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                            食品安全公益诉讼的基本概念及其制度完善

                            时间:2018-06-12 来源:福建师范大学学报 作者:俞飞颖 本文字数:11722字

                              摘    要: 食品安全的治理模式是多元的, 除了传统的立法规制和行政监管外, 食品安全公益诉讼对食品安全治理具有不可或缺的监督和补充功能。只有建立完善的食品安全公益诉讼制度, 才能构建良性食品安全秩序。建立完善的食品安全公益诉讼制度是落实《食品安全法》社会共治理念的关键。目前, 我国相关法律法规在公益诉讼中对原告资格的认定、诉讼条件、前置程序的设置及诉讼请求的规定存在缺失及不合理之处, 给司法实践带来困惑。因此, 需要在立法层面上对现有的食品安全公益诉讼制度全面考量并探索具体改革方向。

                              关键词: 食品安全; 公益诉讼; 适格原告; 私益诉讼;

                              Abstract:星云棋牌官网下载 The governance mode of food safety is pluralistic. In addition to the traditional legislative regulation and administrative supervision, public interest litigation of food safety has indispensable supervision and supplementary effects on food safety governance. Only by establishing a sound food safety public interest litigation system can China build a good food safety network. At the present time, there are some deficiencies and loopholes in the relevant laws and regulations in terms of public interest litigation. Problems such as the qualifications of the plaintiffs, the preconditions for litigation, the pre-procedures arrangement, and the requirements for lawsuits etc. bring about confusions to judicial practice. Therefore, it is necessary to study the existing public interest litigation system of food safety in a through way at the legislative level and explore reform directions.

                              一、问题的提出

                              2015NIAN4YUE24RIXIUDINGDE《SHIPINANQUANFA》TICHUSHIPINANQUANSHEHUIGONGZHIYUANZE, YOUDANYIDEXINGZHENGJIANGUANMOSHIXIANGDUOWEIDEHEZUOZHILIMOSHIZHUANBIAN, ZHEIDUIXIANXINGZHENGFUBUMENSHIPINJIANGUANTIZHIXINGCHENGLEYOUYIBUCHONG, TONGSHIYENENGDIAODONGHEJIFASHEHUIGEJIEZHUTIFANGFANSHIPINANQUANWEIHAIDEJIJIXING。ZAISHIPINANQUANDUOWEIZHILIMOSHIZHONG, GONGYISUSONGZHENGSHISHIPINANQUANSHEHUIGONGZHIDEZHONGYAOFANGSHIHETIXIAN, SHISHEHUIZHUTIJIEYICANYUSHEHUIGONGGONGSHIWUHUODONGDEGONGJUZHIYI, GONGYISUSONGZHIDUDETUIXINGYOULIYUSHEHUIZHUTIGUANZHUSHEHUIGONGGONGWENTI、CANYUSHEHUIZHILI。2012 NIAN 8 YUE 31 RIXIUDINGDE《MINSHISUSONGFA》 (YIXIACHENG《MINSUFA》) ZENGSHELEGONGYISUSONGZHIDU, JIUMINSHIGONGYISUSONGZUOCHUGAIKUOXING、ZHIDAOXINGDEGUIDING, 《MINSUFA》55TIAO:“DUIHUANJINGWURAN、QINHAIZHONGDUOXIAOFEIZHEHEFAQUANYIDENGSUNHAISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDEXINGWEI, FALVGUIDINGDEJIGUANHEYOUGUANZUZHIKEYIXIANGRENMINFAYUANTIQISUSONG。”ZHEITIAOGUIDINGTUPOLECHUANTONGDEMINSHISUSONGGUANYUSUSONGZHUTIDANGSHIRENZIGEDELILUNJICHU, QUELILEWOGUOMINSHIGONGYISUSONGDEJIBENYUANZEHEFANGXIANG1。《MINSUFA》JIANGGONGYISUSONGNARUFALVGUIDAO, SHIWOGUOSUSONGFAZHIJIANSHEZHONGDEYICIZHONGDAJINBU。2013 NIAN10YUE25RIXIUDINGDE《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》 (YIXIACHENG《XIAOBAOFA》) YIZENGSHELEZHEIYIZHIDU。《XIAOBAOFA》DI47TIAOYANSHENHEXIHUALE《MINSUFA》DI55TIAOYOUGUANXIAOFEIZHEBAOHUNEIRONG, FUYULEXIAOXIEZUZHIGONGYISUSONGDEZHINENGHEQUANLI:“DUIQINHAIZHONGDUOXIAOFEIZHEHEFAQUANYIDEXINGWEI, ZHONGGUOXIAOFEIZHEXIEHUIYIJIZAISHENG、ZIZHIQU、ZHIXIASHISHELIDEXIAOFEIZHEXIEHUI, KEYIXIANGRENMINFAYUANTIQISUSONG 。”WEILESHIGONGYISUSONGZAISHIJIANZHONGGENGJUYOUKECAOZUOXING, 2016NIAN2YUECHUTAIDE《ZUIGAORENMINFAYUANGUANYUSHENLIXIAOFEIMINSHIGONGYISUSONGANJIANSHIYONGFALVRUOGANWENTIDEJIESHI》 (YIXIACHENG《XIAOFEIGONGYISUSONGSIFAJIESHI》) JINYIBUDUIMINSHIGONGYISUSONGDESHOULI、GUANXIA、GAOZHICHENGXU、HEJIECHENGXU、JIPANLIDENGZUOCHULEJUTIGUIDING。ZHICI, WOGUOZAIZHENGTISHANGCHUBUXINGCHENGLEGONGYISUSONGFALVTIXI, JIESHULEWOGUOGONGYISUSONGZHANGQIYILAIYUFAWUJUDEJUMIAN, YEWEISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGTIGONGLEFALVYIJU。

                            食品安全公益诉讼的基本概念及其制度完善

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YIHANDESHI, SUIRANXINXIUDINGDE《MINSUFA》、《XIAOBAOFA》WEIWOGUOSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGTIGONGLEFALVYIJU, DAN2015NIANXIN《SHIPINANQUANFA》DEXIUDINGZHONGBINGMEIYOUJIANGGONGYISUSONGZHIDUZUOWEISHIPINANQUANZHILIDEZHUYAOSHOUDUAN, BIAOMINGSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGSHANGWEIYINQIZHENGFUBUMENHELIFABUMENDEZUGOUZHONGSHI。QIESHANGSHU《MINSUFA》《XIAOBAOFA》JI《XIAOFEIGONGYISUSONGSIFAJIESHI》DENGFALVFAGUIDUIYUGONGYISUSONGDEGUIDINGRENGRANXIANDEMOHUBUQING, YOUXIENEIRONGSHANGYOUSHANGQUEDEYUDI。LIRU, YUANGAOZIGEDERENDING、SUSONGTIAOJIAN、QIANZHICHENGXUDESHEZHIDENGDENG, ZHEIXIEWENTIDOUZHIDEJINYIBUTANTAO。YOUYUSHIPINANQUANSHEJIDEFANWEIGUANGFAN、LIYIGUANXIFUZA, QIZAIGONGYISUSONGZHONGZISHENTEDIANFEICHANGMINGXIAN。YINCI, XUYAOJIEHESHIPINANQUANDETEDIANYUGONGYISUSONGFALVYUANLI, DUISHIPINANQUANZHILIJINXINGGENGWEIJUTIDELILUNTANSUOYUGAIGE。

                              二、食品安全公益诉讼的内涵及其必要性解读

                              (一) 食品安全公益诉讼的内涵

                              WOGUOCHUANTONGDEMINSHISUSONGZHIDUZAISHELISHANGQIANGDIAODUISITIQUANYIDEZHIJIEBAOZHANG, YICHENGZHIWEISIYISUSONG。SIYISUSONGSHIZHIWEILEBAOHUSIRENDELIYI, YOUTEDINGRENTIQIDESUSONG。ZHEILIDE“SIREN”KEYISHIYIRENYEKEYISHIDUOREN, DANDOUSHITEDINGHUADE。ZAISIYISUSONGZHONG, YUANGAOZAIRENMINFAYUANQISUDEQIANTISHIZISHENHEFAQUANYISHOUDAOQINFAN, JIYUANGAOBIXUYUANJIANYOUZHIJIELIHAIGUANXI, QISUSONGQINGQIUYESHIBAOHUZISHENHEFAQUANYI。

                              GONGYISUSONGZESHIXIANGDUIYUSIYISUSONGERYAN, TAQIYUANYULUOMAFA, SHIZHIFALVGUIDINGDEGONGMIN、JIGUANHEYOUGUANSHEHUITUANTI, WEILESHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI, YIZISHENMINGYIXIANGGUOJIASIFAJIGUANTIQIDEMINSHIGONGYISUSONG。SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGJIUSHIGONGYISUSONGZAISHIPINSHENGCHAN、JIAOHUAN、LIUTONGHEXIAOFEILINGYUDESHIJIANYINGYONG。YUGONGYISUSONGRENGRANCHUYUFAZHANMENGYAJIEDUANYIYANG, WOGUOSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGSHANGWEIHUODEGUANGFANDESHEHUIRENZHIHEFALVJIEDESHIJIANYUNYONG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   KEJIAN, GONGYISUSONGYUSIYISUSONGQUFENDEBIAOZHUNJIWEILIYIDEXINGZHI2, GONGYISUSONGYUANYUDUIGONGGONGLIYIDEBAOHU, ERGONGGONGLIYIYINGZHISHEHUISUOYOUGONGMINSUOXIANGYOUDEGONGTONGLIYI, ZAIJINGJIXUESHANGBEICHENGWEI“GONGGONGWUPIN”, TABUNENGFENPEIJITEDINGDEGETI。YOUCI, GONGYISUSONGDEFANWEIYINGGAISHIXIANYUBUTEDINGZHUTISUOXIANGYOUDESHEHUIGONGGONGLIYISUOYINFADEJIUFEN。GONGYISUSONGZHONGDEGONGGONGLIYIBUSHISHEHUICHENGYUANGERENLIYIDEJIANDANDIEJIA, YEBUSHIMOUYITUANTIHUOFENGBIDIQUDEGONGTONGLIYI3。MOUYIQINHAIXINGWEISUNHAIZHONGDUORENDEHEFAQUANYI, RUGUOSHOUHAIZHUTISHITEDINGDE, JISHIRENSHUZAIDUO, YEBUSHUYUSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI。XIANRAN, TIQIGONGYISUSONGDEMUDEBUSHIBAOHUNAJIGERENHUONAYIBUFENRENDELIYI, ERSHIBUTEDINGDUOSHURENDEHEFAQUANYINAIZHISHEHUIZHIXU。BIRU, SANLUJITUANSHENGCHANDEDALIANGYOUDUNAIFENDEWEIFAXINGWEISUNHAIDEBUJINSHISHULIANGZHONGDUODETEDINGDEXIAOFEIZHEDEJIANKANG, HAIBAOKUOZHONGDUOQIANZAIDEXIAOFEIZHEDELIYI, SUNHAILEZHENGGERUZHIPINXINGYESHENZHIZHENGGESHIPINXINGYEDEXINYU, SHIXIAOFEIZHEDUIGUOCHANNAIFENSHENZHIGUOCHANSHIPINDEANQUANXINGCHANSHENGHUAIYI。SANLUJITUANDEWEIFAZAOJIAXINGWEIJIWEIDIANXINGDESUNHAISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDEXINGWEI。

                              (二) 食品安全公益诉讼的必要性

                              1.食品安全公益诉讼充分体现宪法赋予公民对公共事务的参与权

                              WOGUO《XIANFA》GUIDINGZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGONGMINZAIFALVMIANQIANRENRENPINGDENG, GUOJIAZUNZHONGHEBAOZHANGRENQUAN。WOGUOXIANGGUANMINSHIFALVHEXINGSHIFALVJUNDUIGONGMINDESHENGMINGJIANKANGQUANZUOCHUBAOHU, ERSHIPINANQUANGUANXIDAOMEIYIGEGONGMINDESHENTIJIANKANGHESHENGMINGANQUAN, SHIZUIJIBENDEGONGGONGANQUAN。QUEBAOSHIPINANQUANJIUSHIBAOHUSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI。RUQIANSUOSHU, GONGYISUSONGQIYUANYULUOMAFA, “SIRENDUIWEIHAISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDEXINGWEITIQIDESUSONG, CHUFALVTEBIEGUIDINGZHIWAI, FANSHIMINJUNKETIQI”。KEJIAN, GONGYISUSONGDEZHUYAOMUDESHITUIDONGFALVDE“SIRENZHIXING”4, JUYOUSIRENSHUXING。TASHIGONGMINBIAODAYIYUANDETUJING, SHIGONGZHONGWEIHUZISHENHEFAQUANYIDEGONGJU。

                              2.食品安全公益诉讼是对政府有限执法资源的重要补充

                              ZHANGQIYILAI, WOGUOSHIXINGDESHIDANYIDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANJIZHI, ZHENGFUSHIPINANQUANGUANLIJIGOUZAIQIZHONGQIZHEHEXINZUOYONG。ZAIKANSIBAOLUOWANXIANG、WANBEIDESHIPINANQUANFALVTIXIZHONG, SHIPINANQUANWEIFASHIJIANRENGRANCENGCHUBUQIONG。LIRU, WOGUOZAI2015NIANXIUDINGDE《SHIPINANQUANFA》, KANCHENGSHISHANGZUIYANSHIPINANQUANFA, QIZUIDADELIANGDIANZHIYIJIUSHIJINYIBUQIANGHUAXINGZHENGJIANGUANQUANLI。RANERJINGUANYOUZHENGFUJIANGUANDEGAOYA, SHIPINANQUANWENTIRENGRANPINFANBAOFA, ZHURU“SHOUROUJING”“JIANGSHIROU”“PIGENAI”“DIGOUYOU”“DUDOUYA”DENGZHONGDASHIPINANQUANSHIGU (JIANBIAO1) 。

                              表1 2005-2017年我国重大食品安全事故表

                            表1 2005-2017年我国重大食品安全事故表

                              SHIPINANQUANSHIGUPINFA, ZHUYAOYUANYINZAIYUSHIPINANQUANWENTIDEFUZAXING: (1) SHIPINGONGYINGLIANJIAOZHANG, SHEJISHIPINSHENGCHAN、JIAOHUAN、LIUTONGHEXIAOFEI, BUMENDUO、HUANJIEDUO、DIYUKUADUDA。RUGUOYIGEHUANJIECHUXIANSHIPINANQUANFENGXIAN, CILEIFENGXIANJIUHUISHUNZHEGONGYINGLIANCHUANDIXIAQU, WEIHAIXINGJIDA; (2) WOGUOSHIPINSHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEDADUOSHUSHIBUJUBEISHIPINSHENGCHANJINGYINGXUKETIAOJIANDEXIAOSHANGFANHENONGMIN, SHIPINANQUANJIANGUANCHENGBENGAO; (3) ZHENGFUBUMENDESHICHANGJIANGUANRENYUANSHULIANGBIJINGSHIYOUXIANDE, MIANDUIPANGDADESHICHANGQUESHIHENNANZUODAOJIANGUANDAOWEI; (4) CUNZAIYOUYUXINXIBUWANQUANDAOZHIDEDAODEFENGXIANHENIXIANGXUANZEWENTI, BUFENGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUANLANYONGZHIQUANHUOZHEYUWEIFAFANZUIFENZIGOUJIESUNHAIGONGGONGLIYIDEXINGWEIRENGRANCUNZAI, ZAIGONGYISIYICUNZAICHONGTUDEQINGKUANGXIAWUFABAOZHENGGONGPINGGONGZHENGDICHULIWEIFAWEIGUIXINGWEI。SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDEJIAZHITIXIANZAIJINENGGOUCHONGFENDIAODONGHEJIFASHEHUIGEJIECANYUSHIPINANQUANZHILIDEJIJIXING, YOUNENGBASUOYOUSHIPINANQUANWENTIZHIYUGUOJIAJIGUANYUSHEHUIGONGZHONGLIANHEJIANKONGZHIXIA, ZHENZHENGSHIXIANDUISHIPINANQUANWENTIDEBIAOBENJIANZHI, DUIXINGZHENGZHIFATIXIQIZHEFUZHU、BUCHONGDEGONGNENG。GONGGONGLIYIDEWEIHUJIZHISHIDUOYUANDE, CHULELIFABAOHUHEXINGZHENGJIANGUANWAI, TONGGUOGONGYISUSONGDEFANGSHIBAOHUGONGGONGLIYI, SHIGONGGONGLIYIWEIHUJIZHIZHONGDEZHONGYAOYIHUAN。

                              3.食品安全公益诉讼能够解决私益诉讼在食品安全问题治理上的救济缺失

                              MUQIAN, WOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIUFENDESIFAJIUJITUJINGZHUYAOSHITONGGUOCHUANTONGDEMINSHISUSONGFANGSHILAIJIEJUE, DANCHUANTONGDEMINSHISUSONGZHIDUDUISHIPINANQUANDESHOUHAIZHEDEJIUJISHIQUESHIDE, SHIDEZUOWEIRUOSHIQUNTIDESHIPINANQUANSHOUHAIZHEYINWEIJUZHENGNAN、SUSONGCHENGBENGAOANG、HUODEPEICHANGNANERXUANZEFANGQISUSONG, JUTIBIAOXIANZAI:DIYI, WOGUOXIANYOUDE《MINSHISUSONGFA》DUITIQIMINSHISUSONGDEYUANGAOYAOQIU“XUYUBENANYOULIHAIGUANXI”QIEYAOQIUYUANGAO“DUIZIJITIGONGDEZHUZHANG, YOUZERENTIGONGZHENGJU”, JIYAOQIUYUANGAOZHENGMING“SHEANSHIPINDEGUOJIABIAOZHUN、SHEANSHIPINRUHEWEIFANGUOJIABIAOZHUN、ZIJIZAOSHOUDESUNHAIYUSHEANSHIPINDEQUEXIANCUNZAIYINGUOGUANXI”。ZHEIJIUYAOQIUYUANGAOLEJIESHESUSHIPINDEYUANLIAOLAIYUAN、SHENGCHANGONGYI、CHENGFENDENGXINXI, RANSHIPINXINGYEZHUANYEXINGQIANG、KEJIHANLIANGGAO, YIXIAOFEIZHEDEZHISHIJIEGOUSHIWUFAZHANGWOSHIPINANQUANDEXIANGGUANXINXI, XIAOFEIZHEYINBUANQUANDESHIPINSHISHENGMINGJIANKANGQUANZAOSHOUSUNHAIWEIBINENGGOUYISHIDAOSHIBUANQUANSHIPINYINQI, JISHINENGGOUYISHIDAOYEWEIBINENGGOUZHENGMINGSHIPINCUNZAIANQUANYINHUANYUZISHENQUANYIZAOCHENGSUNHAIZHIJIANCUNZAIYINGUOGUANXI, ZHEIYANGZEYINWUFAMANZUSUSONGTIAOJIANDAOZHIHEFAQUANYIDEBUDAOJIUJI。DIER, XIAOFEIZHEWEIQUANCHENGBENGAOANG。ANZHAOWOGUOXIANYOUDEMINSHISUSONGMOSHI, XIAOFEIZHETIQIMINSHISUSONG, BUJINYAOCHENGDANSUSONGFEIYONG、JIANDINGFEIYONG、LVSHIKAIZHIDENGXIANXINGCHENGBEN, HAIYOUHAOFEIDALIANGDESHIJIANHEJINGLIZHEIYANGDEYINXINGCHENGBEN, ZAIGAOEDESUSONGCHENGBENXIA, XIAOFEIZHEJISHITONGGUOSUSONGHUODEPEICHANG, PEICHANGSHUEQUEBIJIAOYOUXIAN, LIANGZHEWANGWANGBUCHENGZHENGBI, RUGUOXIAOFEIZHEYUQISHENGSUSHOUYISHAO, WEINENGMINGXIANDAYUSUSONGCHENGBENSHENZHIWULIKETUDEBUCHANGSHI, ZEHUIXUANZEFANGQIWEIQUAN。GONGYISUSONGJIAOSIYISUSONGDEYOUSHIZAIYU: (1) SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDUIYUANGAOBINGBUYAOQIU“YUBENANYOULIHAIGUANXI”, YEBUYAOQIUYOUZHIJIESUNHAISHISHIDEFASHENG, ZHIXUJUYOUSHIPINANQUANSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYISHOUDAOSUNHAIHUOQIANZAISUNHAIKENENGXINGDECHUBUZHENGJUJIKE, NENGGOUYOUXIAOYUFANGNEIXIEYOUWEIHAIDANSHISHANGWEIZAOCHENGSHIZHISUNHAIJIEGUODEXINGWEI; (2) GONGYISUSONGMUDESHIBAOHUBUTEDINGDUOSHURENDEHEFAQUANYI。SUIRANDANGEXIAOFEIZHESHOUSHIPINANQUANSHIJIANQINHAIQUANYIDEKENENGXINGJIQIDAOZHIDELIYISUNSHIJIAOXIAO, DANQUANTIXIAOFEIZHESHOUSHIPINANQUANSHIJIANQINHAIDEQUANYISUNSHIZEJUDA。SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGNENGCHANSHENGGUIMOJINGJIXIAOYI, JIANGDISHEHUISUSONGCHENGBEN, JIEYUELESIFAZIYUAN; (3) SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYUANGAOTIQISUSONGZHUYAOSHIJIYUSHEHUIZERENGAN, ZHUZHONGTASHENHOUDEJIAOYU、GUIFANHEYINDAOYIYI。RUGUONENGGOUDAILAIQIANGLIEDESHEHUIFANXIANG, CHANSHENGJUDADESHEHUIXIAOYI, GONGYISUSONGDEYUANGAOJIUBUHUITAIDUODIKAOLVSUSONGCHENGBENWENTI。

                              4.食品安全公益诉讼对食品安全问题具有威慑与预防作用

                              RENHEFALVJUNJUYOUWEISHEYUYUFANGFANZUIDEZUOYONG, DANSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDEWEISHEYUYUFANGSHIPINANQUANFANZUIDEXIAOGUOZEGENGWEITUCHU。SHOUXIAN, ZAISUSONGTIAOJIANSHANG, CHUANTONGDEMINSHISUSONGZHIDUYAOQIUDANGSHIRENZHANGWOYINSHIPINANQUANWENTIZAOCHENGDESHIJISUNHAIDEQUEQIEZHENGJUFANGKETIQISUSONG, ERWOGUOGONGYISUSONGDETIQIZHIYAOQIUZHANGWOSHEHUIGONGGONGLIYISHOUSUNDECHUBUZHENGJU, ERBUYISHIJISUNHAISHISHIFASHENGWEIQISUYAOJIAN, ZHEIYANGNENGGOUYOUXIAOYUFANGSHIPINANQUANQIANZAIWEIHAI, BANGZHUSHEHUIGONGZHONGMIANYUZAOSHOUGENGDADESUNHAI。ZAIZHE, SHIPINANQUANJIUFENDUOBIAOXIANWEIQUNTIXINGJIUFEN, JIUFENYIFANGWANGWANGWEISHULIANGJIAODUODERUOSHISHOUHAIZHE。SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGSHIYUANSHUYUGERENDESIYIYANBIANCHENGSHEHUIGUANZHUDEGONGGONGSHIJIAN, NENGDUISHIPINSHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEQIDAOJIQIANGWEISHEDEXIAOGUO, YIZEKEYOUXIAODEZUZHIWEIFAZHEZAICIWEIFA, ERZEKEZUZHIQITASHIPINSHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEYISHENSHIFA。ZONGSHANG, YOUYUSHIPINANQUANWENTIJUYOUGONGYIXINGZHI, TABUJINJINSHEJIGONGMINGERENDEHEFAQUANYI, HAISHEJIZHENGGESHEHUIDEHEXIEYUWENDING。RUGUOSHIPINANQUANBUNENGDEDAOYOUXIAOBAOZHANG, JIUNANYIBAOZHANGSHICHANGJINGJIDEWENDINGYUNXING, BINGZUIZHONGZAOCHENGZHENGGESHICHANGJINGJIZHIXUDEHUNLUAN。YILAIXINGZHENGSHOUDUANHUOCHUANTONGDESIYISUSONGZHIDUYIBUNENGWANQUANQIDAOBAOHUXIAOFEIZHEQUANYIDEZUOYONG, JIXUJIANLIWANSHANDESHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHIDU, CUSHIGESHIPINSHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEZAISHEHUIGONGZHONGHEGUOJIAJIGUANDEGONGTONGJIANDUGUIFANXIAJINXINGSHENGCHAN, CONGYUANTOUJIEJUESHIPINANQUANWENTI。

                              三、对现有食品安全公益诉讼制度的考量

                            星云棋牌官网下载   《MINSUFA》、《XIAOFEIGONGYISUSONGSIFAJIESHI》HE《SHIPINANQUANFA》YIJINGDIANDINGLEWOGUOGONGYISUSONGDEZHIDUJICHU, DUISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZAISIFASHIJIANZHONGDECAOZUOQIDAOLEYIDINGDEZHIDAOHEGUIFANZUOYONG。《XIAOFEIGONGYISUSONGSIFAJIESHI》DUIGONGYISUSONGGUIZE, TEBIESHISHOUANFANWEI、CHENGXUGUIZE、JUZHENGZEREN、FEIYONGFUDANDENGJIXUJIEJUEDESIFASHIJIANWENTIJUNJINXINGLEGUIZHI。BUGUO, WOGUOSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGANJIANLIAOLIAO, SHUOMINGGONGYISUSONGZHIDUMEIYOUZAISHIPINANQUANSHIJIANZHONGDEDAOYOUXIAOYINGYONG。ZAI2016NIANDU“ZHONGGUOSHIDAGONGYISUSONG”RUXUANANJIANZHONG, HUANJINGLEIGONGYISUSONGANJIANZHANLEDANGXUANANLIDEJUEDADUOSHU, MEIYOUYIGEANLIYUSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGXIANGGUAN。BIZHERENWEI, SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGJIANGJUBUWEIJIANDEYUANYINZAIYU:WOGUOSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGHAICUNZAIZHUDUOBUZUZHICHU, RUYUANGAOZIGEDEJIEDING、GONGYISUSONGDESHIYONGFANWEI、YUANGAODEJILIYUESHUJIZHIDENG。

                              (一) 食品公益诉讼原告资格的界定不明确

                              MINGQUESHIGEDEYUANGAOSHIGOUJIANSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHIDUDEHEXIN, XUYOUFALVDEMINGQUESHOUQUAN。RUGUOYUANGAOZIGEDESHOUQUANBUMING, BIJIANGDAOZHISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGXINGTONGXUSHE。YINCI, JIEDINGMINGXIDEYUANGAOZHUTIZIGESHIGOUJIANSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHIDUDESHOUYAORENWU。

                              ZUIXINXIUDINGDE《MINSUFA》DI55TIAOZENGSHELEGONGYISUSONGJIYUANGAOZIGE, JIANGYOUZIGETIQIGONGYISUSONGDEZHUTIGUIDINGWEI“FALVGUIDINGDEJIGUANHEYOUGUANZUZHI”, TUPOLEYUANGAOXUYUANJIANYOUZHIJIELIHAIGUANXIDEXIANZHI;55TIAODIERKUANMINGQUE:“RENMINJIANCHAYUANZAILVXINGZHIZEZHONGFAXIANSHIPINYAOPINANQUANLINGYUQINHAIZHONGDUOXIAOFEIZHEHEFAQUANYI、SUNHAISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDEXINGWEI, ZAIMEIYOUSHIGEZHUTIHUOZHESHIGEZHUTIBUTIQISUSONGDEQINGKUANGXIA, KEYIXIANGRENMINFAYUANTIQIMINSHIGONGYISUSONG”。QICI, 《MINSUSIFAJIESHI》JIEHE《MINSUFA》DI55TIAOHE《XIAOFEIZHEQUANYIBAOHUFA》DI47TIAODEGUIDING, FUYUZHONGGUOXIAOFEIZHEXIEHUIYIJIZAISHENG、ZIZHIQU、ZHIXIASHISHELIDEXIAOFEIZHEXIEHUIXIANGYOUGONGYISUSONGZHUTIZIGE。LINGWAI, 《MINSUJIESHI》RENGBAOCHIYUANGAOZHUTIZIGEDESHIDUKAIFANGXING5, GUIDING“FALVGUIDINGHUOZHEQUANGUORENDAJICHANGWUWEIYUANHUISHOUQUANDEJIGUANHESHEHUIZUZHIYEJUYOUQISUZHUTIZIGE”。YOUCIKETUI:JINRENMINJIANCHAYUANHEZHONGGUOXIAOFEIZHEXIEHUIYIJIZAISHENG、ZIZHIQU、ZHIXIASHISHELIDEXIAOFEIZHEXIEHUISHIFALVFAGUIMINGQUEDEYOUQUANZUOWEISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDEYUANGAOZIGE。DUIYU《MINSUFA》DE“FALVGUIDINGDEJIGUANHEYOUGUANZUZHI”DEGUIDINGDEJIEDU, LILUNJIEYUSHIWUJIEYIZHIZAIZHENGLUN。DUICI, BIZHEDEKANFARUXIA:

                              1.立法上对检察机关提起食品安全公益诉讼的规定过于宽泛

                              YOUJIANCHAJIGUANDANRENGONGYISUSONGDEDAIBIAOZAIXUEJIECENGJINGSHIZHENGYIBIJIAODADE, JINGGUODUONIANDETAOLUNHELUNZHENG, GEJIEJIBENSHANGDACHENGLEGONGSHI, JIJIANCHAJIGUANSHITIQIGONGYISUSONGDEZUIJIAZHUTI, 2017NIAN6YUE27RI, QUANGUORENDACHANGWEIHUITONGGUOXIUGAIMINSHISUSONGFADEJUEDING, ZHENGSHIJIANLIJIANCHAJIGUANTIQIMINSHIGONGYISUSONGZHIDU。BIZHEYIRENWEI, JIANCHAJIGUANSHIXIANFAHEFALVFUQUANDEGONGQUANLIJIGUAN, QIZUOWEIGONGGONGLIYIDEDAIBIAO, YUQITAZUZHIXIANGBI, GENGWEIQUANWEI, LILIANGGENGWEIQIANGDA, ZAISHIPINANQUANWENTISHANG, YOUQIDANRENSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDEYUANGAOJUYOUZHENGDANGXINGHEKEXINGXING, YUJIANCHAJIGUANDEZHINENGDINGWEIXIANGWENHE, FUHEQIFALVJIANDUQUANZONGZHI;YEFUHEFAZHIGUOJIADETONGXINGZUOFA, FAGUOZAOYU1806NIANBANBUDE《FAGUOMINSHISUSONGFA》GUIDINGLEYOUJIANCHAJIGUANTIQIGONGYISUSONG;MEIGUOZAI20SHIJIJIUQUELILEJIANCHAJIGUANZUOWEIGONGYISUSONGYUANGAOZIGE;YINGGUOTONGCHANGYOUJIANCHAZHANGDAIBIAOZHENGFUHESHEHUIGONGZHONGTIQIGONGYISUSONG。SHIJIANZHONG, WOGUOCONG2000NIANKAISHI, GEDIJIANCHAYUANJIKAISHIGONGYISUSONGSHIDIANDETANSUOGONGZUO, JIEZHI2017NIAN3YUE, SHIDIANDIQUJIANCHAJIGUANGONGBANLIGONGYISUSONGANJIAN5109QI, CHENGXIAOZHUOZHE。SUOYI, JIANCHAJIGUANCANYUSUSONG, CAINENGYOUXIAOBAOHUGUOJIALIYI、SHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI。DANSHI, LIFASHANGSUIRANFUYULEJIANCHAJIGUANGONGYISUSONGYUANGAOZIGE, JINSHIYUANZEXINGGUIDING, QUEFAZHICHIJIANCHAJIGUANQISUDEJUTIGUIDING, SHIDEMUQIANJIANCHAJIGUANKAIZHANGONGYIHUODONGQUEFAJUTIDECAOZUOGUIFAN, ZHEIZAIJIAODACHENGDUSHANGZHIYUELEJIANCHAJIGUANDEQISUQUANXIAN。

                              2.《民诉法》没有对“有关组织”的范围进行界定

                              YIJU《XIAOFEIGONGYISUSONGSIFAJIESHI》, SHENGJIYISHANGDEXIAOFEIZHEXIEHUISHIWEIYIJINGFALVQUEDINGDENENGZUOWEISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYUANGAODE“YOUGUANZUZHI”, PAICHULEQITASHEHUIZUZHI, SHIDESHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYUANGAOZHUTIFANWEIGUOYUXIAZHAI。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI, SHIPINANQUANWENTIJIQIFUZA, JINKAOXIAOFEIZHEXIEHUIDELILIANGSHANGBUZUYIJIEJUEDALIANGDESHIPINANQUANWENTI;QICI, XIAOFEIZHEXIEHUIDAIYOUZHUNGUANFANGXINGZHI, FUSHUYUGEJIGONGSHANGGUANLIZHUGUANBUMEN, QUEFAYINGYOUDEDULIXING。XIAOFEIZHEXIEHUISHENFENDETESHUXINGCHENGWEIQITIQISHIPINANQUANSUSONGDEZUAI。XIANGFAN, QITASHEHUIZUZHIGENGJUDULIXING, BUSHOUXIANGGUANDANWEIZHIJIEKONGZHI, NENGGOUYIGONGGONGLIYIWEIZHUNSHENGZUOCHUDULIJIAZHIPANDUAN, WEIHUGONGPINGZHENGYI。CIWAI, SHEHUIZUZHIYIBANSHELIYUJICENG, GENGRONGYIYUMINZHONGJIEJIN, JINERGENGRONGYIHUOQUHEFAXIANQINHAIGONGGONGLIYIDEZHENGJU, YEGENGRONGYIDEDAOMINZHONGDEZHICHIHEGUANZHU, SHEHUIYINGXIANGLIGENGDA。SUOYI, ZAISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGLIFASHEJISHANGYINGBAOZHANGSHEHUIZUZHIDESUSONGQUANLI。

                              3.社会公众不享有原告资格有违公益诉讼的“私人属性”

                              GONGMINGERENZAISHIPINANQUANQINQUANANZHONGSHIZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEDESHOUHAIZHE, JUYOUFEICHANGQIANGLIEDEYAOQIUYANCHENGJIAHAIZHEDEYIYUAN。RUGUOFUYUGONGMINGERENSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYUANGAOZHUTIZIGE, RANGSHEHUIDAZHONGCANYUDAODUIGAILEIXINGWEIDEJIANDUZHONGLAI, ZEHUIJIFAQISUSONGDEJIJIXING。DALUFAXIHEYINGMEIFAXIGUOJIAJIBENSHANGDOUBAGONGMINGERENNARUGONGYISUSONGDEQISUZIGEFANWEI, GULUOMASHIQIJIUYIGUIDING:“FANSHIMINJUNKETIQIGONGYISUSONG”, YIMIBUZUOWEIGONGYISUSONGZHUYAOYUANGAOZHUTIDEGUOJIAGONGZHIRENYUANSHULIANGSHANGDEYOUXIANHUOSHIGONGYISUSONGJIJIXINGBUGAODENGQUEXIAN;ZAIYINGMEIFAXIDEMEIGUO, SIRENYUANGAOKEYIXIANGZHENGFUJIANCHAGUANZAIPUTONGFAYUANQISU, XUNQIUSUNHAIPEICHANGHUOZHEZHIZHIQINFANGONGGONGLIYIDEWEIFAXINGWEI;ZAIYINGGUOGUIDINGGONGMINZAIZHENGDEJIANCHAZHANGTONGYIHOU, KEYITIQIGONGYISUSONG。YUWAIDESIFASHIJIANBIAOMING, FUYUGONGMINGERENSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZIGEBUJINKEYIYOUXIAODIBUCHONGGONGGONGZHIFACUNZAIDEBUZU, YEKEYIFANXIANGJIANDUGONGGONGZHIFA, ZHEIYOULIYUTIGAOSHIPINANQUANZHILIDEXIAOLV。GONGMINGERENTIQISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDEZHUTIZIGEQUESHI, JIANGDAOZHIGONGYISUSONGZHIDUZAISHIPINANQUANLINGYUHENNANDEDAOYOUXIAOSHISHI6。

                              (二) 食品安全公益诉讼适用范围规则自相矛盾

                              《MINSUFA》HE《XIAOBAOFA》DUIYUGONGYISUSONGDESHIYONGFANWEICUNZAIBUTONGDEBIAOSHU。《MINSUFA》DI55TIAOJIANGKETIQIGONGYISUSONGDEFANWEIGUIDINGWEI“QINHAIZHONGDUOXIAOFEIZHEHEFAQUANYIDENGSUNHAISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDEXINGWEI”, ER《XIAOBAOFA》QUEBIAOSHUWEI“QINHAIZHONGDUOXIAOFEIZHEHEFAQUANYIDEXINGWEI”。JIULIANGBUFALVERYAN, 《MINSUFA》YU《XIAOBAOFA》SHIYIBANFAYUTEBIEFADEGUANXI。JIYUTEBIEFAYOUYUYIBANFADEFALI, SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYINGGAIYOUXIANSHIYONG《XIAOBAOFA》, JIANG“QINHAIZHONGDUOXIAOFEIZHEHEFAQUANYIDEXINGWEI”ZUOWEIQISUTIAOJIAN7。RANERRUQIANWENSUOSHU, WEIHU“SHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI”SHIGONGYISUSONGDEJIAZHINEIHE。SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHUYAOSHIZAISHOUHAIZHERENSHUZHONGDUOQIEBUQUEDINGDEQINGKUANGXIA, WEIMIBUXINGZHENGJIANGUANHESIFAJIUJIZHIDUDEBUZUERSHELIDEYIZHONGBUCHONGSHOUDUAN。QUFENGONGYISUSONGYUSIYISUSONGDEZUIHEXINDETIAOJIANYESHI“SHEHUIGONGGONGLIYISHOUDAOSUNHAI”。YINCI, PANDUANYIQISHIPINANQUANSHIJIANSHIFOUSHUYUSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDESHIYONGFANWEI, CHULEYAOMANZURENSHUZHONGDUOTIAOJIANZHIWAI, GENGYAOFUHE“SUNHAISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI”YAOJIAN。ER“QINHAIZHONGDUOXIAOFEIZHEHEFAQUANYIDEXINGWEI”ZHISHIYAOQIURENSHUDUOSHU, BINGBUYAOQIU“SUNHAISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI”。JUCI, ANZHAO《XIAOBAOFA》DE“QINHAIZHONGDUOXIAOFEIZHEHEFAQUANYIDEXINGWEI”ZUOWEIQISUTIAOJIANSHIYUSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHIDUDEBENZHITEZHENGBUXIANGFUHEDE。ZHEIGEWENTIRUGUOZAILIFASHANGBUMINGQUE, SHIBIJIRENMINFAYUANSHENLIANJIANDAILAIKUNHUO。

                              (三) 食品安全公益诉讼激励约束机制设计存在缺失

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ANZHAOXIANYOUDEFALVGUIDING, SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYUANGAOCHULEXUYAOCHENGDANSUSONGSHOULIFEIZHIWAI, HAIXUCHENGDANJUDADEJIANDING、KANYAN、FANYI、LVSHIFEIDENGFEIYONG。ZAISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHONG, YUANGAOTIQISUSONGZHIWEICHUNCUIDEGONGGONGLIYI, WEIHUSUOYOUXIAOFEIZHELIYI, BUNENGTONGGUOGONGYISUSONGMOUQUJINGJILIYI。RANER, YIFANGMIANSHIGAOANGDESUSONGCHENGBEN, LINGYIFANGMIANYOUMEIYOURENHESHOUYICIJI, LIXINGDEDANGSHIRENYINGGAIBUHUITIQISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONG。JISHIYUANGAOTIQISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONG, YEKENENGYINWEIQUEFAXIANGYINGDEDONGLIQUZHUIQIUSHENGSUDEJIEGUO, ZUIZHONGDAOZHISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGXINGTONGXUSHE。YINCI, JIYUZUGOUDEJINGJIJILISHITIGAOSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGXIAOLVDEZUIHAOFANGSHI。SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHIDUXUYAOJINENGGOUZAISHIHOUMIBUYUANGAODESUSONGCHENGBEN, YEKEYISHIYUANGAOCONGWUZHICENGMIANDEDAOXIANSHIDEHEZHIJIEDEZHICHI, BINGJIYUQIGENGDUODEXINXIN, CONGERGULIGENGDUOGONGMINHEZUZHIJIARUDAOSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYUANGAODEDUIWUZHIZHONG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DANGRAN, SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHUTIFANWEIDEKUODA, GONGYISUSONGBEILANYONGDEFENGXIANYEHUIDADAZENGJIA。RUGUOQUESHIXIANGYINGDECHENGXUHEGUIZE, JIYIZAOCHENGSUSONGZHUTIDUIYUSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGXINGZHIDERENSHIWUQU, DAOZHI“LANSU”XIANXIANGDEFASHENG, YINGXIANGSUSONGXIAOLV, ZENGJIAFAYUANGONGZUOFUDAN、JIANGDISHENPANZHILIANG、LANGFEIYOUXIANDESIFAZIYUAN。RUGUOSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGBEILANYONG, GAIGONGYISUSONGZHIDUYOUKENENGCHENGWEIQIYEJINGZHENGZHEMOUQUYOULISHICHANGDIWEIDEGONGJU8。YINCI, RUHEFANGZHIGONGYISUSONGBEILANYONGSHIWANSHANSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHIDUYINGKAOLVDEBIYAONEIRONG。

                              (四) 食品安全公益诉讼与私益诉讼竟和的处理存在缺失

                              《XIAOFEIGONGYISUSONGSIFAJIESHI》DI9、10、16TIAO9CAIYONGFENLIDEMOSHIMINGQUELEGONGYISUSONGYUSIYISUSONGWEIBUTONGDEJIUJIFANGFA, JUCIGUIDING, YINTONGYISHIPINANQUANWENTISHOUQINHAIDESHOUHAIZHEBUNENGJIARUGONGYISUSONGZHONGXUNQIUSIFAJIUJI, ZHINENGLINGXINGTIQISUSONG。CIWAI, 《XIAOFEIGONGYISUSONGSIFAJIESHI》YUNXUSIYISUSONGDAGONGYISUSONGDEBIANCHE, JIXIAOFEIMINSHIGONGYISUSONGSHENGXIAOCAIPANRENDINGDESHISHI, DUIYUGUANLIANSIYISUSONGDEYUANGAOHEBEIGAOJUNYOUMIANYUJUZHENGDEYUJUEXIAOLI。KEJIAN, LIFASHANGZHISHIYUNXUGONGYISUSONGDESHENGXIAOCAIPANZAISHISHIDERENDINGSHANGXIANGGUANLIANSIYISUSONGKUOZHANG, BINGQIESHIJIYOUXIANDEKUOZHANG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YINGGAIKANDAO, GONGGONGLIYIYUSIRENLIYIZHIJIANBINGBUSHICUNZAIBUKEYUYUEDEHONGGOU, LIANGZHECUNZAIMIQIEGUANXI:GONGGONGLIYIHEGERENLIYIZAIYIDINGTIAOJIANXIAKEYIHUXIANGZHUANHUA, ZAISHEHUIFULIGUOJIAZHONGERZHEWANGWANGBUNENGHUXIANGFENLI10。QINHAISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDEXINGWEIKENENGTONGSHIDUITEDINGXIAOFEIZHEDEHEFAQUANYIZAOCHENGSUNHAI。ZAISIYISUSONGZHONG, BAOHUSIRENLIYIDETONGSHIXUYAOSHISHEHUIGONGGONGZHIXUDEDAOWEIHU。ZAIGONGYISUSONGZHONG, FAYUANXUYAOCHAMINGDESUNHAIGONGGONGLIYIDEXINGWEIHESHISHIYESHISIYISUSONGSUOYAOCHAMINGDE。SUOYIZAISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHONG, BUYIYIWEIJIANGGONGGONGLIYIYUSIRENLIYIWANQUANGELI, FENCHAIWEIGONGYISUSONGCHENGXUHESIYISUSONGCHENGXUYUYIJIEJUE, FOUZEJIANGHUIDAOZHIXIALIEHOUGUO:JIANGDISUSONGXIAOLV、LANGFEISIFAZIYUAN、JIAZHONGDANGSHIRENSULEI、ZENGJIAMAODUNCAIPANFENGXIANDENG。YINCI, YINGGAIRENSHIDAOYOUTONGYIFATINGZAITONGYICHENGXUZHONGYIBINGSHENLIGONGYISUSONGQINGQIUHESIYISUSONGQINGQIUDEZHONGYAOXING。

                              四、我国食品安全公益诉讼制度的改革方向

                              (一) 修改《民事诉讼法》和《消费者权益保护法》的原告资格

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DIYI, LIFASHANGYINGMINGQUEFUYUYOUJIANCHAJIGUANDANRENSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYUANGAOZHUTIZIGE。JUTIERYAN, YINGDUIXIANGYINGDEFALVJINXINGXIUGAI, MINGQUEJIANCHAJIGUANDEYUANGAOZHUTISHENFEN, MINGQUEJIANCHAJIGUANCANYUSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDEXIANGGUANCHENGXU:SHOUXIAN, ZAICHENGXUDEXUANZESHANG, YINGKAOLVSHIPINANQUANSHIGUANGONGZHONGDESHENGMINGJIANKANGDETESHUXING, JIXUKUAISUJIEJUE, BUBIANCAIYONGGUOYUFUZADESUSONGCHENGXU, YIXUANYONGFUHESHIPINANQUANANJIANDESHENLIJIZHI, JISUCAIJIZHI;QICI, JIEYUSHIPINANQUANANJIANXUYAOSHOUJIDEZHENGJUSHULIANGDA、ZHUANYEXINGQIANGDENGTEDIAN, YINGJINYIBUWANSHANJIANCHAJIGUANDEDIAOCHAHESHIQUAN, MINGQUEJIANCHAJIGUANXINGSHIDIAOCHAHESHIQUANDEFANWEI、YUNXINGCHENGXUDENG;ZAICI, FUYUJIANCHAJIGUANSHANGSUQUAN11, ZHEIYANGCAINENGSHIWEIHUGONGGONGLIYIDEGONGYISUSONGDEDAOZUIDADEBAOHU。

                              DIER, FUYUGONGZHONGCANYUSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDEYUANGAOZIGE。LIFASHANGJIANYITONGGUOXIUGAIMINSHISUSONGFA、XINGZHENGSUSONGFAYIJISHIPINANQUANFADENGXIANGGUANFALVFAGUI, FUYUSHEHUIZUZHIJIGONGMINDEYUANGAOZIGE。QIZHONG, JIYUZHUANYEJIANBIENENGLIDENGYINSUKAOLIANG, JUYOUSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHUTIZIGEDESHEHUIZUZHIKEBAOKUOYUSHIPINXIANGGUANDESHIPINYANJIUHUI、YINGYANGXIEHUI、LVSHIXIEHUIDENGSHEHUIZUZHI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   WEILEFANGZHIYINYUANGAOLANSUHUOEYISUSONGERZENGJIASIFAJIGUANDEFUDAN, ZAOCHENGSIFAZIYUANDELANGFEI, DUIYOUQUANTIQIGONGYISUSONGDEYUANGAOKESHEDINGYIDINGDETIAOJIAN: (1) DUIYUSHEHUIZUZHI, YAOQIUQICHENGLIGUOCHENGBIXUYANGEANZHAO《SHEHUITUANTIDENGJIGUANLITIAOLI》DEGUIDING, JINGGUOZHENGFUDEYEWUZHUGUANBUMENDEPIZHUN, JUYOUFADINGDEZIGETIAOJIAN。ZHEIXIESHEHUITUANTICHENGLIHOU, XUYANGEANZHAOQIZHANGCHENGKAIZHANHUODONG, ZHISHAOZAIWUNIANNEIBUNENGYOUWEIFAJILU12。CIWAI, HAIXUYINDAOSHEHUIZUZHIJIANLIXINGYEGUIFAN, WANSHANNEIBUZHILIJIEGOUHECHENGXINZILVJIZHI, QIANGHUASHEHUIZERENHETIGAOZILVXING。 (2) DUIYUGONGMINGERENTIQIGONGYISUSONGQINGXING, YINGKAOLVQIZAIRENLI、WULI、ZHUANYEJIANBIENENGLI、SUSONGJUZHENGNENGLIDENGFANGMIANDEJICHUHETIAOJIANDEJUXIAN, LIFASHANGKEYIZAIQISUTIAOJIAN、FANGSHI、SUSONGQINGQIUDENEIRONGHEWEIHUGONGGONGLIYIDEXIAOGUOSHANGZUOCHUXIANGYINGGUIZHI。QICI, KESHELIYUSHENZHIDU13, DUIYUANGAODEQISUJINXINGSHENCHA, PAICHUMEIYOUSHISHIGENJUDEQISU。

                              (二) 明确食品安全公益诉讼的受案范围

                            星云棋牌官网下载   LIFASHANGYINGMINGQUEJIANGGONGGONGLIYISHOUSUNHAIZUOWEITIQIGONGYISUSONGDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN14。SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYINGSHIZHENDUISHIPINSHENGCHANJINGYINGZHEWEIFANSHIPINANQUANFA, QINFANXIAOFEIZHEQUANYI, SUNHAISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDEXINGWEI。ZHIYAOFASHENGSHIPINANQUANWENTI, BINGQIEZAOCHENGLESUNHAIHOUGUOHUOZHEJUYOUQIANZAIDESUNHAIWEIXIE, JUNKETIQISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONG15。《MINSUJIESHI》CAIQUKAIFANGSHIDELIEJUFANGSHIGUINALEXIAOFEILINGYUZHONG“SHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI”DELEIXING, SHISUNHAISHEHUIGONGGONGLIYIDEXINGWEIGENGYIYUPANDUAN, WEISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYUANGAOTIQIGONGYISUSONGTIGONGLEZHIYIN。YOUYUXIAOFEILINGYUFANWEITAIDA, ERSHIPINANQUANWENTIYEYOUQIFUZAXING, 《MINSUJIESHI》GUINADELEIXINGWUFAHANGAISHIPINANQUANLINGYUDEQUANBU。JIANYISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHIDUZAICIJICHUSHANGJINYIBULIEJUSHIPINANQUANLINGYU“SHEHUIGONGGONGLIYI”DELEIXING, JIANG《SHIPINANQUANFA》DEWEIFANSHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDEXINGWEIHE《SHIPINANQUANQIZHAFA》DESHIPINANQUANQIZHAXINGWEINARUSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDEFANWEI, GENGJIAYOULIYUSIFACENGMIANDECAOZUO。

                              (三) 食品安全公益诉讼的激励约束机制设计

                              ZAIJILIJIZHIDESHEJISHANG, JIANYISHELISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGJIJINZHIDU。SHIPINANQUANGONGYIJIJINYONGYULIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHIJIANMIANYUANGAOSUSONGFEIYONG, BAOKUOSHOULIFEI、SUSONGZHONGXUYAODEJIANDING、KANYAN、FANYIFEIYONGDENG;ERSHIDUIYUANGAOJINXINGYIDINGDEJINGJIBUCHANGYIJIJIYUSHENGSUYUANGAOYIDINGDEJIANGLI16。SHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGJIJINDELAIYUANKEYISHIGUOKUBOKUAN、SHEHUIJUANKUAN, HAIKEYITONGGUOJIAQIANGCHENGFAXINGPEICHANGGUIZEDEYUNYONG, JIADADUIBAISUBEIGAODECHENGFAXINGPEICHANG, SHIPEICHANGKUANZAIYONGYUPEICHANGSHOUHAIZHEDETONGSHI, HAIKEYIBUFENJIRUSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGJIJIN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   SHEJISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGZHIDUSHI, JIYAOKAOLVJIYUYUANGAOJIANGLI, YOUYAOKAOLVRUHEFANGZHIGONGYISUQUANBEILANYONG。CHULEXUGUIFANSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGDEQISUTIAOJIAN、YANGELIANSHENCHAZHIWAI, HAIKEJIANLILANSUPEICHANGZHIDU17。DUIYUNEIXIETIQIXUJIASUSONGHUOZHEEYISUSONG, LANGFEISHEHUIGONGGONGZIYUANHESIFAZIYUANDEREN, YAOQIUQICHENGDANGEZHONGFEIYONG, BINGPEICHANGTARENHUOZHESHEHUIGONGYISUOZAOSHOUDESUNSHI。CONGQIANCENGCILAIKAN, SHIPINANQUANLANSUPEICHANGZHIDUSHIDUIDANGSHIRENLANYONGSUQUANXINGWEIDEZHIYUEHEGUIFAN, QIDAOJINGSHIHEYUFANGZUOYONG。CONGSHENCENGCILAIKAN, SHIPINANQUANLANSUPEICHANGZHIDUZESHIGUIFANSUQUANDEHEFAHELIXINGSHI, CONGERWEIHUGAIZHIDUDELIANGHAOYUNXING18。

                              (四) 人民法院审理公益诉讼案件, 应考虑将公益诉讼和私益诉讼有机融合

                              SUIRANXIANYOUFALVYIJINGYUNXUGONGYISUSONGDESHENGXIAOCAIPANZAISHISHIDERENDINGSHANGXIANGGUANLIANSIYISUSONGKUOZHANGDEXIANGGUANGUIDING, DANXIANRANHAIBUGOU。ZAIFALVGUIZHISHANGYINGKAOLVSHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGYUSIYISUSONGZAISHENPANCHENGXUSHANGDERONGHE。SHOUXIAN, SHOUQUANYUANGAOZAISUSONGZHONGDUIBEIGAOTONGSHITIQIGONGYISUSONGQINGQIUYUSIYISUSONGQINGQIU, HUOFAYUANZAISHENLISHIPINANQUANGONGYISUSONGANJIANZHONG, YUNXUSHOUHAIRENZUOWEIDISANRENCANJIASUSONG19, ZHUZHANGSIRENQUANYI, HUODEXIANGYINGDESIFAJIUJI。DANBINGBUYIWEIZHEFAYUANBIXUDUIQITONGSHIJINXINGSHENLIHEZUOCHUPANJUE, KEYISHIQINGKUANGCAIQUBUTONGCHENGXU, YISHIKEYIYIJUWOGUO《MINSUFA》DEBUFENPANJUEZHIDU, XIANXINGSHENLIGONGYISUSONGQINGQIUSHIFOUCHENGLI, RUSHISHIYIJINGQINGCHU, KEYIJIUGAIBUFENXIANXINGDANDUZUOCHUPANJUE, XIANXINGSHENLIZHONGRENDINGDESHISHI、QUEZAODEZHENGJUYIJIPANJUEJIEGUO, SHIYONGYUHOUXUSIYISUSONGQINGQIUDESHENLI, JIDADETIGAOSUSONGXIAOLV;ERSHIFAYUANYEKEYIXUANZESHENLIWANGONGYISUSONGQINGQIUHOUZANBUZUOPANJUE, DAISIYISUSONGQINGQIUSHENLIWANBIYIBINGZUOCHUPANJUE20。ZAISHENLICHENGXUSHANGJIANGGONGYISUSONGQINGQIUYUSIYISUSONGQINGQIURONGHE, KEJIANHUACHENGXU, JIEYUERENLI、WULI、CAILI, QIEKEBIMIANCHUXIANMAODUNCAIPANDEKENENGXING。

                              注释

                              1 郭雪慧:《论公益诉讼主体确定及原告资格的协调》, 《政治与法律》2015年第1期。
                              2 洪浩、寿媛君:《我国公共利益制度构建的困境与出路》, 《山东社会科学》2017年第3期。
                              3 陈承堂:《公益诉讼起诉资格研究》, 《当代法学》2015年第2期。
                              4 程新文:《我国消费民事公益诉讼制度的新发展》, 《法律适用》2016年第7期。
                              5 白彦:《论民事公益诉讼主体激励机制的建构》, 《北京大学学报》 (哲学社会科学版) 2016年第3期。
                              6 李洪峰:《公众参与食品安全公益诉讼的法律制度构建》, 《中国卫生法制》2018年第1期。
                              7 陈冰:《我国食品安全单一治理的困境与多维治理的选择》, 《江汉论坛》2014年第9期。
                              8 白彦, 杨兵:《我国民事公益诉讼的经济分析》, 《北京大学学报》 (哲学社会科学版) 2013年第11期。
                              9 《最高人民法院关于审理消费民事公益诉讼案件适用法律若干问题的解释》第九条, 人民法院受理消费民事公益诉讼案件后, 因同一侵权行为受到损害的消费者申请参加诉讼的, 人民法院应当告知其根据民事诉讼法第一百一十九条规定主张权利;第十条 , 消费民事公益诉讼案件受理后, 因同一侵权行为受到损害的消费者请求对其根据民事诉讼法第一百一十九条规定提起的诉讼予以中止, 人民法院可以准许。第十六条 , 已为消费民事公益诉讼生效裁判认定的事实, 因同一侵权行为受到损害的消费者根据民事诉讼法第一百一十九条规定提起的诉讼, 原告、被告均无需举证证明, 但当事人对该事实有异议并有相反证据足以推翻的除外。
                              10 黄忠顺:《论公益诉讼与私益诉讼的融合》, 《法学家》2015年第1期。
                              11 黎立:《检察机关提起食品药品公益诉讼的探讨》, 《法治论坛》2016年7期。
                              12 孙昊:《食品安全公益诉讼制度构建设想》, 《商业时代》2014年第33期。
                              13 吴长军:《社会组织参与公益诉讼的法律保障机制研究》, 《法学研究》2014年第5期。
                              14 黄忠顺:《食品安全私人执法研究》, 《武汉大学学报》 (哲学社会科学版) 2015年第7期。
                              15 李洪峰:《公众参与食品安全公益诉讼的法律制度构建》, 《中国卫生法制》2018年第1期。
                              16 李响:《食品安全问题的诉讼求解与模式创新》, 《南京大学学报》2013年第6期。
                              17 方文娟:《公益诉讼的经济法思考》, 《法治社会研究》2013年第7期。
                              18 杨仕兵:《论消费公益诉讼的界定及其可诉范围》, 《齐鲁学刊》2016年第1期。
                              19 汤维建:《评司法解释中的公益诉讼》, 《山东社会科学》2015年第7期。
                            星云棋牌官网下载   20 黄忠顺:《论公益诉讼与私益诉讼的融合》, 《法学家》2015年第1期。

                              俞飞颖.我国食品安全公益诉讼制度的现实考量与改革路径[J].福建师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版),2019(03):89-96+125+169.
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