANGUANJIZHI、BAOZHANGTIXIDENGFANGMIAN。GUANYUJIANGUANTIXIDEYANJIU,Vladimirov[1]CAIYONGWENJUANDIAOCHAFADUIBAOJIALIYASHIPINANQUANZHILIANGGUANLIDEZHUYAOYINSUJINXINGLEDIAOYAN;Singh[2]YANJIULESHIPINANQUANGUANLIXITONGZAIPINGZHUANGYINYONGSHUISHENGCHANZHONGDEYINGYONG,QIANQUANGUANLIHANGAIYUANCAILIAODERUKU、CHUCUN、JIAGONG、BAOZHUANGDENGZHIZAOZUOYEDEQUANGUOCHENG;HUYINGLIAN[3]JIYUJIANGUANZHENGZHIXUELILUNGOUJIAN“CHANYEFAZHAN—JIANGUANNENGLI—ZHIDUHUANJING”FENXIKUANGJIA,TICHUYINGGOUJIANSHICHANGQIANRUXINGJIANGUANTIXI,SHEJIJINGXIGAOXIAODEGUANLIJIZHI;LIUJIE[4]TONGGUOFENXIHACCPTIXIZAISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHONGDEYINGYONGQINGKUANG,RENWEIHACCP TIXISHISHIPINANQUANQUANXINDEJIANGUANMOSHI;SUNCHULVDENG[5]SHULILEOUMENGYOUGUANGUWUANQUANDEJIANGUANTIXI,DUIZHENJUNMEIDEWEIHAIJIZHILIMOSHIJINXINGLEFENXI;SHINADENG[6]JIESHAOLEMEIGUO、OUMENGDENGFADAGUOJIADESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXI,TICHULEWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXIFAZHANDEQISHIHEZHANWANG;JIAOZHILUNDENG[7]CONGYUANZEYIJU、JIANGUANZHUTI、JIANGUANZHIDUHEBAOZHANGTIXISIGECENGMIAN,TANXINGHE[8]CONGZHUISUTIXI、JIANGUANDUIWU、NONGYAOCANLIUXIANLIANGBIAOZHUNDENGFANGMIAN,FENBIEBIJIAOLEWOGUOYUFADAGUOJIASHIPINANQUANJIANGUANFANGMIANDECHAYI,TICHULEJIAQIANGWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEZHENGCEJIANYI;RafeequeDENG[9]TICHUTONGGUOSHISHI“DUOZHONGSHIPINANQUANGUANLIXITONG”LAITIGAOSHIPINZHILIANGANQUAN。GUANYUJIANGUANZHUTIDEYANJIU,ZHANGXIAOTAODENG[10]TICHUJIANGUANZHUTIDESHEZHIYUZHINENGFENPEISHISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEHEXINWENTI,YINGJIANGDUOBUMENJIANGUANTIXIZHUANBIANWEIZONGHEBUMENJIANGUANTIXI,JIADAXIEDIAOLIDUHEWANSHANXIEDIAOJIZHI;LIJING[11]FENXILE“YIYUANDANXIANGFENDUAN”JIANGUANJIZHIDEBIDUAN,TICHUYINGCAIYONGBAOKUOZHENGFU、QIYE、SHEHUIGONGZHONGDENGZAINEIDE“DUOYUANGONGZHI”;UnnevehrHEHoffmann[12]ZHENDUIZHONGDENGSHOURUGUOJIADESHIPINANQUANGUANLITICHULELIANGLEIGUOJIJINGYAN,YISHITIGAOFENGXIANFENXINENGLI,ERSHIFAHUISHICHANGJILIZUOYONG;GuchaitDENG[13]JIYUMEIGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANSHIJIAN,TICHUSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHUTIXINGWEIDEWANZHENGXING,NENGGOUZUIZHONGJIANSHAOSHIPINANQUANWEIGUI。GUANYUSHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDEYANJIU,Attrey[14]RENWEIZHIDINGHEZHIXINGKEXUEDESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDUIQUEBAOSHIPINANQUANHEZHILIANG、EZHICHANJIAHEQIZHAXINGWEIZHIGUANZHONGYAO;XUZIHANDENG[15]、CHENJIAWEIDENG[16]FENBIECONGBUTONGJIAODUFENXILEWOGUOSHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNTIXICUNZAIDEWENTI,TICHULEWANSHANSHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNTIXIDEJIANYI;JIANGHONG[17]TICHUWOGUOYINGJIEJIAN《GUOJISHIPINFADIAN》DEJIBENYUANZE,DUISHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDEFENLEI、ZHIDINGHEXIUDINGCHENGXUJINXINGGUIFANHEGAIJIN,WANSHANWOGUOSHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNTIXI;XUWEIDENG[18]JIESHAOLESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDEZHUYAOLEIBIE,TICHUYINGJIANGSHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNQUANFANGWEIYINGYONGYUSHIPINANQUANJIANGUAN。GUANYUJIANGUANJIZHIDEYANJIU,SUNDECHAODENG[19]JIESHAOLEMEI、DE、RISANGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEZUOFA,TICHULEJIAQIANGWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEDUICE;ZHANGYANNANDENG[20]TONGGUOGOUJIANQIYEHEJIANGUANBUMENZHIJIAN、XIAOFEIZHEYUQIYEZHIJIANDEBOYIMOXING,FENXILEWOGUOZAISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTI;DUYUQIONGHEXIAOSONG[21]TICHUYINGMINGQUESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANBUMENZHIZE、JIANLITONGYIDESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUN、QIANGHUASHIPINSHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEZEREN、JIADAWEIFACHUFALIDU;WUXIAOLEI[22]FENXILEMEI、RILIANGGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANGONGZHONGCANYUZHIDUDELIFAJISHISHITEDIAN,TICHUZAISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHONGYINGCHONGFENFAHUIGONGZHONGDEZUOYONG;HELI[23]POUXILESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANCUNZAIDENEIZAIYUANYIN,TICHUCAIYONGSHIPINANQUANSIFANGHELIFENLEIGUANLIZHIDU,WANSHANXIANYOUJIANGUANZHIDU;FENGCHAORUI[24]CONGZHENGTIXINGZHILIDESHIJIAO,CONGDUOGEWEIDUDUIWOGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIZHIJINXINGPOUXI,TICHULESIWEIYITIDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJIZHI;MessensDENG[25]TICHUJIAQIANGSHIPINANQUANDEFENGXIANPINGGUHEYUCEDUISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJIZHIDEWANSHANJUYOUZHONGYAOJIAZHI。GUANYUBAOZHANGTIXIDEYANJIU,Pourkomailian[26]TICHU,ZUZHIDEDAODE、SHIPINANQUANRENYUANDEXUANZE、TIGONGBIYAODEGONGJUSHIJIAQIANGGONGYINGSHANGHEYUANCAILIAOGUANLIDEGUANJIANYINSU;TANGBINGYUAN[27]TICHUYAOGOUJIANQUNFANGQUNKONGDESHIPINANQUANFANGKONGGEJU;SHAOYUNCHUAN[28]FENXILEWOGUOSHIPINANQUANYUJINGTIXICUNZAIDEWENTIJIZHIHOUDEYUANYIN,TICHULEGAIJINCUOSHI;YUHUANLING[29]TICHUYINGCONGCONGZHENGFU、YANJIUJIGOU、XIAOFEIZHEDENGJIAODUGOUJIANSHIPINANQUANBAOZHANGTIXI;KingDENG[30]TICHUQUANJIYINZUCEXU、ZHUISUJISHU、XINXIJISUANJISHU、DASHUJUFENXIDENGKEJIJINZHANYOUZHUYUHUANJIEQUANQIUDAQUSHIDAILAIDESHIPINANQUANTIAOZHAN;SoonDENG[31]RENWEI,ZHONGBAOZAIBAOZHIQIJIANKONG、KUCUNKONGZHI、SHIYUANXINGJIBINGJIANCE、SHIBIEWURANCHANPINDENGLINGYUDESHIYONG,NENGTIGAOSHIPINANQUANSHUIPING,JIANGDISHIPINANQUANFENGXIAN;WuDENG[32]TICHUJIANLIBAOKUOSHIYUANXINGJIBINGJIANCE、SHENGWUWEIHAI(XIJUN、BINGDUHEJISHENGCHONG)JIANCE、HUAXUEWEIHAIJIANCEHEWEISHENGWUWEIHAIJIANCEDEGUOJIAJIANCEXITONG,JIAQIANGSHIPINANQUANBAOZHANGTIXIJIANSHE。

                中国和欧盟关于食品安全监管的对比

                星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,GUANYUSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEYANJIUYICHANSHENGDALIANGYANJIUCHENGGUO,DANTONGGUOGOUJIANWANSHANDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXI,CONGBUTONGWEIDUJIANGWOGUOHEOUMENGDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXIJINXINGXITONGBIJIAOHEFENXIDEYANJIUHAIBIJIAOSHAO。BENWENSHITUGOUJIANJIAOWEIWANSHANDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXI,BINGCONGFALVFAGUI、BIAOZHUNTIXI、JIANGUANZHUTI、JIANGUANJIZHIHEBAOZHANGTIXIDENGWEIDU,DUIZHONGOUSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXIJINXINGBIJIAOFENXI,BINGTICHUJIAQIANGSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEZHENGCEJIANYI。

                  1、 食品安全监管体系的总体框架

                星云棋牌官网下载   WANSHANDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXISHIDUISHIPINANQUANJINXINGYOUXIAOJIANGUANDEJICHU,FENXIWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEZONGTIJIAGOU,BENWENTICHU,WOGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXIYOUFALVFAGUI、BIAOZHUNTIXI、JIANGUANZHUTI、JIANGUANJIZHI、BAOZHANGTIXIWUDABUFENGOUCHENG[7],RUTU1SUOSHI。FALVFAGUISHIDUISHIPINANQUANRUHEJINXINGJIANGUANDEZHENGCEHEFALVGUIDING,SHIQUEDINGJIANGUANZHUTI、ZHIDINGBIAOZHUNTIXI、GOUJIANJIANGUANJIZHIJIBAOZHANGTIXIDEYIJU,DUISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJUYOUTONGLINGXINGDEZUOYONG;BIAOZHUNTIXISHIJIANGUANZHUTIDUISHIPINZHILIANGANQUANJINXINGJIANGUANSHISUOYIJUDEZHILIANGBIAOZHUN,SHISHIPINZHILIANGSHIFOUFUHEYAOQIUDEPINGJIAYIJU;JIANGUANZHUTIGENJUFALVFAGUIDEXIANGGUANGUIDINGQUEDING,SHIXINGSHISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHINENGDEZHIXINGJIGOU;JIANGUANJIZHISHIGEJIANGUANZHUTIGENJUZHINENGFENGONG,DUISHIPINANQUANDEGEGEHUANJIEXINGSHIJIANGUANZHINENGDEZHIDUSHEJI;BAOZHANGTIXISHIBAOZHANGJIANGUANYOUXIAOYUNXINGDEFUZHUJIZHI;WUGEBUFENHUXIANGYITUO,GOUCHENGYIGEYOUJIDEZHENGTI。

                  图1 食品安全监管体系总体框架
                图1 食品安全监管体系总体框架

                  Fig.1 overall framework of the food safety supervision system

                  2 、中欧食品安全监管体系比较分析

                  OUMENGDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANBIJIAOCHENGSHU,YIXINGCHENGBIJIAOWANSHANDETIXI,ERWOGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXIJINGGUOBUDUANDIAOZHENG,ZHENGZAIWANSHANZHIZHONG。XIAMIANCONGFALVFAGUI、BIAOZHUNTIXI、JIANGUANZHUTI、JIANGUANJIZHIHEBAOZHANGTIXIWUGEFANGMIANJINXINGBIJIAOFENXI。

                  2.1、 法律法规

                星云棋牌官网下载   OUMENGWEITONGYIXIEDIAONEIBUSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANGUIZE,ZHIDINGLEDUOBUFALVFAGUI。1999NIANFABUDE《SHIPINANQUANLVPISHU》XINGCHENGLEOUMENGSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEJIBENKUANGJIA,2000NIANFABUDE《SHIPINANQUANBAIPISHU》TICHULE“CONGTIANTOUDAOCANZHUO”DEQUANCHENGKONGZHILILUN,QIANGDIAODUISHIPINANQUANDEQUANCHENGJIANGUAN;ZAICIJICHUSHANG,2002NIANFABULE178/2002(EC)HAOFAGUI,GAIFAGUIBEICHENGWEIOUMENGSHIPINANQUANDE“JIBENFA”,QUELILEFENGXIANPINGGU、BAOZHANGXIAOFEIZHEQUANYI、YUJINGHETOUMINGSIDAYUANZE[33];CIWAI,OUMENGHAIZHIDINGLEYIXILIESHIPINANQUANGUIFANYAOQIU,BAOKUOYAOWUCANLIUKONGZHI、SHIPINSHENGCHANWEISHENGGUIFAN、SHIYANSHIJIANYAN、JINKOUSHIPINZHUNRUKONGZHI、SHIPINDEGUANFANGJIANKONGDENG。OUMENGGECHENGYUANGUOYEGENJUBENGUOSHIJIQINGKUANG,ZHIDINGLEGEZIDEFALVZHIDU,XINGCHENGLEYITAOHANGAIZHENGGESHIPINGONGYINGLIANDEFALVFAGUITIXI[33]。

                  WOGUOZAISHIPINANQUANFANGMIANDEFALVFAGUIFENWEISANGECENGCI,DIYIGECENGCISHISHIPINANQUANFANGMIANDEFALV,BAOKUO《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOSHIPINANQUANFA》、《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUONONGCHANPINZHILIANGANQUANFA》DENG;DIERGECENGCISHIGUOWUYUANHEGEBUWEIBANBUDESHIPINANQUANFANGMIANDEXINGZHENGFAGUI,BAOKUO《GUOWUYUANGUANYUJIAQIANGSHIPINDENGCHANPINANQUANJIANDUGUANLIDETEBIEGUIDING》、《SHIPINSHENGCHANJIAGONGQIYEZHILIANGANQUANJIANDUGUANLISHISHIXIZE(SHIXING)》、《LIUTONGLINGYUSHIPINANQUANGUANLIBANFA》HE《SHIPINTIANJIAJIWEISHENGGUANLIBANFA》DENG;DISANGECENGCISHIGESHENG、ZIZHIQUHEZHIXIASHIBANBUDEDIFANGXINGFAGUI。

                  TONGGUODUIBIFENXIOUMENGHEWOGUOSHIPINANQUANFANGMIANDEFALVFAGUITIXIKEYIFAXIAN,OUMENGDEFALVFAGUITIXIJIAOWEIWANSHAN,“CONGTIANJIANDAOCANZHUO"DESHIPINGONGYINGLIANGUANJIANHUANJIEDOUZUODAOYOUFAKEYI;TONGSHIJIANGFENGXIANPINGGU、FENGXIANYUJINGHESHIPINANQUANKEZHUISUJIZHIDENGTONGGUOFALVFAGUIJINXINGLEMINGQUEGUIDING,ZHUZHONGSHIXIANYUFANGHESHIZHONGKONGZHI。WOGUOGUANYUSHIPINANQUANDEFALVFAGUIYEBUSHAO,DANXIANGHUZHIJIANCUNZAIZHONGDIEJIAOCHA,QIEWEIZHENDUISHIPINLIANDEGEGEHUANJIEJINXINGGUIFAN,QUEFAXITONGXING,JIWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANLIUXIALEYINHUANHEZHIFAKONGXI;CIWAI,WOGUOZAISHIPINANQUANDEFENGXIANPINGGU、YUJING、SHIPINANQUANKEZHUISUDENGZHIDUFANGMIANYEBUGOUWANSHAN,BUZHUZHONGSHIXIANYUFANGHESHIZHONGKONGZHI,JIANGZHONGDIANFANGZAISHIHOUBUJIU。

                  2.2、 标准体系

                星云棋牌官网下载   SHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNTIXISHISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXIDEYIGEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN。OUMENGDESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNFENLEIMINGQUE,FENWEICHANPINBIAOZHUN、GUOCHENGKONGZHIBIAOZHUN、HUANJINGWEISHENGBIAOZHUNHESHIPINANQUANBIAOQIANBIAOZHUNSIDALEI。QIZHONGCHANPINBIAOZHUNZHIDESHIDUICHANPINDEGUIGE、ZHILIANG、GOUZAOYUJIANCEFANGFAZUOCHUDEGUIDING,ZHUYAODUIXIANGWEIDONGWUXING、ZHIWUXING、YINGYOUERSHIPIN;GUOCHENGKONGZHIBIAOZHUNZHUYAOBAOKUOSHIPINWEISHENGWUBIAOZHUNHESHIPINTIANJIAJIBIAOZHUN;HUANJINGWEISHENGBIAOZHUNSHIDUISHIPINZHIBEI、JIAGONGHUOZHECHULIDECHANGDIGUIHUAHESHEJI、YUNSHUSHIPINDERONGQI、SHIPINJIECHUDESHEBEISHESHIYIJISHIPINJIAGONGRENYUANZAIGERENQINGJIEFANGMIANDEWEISHENGBIAOZHUN;SHIPINANQUANBIAOQIANBIAOZHUNDUISHIPINBAOZHUANGSHANGDEGELEITUXINGBIAOZHIJIXIANGGUANZHUSHIXINGWENZIYOUFEICHANGYANGEDEGUIFAN[33]。

                星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUODESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNYOULIANGZHONGFENLEIFANGFA,DIYIZHONGFENLEIFANGFASHIANZHAOSHIPINBIAOZHUNDENEIRONGJINXINGFENLEI,FENWEIJICHUBIAOZHUN、CHANPINBIAOZHUN、SHENGCHANJINGYINGGUIFANBIAOZHUN、JIANYANFANGFAYUGUICHENGBIAOZHUNHESHIWUZHONGDUZHENDUANJIQITABIAOZHUN5ZHONGLEIBIE[18];DIERZHONGFENLEIFANGFASHIGENJUSHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNZHIDINGZHUTIJINXINGFENLEI,FENWEISHIPINANQUANGUOJIABIAOZHUN、SHIPINANQUANDIFANGBIAOZHUNHESHIPINANQUANQIYEBIAOZHUN[34]。SHIPINCHANPINLEISHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNBAOKUOYUANLIAOYAOQIU、GANGUANZHIBIAO、LIHUAZHIBIAO、WEISHENGWUZHIBIAO、WURANWUXIANLIANG、ZHENJUNDUSUXIANLIANG、NONGYAOCANLIU、SHOUYAOCANLIU、SHIPINTIANJIAJIHEYINGYANGQIANGHUAJIDENG[18]。

                  BIJIAOWOGUOHEOUMENGDESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNTIXIKEYIFAXIAN,OUMENGDESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNTIXIBIJIAOWANSHAN,CONGHENGXIANGLAIKAN,SUOSHEJIDESHIPINZHONGLEIDUO、HANGAIMIANGUANG;ZONGXIANGLAIKAN,NANGKUOLESHIPINLIUTONGDEGEGEHUANJIE;CONGXIAOGUOLAIKAN,OUMENGDESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNZAIQICHENGYUANGUOJUYOUQIANGDADEXIAOLIHEYUESHULI,NENGGOUDEDAOYOUXIAOJIANXING。WOGUODESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNSHOUSHIPINCHANYEFAZHANSHUIPING、FENGXIANPINGGUNENGLIDENGYINSUZHIYUE,SHANGCUNZAIYIXIETUCHUWENTI,TIXIANZAI:SHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNFALVWEIJIEBUMING;BUFENBIAOZHUNZHONGDIEJIAOCHA,QUEFATONGYI;YUGUOJIBIAOZHUNBUJIEGUI;BUFENBIAOZHUNSHIXIAOXINGCHA,SHIYONGDUXIAJIANG;BIAOZHUNDEKEXUEXINGYUHELIXINGCUNZAIWENTIDENG[15]。

                  2.3 、监管主体

                  OUMENGDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJIGOUFENWEIOUMENGHECHENGYUANGUOLIANGGECENGJI,OUMENGCENGJIDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJIGOUBAOKUOOUMENGLISHIHUI、OUMENGWEIYUANHUIHEOUMENGSHIPINANQUANJU[33,35]。OUMENGLISHIHUIFUZEZHIDINGSHIPINANQUANDEJIBENZHENGCE;OUMENGWEIYUANHUIFUZEZHIDINGSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEFALVWENJIANHESHIPINJISHUBIAOZHUN,BINGGUANCHEZHIXING,SHEYOUZHUANMENDEJIANKANGHEXIAOFEIZHEBAOHUJU,XIASHEDEANQUANYUGONGYINGLIANGUANLIJU、SHIPINHESHOUYAOBANGONGSHISHIZHONGYAODEJIANDUJIGOU,FUZEJIANDUCHENGYUANGUOHEDISANFANGGUOJIAZHIXINGOUMENGSHIPINANQUANXIANGGUANFALVDEQINGKUANG;OUMENGSHIPINANQUANJUSHIYIGEDULIDEFALVSHITI,DULIYUOUMENGWEIYUANHUI,XIASHEGUANLIWEIYUANHUI、ZHIXINGDONGSHI、ZIXUNLUNTANHEKEXUEWEIYUANHUI4GEJIGOU,QIZHUYAOZHIZESHIJINXINGFENGXIANPINGGUHEFENGXIANJIAOLIU,BINGWEIOUMENGZHIDINGSHIPINANQUANZHENGCETIGONGYIJU[33,36]。OUMENGGECHENGYUANGUOZEGENJUBENGUOSHIJIJIANLISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXI,ZHIXINGOUMENGGUANYUSHIPINANQUANFANGMIANFALVFAGUIDEXIANGGUANGUIDING。

                星云棋牌官网下载   WOGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHUTIYINGUOWUYUANJIGOUDEDUOCIGAIGEERBUDUANDIAOZHENGHEBIANHUA,DANZONGTILAISHUOJUYOUDUOZHUTIDETEZHENG,YOUGUOWUYUANHEDIFANGZHENGFUGONGTONGCHENGDANJIANGUANZEREN。GUOJIACENGMIANFUZESHIPINANQUANGONGZUODEJIGOUYOUSHIPINANQUANWEIYUANHUI、GUOJIASHICHANGJIANDUGUANLIZONGJU、GUOJIAWEISHENGJIANKANGWEIYUANHUIDENG;FUZESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZERENDEDIFANGZHENGFUSHIZHIXIANJIYISHANGDIFANGRENMINZHENGFU。SHIPINANQUANWEIYUANHUIDEZHUYAOZHIZESHIYANJIUBUSHU、TONGCHOUZHIDAOSHIPINANQUANGONGZUO,TICHUSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEZHONGDAZHENGCECUOSHI,DUCULUOSHISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZEREN;GUOJIASHICHANGJIANDUGUANLIZONGJUZHUYAOFUZESHIPINJIAGONG、SHENGCHANHEJINGYINGHUODONGDEJIANDUGUANLI;GUOJIAWEISHENGJIANKANGWEIYUANHUIZUZHIKAIZHANSHIPINANQUANFENGXIANJIANCEHEFENGXIANPINGGU,HUITONGGUOJIASHICHANGJIANDUGUANLIZONGJUZHIDINGBINGGONGBUSHIPINANQUANGUOJIABIAOZHUN;GUOJIAWEISHENGJIANKANGWEIYUANHUI、NONGYENONGCUNBUHUITONGGUOJIASHICHANGJIANDUGUANLIZONGJUZHIDINGSHIPINZHONGNONGYAOCANLIU、SHOUYAOCANLIUDEXIANLIANGGUIDINGJIQIJIANYANFANGFAYUGUICHENG[37]。XIANJIYISHANGDIFANGRENMINZHENGFUDUIBENXINGZHENGQUYUDESHIPINANQUANJIANDUGUANLIGONGZUOFUZE,TONGYILINGDAO、ZUZHI、XIEDIAOBENXINGZHENGQUYUDESHIPINANQUANJIANDUGUANLIGONGZUOYIJISHIPINANQUANTUFASHIJIANYINGDUIGONGZUO,JIANLIJIANQUANSHIPINANQUANQUANCHENGJIANDUGUANLIGONGZUOJIZHIHEXINXIGONGXIANGJIZHI,BINGQUEDINGBENJISHICHANGJIANDUGUANLI、WEISHENGJIANKANGXINGZHENGBUMENHEQITAYOUGUANBUMENDEZHIZE;YOUGUANBUMENZAIGEZIZHIZEFANWEINEIFUZEBENXINGZHENGQUYUDESHIPINANQUANJIANDUGUANLIGONGZUO[37]。

                  BIJIAOOUMENGHEWOGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHUTIJIQIZHIZEKEYIKANCHU,OUMENGSHEZHIZHUANMENDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJIGOU,FENGONGMINGQUE,QUANZEQINGXI,YINRU“CONGNONGCHANGDAOCANZHUO”DELINIAN,QIANGDIAODUISHIPINGONGYINGLIANJINXINGQUANCHENGJIANGUAN,JIANGUANXIAOLVBIJIAOGAO。WOGUOYIZHICAIYONGDUOZHUTIJIANGUANDETIZHI,CUNZAIJIANGUANBUMENBUXIEDIAODEWENTI。YISHIZHONGYANGHEDIFANGZHIJIANBUXIEDIAO,CHUYUDIFANGBAOHUZHUYI,DIFANGZHENGFUDUIJIAQIANGSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANQUEFADONGLI;ERSHIGEJIANGUANBUMENZHIJIANBUXIEDIAO,NONGCHANPINSHENGCHAN、SHIPINSHENGCHANJIAGONG、SHIPINLIUTONG、SHIPINXIAOFEIDENGHUANJIEFENBIEYOUBUTONGBUMENJINXINGFENDUANJIANGUAN,ZHIZEHUAFENBUGOUQINGXI,CUNZAIJIAOCHAZHONGDIE,YICHUXIANJIANGUANKONGBAIHEHUXIANGTUIWEIDEXIANXIANG,DAOZHIJIANGUANXIAOLVBUGAO[35]。2018NIANDEJIGOUGAIGEJIANGXIANGGUANBUMENJINXINGLEGUIBING,YOUGUOJIASHICHANGJIANDUGUANLIZONGJUDUISHIPINJIAGONG、SHENGCHANHEJINGYINGHUODONGJINXINGQUANCHENGJIANGUAN,DANZHEISHIYIGEDUOZHINENGZONGHEDEBUMEN,BUSHIYIGEJINXINGSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEZHUANMENJIGOU,YOUKENENGYINGXIANGSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEXIAOGUOHEXIAOLV。

                  2.4 、监管机制

                  OUMENGDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHUYAOBAOKUOYIXIAJIZHONGJIZHI:a.WEIHAIFENXIHEGUANJIANDIANKONGZHI(hazard analysis and critical control points,HACCP)JIZHI:OUMENGJIANLIWEIHAIFENXIHEGUANJIANJIEDIANKONGZHI(HACCP)XITONG,DUIYUANLIAO、GUANJIANSHENGCHANGONGXUJIYINGXIANGCHANPINANQUANDERENWEIYINSUDEWEIHAIFENGXIANJINXINGKEXUEJIANDING、PINGGU,QUEDINGJIAGONGGUOCHENGZHONGDEGUANJIANHUANJIE,CONGERJIANLI、GAIJINGUANYUSHIPINDEJIANKONGCHENGXUYUBIAOZHUN,JINERCAIQUHEZHIDINGYIXILIEJIEJUECUOSHI[36];b.SHIPINANQUANZHUISUJIZHI:OUMENGFABU178/2002HAOFALING,DUIJIAQINHEROUZHIPINSHIXINGQIANGZHIXINGDEKEZHUISUZHIDU,CAIYONGQUANQIUTONGYIBIAOSHIXITONG(EAN·UCC XITONG)JIZAIMEIGECHANPINCONGYUANTOUSHENGCHANDAOZHONGDUANXIAOSHOUDEXIANGXIXINXI,SHIXIANQUANCHENGZHUISU[36];c.SHIPINANQUANJIANCEYUJINGJIZHI:JIANLISHIPIN、SILIAOKUAISUYUJINGXITONG(RASFF),YIDANCHENGYUANGUOFAXIANSHIPINANQUANFENGXIANXINXI,XITONGJISHITONGZHIOUMENGWEIYUAN,JINGHECHAHEPINGGUHOUDIYISHIJIANTONGZHIQITACHENGYUANGUO,SHIXIANSHIPINANQUANFENGXIANXINXIDECHONGFENJIAOLIU,CONGERJIANGSUNSHIJIANGDIDAOZUIDICHENGDU[36]。

                  WOGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHUYAOBAOKUOYIXIANEIRONG:a.SHIXINGSHIPINJILUZHIDU,YAOQIUXIANGGUANQIYEJIANLINONGYETOURUPINSHIYONGJILUZHIDU、JINHUOCHAYANJILUZHIDU、CHUCHANGJIANYANJILUZHIDUHEXIAOSHOUJILUZHIDUDENG,CONGERSHIXIANSHIPIN、SHIPINTIANJIAJI、SHIYONGNONGCHANPINQUANCHENGKEZHUISU;b.JIANLISHIPINANQUANQUANCHENGZHUISUZHIDU,YOUGUOWUYUANSHIPINYAOPINJIANDUGUANLIBUMENQIANTOUJIANLISHIPINANQUANQUANCHENGZHUISUXIEZUOJIZHI,GULISHIPINSHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEJIANLISHIPINANQUANZHUISUTIXI;c.SHIXINGJIANCHAHECHOUYANGJIANYANZHIDU,XIANJIYISHANGRENMINZHENGFUSHIPINYAOPINJIANDUGUANLIBUMENDUISHIPINJINXINGDINGQIHUOZHEBUDINGQIDEJIANCHAHECHOUYANGJIANYAN;d.SHIXINGXINGSHIZERENHEXINGZHENGCHUFAXIANGJIEHEDEZHIFAZHIDU,RUGUOZAIJIANCHAGUOCHENGZHONGFAXIANSHIPINANQUANWENTI,YOUZHIFABUMENJINXINGXINGZHENGCHUFA,RUSHEXIANXINGSHIFANZUIZEZHIJIEJIAOYOUGONGANJIGUANZHENCHA。

                星云棋牌官网下载   BIJIAOWOGUOHEOUMENGDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJIZHIKEYIFAXIAN,OUMENGDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJIZHIZHUZHONGGUANJIANHUANJIEHEQUANGUOCHENGDEJIANGUAN;JIANLIDEKEZHUISUZHIDUJUYOUQIANGZHIXING,XINXIGONGKAITOUMING;JIANLIDEYUJINGXITONGFUGAIMIANGUANG,XINXIJIAOLIUCHONGFEN,NENGSHIXIANDONGTAIJIANCEHESHIZHONGKONGZHI。ERWOGUODESHIPINJILUZHIDUNANYILUODAOSHICHU,JIANCHAHECHOUYANGJIANYANZHIDUYOUYUJIANGUANBUMENRENLIYOUXIAN,CHOUYANGJIANYANDESHULIANGJIWEIYOUXIAN,JIANGUANXIAOGUODADAZHEKOU;SHIPINANQUANKEZHUISUZHIDUBUJUYOUQIANGZHIXING,SHANGCHUYUQIBUJIEDUAN,PUJICHENGDUHENDI,QIEQUEFAXINXIGONGXIANGJIZHI;TONGSHISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHONGZAISHIHOUCHUFA,BUZHUZHONGSHIZHONGKONGZHI,MEIYOUYUJINGXITONG,BULIYUFANGFANSHIPINANQUANSHIJIANDEFASHENG。

                  2.5、 保障体系

                星云棋牌官网下载   OUMENGDESHIPINANQUANBAOZHANGTIXIZHUYAOBAOKUOLIANGGEFANGMIAN:DIYI,JIANLIFENGXIANPINGGUZHIDU,YOUOUMENGSHIPINANQUANJUDINGQIDUISHIPINANQUANJINXINGFENGXIANPINGGU,JIANCESHIPINANQUANDEFENGXIANSHUIPING;DIER,JIANLISHIPINZHAOHUIZHIDU,ZAISHIPINGONGYINGLIANDEGEGEHUANJIEJINXINGJIANCE,YIDANFAXIANWENTISHIPIN,JISHIZHAOHUI。

                  WOGUODESHIPINANQUANBAOZHANGTIXIBAOKUOSIGEFANGMIAN:DIYI,SHIXINGXUKEZHIDU:CONGSHISHIPINSHENGCHAN、SHIPINXIAOSHOU、CANYINFUWUDENGSHENGCHANJINGYINGHUODONGYIJISHIPINTIANJIAJISHENGCHANBIXUYIFAQUDEXUKE;DIER,SHIXINGSHIPINANQUANFENGXIANJIANCEHEPINGGUZHIDU,YOUGUOJIAWEISHENGXINGZHENGBUMENQIANTOUZHIDING、SHISHIGUOJIASHIPINANQUANFENGXIANJIANCEJIHUA,BINGGENJUSHIJIXUYAOJINXINGSHIPINANQUANFENGXIANPINGGU;DISAN,SHIXINGSHIPINANQUANXINXITONGYIGONGBUZHIDU,YOUGUOWUYUANSHIPINYAOPINJIANDUGUANLIBUMENTONGYIGONGBUGUOJIASHIPINANQUANZONGTIQINGKUANG、SHIPINANQUANFENGXIANJINGSHIXINXI、ZHONGDASHIPINANQUANSHIGUJIQIDIAOCHACHULIDENGXINXI;DISI,JIANLISHIPINZHAOHUIZHIDU,FAXIANBUFUHESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNHUOZHEYOUZHENGJUZHENGMINGKENENGWEIHAIRENTIJIANKANGDEWENTISHIPIN,SHIPINSHENGCHANHUOJINGYINGZHEYINGLIJIZHAOHUI[37]。

                  BIJIAOOUMENGHEWOGUODESHIPINANQUANBAOZHANGTIXIKEYIFAXIAN,OUMENGDUISHIPINANQUANKAIZHANGUANGFANDEFENGXIANPINGGU,FUGAIMIANGUANG,NENGQUANMIANLEJIESHIPINANQUANDEFENGXIANSHUIPING;WENTISHIPINZAIGONGYINGLIANDEGEHUANJIESUISHIZHAOHUI,DUIWENTISHIPINDECHULIGENGWEIJISHI。ERWOGUODESHIPINANQUANBAOZHANGTIXIZAISHIJIZHIXINGGUOCHENGZHONGWANGWANGDEBUDAOYOUXIAOSHISHI,SHIPINANQUANFENGXIANPINGGULIUYUXINGSHI,BUNENGZHENZHENGFANYINGSHIPINANQUANDEFENGXIANSHUIPING;SHIPINANQUANXINXITONGYIGONGBUZHIDUFABUDESHIHONGGUANCENGMIANHEZHONGDASHIPINANQUANSHIGUDEXINXI,SHEJIGONGZHONGGUANZHUDERICHANGSHIPINANQUANXINXISHAO;DUIWENTISHIPINDADOUSHISHIPINANQUANWENTIFASHENGBINGPUGUANGSHIYUYIZHAOHUI,CHULIBUJISHI。

                  3、 借鉴和启示

                  TONGGUODUIBIFENXIZHONGOUSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXIKEYIFAXIAN,WOGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXIHAIYOUDAIJINYIBUWANSHAN,WOGUOYINGJIJIJIEJIANOUMENGDENGFADAGUOJIAZAISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANFANGMIANDECHENGGONGJINGYAN,JIEHEWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDETEDIANHESHIJIQINGKUANG,TANSUOJIANLISHIHEWOGUOGUOQINGDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXI,CONGERTIGAOWOGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANSHUIPING。

                  3.1 、优化和完善食品安全法律法规体系

                  WOGUO2015NIANXIUDINGFABUDE《SHIPINANQUANFA》WEISHIPINANQUANZHENGCEDAJIANLEYIGEZONGTIKUANGJIA,DANYUOUMENGSHIPINANQUANFALVFAGUITIXIBIJIAO,ZAIFALVFAGUIDEWANZHENGXING、YANMIXINGHEXIEDIAOXINGDENGFANGMIANHAICUNZAIYIDINGCHAJU,WEICIYINGJINYIBUWANSHANSHIPINANQUANFALVFAGUITIXIDEJIANSHE。YISHIJINYIBUMINGQUESHIPINANQUANSHEHUIGONGZHIDEFALVGUIDING,WEITUIJINSHIPINANQUANDUOYUANXIETONGZHILITIGONGFALVYIJU;ERSHICANZHAOOUMENGDE“TIANYUANDAOCANZHUO”DEQUANGUOCHENGJIANGUANYUANZE,JINYIBUWANSHANSHIPINANQUANQUANCHENGJIANGUANJIZHI;SANSHIJIAQIANGSHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNTIXIJIANSHE,SHISHIPINLIANDEZHENGGEGUOCHENGDOUYOUTONGYIDESHENGCHANHUOJIANYANJISHUBIAOZHUN;SISHIZHIDINGSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEJUTISHISHIXIZE,TIGAOSHIPINANQUANFALVFAGUIDEKEZHIXINGXING。

                  3.2 、构建多元参与的协同治理模式

                  JIANGUANZHUTIDUISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEXIAOGUOJUYOUJUEDINGXINGDEZUOYONG。MUQIANWOGUOSHIPINANQUANDEJIANGUANZHUTIZHUYAOSHIZHENGFUZHEIGEYIYUANTIZHINEIDEBUTONGBUMEN,MEIYOUCHONGFENFAHUISHIPINQIYE、XIAOFEIZHEHEMEITIDEZUOYONG。WEICI,YINGGOUJIANYIZHENGFUWEIZHUDAO,SHIPINQIYE、XIAOFEIZHEHEXINWENMEITIGONGTONGCANYUDEDUOYUANXIETONGZHILIMOSHI。ZHENGFUFUZESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEXIANGGUANBUMENZAISHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDEZHIDING、SHICHANGDEZHUNRUHETUICHU、JIANYANJIANYIYIJIANQUANYUJINGDENGFANGMIANFAHUIZHUDAOZUOYONG;QIYEZUOWEISHIPINANQUANDEDIYIZERENZHE,YINGQIANGHUASHIPINANQUANZERENYISHI,YANGEZHIXINGSHIPINANQUANZHILIDEXIANGGUANGUIDING,LVXINGQIYESHEHUIZEREN,JIAQIANGSHIPINANQUANKEZHUISUTIXIJIANSHE,SHIXINGXINXIGONGKAIZHIDU,CONGYUANTOUSHANGXIAOCHUBUANQUANSHIPINDECHANSHENGYINHUAN;XIAOFEIZHEZUOWEISHIPINANQUANDEZHIJIESHOUYIZHE,YAOZENGQIANGZHUTIYISHI、WEIQUANYISHIHEGONGGONGYISHI,JIJICANYUSHIPINANQUANDEJIANGUAN[11];MEITIYAOGUANZHUSHIPINANQUANWENTI,CHONGFENFAHUIXINWENMEITIDEJIANDUZUOYONG。CONGERYIDUOYUANCANYUDESHEHUIXIETONGZHILIDAITIDANYIDEZHENGFUJIANGUAN。

                  3.3 、完善食品安全监管机制

                  JIEJIANOUMENGDECHENGGONGJINGYAN,WANSHANWOGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJIZHIYINGCONGYIXIASANFANGMIANRUSHOU,YISHIZHENGFUJIANGUANBUMENYINGGENJUBUTONGSHIPINDETEDIAN,DUIYUANLIAOCAIGOU、SHENGCHAN、JIAGONG、CUNCHU、YUNSHUHEXIAOSHOUGEHUANJIEDEWEIHAIFENGXIANJINXINGKEXUEPINGGUHEJIANDING,BINGQUEDINGGUANJIANKONGZHIDIAN,CONGERJIANGHACCPTUIXIANGPUJIHEYINGYONG;ERSHIDUIYIXIEZHONGDIANJIANGUANDESHIPINSHIXINGQUANCHENGKEZHUISUZHIDU,JIANLITONGYIDEBIAOSHIXITONG,SHIXIANQUANCHENGKEZHUISU;SANSHISHIXINGDONGTAIDIAOZHENGDEJIANGUANZHIDUHEZHENGCE,ZHENDUISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANGUOCHENGZHONGCHUXIANDEXINQINGKUANG、XINWENTI,JISHIDIAOZHENGXIANGGUANJIANGUANZHIDUHEZHENGCE,YITIGAOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEXIAOGUOHEXIAOLV。

                  3.4、 建立完善的食品安全风险监测预警机制

                  QIANGHUASHIQIANYUFANG、SHIZHONGKONGZHIDEJIANGUANLINIAN,JIANLIZHONGZAIYUFANGDESHIPINANQUANJIANCEYUJINGJIZHI。JIEJIANOUMENGDECHENGGONGJINGYAN,GOUJIANWANSHANDESHIPINANQUANFENGXIANPINGGUTIXI,JIAQIANGFENGXIANXINXIJIAOLIU;JIANLIKUAISUYUJINGJIZHI,DANGFENGXIANPINGGUTIXIQUEDINGSHIPINANQUANFENGXIANHOU,XUNSUQIDONGSHIPINANQUANFENGXIANJIANCEYUJINGJIZHI,BINGGENJUKUAISUYUJINGJIZHIQUEDINGDEYUJINGFANGANJINXINGCHULI,CAIQUFABUWEIXIANXINXI、TINGZHIXIAOSHOU、ZHAOHUIWENTISHIPINDENGJINJIYINGDUICUOSHI,JIANGSHIPINANQUANFENGXIANKONGZHIZAIMENGYAZHUANGTAI[35]。

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                  贺彩虹,周子哲,李德胜,李雪聪.中欧食品安全监管体系比较研究[J/OL].食品工业科技:1-8[2018-06-12].http://kns.cnki.net/kcms/detail/11.1759.TS.20190530.1500.077.html.
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