星云棋牌官网下载

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                    基于市场监督的食品安全法规执行效果监管

                    时间:2018-12-27 来源:食品安全质量检测学报 作者:赵艺林 本文字数:13284字

                      摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 基于市场监督的食品安全法规,本文对我国食品安全与卫生执行效果监管现状进行阐述,讨论了食品安全法规执行效果监管的必要性,在此基础上分析了食品安全法规执行效果监管措施以及监管效果,总结出食品安全法规之效果监管的对策。我国食品安全法规执行效果监管部门较多,存在重复管理、无人管理的现象,近年来爆发出的食品安全事故较为严重,造成了不良的社会影响。食品安全法规执行效果监管中,总体水平有待提升,各个部门的协调不力,造成互相推责的问题。故我国相关部门需提升执法力度,构建高素质的监管队伍,强化食品安全法规执行效果监管水平。其次,明确各部门监管权限与职责,强化根源管理,实现各环节的畅通监管。再次,加强食品安全的宣传教育,引导全民大众树立食品安全意识,共同参与食品安全监督。最后,加大监管力度与执法力度,严厉打击和查处不合格企业与单位。

                      关键词:星云棋牌官网下载 市场监督; 食品安全法; 执行效果; 监管;

                      Abstract: Based on the market supervision of food safety laws and regulations, this paper expounded the current situation of the supervision of the implementation effect of food safety and health in China, discussed the necessity of food safety regulatory enforcement effect, on the basis of the analysis of effect of food safety and compliance regulation and effect, summed up the food safety laws and regulations of the regulatory effect of countermeasures. In China, there are many supervision departments for the implementation effect of food safety laws and regulations, and the phenomenon of repeated management and unmanned management exists. In recent years, the outbreak of food safety accidents is relatively serious, resulting in adverse social impact. In the supervision of the implementation effect of food safety laws and regulations, the overall level needs to be improved, and the coordination of various departments is weak, resulting in mutual blame. Therefore, relevant departments in China need to enhance law enforcement, build high-quality supervision team, and strengthen the supervision level of the implementation effect of food safety laws and regulations. Secondly, clear the authority and responsibility of the supervision of all departments, strengthen the root cause management, to achieve smooth supervision of all links. Thirdly, strengthen the publicity and education of food safety, guide the public to establish food safety awareness, and jointly participate in food safety supervision. Finally, strengthen supervision and law enforcement, severely crack down and investigate unqualified enterprises and units.

                      Keyword: market supervision; food safety law; execution effect; regulatory;

                      1、 引言

                      食品的安全与卫生直接关系到国家的民生,因此受到了政府、大众的重点关注。自我国改革开放以来,我国的人民生活水平以及家庭生活条件都有了很大的改善,国家各级政府越来越重视食品行业的安全发展[1,2,3]。目前,我国政府制定了一系列的政策和措施,并且各级政府长期强调食品安全贯彻食品生产流通的全过程,食品安全监管的力度逐渐加强,一定程度上保证了我国食品的安全,提升了安全保障的能力[4,5,6,7]。随着国家对食品安全监管力度的增加,我国食品安全总体发展趋于良好。我国在2009年2月正式颁布了《中华人民共和国食品安全法》[8,9,10],且于当年6月正式实施。在2013年12月,在中央农村工作会议上,习近平总书记特地强调,农产品作为食品安全的源头,因此要严格把控农产品质量,从农业根源把好安全关,从而确保群众的食品安全[11,12,13]。在党的十九大报告中,食品安全问题再次被点出,要求坚持实施食品安全战略,确保人民的饮食安全。在我国政府的监督下,各级监管部门均强调食用农产品的质量和安全性[11,12,13,14]。孙志云等[15]通过对安徽省淮北市市场监督管理局局长的访问,调研显示要能够不断的优化管理机制,进而提升我国的食品安全监督水平。李志雄等[16]研究表明目前我国食品安全法律的实施中仍然存在问题,政府对食品安全法执行效果的监管也需要基于法律进一步完善。宋敏等[17]对我国食品安全监管现状进行了分析,并且提出了存在监管不力、重复管理等问题,需要加强政府的执行能力,提升监管水平。张伟清等[18]通过对英国、美国以及加拿3个国家的食品监督现状的研究,总结出提升食品安全监督管理的经验,旨在提升我国食品安全监督效果。另外,梅东杰[19]通过对欧盟动物源性食品安全法律监管经验的总结,提出我国动物源性食品安全的监管需要以法律为保障,进一步完善法律机制。
                     

                    基于市场监督的食品安全法规执行效果监管
                     

                    星云棋牌官网下载   SUIZHEWOGUODUONIANJIANCHISHIPINANQUANJIANGUAN,ZHENGFUYIJIXIANGGUANBUMENBUDUANTISHENGFALVYISHI,YIFA、ZHIFANENGLIDABUTISHENG,WOGUODESHIPINWEISHENGYUANQUANJIANDUTIXIYEZAIZHUJIANJIANQUAN,DUIYUSHIPINANQUANWENTIDEFANYINGNENGLIYEZAITISHENG,SHICHANGDEKONGZHINENGLIYEDEYIJIAQIANG[20,21,22,23]。DANGCHUXIANTUFAXINGDESHIPINANQUANSHIJIANSHI,WOGUOGEJIZHENGFUZAIYINGDUISHINENGGOUCHENZHEWENDING,JIJIYINGDUI,HELICHULIWENTI,SHIPINWEISHENGYUANQUANDEYEWUZHENGTISHUIPINGJUNYOULEMINGXIANDETISHENG[24]。DANTONGSHI,WOGUOSHIPINANQUANFAGUIDEZHIXINGXIAOGUOJIANGUANZHONGRENGRANCUNZAIWENTI,LIRUZHONGFUGUANLI、HUXIANGTUIZEDENG,BAOFACHUDESHIPINANQUANSHIGUZAOCHENGLEYANZHONGDESHEHUIFUMIANYINGXIANG[25,26,27,28,29]。YINCI,JIAQIANGDUISHIPINANQUANZHIXINGXIAOGUOJIANGUANQINGKUANGDEYANJIU,YOUZHUYUTISHENGWOGUODESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANXIAOGUO,ZAIQUNZHONGZHONGSHULILIANGHAODEZHENGFUXINGXIANG。BENWENDUIWOGUOSHIPINANQUANYUWEISHENGZHIXINGXIAOGUOJIANGUANXIANZHUANGJINXINGLECHANSHU,BINGTICHULEXIANGGUANJIANYI,YIQIWEIXIANGGUANBUMENTIGONGCANKAO。

                      2、 中国食品安全标准法规现状

                    星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIWOGUO,SHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNYUFAGUISHIFENLIDE,2015NIAN,WOGUOBANBUDE《SHIPINANQUANFA》SHIWOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIBENFA[30]。SUIZHEWOGUOGAIGEDEBUDUANSHENRU,SHIPINANQUANJIANGUANCONGYUANXIANDESHIPINYAOPINJIANGUANZONGJUBIANCHENGSHICHANGJIANGUANZONGJU、WOGUODESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDADUOSHUSHITONGGUODANXIANGBIAOZHUNDEXINGSHIBANBUDE,ZHEIXIEBIAOZHUNXIFENWEIGUOJIABIAOZHUN、DIFANGBIAOZHUN、XINGYEBIAOZHUN、TUANTIBIAOZHUNYIJIQIYEBIAOZHUNDENG[31,32,33]。GENJUWOGUO《SHIPINANQUANGUOJIABIAOZHUNGUANLIBANFA》ZHONGDEGUIDING,SHIPINANQUANGUOJIABIAOZHUNDEXIUDINGFENWEI8GEBUZHOU,CONGGUIHUA、JIHUA、LIXIANGDAOQICAO、SHENCHA、PIZHUN、FABU、XIUGAIYIJIFUSHEN[34,35]。ZAIZHIDINGGUOJIASHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNSHI,SHOUXIANJINXINGSHIPINANQUANDEFENGXIANPINGGU,BINGQIEYICIWEIJICHUZHIDINGCHUKEXUEDEBIAOZHUN,SUOYOUGUOCHENGJUNWEIGONGKAIDE、TOUMINGDE。MUQIAN,WOGUODESHIPINANQUANGUOJIABIAOZHUNKEXIFENWEI5GEBIAOZHUN,FENBIEWEIJICHUBIAOZHUN、CHANPINBIAOZHUN、JIANYANFANGFABIAOZHUN、GUOCHENGKONGZHIBIAOZHUNYIJIYUANLIAOHEXIANGGUANCHANPINBIAOZHUN[36]。2013NIANWOGUOYOUXIAODESHIPINANQUANGUOJIABIAOZHUNSHULIANGWEI2248XIANG[37],2018NIAN6YUE,YOUXIAOSHIPINANQUANGUOJIABIAOZHUNSHUWEI1260XIANG[38],SHULIANGYOUSUOJIANSHAO,ZHENGSHITONGGUOHELIZHENGHEJINERJIANSHAOGUOJIABIAOZHUNSHULIANG。GAIGEQIAN,FUZEWOGUOGUOJIABIAOZHUNDEGUANLIBUMENZHUYAOYOUGUOJIAZHIJIANZONGJU、NONGYEBU、WEISHENGBU、SHANGWUBU、LIANGSHIJU、GUOJIABIAOZHUNHUAGUANLIWEIYUANHUIDENGDENG,SHEJIDAODEBUMENZHONGFU、JIAOCHA,SHULIANGJIAODUO。TONGGUODUIBIAOZHUNFENXIKEZHI,TONGYIZHONGSHIPINZAIBUTONGDEBIAOZHUNZHONGYOUZHEBUTONGDEFENLEIYUZHIBIAOXIANLIANG,CUNZAIMAODUNDEWENTI。GAIGEHOU,GUOWUYUANSHELISHIPINANQUANWEIYUANHUI,FUZESHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNDEJIANDUYUGUANLI,GUOWUYUANWEISHENGXINGZHENGBUMENFUZESHIPINDEZONGHEXIEDIAO、SHIPINDEANQUANFENGXIANPINGGU、SHIPINANQUANDEBIAOZHUNZHIDINGYIJIXINXIGONGBU、ZIZHIRENDING、CHACHUSHIPINANQUANSHIGUDENG,GUOWUYUANZHILIANGJIANDU、GONGSHANGXINGZHENGGUANLIYIJISHIPINYAOPINJIANDUGUANLIBUMENGENJUSHIPINANQUANFAYIJIXIANGGUANZHIZEDUISHIPINDESHENGCHAN、LIUTONG、XIAOFEIDENGJINXINGJIANDU[39,40,41]。GAIGEHOU,WOGUOSHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNGUANLIBUMENDEDAOLEJINGJIAN,DANSHIRENGRANSHEJIJIAODUOBUMEN,QIEGEBUMENFUZEBUTONGHUANJIEDESHIPINANQUANJIANDU。LINGWAI,TONGYIGECHANPINZHIBIAOZAIGUONEIBIAOZHUNYUGUOJIBIAOZHUNZHONGDEZHICHABIEJIAODA,YOUQISHINONGCHANPINZHONGNONGYAOCANLIUDESHANGXIANBIAOZHUNYUGUOWAIBIAOZHUNYOUZHEJIAODADECHAYI。LIRU,JIULVDOUYAERYAN,HANGUOYAOQIUGAINONGCHANPINZHONGBUDEJIANCHUDUOJUNLING、FUMEISHUANGDENGGONGJI4ZHONGNONGYAO,QIEXIANLIANGBIAOZHUNSHIZHONGGUODUIYINGNONGCHANPINBIAOZHUNDESHIFENZHIYI。DUISHANGSHUXIANXIANGDEFENXIKEZHI,YOUYUWOGUOGUANYUSHIPINBIAOZHUNGUOYUCHENJIU,QIECHUANTONGDEBIAOZHUNZHIDINGBUMENJIAODUO,BIAOZHUNYECUNZAICHAYIHUADEXIANXIANG,YINCICHUXIANLEBIAOZHUNHUNLUANDEXIANXIANG。

                      3、 食品安全法规执行效果监管的必要性

                      3.1、 问题的来源:食品安全形势严峻

                      SUIZHEQUANQIUXINZIYOUZHUYIJINGJIZHENGCEDESHISHI,QIFUMIANYINGXIANGDAOZHISHIPINANQUANWENTIYUJIATUCHU,BINGQIEZAIJINNIANLAIYANZHONGBAOFA,DUIYOUGUANXINGYEYIJISHEHUIDEWENDINGZAOCHENGLEYIDINGDEDAJI,ZHUYAOWENTIBIAOXIANWEIXIAOFEIZHEQUEFASHIPINANQUANDEBAOZHANG[42,43,44]。MUQIAN,WOGUOYIJIANGSHIPINANQUANLIEWEIZHONGYAODESHEHUIWENTIZHIYI。JINGTONGJI,QUANQIUZUIWEIYANZHONGQIEPUBIANCUNZAIDEWEISHENGWENTIZHIYIJIUSHISHIPINWURANYINFADEJIBING,MEINIANYUEYOUSHANGQIANWANDERENYINWEISHIYONGLEZAOSHOUWURANDESHIWUERHUANSHANGSHIYUANXINGJIBING,YANZHONGDEWEIXIELERENMENDESHENGMINGANQUAN,TONGSHIHAIZENGJIALESHEHUIDEFUDAN,ZAOCHENGSHENGCHANXIAOLVDEJIANGDI。JIEHEMEIGUOJIKONGZHONGXINDEYUCESHUJUKEZHI,1993NIANZHI2010NIANQUANSHIJIEJIANGHUIYINWEISHIPINANQUANYINFADE10YILISHIYUANXINGJIBING,ERZAICIGUOCHENGZHONGJIANGHUIYOUYUEWEI180WANLIHUANZHEJIANGHUIYINCISIWANG[42]。WOGUOTONGYANGCUNZAIYINWEISHIPINANQUANWENTIYINFADESHIWUZHONGDUSHIJIAN,JIEHEXINLANGXINWENSHUJUKEZHI,MEINIANWOGUOZAIXIANGGUOWUYUANWEISHENGBUMENSHANGBAODESHANGQIANJIANSHIWUZHONGDUSHIJIANZHONG,DADUOSHUYOUYUZHIBINGWEISHENGWUWURANSHIPINJINERYINFADEZHONGDU。GENJUGONGGONGWEISHENGSHUJUXIANSHI,WOGUOJIKONGZHONGXINTONGJIFAXIANWOGUOMEINIANYUEYOU20–40WANSHIWUZHONGDUSHIJIANFASHENG,DANSHIJIFASHENGDELISHUYOUBAOGAOSHULIANGSHIBEIZHIDUO[44]。

                      3.2、 问题的表现:食品安全监管失灵

                    星云棋牌官网下载   MUQIAN,WOGUOGUANYUSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANDEZHENGCEYIJIFAGUIYIJINGJIAOWEIWANSHAN,DANSHIZAISHISHIGUOCHENGZHONGXIAOGUOBUTAILEGUAN。WOGUOCANYUSHIPINANQUANJIANDUGUANLIDEZHIFAJIGOUJIAODUO,DANCUNZAITONGYIXINGYECHANPINDUOBUMENZHONGFUGUANLI,BUFENCHANPINWUBUMENGUANLIDEQINGKUANG。ZAIWOGUOSHISHISHIPINANQUANBIAOZHUNGUANLIGAIGEQIAN,SHIDUOGEBUMENTONGSHICANYUGUANLI,BUTONGJIANGUANBUMENGEZIGUANLI,QUEFALIANGHAODEXINXIHUTONGQUDAO,DAOZHISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANFENSAN、HUNLUAN。GAIGEHOU,WOGUOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANBUMENDEDAOJINGJIAN,SHANGSHUWENTIYOUSUOGAISHAN,DANRENGRANCUNZAIJIANGUANSHILING、JIANGUANBULIDEWENTI。DANGCHUXIANWENTISHI,BUMENZHIJIANRENGRANCUNZAIHUXIANGTUIWEIDEXIANXIANG。LIRU,SHENGZHUCHANPINDEANQUANJIANGUANZHONG,WEISHENGXINGZHENGBUMENFUZEZONGHEXINGDEXIEDIAOGUANLI,GUOWUYUANZHILIANGJIANDU、GONGSHANGXINGZHENGGUANLIYIJISHIPINYAOPINJIANDUGUANLIBUMENFUZESHENGZHUCHANPINDESHENGCHAN、JIAGONG、LIUTONGYIJICANYINFUWUDENGHUANJIEDEJIANDUYUGUANLI。DANZAI2001NIANZHI2019NIAN,RENGRANFASHENGLEDUOQIZHUROUJIQIZHIPINANQUANSHIGU,YINQILESHEHUIDUISHIPINANQUANDEKONGHUANG[45]。

                      3.3、 问题的纠结:监管机构监管不力

                    星云棋牌官网下载   JINNIANLAI,SHIPINANQUANSHIGUDUOFA,ZAISHEHUIZHONGZAOCHENGLEFUMIANDEYINGXIANG,WULUNSHI“JIAJIDAN”、“DUZHUROU”HAISHI“SANLUNIUNAI”、“KENDEJISUDANHONGJICHI”DENGSHIPINANQUANSHIGUDEFASHENG,DOUYANZHONGDEJIANGDILERENMINQUNZHONGDUISHIPINANQUANDEXINRENDU。SHIPINANQUANJIANDUGUANLIBULI,DAOZHISHIPINANQUANNANYIBAOZHENG,BULIYUWOGUOMINSHENGANQUANYIJISHEHUIDEWENDING[46]。SHEHUIGEJIE、QUANTIDAZHONGJUNGUANZHUSHIPINANQUANWENTI,ERZHENGFUYOUGAIZENYANGCONGYUANTOUBAOZHENGSHIPINDEANQUANXING,RUHEDAPOSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHONGDEZHIDUBILEI,ZENGQIANGSHIPINANQUANJIANGUANBUMENDEZHIXINGLI,ZHEIYIWENTIYIJINGSHANGSHENGWEIGUANXIDAOMINSHENGDEZHENGZHIWENTI、JINGJIWENTI、SHEHUIWENTI。YINCI,DUISHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHIXINGLIDUWENTIDEYANJIUFEICHANGBIYAO,JUYOUXIANZHEDELILUNYUSHIJIANYIYI[47]。

                      4、 食品安全法规执行效果监管措施及效果

                      4.1 、确定连续监督的工作思路

                    星云棋牌官网下载   SHIPINDEANQUANYUWEISHENGGUANXIDAOMINSHENGJIANSHE,TONGSHIYESHIWOGUORENMINDAZHONGZUIWEIGUANXIN、ZUIYOUGUANLIANDELIYIWENTI,ERWEIHURENMINDAZHONGDELIYI,ZEXUYAOZHENGQUE、QIANGYOULIDESHISHISHIPINANQUANYUWEISHENGDEFALVFAGUI[48]。XIANJIEDUAN,WOGUORENGCHUYUSHEHUIZHUYIDECHUJIJIEDUAN,SHIPINXINGYEDESHENGCHANLIZONGTISHUIPINGHAIYOUDAITISHENG,SHENGCHANZHEQUEFAQIANGLIEDECHENGXINYISHI,DAZHONGDESHIPINXIAOFEISHUIPINGCENGCIBUQI,QUEFAJIAOQIANGDEXIAOFEIANQUANYISHI,LINGWAISHOUDAOSHIPINSHENGCHANYUANLIAOYUXINJISHUYINGYONGDEYINGXIANG,SHIPINDEANQUANWEISHENGWENTICHENGWEIJUBEIFUZA、ZHANGQITEDIANDEWENTI,XUYAOXITONGDE、CHIXUDEJIEJUEWENTI。YINCI,ZAISHIPINANQUANJIANDUGONGZUOZHONG,YAONENGGOUMINGQUEZHANGQI、CHIXUJIANDUDEGONGZUOSILU,ZAISHIPINANQUANJIANDUGONGZUOZHONGBUDUANZONGJIE、BUDUANCHUANGXIN,CONGERDUIJIANDUXIANGMUSHIXIANFENLEI,JIEHEWENTIDELEIXINGQUEDINGJIANDUGONGZUODEFANGXIANG。ZAISHIPINANQUANJIANDUGUOCHENGZHONG,DUIYUDUANQINENGGOUCHULIDEWENTI,YAONENGGOUYICIXINGDEJIZHONGJIANGUAN,DUIYUXUYAOYIDUANSHIJIANCAINENGGOUCHULIDEWENTI,YAOGENZONGJIANGUAN。

                      4.2、 对重点问题进行重点监督

                      SHIPINDEWEISHENGYUANQUANJIANGUANGONGZUODEZONGHEXINGJIAOQIANG,SHEJIDAODEFANWEIJIAOGUANG,SHIYIGEXITONGDE、FUZADEGONGCHENG。WOGUOZHENGFUMEINIANJUNHUIDUIDANGQIANZUIWEIMINGXIAN、ZUIWEITUCHUDEWENTIJINXINGJIZHONGJIANCHA,CONGERTUIDONGXIAJIZHENGFUYIJIXIANGGUANBUMENJIEJUEWENTIDENENGLI,SHIXIANSHIPINANQUANJIANDUGONGZUOSHUIPINGDETISHENG。LIRU,2017NIAN,TONGGUO“QUANGUOCHENGSHIWEISHENGJIANCHAPINGBI”GONGZUODEKAIZHAN,JIEHESHIPINANQUANWEISHENGJIANDUDEKAIZHAN,ZHONGDIANDIAOCHALEWENTIMINGXIANDECANYINYESHIPINWEISHENG,DUIYUJICHUTIAOJIANXIANGDUIJIAOCHADECANYINYETICHULEXIANGYINGDEJIANYIYUYIJIAN,CONGERSHIWEISHENGXINGZHENGBUMENZHIDINGHECHUTAILEXIANGGUANDEWEISHENGBIAOZHUN,DUIXIAOXINGCANGUANJINXINGJIZHONGCHULIHEGAIJIN。CHANGWEIHUIMEINIANDOUHUIDUICANYINYEZHONGDEZHONGXIAOXINGCANYINDANWEI、GONGDISHITANG、SONGCANQIYEDENGRONGYICHUWENTIDEQIYEJINXINGJIANCHA,ZHONGDIANZHENGZHIXIANGGUANWENTI,BAOZHENGSHIPINANQUANYUWEISHENG。YUCITONGSHI,XIANGGUANJIANGUANBUMENZAIZHENGFUDELINGDAOXIADUIYOUGUANSHIPINANQUANWENTIJINXINGLEZONGHEXINGDEZHILI,CONGERTUOZHANLESHIPINANQUANWEISHENGJIANGUANGONGZUODESHENDUHEGUANGDU。

                      4.3、 改进监督方式,推动法规贯彻落实

                    星云棋牌官网下载   SHIPINWEISHENGYUANQUANDEJIANDUZHONG,YAONENGGOUDUIXIANYOUDEJIANDUFANGSHIJINXINGZONGJIEHECHUANGXIN,JIEHEZHIFAJIANCHA、YIANBANLIGONGZUO、QUANGUORENDAWEITUOZHIFAJIANCHAYIJISHUZHIPINGYIDENG,QUEDINGMINGCHAANFANG、DINGQIJIANCHAYUSUIJICHOUCHADENGJIEHEDEFANGSHIKAIZHANSHIPINANQUANJIANDUGUANLIGONGZUO。SUIZHEJIANDUFANGSHIDECHUANGXIN,JIZHONGSHICHAYUDAIBIAOSHICHA、ZICHAYUANYAOQIUZHENGGAIDENGDUOZHONGXINGSHIFENFENCHUXIAN,SHIPINWEISHENGYUANQUANDEJIANDUGUANLIZHONG,FALVFAGUIDEZHIXINGLIDUBUDUANTISHENG,ZONGHESHUIPINGYEDEYITISHENG[49]。LIRU,2012NIAN,BEIJINGSHISHIRENDACHANGWEIHUIJIANGSHIPINWEISHENGANQUANZHIFAJIANCHAGONGZUOYUANQUANYIANBANLIGONGZUOTONGSHIJINXING,DUIQIANYINIANDESHIPINWEISHENGZHIFAJIANCHAQINGKUANGJINXINGLUOSHI,YOUXIAODETIGAOLEJIANDUGUANLIDEXIAOLV,TONGSHIHAIDADAJIANGDILEJIANDUGUANLIDECHENGBEN。JIEHEDUOXIANGSHIPINWEISHENGYUANQUANZHIFAJIANCHAGONGZUO,ZAISHIRENDACHANGWEIHUIDETONGYILINGDAOXIA,GEGEBUMENTONGLIHEZUO,GONGTONGTUIDONGSHIPINANQUANYUWEISHENGGONGZUODEJINBU。LINGWAI,CHANGWEIHUITONGGUODUOCIDAGUIMODEZHIFAJIANCHA,SHENRUDEJIANCHALESHIPINWEISHENGJIANDUGUANLIDEFANGSHI,ZAICIJICHUSHANGTICHUGONGZUOGAISHANDEYIJIAN,XIAOGUOLIANGHAO,DUIYUDUANSHIKEJIEJUEDEWENTI,YAOQIUXIANGGUANBUMENLIKEZHENGZHI,DUIYUXUYAOZHANGSHIJIANCAINENGCHULIDEWENTI,YAOQIUXIANGGUANZHENGFUBUMENCHIXUGENZONG,BINGQIEZAIXIANDINGQIXIANNEIFANKUIZHENGZHIQINGKUANG。LINGWAI,CHANGWEIHUIHAIZUJIANLESHIPINANQUANYUWEISHENGZHIFAJIANCHAXUANCHUANXIAOZU,DUISHIPINWEISHENGJIANDUGONGZUOJINXINGGENZONGBAODAO,JIANGBAODAOMIANXIANGDAZHONGZHENGQIUQUNZHONGYIJIAN,JIEHERENDAJIANDU、YULUNJIANDU、QUNZHONGJIANDU,QIANGHUALEZHIFADELIDU,TISHENGLESHIPINANQUANYUWEISHENGDEJIANDUXIAOGUO。

                      4.4 、实行综合监督,食品卫生与食品安全工作取得较大进展

                    星云棋牌官网下载   ZONGHEJIANDUYOUXIAODETISHENGLESHIPINWEISHENGYUANQUANJIANDUGONGZUODEXIAOGUO。ZAICHANGWEIHUIJIAOKEWENWEITIBANGONGSHIDEQIANTOUZUOYONGXIA,LIANHECAIJINGBANGONGSHIYIJINONGCUNBANGONGSHIDEZHIFAJIANCHAZU,WEIRAONONGCHANPINDESHENGCHAN、JIAGONG、LIUTONG、CANYINDENGHUANJIEJINXINGJIANDUGUANLI,GUANCHEWOGUOSHIPINANQUANYUWEISHENGFALVYUFAGUI,DUISHIPINDEANQUANYUWEISHENGJINXINGZONGHEXINGDEJIANCHA。DUIYUJIANCHAJIEGUO,ZAIDIERNIANDUYOUYOUGUANBUMENDUIZHIFAJIEGUOJINXINGFUCHAHEHUIBAO。JIEZHIDAODAO2016NIANNIANDI,BEIJINGQUANSHISHIJINONGYEBIAOZHUNHUADESHENGCHANJIDIYIJIQUXIANJINONGYEBIAOZHUNHUASHENGCHANJIDISHULIANGJUNCHAOGUO1000JIA,SUOYOUCHANPINJUNXIEDAISUYUANMA,XIAOFEIZHENENGGOUTONGGUOSUYUANMAJINXINGZHUISU。ZAIQUANSHIDENONGCHANPINZONGLIANGZHONG,YOUCHAOGUO30%DECHANPINWEILVSESHIPINYIJIYOUJISHIPIN,QUANSHITUZAIZONGLIANGDE79%WEIXIANDAIHUADEDAXINGYUZHONGXINGQIYE,YUSHANGYINIANDUXIANGBI,SHANGSHENGLE20%,TONGGUODUIQUANSHIZHUROUDECHOUJIAN,HEGELVGAODA98%。NONGYEBULIANXUWUNIANDUIBENSHIJINXINGDONGTAIJIANDU,JIEGUOBIAOMINGSHUCAIDENONGYAOCANLIUMINGXIANXIAJIANG,ZHUROUCHANPINZHONGDESHOUROUJINGJIANCHULVLIANXULIANGNIANWEILING。ZAI2016NIAN,QUANSHIGONGDUI59GEDALEI、550GEPINZHONGDE103691GEYANGBENJINXINGCHOUCHA,JIANCHAJIEGUOXIANSHIZONGHEGELVDADAO95.28%,ZAISHANGSHUPINLEIZHONG,ZHIJIEGUANXIDAOGUOJIAJINGJIYUSHEHUIFAZHANDEDAMI、XIAOMAIFEN、SHUCAI、ZHUROU、DOUZHIPINYIJIZHIWUYOUDENG6DALEISHIPINDEHEGELVDADAOLE95.78%。GAINIANDU,QUANSHICHAOGUO35000JIACANYINQIYEWEISHENGJIANDUGONGZUOSHIXIANLELIANGHUAFENJIGUANLI,GONGSHIXIANLE9GEDAXIANG、67GEXIAOXIANGDEPINGSHENGONGZUO,ZHENGZHIHOUDADAOSHIPINWEISHENGBIAOZHUNCJIYISHANGDEQIYESHULIANGYIJINGGAODA91%。WEIQUANSHIZHONGXIAOXUESHENGGONGYINGCANYINDE60DUOJIAQIYE,GENJUHACCPYAOQIUGOUJIANLESHIWUZHONGDUYUFANGTIXI,YUSHANGYINIANDUXIANGBI,SHIWUZHONGDUSHULIANGXIAJIANGLE12.8%,ZHONGDUZONGRENSHUXIAJIANGFUDUCHAOGUO42%,QIEQUANNIANWEICHUXIANZHONGDASHIWUZHONGDUSHIJIAN[50]。

                      5、 食品安全法规执行效果监管对策

                      5.1、 完善现行法律法规

                      SHIPINANQUANFAGUIZHIXIAOGUOJIANGUANZHONG,GUOJIAYAONENGGOUJIANQUANFALVFAGUI,XIUDINGGENGJIAWANSHANDEDIANZIJIANGUANZHIDU、GUANLIJIZHIYIJIXIANGGUANANQUANBIAOZHUN,SHIQIGENGJIAKEXUE,ZENGQIANGQICAOZUODELINGHUOXING。YUCITONGSHI,SHIPINANQUANJIANGUANZHONG,GUANGGAOSHIZHONGYAODEXUANCHUANSHOUDUAN,GUOJIAYAONENGGOUWANSHANSHIPINGUANGGAODEHECHAYUGUANLI,GUIFANGUANGGAODESHENPIYUFABULIUCHENG,MINGQUEJIANGUANBUMENDEQUANXIAN、ZHIZE。SUIZHEWANGLUOJISHUDEFAZHAN,DALIANGXIAOFEIZHEXUANZEWANGGOUSHIPIN,YINCIYAOJIYUSHIPINANQUANFAZHIDINGCHUZHENDUIWANGLUODESHIPINJIANGUANFALV、FAGUI。LINGWAI,XIANYOUDESHIPINANQUANJIANDUGUANLIXIEDIAOJIZHIXUYAOJINYIBUWANSHAN,DUIYUWEIGUIXINGWEIYAOJIADACHENGCHULIDU,ZENGQIANGXINGYEDEZILVXING。

                      5.2、 建立全方位食品安全监管体系

                      QUANFANGWEIDESHIPINANQUANJIANGUANTIXISHIBAOZHANGWOGUOSHIPINWEISHENGYUANQUANDEZHONGYAOFANGFA,YINCIYAONENGGOUZAIGUOJIASHIPINANQUANWEIYUANHUIDEDAILINGXIAYOUHUAJIANDUGUANLIFANGSHI,JINKENENGQIANYISHIPINANQUANJIANDUGUANLIDEHUANJIE,ZHUZHONGSHIPINDEYUANTOUJIANYANYUJIANYI,TISHENGJIANYANDESHUIPING,TUCHUQIANGDIAOSHENGCHANYUANTOUDEJIANGUAN。YUCITONGSHI,ZHENGFUYAONENGGOUJIAQIANGDUIWUGONGHAINONGCHANPINFUCHI,TUIDONGLVSESHIPIN、YOUJISHIPINDEFAZHAN,DUIYUZAOJIA、YOUDUYOUHAISHIPINYAOJIADACHENGFALIDU。LINGWAI,MUQIANWOGUOLIUDONGSHIPINSHICHANGJIAODUO,CILEISHICHANGZHONGDESHIPINJIANDUGUANLINANDUJIAODA,YINCIYAODUICILEISHICHANGJIAQIANGGUANLILIDU,DUIYUXIAOXINGDESHIPINQIYE、CHUANTONGDEZUOFANGDENG,YAOYANJIAJIANCHA,DUIYUHEGEDEQIYEYUZUOFANGYAOJIYUZHICHI,ERZHILIANGBUDABIAO,NANYIBAOZHENGSHIPINANQUANYUWEISHENGDEQIYEYUZUOFANG,GUIDINGXIANQIZHENGGAI,XIANQIHOUYIRANBUNENGDABIAODE,YAOYANGEQUDI。

                      5.3 、加大执法力度,提高惩罚标准

                    星云棋牌官网下载   JIADAZHIFALIDU、TISHENGCHENGFABIAOZHUN,DUIYUZHIZAO、XIAOSHOUYOUDUYOUHAISHIPINDEXINGWEIJINXINGYANGEDAJI,ZHIXINGCAICHANXING、RENSHENXINGDETONGSHIHAIYAOTISHENGFANZUICHENGBEN,YANLIDAJIFANZUIXINGWEI。QIANGHUAZHIFARENYUANDEFAZHIJIAOYU,CONGGENYUANSHANGJIEJUESHIPINANQUANWENTI,YOUWEIFADEXINGWEIYAOZHUIJIUXIANGGUANRENYUANDEXINGZHENGHEXINGSHIZEREN,TUIDONGXINGZHENGZHIFAYUXINGSHIZHIFAXIANJIEJIZHIDEGOUJIAN,CONGERSHIXINGZHENGZHIFAGONGZUOZAISIFAJIGUANDEJIANDUXIAJINXING。DANGXINGZHENGZHIFARENYUANWEIANYAOQIUYISONGZHONGDASHIPINANQUANANJIANSHI,SIFAJIGUANYAONENGGOUCAIQUXIANGGUANXINGDONG,DUIYUZHENGJUQUEZAODEWEIFAXINGWEIJINXINGYANLIDAJI,BINGQIEDUIYUYOUGUANXINGZHENGZHIFARENYUANJINXINGXINGZHENGCHUFA,TEBIEYANZHONGDEJINXINGXINGSHICHUFA。

                      5.4、 加强宣传教育,提高全民食品安全意识

                    星云棋牌官网下载   QUANTIMINZHONGDOUSHULISHIPINANQUANYISHIHOU,SHIPINWEISHENGYUANQUANJIANDUXIAOGUOJIANGHUIDAFUTISHENG。SHOUXIAN,ZHENGFUKETONGGUOWEIXINGONGZHONGHAODENGXIANDAIHUAMEITIYIJICHUANTONGBAOZHI、DIANSHIDENGCHUANTONGMEITIFANGSHIGONGJIANSHIPINANQUANXUANCHUAN,JIEHESHIPINANQUANDEXINWENBAODAOHEXUANCHUANJIAOYUJIANGZUO,FAHUICHUXINWENJIANDUDEZUOYONG。LINGWAI,KETONGGUODIANSHITAIJIEMUDEFANGSHIBOFANGZHUANJIAFANGTAN、ANLIFENXIDENGNEIRONG,JINXINGSHIPINANQUANZHISHIDEPUJIJIAOYU,TISHENGQUNZHONGDESHIPINANQUANYISHI。QICI,ZHENGFUYAOQIANGDIAOQIYEZAIFAZHANZHONGSHULIZERENGAN,GOUJIANSHIPINANQUANGUANLITIXIZHINAN,YAOQIUQIYEGUANCHEGUOJIADEFALVFAGUI,SHULISHEHUIZERENYISHI,YINGZAOTUIDONGQIYEXINGCHENGSHEHUIZERENDEFENWEI。ZUIHOU,JIADAZHENGFUXIANGGUANBUMENDUISHIPINWEISHENGYUANQUANDEJIANDULIDU,DUIYUBUTONGXINGSHI、BUTONGLEIXING、BUTONGGUIMODESHIPINQIYEDOUYAOYANJIAJIANGUAN。

                      6 、结论

                    星云棋牌官网下载   JIYUSHICHANGJIANDUDESHIPINANQUANFAGUIZHIXINGXIAOGUOJIANGUANQINGKUANGDEFENXIFAXIAN,WOGUOSHIPINANQUANFAGUIZHIXINGXIAOGUOJIANGUANGAIGEHOU,JIANGUANBUMENDEDAOJINGJIAN,JIANGUANDEXIAOLVHEZHILIANGYEDEDAOLETISHENG。DANZAICIGUOCHENGZHONG,RENGRANCUNZAIZHONGFUGUANLIYUWURENGUANLIDEXIANXIANG,SHIPINANQUANSHIGURENGRANBAOFA,YINQILEBULIANGDESHEHUIYINGXIANG。YOUYUJIANGUANBUMENSUOFUZEDEHUANJIEBUTONG,QIEGEGEBUMENZHIJIANDEXIEDIAONENGLIBUZU,CHUXIANWENTIHOUZAOCHENGLEHUXIANGTUIZEDEXIANXIANG。YINCI,WEILETISHENGWOGUOSHIPINANQUANFAGUIZHIXINGXIAOGUODEJIANGUANSHUIPING,XUYAOGOUJIANGAOZHILIANGDEJIANGUANDUIWU,QIANGHUAZHIFADELIDU,TONGSHIYAONENGGOUCONGGENYUANJIAQIANGGUANLI,SHIXIANGEGEHUANJIEDECHANGTONGJIANDU,JIAQIANGSHIPINANQUANJIAOYU,YINDAODAZHONGXINGCHENGGENGGAODESHIPINANQUANYISHI,CANYUDAOSHIPINANQUANJIANDUYUGUANLIZHONG。

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                      赵艺林.基于市场监督的食品安全法规执行效果监管[J].食品安全质量检测学报,2019,10(22):7812-7818.
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