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                            美国黑人史书写对美国历史的作用分析

                            时间:2018-12-23 来源:史学月刊 作者:刘雅军 本文字数:40623字

                              摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 20世纪60年代是美国黑人史书写的分水岭。它逐渐从传统的贡献论、斗争论转向黑人共同体及其文化。美国黑人试图从自身的视角理解美国历史与现状,进而通过新黑人史加强自我意识、自尊和族群凝聚力,寻求作为一个集团在政治上合一到美国社会中去的机会。70年代中期以后,此种新黑人史书写虽然并未在民族主义方向上持续发展,但是,它的亚文化族群特征逐渐改变了美国史主体架构,与其他新兴的边缘群体史学一起,严厉谴责美国过去的罪恶,最终解构了传统美国史。八九十年代以后,经由大众传播和学校历史教育,“碎片化”的新美国史引发文化身份认同、多元文化教育、乃至国家分裂的激烈争论。

                              关键词: 新黑人史; 黑人共同体-文化; 美国史;

                              Abstract: The 1960 s marked a watershed in the writing of American black history.It gradually shifted from the traditional theories of contribution and struggle to the black community and its culture.African Americans tried to understand the history and current situation of the United States from their own perspective,strengthen their selfconsciousness,self-esteem and ethnic cohesion through the new black history,and seek the opportunity to integrate into the American society politically as a group.After the mid-1970 s,although the writing of new black history books did not develop continuously in the direction of nationalism,its subculture and ethnic characteristics gradually changed the main structure of American history.Together with the history writing of other emerging marginalized groups,they severely condemned the past sins of the United States and finally deconstructed the traditional American history.After the 1980 sand 1990 s,through mass communication and school history education,the new “fragmented”American history triggered fierce debates on cultural identity,multicultural education and even national division.

                              Keyword: new black history; black community-and-culture; American history;

                              *GUANYULISHISHUXIEDUIGUOJIAHUOZUQUNLISHIYISHIHEGONGTONGTIJIANGOUDEZUOYONG,DANGDAIMINZULILUNJIAANDONGNI·SHIMISICENGSHUO:ZHISHIFENZITONGGUOSHUXIEBENGUOJIAHUOZUQUNDE“XINSHI”,YONGYOUQIANGDADEDONGYUANLILIANG,DUIYUJILIQI“WOMENDERENMIN”WEIGONGTONGDEMINZUZUOZIWOXISHENGDEYUANWANGHEYIZHI,HENSHAOYOUQITAYISHIXINGTAINENGGOUYUZHIPIDI1。YEJIUSHISHUO,YOUYULISHINENGGOUTIGONGHEFAXING,YINCI,YOUXIAODESHIYONG“GUOQU”SHIYIZHONGZENGQIANGZHENGZHILILIANGDEFANGSHI。20SHIJIMEIGUOHEIRENSHISHUXIEDEXINGQI、20SHIJI60NIANDAIDEZHONGXINZHUANXIANGJIQIDUIMEIGUOSHIDEYINGXIANG,QIAHAOTIGONGLEYIGEDIANXINGDELIZHENG。MUQIAN,GUONEIWAIXUEJIEDEXIANGGUANYANJIUFENSANZAISHIXUESHI、WENHUASHIHEJIAOYUSHIDENGBUTONGLINGYUDANGZHONG2。BENWENZAICIJICHUSHANG,CONGWENHUAZHENGZHISHIDESHIJIAO,CHANGSHIJIANGXIANGGUANZHULINGYUDEWENTISHIWEIYIGEMIQIEGUANLIANDEZHENGTI,JIEHESHIDAIBEIJINGJUJIAOMEIGUOHEIRENSHISHUXIENEIZAILILUDEDAIJIBIANHUA,FENXIQISHUXIEZHONGXINZHUANXIANGYUSHEHUIYUNDONG、XUEXIAOLISHIJIAOYUBIANGEZHIJIANDEGUANLIANYUHUDONG,CHENGXIANHEIRENSHIZHENGZHIXINGYIYIBUDUANJIAQIANGDEGUOCHENG、YINFADEZHENGLUNHEDUOMIANXIANGDEYINGXIANG,JINERTICHUDUOMINZUGUOJIASHUXIEZUYISHIDEYIXIEXIANGGUANWENTI,XIWANGNENGGOUWEIJIAOSHENRUDIRENSHILISHISHUXIEYUZUQUNWENHUAJIANGOU、GUOJIAZHULIUWENHUAZHONGGOUZHIJIANDEGUANXITIGONGYIDIANCANKAO。

                              一、20世纪60年代之前的黑人史:修正主流美国史

                              当代美国历史学家阿普尔比在《历史的真相》中提到,典型的美国国族史故事,讲的是“自革命以来政治自由和经济繁荣的成功发展史。黑人虽然自1619年就来到英属美洲殖民地,在历史教科书里却只有模糊的影子……300多年来,白种美国人一直隐瞒黑人存在的证据,而且一直把黑人的经历排除在美国国史之外”3。的确,在19世纪盛行欧洲的“科学种族主义史学”的影响下,职业历史学家书写的美国史,着重探讨盎格鲁-撒克逊种族起源、民主体制等,以“宏大叙事”奠定了“盎格鲁-撒克逊白人新教文化”的主导地位,淡化或抹煞土着印第安人和其他民族在创建美国过程中所起的作用。“所谓的科学史家写了很多着作,论说黑人在奴隶制下展示的孩童的幼稚本性,内战中的懦弱无能,以及解放后的野蛮和浪费。他们声称,历史清楚地表明黑人不能作为自由人而生存。由此,奴隶解放时期也就被看成是黑人的灾难和白人的麻烦。”4
                             

                            美国黑人史书写对美国历史的作用分析
                             

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZHEIZHONGMEIGUOSHISHUXIEDEYINGXIANGJIYOUHAIYOUSHENYUAN。TABUJINSHIHEIRENCHANSHENGQIANGLIEDEZIBEIGAN,NANYIQUERENZIJIDESHENFEN,ERQIEWEIYIZHENGTAOFUZAERYOUJUDAWEIHAIDE、ZHILIYUGELIHEIRENHEBAIRENDEFALV,TIGONGLELISHIHEFAXING,YONGYUCHUANGJIANHEWEIHUHEIRENYUBAIRENZHIJIANBUKEYUYUEDEHONGGOU。HEIRENXUEZHEDUBOYISICENGZAI《HEIRENDELINGHUN》(1903)ZHONGSHUO:“ZHEIGESHIJIEBURANGTA(HEIREN)JUYOUZHENZHENGDEZIWOYISHI,ZHIRANGTATONGGUOLINGYISHIJIEDEQISHILAIRENSHIZIJI……SHIYIGEMEIGUOREN,YOUSHIYIGEHEIREN;LIANGGELINGHUN,LIANGZHONGSIXIANG,LIANGZHONGBICIBUNENGDIAOHEDEDOUZHENG;LIANGZHONGBINGCUNZAIYUYIGEHEISESHENQUNEIDEDIDUIYISHI,ZHEIGESHENQUZHISHIKAOLETADEBAIZHEBUNAODEYILI,CAIMEIYOUFENLIE。”5

                              ZAIMIMANGHETONGKUZHONG,19SHIJIZHONGYEQI,HEIRENQUNTIZHONGCHUXIANLEDIYIDAIYEYUHEIRENSHISHUXIEZHE,RUZHANMUSI·C.PANNINGDUN(James C.Pennington)、LUOBOTE·BENYAMING·LIWEISI(Robert Benjamin Lewis)、WEILIAN·WEIERSI·BULANGEN(William Wells Brown)、WEILIAN·KUPO·NEIER(William Cooper Nell)DENG。TAMENXIANGYAOTONGGUOZIJIDEHEIRENSHIXIEZUOGAIBIANCHUANTONGDEFUMIANHEIRENXINGXIANG,ZHENGMINGHEIRENTONGMEIGUOSHENGHUODEXIANGRONGXING。LIRU,PANNINGDUNZAI1841NIANZUIZAOCHUBANMEIGUOHEIRENSHIDEZONGHEZHEZUO,SHIYONG《SHENGJING》ZUOWEIZHUYAOZILIAO,BOCHISHENGXINGDEZHONGZULIEDENGLILUN,ZHENGMINGHEIRENYESHUYURENLEIDAJIATING。TAJIESHISHUO,MEIZHOUDENULIMAOYIHENULIZHIJISHIFEIZHOURENDEDUOSHENXINYANGRESHANGDIBUGAOXINGDEJIEGUO,YEYUANYUMEIZHOUZHIMINDIDUILAODONGLIDEXUQIU,ERFEIZHONGZUDILIE。QITAZAOQIHEIRENYEYULISHIXUEJIAYUPANNINGDUNDEFANGFAXIANGSI,DANSHIGENGQIANGDIAOHEIRENDUIRENLEIWENMINGSUOZUODEGONGXIANYITISHENGQIPINGDENG。LIWEISISHIYONG《SHENGJING》HEQITAGUDIANZILIAO,MIAOSHUAIJIRENDUISHIJIEWENXUE、YINLE、KEXUE、JIANZHU、SHUXUEDENGFANGMIANDEGONGXIAN。BULANGENSHIYONGCHUANJIZILIAO,ZHANSHIHEIRENRUOYOUJIHUIJIUNENGGOUQUDECHENGJIU。NEIERYIHEIRENCANYUDULIZHANZHENGLAISHUOMINGHEIRENJUYOUCHENGWEIZHONGCHENGGONGMINDENENGLI。ZHEIXIEMEIGUOHEIRENSHIDEZAOQIZUOPIN,QIANGDIAOHEIRENZAIFEIZHOU、MEIZHOU,ZAIYIZHISHIJIEDEGONGXIAN。TONGGUOZHANSHIHEIRENDECHENGJIU,TAMENXIWANGNENGGOUJILIHEIRENCHAOXIANGDIANFANDESHENGHUO,BINGYINCIXIAOCHULAIZIBAIRENDEPIPINGDELIYOU,JINERGAIBIANMEIGUOSHEHUIDUIDAIHEIRENDETAIDU,DEDAOBAIRENDEJIENA。RANER,TAMENDELISHIBIANZUANXUESHOUDAOLEZILIAOHEJIAGOUDEXIANZHI,KEXINDUBINGBUGAO,YINGXIANGYESHIFENYOUXIAN6。

                              BUJIUZHIHOU,BEIYUEHAN·HUOPU·FULANKELIN(John Hope Franklin)SHIWEIXIANDAIMEIGUOHEIRENSHIBIANZUANXUEZHIFUDEQIAOZHI·HUASHENGDUN·WEILIANMUSI(George Washington Williams),TONGGUOXITONGSHIYONGYUANSHIZILIAO,RUBAOZHI、HEIRENZUZHIDEJILU、TONGJISHUJU、DANGANZILIAO、FANGTANDENG,XIEZUOLEMEIGUOHEIRENDIYIBUYANSUDELISHIZHEZUO,JI《1619-1880NIANMEIGUOHEIRENZHONGZUDELISHI:ZUOWEINULI、SHIBINGHEGONGMINDEHEIREN》(History of the Negro Race in America from1619 to 1880:Negroes as Slaves,as Soldiers,and as Citizens,1882),CUSHIMEIGUOHEIRENSHIYOULEGEMINGXINGDEFAZHAN。SUIRANMEIYOUHENQIANGDEFENXIXINGHEPIPANXING,YEHAIMEIYOUWANQUANBAITUOSHENYUSECAI(TASHUO,ZAILISHIDEJIESHIZHONG,BIYAOMINGBIANSHANGDIDEJIHUA),ZHEIBUZUOPINQUESHIZAINULIDIJILUSHISHI。WEILIANMUSIZAI“QIANYAN”ZHONGSHUO:“WODEQUANBUKEWANGYIZHISHIZHUANXIEYIBUQUESHIZHIDEXINRENDE、KEKAODELISHIZHEZUO。”7TONGSHI,TADEZUOPINYESHIYAOCUSHIZHONGJIANHOU“CHONGMANKONGJUDESHIQILIHEIRENDAZHONGJINZUIDANULIWEIGONGMINQUANHERENZHIWEIRENERZHAN”8。

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                            星云棋牌官网下载   CONGGENBENSHANGSHUO,HEIRENLISHIXUEJIADULIERLENGJINGDE、BEIGELIDEYANJIUGONGZUO,JIANLIZAIDUIMINZHUXINTIAO、MEIGUODEZHONGZUSHIJIANHEXIWANGZHIJIANMAODUNDESHENKERENSHIZHISHANG。TAMENRENWEI,MEIGUOZHONGZUWENTIDEZHUYAOYUANYINSHIBAIRENBUZHIDAOHEIRENSUOZUODEZHONGYAOGONGXIAN;ERZHISHISHIZUIHAODEXIAOCHUZHONGZUBUPINGDENGDEGONGJU,ZHUANXIEHEIRENSHIJISHIWEIHEIRENDUZHEXIEZUO,XIWANGYICITISHENGHEIRENDUIZIJIYICHANDEZIHAOGAN,GULIQIWEIZISHENPINGDENGERDOUZHENG;TONGSHI,YESHIWEIBAIRENDUZHEXIEZUO,MUDESHISHUOFUTAMENXIANGXINMEIGUOHEIRENGUOQUDEJIAZHI,JIENAHEIRENJINRUMEIGUOSHEHUI14。YINCI,WUDESENZAI《WOMENLISHIZHONGDEHEIREN》(The Negro in Our History,1922)“XUYAN”ZHONGXIEDAO,GAISHUDEMUDESHI“ZHANSHIHEIRENYUBAIZHONGRENDEJIECHUZHONGRUHESHOUDAOYINGXIANG,QIANGDIAOHEIRENDUIYUWENMINGDEGONGXIAN”14。20SHIJI30NIANDAIJIARUWUDESENQUANZIDELAOLUNSI·RUIDIKE(Lawrence Reddick)SHENGCHENG:HEIRENSHISHUXIEZHEDEGONGTONGMUBIAONAISHI“XUNQIUZHISHIDEJINBU,TONGSHIYIJUTIDESHEJITISHENGZHONGZUJINBUDECENGCI;QIZHONG,BUSHIBIAODADE、ERQIEZONGSHIYINHANDEXINNIANSHI:HEIRENZAIRENLEICHENGJIUFANGMIANDEZUOYONGSHIZHONGYAOHEJIJIDE”15。ZAISHILIAOHEBIANZUANFANGFASHANG,TAMENCHANGCHANGJUJIAOYUDAWEI·WOKE(David Walker)、NAITE·TENA(Nat Turner)、FULEIDELIKE·DAOGELASI(Frederick Douglass)、DUBOYISI、MAKUSI·JIAWEI(Marcus Garvey)DENGYINGXIANGLIDADERENWU,BINGTONGGUOHEIRENLINGXIUDEBUTONGZHIYEZHANXIANMEIGUOSHEHUIDELIUDONGXING。LIRU,DAOGELASIBEISHIWEI19SHIJIZIWOZAOJIUDEDIANFANRENWU,BUKE·HUASHENGDUN(Booker T.Washington)RULINKENYIYANGCHUSHENYUXIAOMUWU。NUOBEIERHEPINGJIANGDEZHU、ZHENGZHIXUEJIALAERFU·BANGQIGENGSHIYIGEJUEHAODEDAIBIAOMEIGUOJIYUDELIZI。TADEZUFUSHINULI,FUQINSHIDITELVDEYIMINGLIFASHI,TABENRENZUIZHONGSHANGSHENGDAOTEBIEZHENGZHISHIWUZHULIGUOWUQING、MEIGUOZAILIANHEGUOZHONGDEZUIGAOJIBIEGUANYUAN16。1936NIAN,ZAI“MEIGUOHEIRENSHENGHUOHELISHIYANJIUHUI”NIANHUISHANG,LAOLUNSI·D.RUIDIKEJIANGSHANGSHULISHIBIANZUANXUEDEFANGFACHENGWEI“ZIYOUZHUYI”DEFANSHI,JIXIANGXINGERENPINGJIEZHEQINMIAN、RENNAIHEQIANCHENGXINYANGNENGGOURONGRUMEIGUOSHEHUI,SHIXIANRENLEIJINBU17。

                              WUDESENJIQIXIEHUIFADONGDE“HEIRENSHIYUNDONG”DAO30NIANDAICHUJIANCHENGXIAO。《HEIRENSHIZAZHI》RIQUFANRONG,HEIRENLISHIZHOUBEIHEIRENSHEQUGUANGFANGUANZHU,《HEIRENLISHIGONGBAO》JIANGZIXUNCHUANDIJIHEIRENDAZHONG。HEIRENXUEYUANPAIDUIJUBANNIANDUHUIYI,CHENGWEIXUANCHUANHEIRENSHIDEQIANYANZHENDI18。JINER,ZHEICHANGSHENRUCAOGENJIECENGDEHEIRENSHIXUANCHUAN,DUI20SHIJIDIYICIDAGUIMODEHEIRENQUNZHONGYUNDONGCHANSHENGLEZHONGDAYINGXIANG,“JIAWEIZHUYI———TADEREQINGDEMINZUZHUYI、BAOZHI《HEIRENSHIJIE》YIJIQIZHONGDIANQIANGDIAOHEIRENSHIHEHEIRENWENHUA———YINGGAIBEIKANZUOWUDESENJIQIKAICHUANGDEGENGSHOURENZUNJINGDEHEIRENSHIHEHEIRENQUANLIYUNDONGBEIJINGZHONGDEYIBUFEN”19。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DANGRAN,NEISHIHEIRENLISHIXUEJIADENULIHEHEIRENSHIDEYINGXIANGHAIWEINENGCHUJIMEIGUOZHULIUSHEHUI,DADUOSHUBAIRENXUEZHEYEWEINENGFANSITAMENSUOZHUANXIEDELISHIFANYINGLEMOUZHONGTEDINGDEZHONGZUZHUYILICHANG。BAIRENLISHIXUEJIAFEILIPUSI(U.B.Phillips)NANFANGSHIXUSHIDANGZHONGDUIHEIRENDEKANFAGENGWEIPUBIANHELIUXING,RUHEINUZHIDUSHIYIZHONGRENCIDEZHIDU;HEIRENTIANSHENGDILIE,SHIXIANGERTONGYIYANGTOUNAOJIANDANDEXIAOCHOU、HEIGUI、YEREN,WEICENGCANYUMEIGUOWENMINGDECHUANGJIANHEFAZHAN;ZHONGZHIYUANSHIXUNLIANHEIRENZUIHAODEXUEXIAODENG20。DANSHI,LUOSIFUXINZHENGSHIQI,NANFANGCHUXIANLESHOUPIXINHUAITONGQINGDEBAIRENLISHIXUEJIA。TAMENJIANGXINCAILIAOHEXINSHIJIAODAIRUGAILINGYU,KAISHIZHUANXIEXIUZHENGZHUYIDEMEIGUOSHI。LIRU,FULEIDELIKE·BANKELUOFUTE(Frederic Bancroft)DEDANJUANBENZHEZUO《JIUNANFANGDENULIMAOYI》(Slave Trading in the Old South,1931),ZAIYIXIEGUANJIANWENTISHANGXIANGFEILIPUSITICHULEZHIYI;FULANGXISI·B.XIMUJINSI(Francis B.Simkins)HELUOBOTE·H.WUDI(Robert H.Woody)DE《ZHONGJIANSHIQIDENANKALUOLAINAZHOU》(South Carolina during Reconstruction,1932),JIELULEHEIRENZAOSHOUDEXIEPOHEBAOXING,ZHICHUNANFANGZHONGJIANDEGONGRENJIESHI,DUIGAIZHOUZAOCHENGDESHANGHAIBIZHONGJIANBENSHENHAIYAODA;C.FAN·WUDEWODE(C.Vann Woodward)DE《TANGMU·WOTESEN:NONGCUNZAOFANZHE》(Tom Watson:Agrarian Rebel,1938),DUIZHONGZUGELIFATICHULEYOULIDETIAOZHAN21。TONGSHI,ZHEIYISHIQIDUIHEIRENSHISHUXIEYOUZHONGDAYINGXIANGDEBAIRENLISHIXUEJIA,HAIYOUJIJINDEZUOPAIHEZIYOUPAIRENSHI,RUHEBOTE·APUTEKE(Herbert Aptheker)HELICHADE·HUOFUSITATE(Richard Hofstadter)DENG。APUTEKEDE《MEIGUOHEINUQIYI》(American Negro Slave Revolts,1943)、《MEIGUOHEIRENWENXIANSHI》(Documentary History of the Negro People,7JUANBEN1951-1994)DENGZHEZUO,ZHANZAINULIDIKANGDELICHANGSHANGSHUXIE、JILUHEIRENSHI,QIANGDIAOZIFEIZHOUHAIANBEINUYISHIJIUCUNZAIDEHEIRENJIJINCHUANTONG,ZANSONGBUQUFUDEHEIRENDIKANGJINGSHEN。HUOFUSITATE1944NIANFABIAOLE《U.B.FEILIPUSIYUZHONGZHIYUANSHENHUA》,DUIFEILIPUSIYOUGUANNULIZHIDESHUXIE,CONGFANGFALUNHEYISHIXINGTAILIANGFANGMIANJINXINGLEYOULIDEXITONGXINGPIPAN,BINGHUYUCONGNULIDESHIJIAOXIEZUO22。JINGUANZHEIXIEBAIRENLISHIXUEJIARENSHUJIAOSHAO,QIZHEZUOHEGUANDIANYESHOUDAOZHULIUDEHUSHI,DANQUEWEIERZHANHOUHEIRENLISHIXUEJIAJINXINGXINZONGHEZUOLEZHUNBEIGONGZUO。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   TUOMASI·C.HUOERTERENWEI,“JUYOUFENGCIYIYIDESHI,DADUOSHUMEIGUOBAIRENDUIHEIRENLISHIDELEJIE,KENENGDEZIYUDIERCISHIJIEDAZHANQIJIANCHUBANDEYIBUSHEHUIXUEZHEZUO”23,JI《MEIGUODEKUNJING》(An American Dilem ma,1944)。GAISHUYOURUIDIANSHEHUIKEXUEJIAGANGNA·MODAER(Gunnar Myrdal)YINGKANEIJIJIJINHUIZHIYAOZHUCHIXIEZUO,QIZHONGQIANGDIAO:“ZHANZHENGSHIMEIGUORENBIRENHESHIHOUDOUGENGWEIMINGQUEDIYISHIDAOLEMEIGUOXINTIAOYUZHONGZUBUPINGDENGDEXIANSHIZHIJIANCUNZAIDEMAODUN”;QI“JIEGUOZHIYIBIJIANGSHIDUIHEIRENDIWEIDEZHONGXINDINGWEI”24。DEQUE,DIERCISHIJIEDAZHANBENSHENJIUSHIYICIFANZHONGZUZHUYIDESHENGZHAN25,TASHIDEMEIGUOGUONEIDEZHONGZUWENTIBAOLUDAOSHIJIEMIANQIAN,LINGQISHENGANGANGAHECHIRU。TONGSHI,ZHANZHENGSUODAILAIDEJINGJIFUSU、HEIRENXIANGCHENGSHIQIANYIHEZAIJIUYE,CUSHIXINDEXIWANGRANQI,HEIRENYEXUZHONGJIUHUIJINRUMEIGUOSHENGHUODEZHULIU。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZHENGSHIZAINEIZHONGZHISHIQIHOUHEZHENGZHI、JINGJIXIANSHIZHONG,DISANDAIHEIRENLISHIXUEJIAYIYUEHAN·HUOPU·FULANKELINHEBENYAMING·KUAERSI(Benjamin Quarles)WEIDAIBIAO,ZAIHEIRENSHISHUXIEFANGMIANBIAOXIANCHUBUTONGDEXINGQU:“TAMENBUTAIGUANZHUMEIGUOHEIRENDECHENGJIU,GENGDUODIGUANZHUHEIRENYUBAIRENZHIJIANDEHUDONG,GENGDUODIGUANZHUPINFANDEDUILI,ERFEINANDEDEZHENCHENGHEZUO;TAMENQINGXIANGYUCONGGENGDADESHIYELAIKANDAIMEIGUOHEIRENSHI,JIANCHIRENWEIRENHEYINGXIANGMEIGUOHEIRENDIWEIDESHIJIANDOUSHIMEIGUOHEIRENSHIDEYIBUFEN,JISHIMEIYOUMEIGUOHEIRENZHIJIECANYUQIZHONG。”26YOUSHI,ERZHEDEHEIRENSHISHUXIECHENGXIANCHUYIZHONGRONGHEQINGXIANGDEXINZONGHE,BUJINJIANGXUSHUZHONGDIANCONGSHAOSHUJIECHURENWUZHUANXIANGHEIRENDEJITIJINGLI,ERQIE“TONGGUOJIANGHEIRENDEGUOQUSHIWEIMEIGUOLISHIJIEGOUBUKEFENGEDEYIBUFEN,CHAOYUELEWUDESEN”27。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIHEIRENSHISHANGYINGXIANGJIDADE《CONGNULIZHIDAOZIYOU》(From Slavery to Freedom,1947NIANDIYIBAN,YIHOULUXUCHULEBABAN,FAXING350DUOWANCE,ZHIJINRENGZAIMEIGUODAXUEZHONGZUOWEIJIAOCAISHIYONG28)YISHUZHONG,FULANKELINSHOUXIANJIANGMUDESHEDINGWEI“ZHANSHIYIGEQUNTIDETEZHENG,ERBUSHIYANJIUGETI”。JINGUANGEBIEDEHEIRENCHENGJIUCHUSE,DANQUEBINGFEISHITADESHUDEZHUYAONEIRONG。《CONGNULIZHIDAOZIYOU》SHI“YIBUHEIRENRENMINDELISHI”,“ZHUYAOSHIQIANBAIWANMOMOWUWENDEDAZHONGWEILENULISHIYINGYIGEXINDE、WANGWANGDUITAMENHUAIYOUDIYIDESHIJIEERFENDOUDELISHI”。QICI,SUIRANZISHENJINGLILEZHONGZUGELI、ZHONGZUQISHIDETONGKU,FULANKELINRENGRANJIANDINGDIYONGHUMEIGUOZHULIUJIAZHIGUAN,NULIZAIZHULIUMEIGUOSHIDEKUANGJIAZHINEIQIANGDIAOHEIRENYUMEIGUOWENMINGDEHUDONGHESHIYING。TAYAOXUSHUDESHI“HEIRENLITUBAZIJIDEMINGYUNHEBUDUANYANBIANDEMEIGUOWENMINGJIEHEZAIYIQIZHEIGEGUOCHENGDELISHI”,YINCIBIXU“RENQINGMEIGUOLISHIDEZHULIUYIJIHEIRENTONGZHEIGEZHULIUDEGUANXI”;“RUGUOWOMENDUIMEIGUOWENMINGCHANSHENGGUOCHENGZHONGDEZHUYAOCHAOLIUBUBAOCHIMINGANXINGDEHUA,NEIJIUMEIYOUKENENGQUZHUISUMEIGUOHEIRENDELISHI”;“HEIRENZAIMEIGUODEYISHENGCUNXIALAI,JIHUZONGSHIQUJUEYUTAMENSHIYING、SHIJISHANGSHISHUNYINGJUYUTONGZHIDIWEIDEWENHUADENENGLI,ERTAMENSUOYUDAODEZHANGAIWANGWANGFEICHANGZHIDA,SHITAMENNANYIQUDETONGCHANGSUOSHUODEZHONGDACHENGJIU”29。

                              DATISHANG,FULANKELINDUIMEIGUOSHEHUICHAOXIANGZHONGZUGONGZHENGHEKUANRONGDEFANGXIANGFAZHAN,ZAIHENZHANGSHIJIANNEIBAOYOUXINXIN,RENWEITONGGUONULIFENDOU、WENHUASHIYING,HEIRENKEYIRONGRUMEIGUOSHEHUI。YINCI,ZAIDADUOSHUHEIRENLISHIXUEJIARENWEI“ZAIGENGGUANGKUODEZHIYESHIJIEZHONGJIHUMEIYOUJIHUI、MINGXIANDIQUEXIZHULIUDEQUANGUOXINGXUESHUHUIYI”SHI,TADECELVEMINGQUEERJIANDING:“ZHEIJIUSHINIQIANJINDEDIFANG,SHINIFAXIANDAMENSHIFOUCHANGKAIDEDIFANG,ZHEIJIUSHINIJINRUZHICHANGDEFANGSHI。”27TONGYANG,KUAERSIZAI《NEIZHANZHONGDEHEIREN》(The Negro in the Civil War,1953)、《MEIGUOGEMINGZHONGDEHEIREN》(The Negro in the American Revolution,1961)、《MEIGUOJIANSHEZHONGDEHEIREN》(The Negro on the Making of America,1964)DENGZUOPINZHONG,TAOLUNLENULIFANPANHEZHONGJIANDEJIANSHEXING,BUJINJIANGHEIRENZHIYUMEIGUOLISHIWUTAIDEZHONGXIN,SHIZHUIQIUZISHENZIYOUDOUZHENGZHONGDEZHUYAOYANYUAN,ERQIE,JINYIBUFAZHANLESHEHUIXUEJIAMODAERZAI《MEIGUODEKUNJING》ZHONGTICHUDEWENTI,JIQIANGDIAOYAPOHEIRENSUOZAOCHENGDEDAODEKUNJINGSHIMEIGUOLISHIDEZHONGXINZHUTI,HEIRENDEXINGDONGWEITUIDONGBAIRENJINYIBUWANSHANMEIGUODEMINZHUJIAZHIZUOCHULEZHONGYAOGONGXIAN。

                              HEQIANBEIMENYIYANG,ZHEIYIDAIHEIRENLISHIXUEJIADEHEIRENSHIYANJIUYEDAIZHESHENSHENDESHIMINGGAN。RUFULANKELINSUOSHUO:“YIGEMINZUDELISHIYUQIZHENGQUYILIUGONGMINSHENFENDENULIZHIJIANCUNZAIZHEYOUXIAODEXIANGHULIANXI”;“DISANDAILISHIXUEJIASHIPOYUXINGSHI,WEIBAMEIGUOHEIRENLISHIRONGRUGUOJIALISHIZHULIUERDOUZHENG。TAMENZHENGQUJIANGFEIYIMEIGUORENLISHIRONGRUZHULIUDEDOUZHENG,SHIMEIGUOHEIRENXUESHENGZHENGQUJINRUNANFANGGEZHOUYIBAIRENWEIZHUDEMEIYISUODAXUE,YIJINANFANGYIWAIXUDUOYANJIUSHENGYUANJIGOUDEDOUZHENGDEYIBUFEN;ZHEIYESHIMEIGUOHEIRENZHENGQUJINRUMEIGUOSHENGHUOZHULIUERKANGZHENGDEYIBUFEN———ZHENGQUTOUPIAOQUAN、ZHENGQUPINGDENGDAIYU、ZHENGQUPINGDENGJIHUI、ZHENGQUZUOWEIMEIGUORENDEQUANLI。”30YINCI,HAOBUYIWAI,ZHEIYISHIQIHEIRENLISHIXUEJIADEYANJIUZHONGDIANSHINANBEIZHANZHENGZHIQIANDEZIYOUHEIRENHEZHONGJIAN,MUDESHIBOCHINEIXIESHENGXINGDEGUANNIAN,RUHEIRENFUBAI、ZAIZHENGZHISHANGHAIMEIYOUZUOHAOCANYUMINZHUDEZHUNBEIDENG。YOUSHI,GUANYUZHONGJIANDEJIESHI,ZIDUBOYISIYIHOU,JINGYOUAERLUXIUSI·A.TAILEGUANYUFUJINIYA、NANKALUOLAINA、TIANNAXIDENGDIZHONGJIANDEYANJIU,LUZE·P.JIEKEXUNGUANYUNEIZHANQIANFUJINIYAZIYOUHEIRENDEYANJIU,YIJIQITAYIXIEHEIRENLISHIXUEJIAHEDAIYOUTONGQINGXINDEBAIRENLISHIXUEJIADEGONGTONGNULI,ZHIYUEHAN·HUOPU·FULANKELINDE《ZHONGJIAN:NEIZHANZHIHOU》(1961),QUDELEJIAOWEIMINGXIANDESHENGLI31。

                              20SHIJI50NIANDAIZHIHOU,YUELAIYUEDUODEBAIRENLISHIXUEJIADUIZHONGZUGUANXIHEHEIRENJINGLIJINXINGLERENZHENYANJIU。ZAI“BULANGAN”HEMADING·LUDE·JINJUEQIDESHINIANLI,TAMENWEIHEIRENSHILINGYUDEJINZHANHEFALVSHANG、ZHIDUSHANGZHONGZUGELIDEFEICHUZUOCHULEZHONGYAOGONGXIAN,ZUIYOUYINGXIANGLIDEHEIRENSHIZHEZUOYESHIYOUTAMENSHUXIEDE,RUC.FAN·WUDEWODEDE《JIMU·KELAOQIGUAIDEYISHENG》(The Strange Career of Jim Crow,1955)、KENNISI·SITANPU(Kenneth Stampp)DE《QITEDEZHIDU:NANBEIZHANZHENGQIANNANFANGDENULIZHI》(The Peculiar Institution:Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South,1956)、SITANLI·AIERJINSI(Stanley Elkins)DE《NULIZHI:MEIGUOZHIDUHEZHISHISHENGHUOZHONGDEWENTI》(Slavery:A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life,1959)DENG。TAMENQINGXIANGYUZHONGZUPINGDENGDEGUANDIAN,DUINULIZHIHEZHONGZUPIANJIANZUOCHULEFUMIANDEDAODEPINGGU,BIAOXIANCHUKAIMINGDE、HOUXINZHENGZIYOUZHUYIDEZUOQINGJIJINSECAI,YIZHIBEICHONGMANDIYIDEBAIRENPINGLUNJIACHENGWEI“XINFEINUZHUYIZHE”(“neo-abolitionists”)。YUCITONGSHI,QITAYIXIEBAIRENLISHIXUEJIAYEKAISHIGUANZHUHEIRENSIXIANGSHI、JIAOYUZHONGDEZHONGZUQISHIYIJICHENGSHIZHONGDEHEIREN。YOUXIEBAIRENJIAOSHOUHAICANJIALEHEIRENSHENGHUOHELISHIYANJIUXIEHUIDENIANHUI,XIANG《HEIRENLISHIZAZHI》TOUGAO,BINGKAISHIJIANGHEIRENSHIZHUTIDELUNWENFENPEIJIBAIRENHEHEIRENXUESHENG(3)。

                              YOUSHI,HEIRENSHIBUZAISHIMEIGUOHEIRENLISHIXUEJIADEZHUANYOULINGYU,YANJIURIQUSHENRU,ZHEZUODECHUBANRIJIANZENGDUO。JINGUANDANGSHIXUESHUFANGMIANDEXINFAZHANHAIWEINENGYINGXIANGDAOYIBANGONGZHONGDEZHUYI32,DANSHI,ZHEIZEWEI20SHIJI60NIANDAIHEIRENSHICHENGWEIGONGZHONGZHUYIDEJIAODIAN,ZUOHAOLEXUESHUZHUNBEI,BINGWEIHEIRENZIYOUYUNDONGDEFAZHANHEMEIGUODUOYUANSHEHUIDECHUANGJIANDIANDINGLEJICHU。BIJING,DUIYUHEIRENQUNTIERYAN,NEIBUJINJINSHIMEIGUOCENGJINGYOUGUODEZUISHENYUAN、ZUIXIONGXINBOBODESHUXIEHEIRENSHIHEXIUZHENGMEIGUOSHIDECHENGGONGCHANGSHI,HAISHIYIZHONGSHITUHUIFUZHENGGEQUNTILILIANGDETANSUO。TANULITUIFANZHONGZUSHENHUA,ZAIMEIGUOSHEHUIZHIXUDEYANJINZHONG,SHITUFAZHANNEIXIECENGSHOUDAOXIFANGSHIJIEZHONGZUIDADEWURUDEHEIRENMENDEZIZUNHEZIZHONG;TAHAICHANGSHIYAOSHIMEIGUOJIZHU,ZHENLIBIQUANLIGENGZHIDECHENGZAN,ZHENGYIHEPINGDENGYINGGAISHIYONGYUSUOYOUGONGMIN。

                              二、20世纪60年代后的新黑人史:“黑人共同体-文化”共识的形成

                              20SHIJI60NIANDAIQIJIAN,MINQUANDOUZHENG、CHENGSHIBAODONG、HEIRENYISHIYUNDONGDENGHUIJUZAIYIQI,JIDAJIAQIANGLEMEIGUOSHEHUIDUIHEIRENSHIDEXINGQU。SHOUXIAN,HEIRENSHEQUHEHEIRENJIAOSHIXUESHENGDONGYUANQILAI,YAOQIULIJIEZIJILISHIDEQUANLI。1963NIAN8YUE,ZHIJIAGEYIGEHEIRENSHIZUZHI(“Amistad”)HAOZHAOJIAOSHIHEXUESHENGDAOZHIJIAGEJIAOYUWEIYUANHUI,YAOQIUJIAOSHOUHEIRENSHI,QIBIAOYUXIEDAO,“WOMENBUYAOZAIBEIXINAO”“JIAOWOMENRENSHIZIJI”。1964NIAN,DITELVDEYOUSERENZHONGXIEJINHUIPOSHIJIAOYUWEIYUANHUIWEIGONGLIXUEXIAODEHAIZIMENCHUBANLEYITAOCAILIAO,MINGWEI“WEIZIYOUHEMINQUANERZHAN———MEIGUOHEIRENSHIDEYIXIEJIBENSHISHI”。NEISHI,WEIHEIRENSHISUOZUODEDOUZHENGYIJINGCHENGWEIHEIRENMINQUANYUNDONGDEYIBUFEN。YOURENDUANDING,LIJIEZIJILISHISHISUOYOUQUANLIZHONGZUIGUANJIANZHENGUIDEQUANLIZHIYI;ZHEIGEWEIZIYOUERZHANDEXINJIEDUANQIANGDIAOHEIRENYINGGAIYAOLEJIEZIJI,YAOGUANZHUZIJIDELISHI。1966NIAN12YUE,1500MINGJIAOSHI、XUESHENGHEQITAYIXIERENZAIHUASHENGDUNZHAOKAIHUIYI,ZHUTISHI“JIAOYUZHONGDEZHONGZUZHUYI”(Racism in Education),FUBIAOTIFENBIESHI:“BIANHUAZHONGDEMEIGUOGUOQUDEXINGXIANG”(Changing America’s Image of the Past)HE“HEIRENSHIDAHUI”(The Negro History Conference)。1967NIANZAIXINZEXINIUWAKEZHAOKAIDEDIYIJIEHEIRENQUANLIDAHUI、ZAIFEICHENGZHAOKAIDEDIERCIHEIRENQUANLIDAHUIHE1970NIANDIYIJIEFEIZHOURENMINDAHUI(Conference of African Peoples)DENG,DOUZHONGSHENLEDUIHEIRENSHIDEXINGQU33。ERQIE,20SHIJI60NIANDAIMO70NIANDAICHUXIAOYUANJIJINYUNDONGBAOFA,HEIRENDAXUESHENGJINYIBUYAOQIUZAIBAIRENWEIZHUDEDAXUEKAISHEHEIRENLISHIWENHUAKECHENG。TAMENXIWANGYICIZHONGJIANMEIGUOXUEYUANHEDAXUE,JINERZHONGJIANMEIGUOSHEHUI34。

                              SUIZHI,MEIGUOZHULIUSHEHUIYEJIAOLVDIXIANGYAOLEJIE,WEIHECONGQIANSHUNCONGDEHEIRENXIANZAIHUIYAOQIUPINGDENG?GELUNBIYAGUANGBOGONGSI(The Columbia Broadcasting System)ZHIZUOLEMEIGUODIYIBUGUANYUHEIRENSHIDEXILIEDIANSHIPIAN《HEIRENDEMEIGUO》(“Of Black America”,GONG7JI),QIZHONGDIYIJISHI“HEIRENSHI:BEIWANGQUEDE、ZOURUQITUDE,HAISHIBEITOUQIEDE?”(“Black History,Lost,Strayed or Stolen”)。AIDEJIA·A.TUOBI(Adgar A.Toppin)CEHUALE30JIDEYANJIANGXILIE———“LAIZIFEIZHOUDEMEIGUOREN:YIBULISHI”(Americans from Africa:A History),BINGZAIGONGZHONGDIANSHITAIBOCHU。YUEHAN·HUOPU·FULANKELINYEWEI《SHENGHUOZAZHI》(Life Magazine)LIANXUSIQIZHUANXIEWENZHANG《SOUXUNHEIRENDEGUOQU》(“Search for a Black Past”)。ZHIHOU,LIANBANGZHONGYANGHEDIFANGGECENGCIDEZHENGFUYEKAISHIYAOGENGDUODIZHONGGUHEIRENJINGYAN。1968NIAN8YUE,GUOJIARENWENJIJIN(The National Endowment for the Humanities)ZAIQUANGUOZIZHULE7GEDAXUEDEYANJIUTUANDUI,YONGYITANTAONEIXIEYOUGUANMEIGUOHEIRENJIQIDUIMEIGUOLISHISUOZUOGONGXIANDEKECHENGCAILIAO。MEIGUOGUOHUITICHUYIGEJIANLIQUANGUOXINGHEIRENLISHIHEWENHUAWEIYUANHUIDEYIAN。WEICI,CANYIYUANHEZHONGYIYUANDEXIAOZUWEIYUANHUIDUOCIJUXINGTINGZHENGHUI35。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZHEIXIESHEHUIYUNDONGJIQIHUIYING,BUJINTUOZHANLERENMENDUIMEIGUOHEIRENSHIYIYIDELEJIE,YETUIDONGLEXIANGGUANLIANBANGJIGOUZAIQIJIHUAZHONGNANGKUOJINNEIXIEFANYINGHEIRENLISHIGONGXIANDECAILIAO。20SHIJI60NIANDAIMOHE70NIANDAICHUCHUXIANDEDADUOSHUMEIGUOLISHISHU,DOUTANTAOLEHEIRENZAIMEIGUOSHEHUIZHONGDEDIWEI、JUEDINGCIZHONGDIWEIDEBAIRENZHONGZUZHUYIDEBENZHI,YIJIMEIGUOHEIRENZAIZHUIQIUZIYOUHEPINGDENGGUOCHENGZHONGSUOBANYANDEJIAOSE。ZHEIXIEZHEZUOZHUYAOYOUBAIRENXUEZHESUOXIE,DUITAMENERYAN,HEIRENZAIMEIGUODECUNZAISHIGENGHAODILIJIEMEIGUOSHEHUIDEYIZHONGSHOUDUAN。TONGSHI,XIUJUELINGMINDECHUBANSHANGMENKANCHUZHEIGUCHAOLIU,HENKUAICHUBANLESHUBAIJUANDEMEIGUOHEIRENSHIZILIAO,YOUQISHIJIAOKESHUCHUBANGONGSI,XUNSUXIUGAILEJIAOKESHUYIFANYINGMEIGUOHEIRENDECUNZAI35。TONGSHI,WEILEYINGDUIDAXUESHENGKANGYISUOZAOCHENGDEGUANLIWEIJI,MEIGUOGEGAODENGYUANXIAOFENFENSHEZHI“HEIRENYANJIU”ZHUANYE36,YINRUHEIRENSHIKECHENG,ZENGJIAHEIRENJIAOSHIHEYANJIUSHENGDESHULIANG。DALIANGDEBOSHISHENG(BAOKUOHEIRENHEBAIREN)DEBOSHILUNWENXUANTIJIZHONGYUHEIRENSHI,JIANGXUEJINJIGOUYEGULICIXIANGYANJIU,HAIYOUHENDUOGUANYUHEIRENJINGLIDEHUIYIJIHUA。KEYISHUO,CONG20SHIJIZHONGQICHANSHENGDEGUANYUHEIRENZAIMEIGUOLISHIZHONGZUOYONGDEGUANDIAN,ZAI60NIANDAIMODEZHULIUXUESHUJIEWANCHENGLEGEMINGXINGDEZHUANBIAN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   BUGUO,ZHEIZHONGZAIMEIGUOSHIXIEZUOZHONGCONGHUSHI、SHENGLVEDAONANGKUOHEIREN、ZHONGSHIHEIRENZUOYONGDEBIANHUA,GENGDUODIFANYINGLEMINQUANYUNDONG、CHENGSHIBAODONGSUOTICHUDEWENTI,ERFEIHEIRENYISHIYUNDONG。20SHIJI60NIANDAICHU,MAERKEMU·AIKESI(Malcolm X)JILIEDEMINZUZHUYIYANLUNQIANGDIAOLEDUIGONGTONGZHONGZULISHIDEJIAOAO,KENDINGLEDUTEHEIRENWENHUADEZHONGYAOXING。ZAITAKANLAI,DANGHEIRENKAISHIZHONGXINFAXIANTAMENFEIZHOUZUXIANDESHEHUIXISUHECHENGJIUSHI,ZHEICHANG“ZHONGXINFAXIANZIJI”ZHILVJIUKAISHILE。HEIRENBIXUSHIXIANXINLIJIEFANGHEWENHUARENTONG,JINXING“TOUNAOGEMING”,ZHANGWOZIWOHUAYUQUAN。WEICI,HEIRENXUYAOXIEXIAZIJIDELISHI,CHUANGZAOZIJIDESHENHUACHUANSHUO。TONGGUOZHEIGEZIWOFAXIANHEZIWOHEFAHUADEJINCHENG,FEIYIMEIGUORENJIANGFAZHANYIZHONGQUNTIYISHIHEZHONGZUJIAOAO。ZAIBEICISHAQIAN,MAERKEMUYIJINGMOHUKANDAOHEIRENJITINULISHIXIANSHEHUIBIANGEDEKENENGXING,“ZHUBUMOSUODAOYITIAOJIEYUFENLIZHUYIHEZHENGHEZHUYIZHIJIANDEDUOYUANZHUYIDEDAOLU”37。HEIRENQUANLIYUNDONGXINGQIHOU,CENGJINGLIXIANGZHUYIDE“XUESHENGFEIBAOLIXIEDIAOWEIYUANHUI”(SNCC)DENIANQINGXUEZIMEN,BAJINGSHENDAOSHICONGGANDI(Gandhi)HEMODAERHUANCHENGLEFULANGCI·FANONG(Frantz Fanon)HEQIE·GEWALA(Che Guevara)38,JIXUZHEMAERKEMUDEWEIJINGSHIYE:HUANXINGHEIRENSHEQUDEHEIRENYISHI,QIANGDIAOZHONGZUTUANJIEHEQUNTIQUANLI,ZHENGQUMEIGUOSHEHUIDUIHEIRENLISHI、WENHUA、CHUANTONGHEZHIDUDEZUNZHONG39。

                              DAYUEZAITONGSHI,WENXUE、RENLEIXUE、SHEHUIXUEDENGLINGYUCHUXIANLEYIXIEKENDINGFEIYIMEIGUORENWENHUACUNZAIDEZUOPIN40。RULELUOYI·QIONGSI(Leroi Jones,HOUGAIMINGAMIRUI·BALAKAAmiri Baraka)DE《BULUSIREN:MEIGUOBAIRENZHONGDEHEIRENYINLE》(Blues People:Negro Music in White American,1963)、BAIRENYINLEXUEJIACHAERSI·KAIER(Charles Keil)DE《CHENGSHILANDIAO》(Urban Blues,1966)、YUESEFU·R.HUASHENGDUN(Joseph R.Washington)DE《HEIRENZONGJIAO》(Black Religion,1964)DENG。1964NIAN,LELUOYI·QIONGSITONGGUODUMUJU《HELANREN》XIANGHEIRENFACHUJINGGAO:YOUYUHEIRENFENFENFANGXIAOBAIRENWENHUA,HEIRENWENHUAZHENGSHOUDAOYANZHONGWEIXIE;WENXUEJIALAERFU·AILISEN(Ralph Ellison)FABIAOLE20NIANQIANZHUANXIEDE《PINGGUGANGNA·MODAERDE〈MEIGUODEKUNJING〉》(“The Assessment of Gunnar Myrdal’s an American Dilemma”),PIPINGYIMODAERWEIDAIBIAODESHEHUIKEXUEJIABAHEIRENWENHUAHEGEXINGDEDUTEFANGMIANSHIWEISHEHUIBINGLIXUEDECHANWU,HUSHILEHEIRENWENHUADEZIZHUFAZHAN。AILISENGUANCHADAO:MODAERCHULEDUIBAIRENZHONGZUZHUYIDEYAPOJI“BEIBIJILIANG”ZUOLEXIANGXILUNSHUWAI,SHENGXIADEJIUSHI“SHEHUIXUESHANGDEHEIREN”HUO“RENLEIDEGANBIEXINGXIANG”。TAZHICHU:HEIRENDESHENGHUONEIRONGKENDINGYUANBUZHISHOUBAIRENYAPOZHEIYIDIAN,“RUGUOYIGEMINZUDANDANKAOFANKANG,NENGSHENGCUNBINGFAZHAN300NIANYISHANGMA?NANDAOMEIGUOHEIRENJIANDANDIZHISHIKAOBAIRENCHUANGZAOCHULAIDEMA?HAISHISHUO,TAMENZHISHAOSHIZAITAMENSUOFAXIANDEZHOUWEIDEHUANJINGDEBANGZHUXIACHUANGZAOLETAMENZIJI”41?“XUDUOHEIRENWENHUAKENENGSHIFUMIANDE,DANSHIYEYOUHENDADEJIAZHI,SHIFENGFUDE,YINWEITASHITAMENDESHENGHUOGENGYOUYIYI。”421965NIAN,SHEHUIXUEJIASHENG·KELAIER·DELEIKE(St.Clair Drake)ZHUYIDAOHEIRENYAWENHUADEDUTEJINGSHEN43。1967NIAN,HEIRENJIJINFENZIHEMINZUZHUYIZHEHALUODE·KELUSI(Harold Cruse)DE《HEIRENZHISHIFENZIDEWEIJI》(The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual)GENGSHIMINGQUETICHU:FEIYIMEIGUORENZHISHIFENZIXUYAOCONGHEIRENDESHIJIAOJIANLIYIZHONGYOUZIZHUQUANDEWENHUASHENFEN……DANGQIANZHONGYAODESHIGENGSHENRUDILIJIEFEIYIMEIGUORENDELISHI,FEICIZEBUNENGCHUANGZAOYIZHONGXINDESHEHUIXINGDONGLILUN,FEIYIMEIGUORENHAIJIANGZAOSHOULISHISHANGDEMINGYUN44。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIZHEIZHONGXINDESHEHUIFENWEIZHONG,YIXIEQINSHENCANYUHEIRENYUNDONGDEDISIDAILISHIXUEJIARENSHIDAO,SHOUYAPODERENMINBUJINSHISHOUHAIZHE,ERQIENENGGOUCAIQUYINGYONGDE、YOUXIAODEXINGDONG。TAMENZHONGDEXUDUORENBIAOXIANCHUJIAOQIANGDEMINZUZHUYIQINGXIANG,HEXINJUEQIDENVXINGLISHIXUEJIAYIQI,CANYULEMIXIEER·FUKE(POSHICONGSHUQUNTI“JILVHUA”DETUJINGSHIBATAMENBIANCHENG“JILV”DEKETI)、AIDEHUA·SAYIDE(“DONGFANG”SHIBEIXIFANGRENJIANGOUCHULAIDE)DENGXUEZHETICHUDEYOUGUANQUANLIYUZHISHIZHIJIANGUANXIDETAOLUN,KAISHIDUIHEIRENGONGTONGTI-WENHUA(Black Community-culture)JINXINGDIAOCHAHEYANJIU,YIQUEDINGFEIYIMEIGUORENSHIFOUZAIKUNJINGZHONGCHUANGZAOLEXINDESHENGHUO?HEIRENWENHUASHIZHULIUWENHUADEBIANTI,HAISHIZHENGZAIXINGCHENGDE、DULIDEWENHUA?

                              HENZHANGSHIJIANLI,XUDUOXUEZHE,JIYOUHEIRENYEYOUBAIREN,YIZHIFOURENYIZHONGHUNHEDEMEIGUOHEIRENYAWENHUADECUNZAI,HUOZHESHUO,TAMENBUYUANYICHENGRENYIZHONGPIANLIMEIGUOZHULIUWENHUADEYAWENHUACUNZAIDEKENENGXING。BIJING,NEIZHONGWENHUABEIRENWEISHIFANGAIHEIRENRONGRUMEIGUOZHULIUSHEHUIDE。ERZHANHOU,DANGZHONGZUZHUYILILUNZAISHIJIEFANWEINEIMINGYUSAODISHI,BAIRENYEYUELAIYUEHUIBIYONGZHONGZULIEDENGLILUNLAIJIESHIMEIGUOHEIRENDEBUPINGDENG,ERXUNSUZHUANXIANGNULIZHIYICHANDEJIESHIFANGFA。TAMENJIANGXIANQIANTAOWANGNULIDEXUSHUHEZICHUANZUOWEITANJIUNUYIDEZHUYAOZILIAOLAIYUAN,JUJIAOYUHEIRENZAINULIZHIXIADEBEICANJINGLI。DANGZHEIXIECAILIAOBEISHIYONGSHI,GUSHIJIUSHIYIZHONGWUJINDEKUNANHEZUIZHONGTAOLINUYIDEYANGSHI:HEIRENSHIBEIBODUOLEFEIZHOUWENHUADESHENGWU,ZAIZHONGZHIYUANZHONGBEICANKUDEDUIDAI,ZUIZHONG,ZIZUNYIDIANDIANSHUAITUI;NUYIZHIXIADEMEIGUOHEIRENZHISHINULIZHIKUNJINGHENULIBAODONGZHEIGEXIAZHAIWUTAISHANGDEYANYUAN。LIRU,ZAI《YAPODEYINJI:MEIGUOHEIRENDEYIXIANGXINLIXUEYANJIU》ZHONG,ABUAMU·KADINEI(Abram Kardiner)HELINAIER·AOWEISI(Lionel Ovesey)JIADING:NULIZHIZHIXIADEMEIGUOHEIRENMEIYOUWENHUA,“MEIYOUXINLINGNEIBUDEFANGYU———MEIYOUZIHAOGAN、MEIYOUQUNTITUANJIEYISHI、MEIYOUCHUANTONG”45。SITANLI·M.AIERJINSIYUNYONGYIZHONGYUANYUNACUIJIZHONGYINGQIUFANDEYINGERHUAFENXILILUNJIANGSHANGSHUJIADINGJINGZHIHUA。TAJIANGNULIZHONGZHIYUANBIZUONACUIJIZHONGYING,RENWEINULIZHIPOSHIHEIRENTUOLITAMENDEYINGXIONGCHUANTONG,“NANREN”ZHUANHUACHENGHAIZI,SHILANSAN、BUFUZEREN、JUYOUYILAIXINGDE“SANGBO”(Sambo);“SANGBO”BUSHITIANSHENGDE,ERSHIZHIZAOCHULAIDE;SHITONGGUOZUICHUTAMENBEIBUSHIDEJINGHE、YUQIJIAXIANGHEWENHUADEFENLI、ZAIJUEDUIQUANWEIDENULIZHU———TAMENZUIZHONGYAODETAZHE———GUANZHIZHIXIADEYINGERHUA。ZUOWEIZUIZHUYAODEJIAOSEZHIZAOZHE,NULIZHUJIANGTAMENDEMINGYUNZHUALAOZAISHOUZHONG。TASHIFUQIN,TAMENSHITADEHAIZIMEN。ZHEIBINGFEIZHISHIJIAOSEBANYAN,ERSHIZAIYIDAIYOUYIDAIDEXIANSHISHENGHUOZHIZHONG,ZHUJIANNEIHUADAOTAMENDEXINGWEIDANGZHONG,BINGZHURUDAOTAMENDEHOUDAI。YINCI,MEIGUODENULIZHISHIXIBANQIUZHONGZUICANKU、YAPOZUISHENZHONGDEZHIDU,NULIMENYIZENGJIZISUNHOUDAIDEBUSHIFANKANG,ERSHIPOSUIDEJIATING、BEISHANGHAIDEXINLINGHENIUQUDEWENHUA46。

                              ZAI20SHIJI60NIANDAIDEQIANJINIANLI,LISHIXUEJIAAIERJINSIDE“SANGBO”LILUNYIDULIUXING,YUXINGWEIKEXUEJIADE“SHOUHAIZHE”LILUN47XIANGHUYING,GONGTONGJIFAQIXUDUOBAIRENDUIFEIBAOLIMINQUANSHIWEIDENEIJIUGAN。YUZHIXIANGYING,ZHULIUSHEHUIDUIYUFEIYIMEIGUORENWENHUADEKANFA,YEGENGQUFOUDING。SHEHUIXUEJIANEISEN·GELAZE(Nathan Glazer)ZHUZHANG,HEIPIFUDEMEIGUO“MEIYOUSHENMEJIAZHIGUANHEWENHUA,YINCIBUXUYAOJIAYIHANWEIHEBAOHU”48。ZHENGZHIXUEJIAAIDEHUA·C.BANFEIERDE(Edward D.Banfield)SHENZHIDADANDISHEXIANG:“RUGUOYOUMOUZHONGYOUTAIWENHUACUSHIQIXIANGSHANGLIUDONGDEHUA,NEIMEYEYOUMOUZHONGHEIRENWENHUACUSHIQIBUNENGXIANGSHANGLIUDONG”49。TONGYANG,“DADUOSHUBAIRENLISHIXUEJIAYEJUJUELAIZIFEIZHOUDEWENHUAQIANYIDEXIANGFA。TAMENZAIFEIZHOUBEIJINGZHONGKANBUDAORENHEYOUYIYIDE、NENGGOUBANGZHUBEIPOYIMINDEFEIZHOURENSHIYINGMEIGUOSHEHUIDEDONGXI。ZAITAMENKANLAI,SHIJIANDELIUSHI、WENHUASHIYING、ZHONGZUYAPODEYINGXIANG,YIJINGXIAOCHULEFEIZHOUWENHUADERENHEZONGJI,ZUZHILEFEIYIMEIGUORENWENHUADECHUXIAN”50。YOUCI,JINGUANMEIGUODADUOSHUXUEXIAOJIAOKESHUYIJINGBEIZHONGXIEBINGBAOKUOLEHEIRENSHI,DANQUEZHISHIQIANGDIAONULIZHISHIZHIYUHEIRENDEZUIE,ERHENSHAOZHUIZONGNULIMENSHIRUHENULIBAOHUZIJIZUOWEIYIGEMINZUDEWANZHENGXING,GENGJIHUMEIYOUSHITULIJIENULIMENDENEIZAISHENGMING。

                              DEQUE,ZAIMEIGUOSHIDEDABUFENSHIQI,HEIRENDEDADUOSHUDOUSHINULI,SHIXIANFATIAOWENGUIDINGXIADEBUWANQUANDEREN,JISHISHIHEIRENLISHIXUEJIA,YEWEINENGJIESHINULIGONGTONGTIDEJINGLI(the slave communal experience)。ZAILIJIENULIZHIDEJIZHISHI,HEIRENJIHUYIZHIYILAIYUBAIRENDEJILUHEZHEZUO。RANER,20SHIJI60NIANDAIMO70NIANDAICHU,SUIZHEFEIBAOLIMINQUANYUNDONGZOUXIANGHEIRENQUANLIYUNDONG,HENDUOHEIRENLISHIXUEJIARENSHIDAOHEIRENSHIJIAOHEHEIRENYISHIDEZHONGYAOXING,KAISHIDUIYIWANGDENULIXINGXIANG———WENHUAPINKUN、QUEFAJIATINGSHENGHUO、YUGONGTONGTIGEJUE、HENDACHENGDUSHANGBEIDONGDEMIANDUIFEIRENJINGLIDENG———FAQITIAOZHAN。YOUSHI,ZHUZHANG“ZIYOUYITIHUA”DESITANPUDE“ZHONGZUMANG”ZHUYI(JI“NULIYESHIPUTONGREN,HEIRENZHISHITIANSHENGYISHENHEIPIFUDEBAIREN,BUDUOYEBUSHAO”51)HEAIERJINSIDE“SANGBO”LILUN,ZAIQUDAIFEILIPUSIGUANYU“HEIRENLIEDENG”DEZHONGZUZHUYIJIASHEERFENGXINGYISHIHOUBUJIU,JIUYINQILESHENJUMINZUZHUYIQINGXIANGDEXINYIDAIHEIRENDEQIANGLIEPIPINGHEZHIYI52。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   SUIZHI,DISIDAIHEIRENLISHIXUEJIARIYIYUTAMENDEBAIRENMENGYOUHEXIUZHENGZHUYIJUELIE,XUDUORENJIZHONGZAIGEDAXUEXINCHENGLIDEHEIRENYANJIUBUMENZHONG,JIANCHIWEIYOUHEIRENCAIYOUZIGESHUXIEHEIRENSHI,“JIANGSHUZIJIDEGUSHI”,TUIDONGHEIRENSHISHUXIECHAOXIANGXINDE、JIJINDEFANGXIANGQIANJIN53。ZAINANFANGLISHIXIEHUI(Southern Historical Association)CHENGLI25ZHOUNIANZHIJIDENIANDUHUIYISHANG,HEIRENLISHIXUEJIAXIAOYUEHAN·H.BURUISI(John H.Bracey,Jr.)FABIAOLEYIPIANMINGWEI《MEIGUODEKUNJING:MINZUZHUYIPIPAN》(An American Dilemma:a Nationalist critical,1969)DEWENZHANG,DALIANGSHIYONGAILISENDEPINGLUN,JIANGMODAERDEGUANDIANCHENGWEI“HANXUDEZHONGZUZHUYI”,QIANGLIEFANDUIGUANYUHEIRENWENHUASHIBAIRENWENHUABINGTAIBIANTIDEMIAOSHU54。WENSENTE·HADING1966NIANSHOUCIFABIAOBINGYU1969NIANCHUBANDE《NEIZHANQIANHEIRENZHONGDEZONGJIAOYUFANKANG》(Religion and Resistance among Antebellum Negroes:1800-1860)ZHICHU:ZAIJIHUSUOYOUGUANGWEIRENZHIDENULIYINMOUYUPANLUANZHONG,NULIBUDAOZHEHEQUANJIEZHEDOUZHANJULEZHONGYAODIWEI;LINGGE(spirituals)JINGCHANGYIYIZHONGCHAOFANTUOSUDEFANGSHIFAHUIZUOYONG。TAXIEDAO:“YINLEHETADEBIAODA———YIJIYOUCICHANSHENGDEXINYANG———RANGNULIMENCHONGMANLEYIZHONGSHANGDIDUITAMENDANGXIADEZHAOHUAN,BINGWEITAMENZAIZHEILIFENDOU、JIANSHEHEFANKANGTIGONGLEXINDEJUEXIN。”55HADINGMINRUIDIYISHIDAOHEIRENMINJIANCHUANSHUODEZHONGYAOXING,BINGRENTONGHEIRENYOUYIZHONGDUTEDEMINZUJINGSHEN,DANTACONGWEIZAIZIJIDEZHEZUOZHONGXITONGDITANTAOGUOHEIRENWENHUAYIJIHEIRENWENHUARUHEBIAOXIANHESHIGONGTONGTIYISHICHENGWEIKENENGDEZHUTI。LINGYIWEIHEIRENSHIXUEJIASITELIN·SITAJI(Sterling Stuckey)DEWENZHANG《TOUGUOMINSUDELENGJING:NULIZHISHIQIDEHEIRENJINGSHEN》,GENGMINGQUEDIFAZHANLEZHEIYILUNTI。TAJIANGZHUYILIJIZHONGZAIYIGEDUOWEIDUDENULIMINJIANCHUANSHUOSHANG,RENWEIHEIRENLINGGEZHONGDEZHENGJUBIAOMING,“NULIMENDERENXINGKEYITONGGUOGONGKAIHEGUANGFANDEFANKANGZHIWAIDEQITAFANGSHIDEDAOWEIHU”。TOUGUOMINJIANCHUANSHUODESHIJIAO,KEYIKANDAONULIMEN“YUYAPOZHEDESHIJIAODUILI,GENJUZIJIDUIXIANSHIDEJIEDU,XINGCHENGZIJIDEFANGYUHEJINGONGJISHU”,YINCI,“NULIMINJIANCHUANSHUO,ZONGDELAISHUO,GUODUANDIFOUDINGLEHEIRENZUOWEIYIGEQUNTIYIJINGNEIHUALESANGBORENDETEDIAN”,NULIMENDANGZHONG“CUNZAIZHEDALIANGCHONGMANHUOLI、YIZHIJIANQIANGDEREN,TAMENSUIRANSHOUDAONULIZHIDEYANZHONGXIANZHIHENVEDAI,DANZAIMIANLINJUDADEKUNNANSHIZHAODAOLERENNAIHEBAOCHIQIRENXINGDEFANGFA”,XINGCHENGLEYIZHONGSHENGHUOFANGSHIHEYITAOJIAZHIGUAN———YIZHONGMINZUJINGSHEN———TAZUZHILERENMENWANQUANBEIDASHEHUISHITUQIANGJIADEDINGYISUOJINGU56。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   NEISHI,GUANYUNULIGONGTONGTIJIQIWENHUAZHUTIDEGUANZHU,CHULESHANGSHUHEIRENMINZUZHUYIYISHIXINGTAIDEYINGXIANGZHIWAI,GENGSHENHOUDEXUESHUDONGLIYUANZIDICENGLISHIYANJIU、SHEHUIWENHUASHI、JILIANGSHIXUE、RENKOUSHIXUE、KOUSHUSHIDENGXINXINGYANJIUFANGFADEXINGQI。QIZHONG,YOUXIEBAIRENLISHIXUEJIA、TEBIESHIXINZUOPAIRENSHI,HAIDUIHEIRENSHIYINGXIANGXIADEMEIGUOWEILAIFAZHANJIYUHOUWANG。YINCI,MIANDUIJIJINHEIRENDETIAOXINHEPAICHI,TAMENBINGWEIFANGQIZHEIYIXINLINGYU。1969NIAN,WUDEWODEZAILISHIXUEJIAZUZHIDAHUISHANGZUOLEZHUXIFAYAN。TACHENGREN:XIANDAIBAIRENLISHIXUEJIABEIYIZHONGFUZUIGANSUOQUSHI,JINGCHANGBAHEIRENLISHIXIECHENGBAIRENSUORENWEIDEHEIRENXINYANG、SIXIANGHEXINGWEIDEJILU;HEIRENSHISHIMEIGUOLISHIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,MEIGUOJIANGYINHEIRENZHEIGEXINLINGHUNDEJIARUERHUOYI;NEIXIEYOUHEIRENJINGLIDERENBIQITARENGENGNENGLIJIEZHEIZHONGJINGLIDESHUOFA,YOUYIDINGDAOLI,DANSHI,SUOYOUMEIGUOLISHIXUEJIABIXUBAOKUOZAIHEIRENSHIYANJIUZHINEI,HUOZHETASHIBUBIYAODE,KEYIBEIGELI,LIUJIHEIRENLISHIXUEJIA57。AOGESITE·MAIYEHEAILITE·LUDEWEIKEDEZHEZUOZHONG,CENGTIDAONEIGESHIQIDEXUESHUDONGLI:1969NIANZHI1974NIANSHITEBIEFUYOUCHENGGUOHELINGRENXINGFENDEJIAOLIUSHIQI;SUOYOURENDOUDUIDINGLIANGYANJIUGANXINGQU,MALILANZHIMINDIDEDANGANYOUQIFENGFU,BAOKUOSHUIWUJILU、FANGDICHANQINGDAN、KEZHUANRANGMINGCEHESHOUGAOPUCHABAOGAODENG,ZHEISHITAMENDUIDICENGCONGWEIFASHENGDERENYOULEYANJIU。YANJIUZHEIXIECAILIAODEXUEZHEMENJIHUBUKEBIMIANDIBEIXIYINDAONULIZHIDUDEYANJIUZHONGLAI,XINGQUJIZHONGZAIJINGJI、RENKOUHESHEHUIJIEGOUSHANG,YANJIUZHUTIBAOKUONULIJIAGE、DUIBAIRENQIYUEPUYIHEHEIRENNULIDEQIANYI、SHENGYUNENGLIDEBIJIAOFENXI,YIJINULIDEQINSHUJIEGOUDENG。CHUBANQIANNULIZICHUANXUANJI《LUNAOLAI·MASA》(Puttin’on Ole Massa,1969)DEJIERBOTE·AOSUOFUSIJI(Gilbert Osofsky)YECENGSHUODAO:RENHEDUIGONGRENJIEJIDELISHIHUOQUNZHONGDETAIDUGANXINGQUDEREN,DOUBIXUSHEJICHUJIQIAOLAIFENXINEIXIEHENSHAOLIUXIASHUMIANJILUDERENMENDEXINGDONGHEZHIDU。RUGUOYAOLEJIETAMEN(NULIMEN)DEYUANJING、ZHUIQIUHESIXIANG,XIANRANYOUBIYAOQIUZHUYUKOUTOUJILU:YINLE、LINGGEHEMINJIANGUSHI58。ZHEIXIECAILIAOJIANGTIGONGYIZHONGZHONGYAODELISHISHIJIAO,LAIKAOCHAZAIJIWEIJIANNANDEHUANJINGXIAHEIRENGONGTONGTICUNZAIDEYIYIHEYINGXIANG———NEIDUIWEIXIQICHENGYUANDEZUOYONGBUKEXIAOQU。

                              20SHIJI70NIANDAI,CONGHEIRENSHIJIAOYANJIUNULIGONGTONGTIJIQIWENHUADEZHUANZHEDALIANGCHUBAN,BEIGUANGFANRENWEIBIAOZHIZHEXINSHIDAIXUESHUGONGSHI(BAOKUOHEIRENHEBAIREN)DEDACHENG58。QIAOZHI·LAWEIKE(George P.Rawick)DE《CONGRILUODAORICHU:HEIRENGONGTONGTIDEXINGCHENG》(From Sundown to Sunup:The Making of the Black Com munity)HEYUEHAN·BULAXINJIAMU(John Blassingame)DE《NULIGONGTONGTI》(The Slave Com munity)DOUZAI1972NIANCHUBAN。LAWEIKEJIANG20SHIJI30NIANDAILIANBANGZHEZUOJIHUAGUANLIJU(the Federal Writers’Project of the Works Progress Administration)HEFEISIKEDAXUEDEXUESHENGMENDUIQIANNULIJINXINGDECHAOGUO2000CIDEYUANSHIFANGTAN,ZHENGLIBIANJI19JUANCHUBAN,BINGYIYIJUANZONGKUOSHUOMING,JICHENGCISHU。BULAXINJIAMUDEZHEZUOSHIYONGLEZIYOUMINJUDETONGJIJILU,ZHICHUZI19SHIJI60NIANDAIYILAI,DADUOSHUNULIDOUSHENGHUOZAIYOUFUYOUMUDESHUANGQINJIATINGLI。GENGWEIGUANJIANDEYIDIANSHI,TAMENERRENDOUCONGNULIDESHIJIAOKANDAINULIZHI,KANDAOLENULIZAIYANKUDESHENGCUNHUANJINGZHONG,RENGJIUBAOCHIZHEYIZHONGZIWOYISHI。JIEXIALAIDELIUNIANLI,YIXILIENULISHIJIAODEYANJIUZHEZUOCHUBAN,BAOKUO:YOUJIN·D.JINUOWEISI(Eugene D.Genovese)DE《BENLIUBA,YUEDANHE,BENLIUBA:NULIMENCHUANGZAODESHIJIE》(Roll,Jordan,Roll:The World the Slaves Made,1974)、BIDE·WUDE(Peter Wood)DE《HEIRENDUOSHUPAI》(Black Majority,1974)、LAISILI·OUWENSI(Leslie H.Owens)DE《ZHEILEICAICHAN:JIUNANFANGDENULISHENGHUOHEWENHUA》(This Species of Property:Slave Life and Culture in the Old South,1976)、HEBOTE·GUTEMAN(Herbert Gutman)DE《NULIZHIYUZIYOUSHIQIDEHEIRENJIATING》(The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom,1976)、LAOLUNSI·LIEWEN(Lawrence Levine)DE《HEIRENWENHUAYUHEIRENYISHI》(Black

                              Culture and Black Consciousness,1977)、AERBOTE·LABOTUO(Albert Raboteau)DE《NULIZONGJIAO》(Slave Religion,1978)、TUOMASI·L.WEIBO(Thomas L.Webber)DE《SHENSIHELIU:1831-1865NIANNULISHEQURENDEJIAOYU》(Deep Like the Rivers:Education in the Slave Quarter Com munity,1831-1865,1978)DENG。ZHEIXIEXUEZHESOUXUN、YANJIUNULISUOYILIUXIALAIDEZILIAO,ZHANXIANLEQIZAIJIATINGNIUDAI、ZUZHISHENGHUO、ZONGJIAOJIAZHIHESHIJIEGUANFANGMIANFAZHANDE、YIZHONGYUFEIZHOUXIANGLIANXIDE、HUNHEDEWENHUA,ZAIQIDUTEDEJIATINGHEZONGJIAOXISU、GEQU、WUDAO、MINJIANCHUANSHUOHEKOUTOUCHUANCHENGZHONG,JIESHILENULIMENRUHETONGGUOJIAQIANGQUNTITUANJIE、GOUJIANZIWOZIZUN、ZHICHIMIMIHUOGONGKAIDEDUINUYIDEFANKANG,LAIYINGDUICANKUDENULIZHIBINGBAOCUNZIJIZUQUNDEWANZHENGXING。YUEHAN·BULAXINJIAMUSHUO:“WULUNZHONGZHIYUANSHIDUOMEDEYAPOREN、FEIRENXINGHUA,SHENGCUNDEDOUZHENGHAIMEIYOUYANZHONGDAOZUYICUIHUISUOYOUDENULIDECHUANGZAOXINGZHIJUE。”59LIEWENXIEDAO:“MIANDUIZHONGZU、SHEHUI、JINGJISHANGDEBOXUEYAPOHEBUGONGZHENGDAIYU,MEIGUOHEIRENCHUANGZAOHEBAOCHIXIALAIDESHIZHEIYANGYIZHONGWENHUA:JIANLIBINGBAOCHILEQINSHUJIANDEWANGLUO,ZUOAI,YANGYUZINVBINGCHENGWEISHEHUIDEYIYUAN,JIANLIZONGJIAO,CHUANGZAOYIZHONGFENGFUDE、JUYOUBIAOXIANXINGSHIDEWENHUA。ZHEIZHONGWENHUABATAMENDEGANJUE、XIWANGHEMENGXIANGDOULIANCHENGYITILE。”60

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DAO80NIANDAI,MEIGUOLISHIXUEJIAMENTONGGUOZENGJIAXINDEBIANNIANDE、QUYUDE、ZHUTIDEWEIDU,BAOKUOCONGHEIRENDEZONGJIAO、FUNV、JIEFANGDEJINCHENG,NANBEIZHANZHENGSHIBEIFANGGONGTONGTIDEXINGCHENG,19SHIJIZIYOUHEIRENSHEQUHEHEIRENGONGYEHUA,CHENGSHIHUAJINCHENGDENGXINDECHENGGUO,JIXUCONGHEIRENGONGTONGTIHEWENHUADEJIAODUXIANGXIYANJIU。LIRU,LIANG·F.LITEWEIKE(Leon F Litwack)DE《ZAIBAOFENGYUZHONGDAILENEIMEJIU》(Been in the Storm So Long,1980)ZHONGDIANGUANZHUQIANNULIDESUOWEISUOGAN,BAZAOQINANBUHEIRENZHONGJIANJINGLIMIAOHUICHENGWEIZHENZHENGDEHEIRENGONGTONGTIDEJICHU,BOCHILENEIZHONGRENWEIQIQUEFAWENHUAHENINGJULIDESHUOFA。ZHANMUSI·BOCHETE(James Borchert)DE《HUASHENGDUNDEXIAOXIANGSHENGHUO:1850-1970NIANCHENGSHIZHONGDEJIATING、SHEQU、ZONGJIAOHEMINSU》(Alley life in Washington:Family,Community,Religion,and Folklife in the City,1850-1970,1980)ZHICHU,JINGUANDAPIYIJUDAOBEIBUCHENGSHIZHONGDEHEIRENDOUSHIZUIWEIPINKUDEXIAOXIANGJUMIN,MIANDUIZHEZAINANCHONGCHIDECHENGSHIBING,TAMENQUEJIANCHENGLENENGSHIHEIRENSHENGHUOXIAQUDESHEQU;BUJINJIATINGMEIYOUBEICHAISAN,SHENGHUODEJIANKUHAISHIDETAMENBICIZHIJIANCHANSHENGLEYIZHONGHEZUODEJINGSHEN;ZAIZHEIZHONGJINGSHENDEGUWUXIA,CONGNANBUYIJULAIDEHEIRENBAYUANLAIDEXIANGTUWENHUAGAIZAOCHENGWEISHIHEXINHUANJINGXUYAODEWENHUA。DAOGELASI·H.DANNIERDE《DOUSHIXIANQUZHE:HEIRENJIUJINSHANDESHEHUIYUWENHUALISHI》(Pioneer Urbanites:A Social and Cultural History of Black San Francisco,1980)DEZHONGDIAN,YESHIHEIRENCHENGSHISHEQUSHENGHUOFANGSHIZHONGDEFENGFUHEHUOLI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   HAOWUYIWEN,CIZHONGHEIRENGONGTONGTI-WENHUASHIJIAOHENRONGYIDAOXIANGFEIZHOUBEIJINGDEZHONGYAOXING。ZAIHEIRENQUANLIYUNDONGZHONGXINXINGDEHEIRENYANJIUBUMEN(XIANTONGCHANGCHENGWEI“FEIYIMEIGUORENYANJIU”)ZHONG61,20SHIJI70NIANDAICHUXINGQILEYIGUQIANGLIEDEFEIZHOUWENHUAREHEFEIZHOUZHONGXINLUNSICHAO。ZHEIYISICHAOZAI70NIANDAIZHONGQIXUESHENGYUNDONGPINGXIHOU,YIDUYOUSUOXIAOTUI,DAN80NIANDAIYIHOUDEDAOFUXING。TIANPUDAXUEHEIRENYANJIUZHONGXINZHURENMOLAIFEI·ASANGTE(Molefi Asante)JIANGFEIZHOUZHONGXINLUN(Afrocentricity)DINGYIWEI“FEIZHOURENZAIHOUXIANDAILISHIZHONGCHUYUZHONGXINDIWEIDEXINNIAN。TASHIWOMENDELISHI,WOMENDESHENHUA,WOMENDECHUANGZUOZHUTIHEWOMENDEJINGSHEN,LIZHENGLEWOMENDEJITIYIZHI”62。QIANGDIAOFEIZHOUZHUTIDEDAIBIAOXINGZUOPINYOUYUEHAN·G.JIEKEXUN(John G.Jackson)DE《FEIZHOUWENMINGDAOLUN》(Introduction to African Civilizations,1970),YUESAIFU·BENYUEKENA(Yosef ben-Jochannan)DEQIYUANSANBUQU:《XIFANGZHUYAOZONGJIAODEFEIZHOUQIYUAN》(African Origins of the Major Westem Religions,1970)、《NILUOHEDEHEIRENJIQIJIATING》(Black Man of the Nik and His Family,1978)HE《FEIZHOU:XIFANGWENMINGZHIMU》(Africa:Mother of Western Civilization,1978),SHENG·KELAIER·DELEIKE(St.Clair Drake)DE《DAOCHUDOUSHIHEIREN》(Black Folk Here and There,1987);ASANGTEDE《FEIZHOUZHONGXINXING》(Afrocentricity,1980)DENG。

                              WEIFUTEJIJINHUIZHUANXIEHEIRENYANJIUBAOGAODEHEIRENFUNVSHIXUEJIADALIN·KELAKE·HAIEN(Darlene Clark Hine)RENWEI,CHIFEIZHOUZHONGXINLUNDEXUEZHERENSHUHENDUO,ZAIGUANDIANHEYISHIXINGTAIFANGMIAN,CUNZAIZHEMINGXIANDECHAYI,BIRUWENHUAMINZUZHUYIZHE、FANFEIZHUYIZHE、FEIZHOUZHONGXINZHUYIZHEHEMAKESIZHUYIZHEDENGDENG,DANSHI,QIZUOPINYEYOUZHETONGYIDEZHUTI,JIYIZHONGZHIXINGDE、TONGCHANGSHIGONGKAIDEZHENGZHICHENGNUO,ZHILIYURANGHEIRENBAITUOOUZHOUREN(HUOZHEBAIREN)DESIXIANGHEFENXIFANGFA。YEJIUSHISHUO,TAMENZHILIYUCHUANGZAOYIZHONGXINDEFEIZHOUFANGFALUN,RANGFEIZHOURENNENGGOUKONGZHIZIJIDEZHISHI,FANDUIOUZHOUZHONGXINLUN。ZHEIGEQUNTIZHONGDEXUEZHE,WULUNTAMENDEZHEZUOHAISHIXUEZHESHENFEN,DOUHAIMEIYOUJINRUZHULIUDANGZHONG63。DANGRAN,HEIRENYANJIUZHEBINGBUDOUSHIHEIREN,RUKANGNAIERDAXUERENLEIXUEJIA、YOUTAIYIXUEZHEMADING·BONAER(Martin Bernal),CONG1987NIANDAO1991NIANTUICHULEDUOJUANBENZHANGPIANJUZHE《HEIRENYADIANNA》(Black Athena),DUANYANOUZHOUWENMINGYUANCHUYUFEIZHOU,ERQIEMINGQUEXUANCHENG:“ZHENGZHIMUDE……DANGRANSHIWEILEJIANSHAOOUZHOUWENHUADEAOMAN。”64TONGSHI,HEIRENXUEZHENEIBUGUANYUFEIZHOUZHONGXINLUNYECUNZAIZHENGYI。

                              ZONGDELAISHUO,80NIANDAIYONGXIANDEDALIANGHEIRENSHIZUOPINDANGZHONG,JINGUANHAICUNZAIZHEYIXIEGAINIANXINGDE、SHIZHIXINGDEFENQI,DANSHIZHONGXINZHUTISHIXIANGDANGQINGCHUDE:MIANDUIWAILAIDEDIYIHEDALIANGDENEIBUFENLIE,MEIGUOHEIRENCHUANGZAOLEYIGETONGYIDE(RUGUOBUSHIDANYIDE)WENHUA、ZHENGZHIHEGONGTONGTISHENGHUO65。DALIANGDEXUESHUZHUANZHEJIESHILEGEDIQU、GEJIECENGHEIRENNANNVDEJINGYAN,“NULI、NONGYEGONGREN、CHENGSHIYIMIN、GONGYEGONGREN、ZUOJIA、YISHUJIA、YINLEJIA、GAIGEJIA、DIAOHEZHUYIZHEHEMINZUZHUYIZHEDENG,ZHEIXIECENGJINGWUSHENGDEDAZHONGJIQIXINGDONGBIAOMING,TAMENDUIGOUCHENGMEIGUOSHEHUIJICHUDEJIBENYUANZEHESHANGWEISHIXIANDELIXIANG,JINXINGLEWUQINGDEPIPANFANSI”63。JIEGUO,HEIRENSHENGHUODEJIHUSUOYOUFANGMIAN,DOUCONGLISHIZHONGXIANLUCHULAILE。“HEIRENBUZAIBEIBIANDIWEIYABA,BAIRENDUITOUDEXISHENGPIN,HUOSHISHOUBAIRENENCIDESHOUHUIZHE。TAMENYINGSHILISHIWUTAISHANGZUIHAODEYANYUAN,TAMENCHUANGLIZHIDU,WEIHUGONGGONGJIAZHI,BINGBADOUZHENGYUCHUANGZAODEYICHANCHUANJIHOUDAI”66;TAMEN“YIDAIYOUYIDAIDICHUANDIZHEZIJINEIYITAODUTEDEWENHUAZHUTI……CONGERNENGGOUDIZHIBAIRENDEDADUOSHUJIAODAO,SHITAMENDEYIZHISHENYUBAIRENSHEHUIZHIWAI,ZHUZAOTAMENZIJIDEWENHUAGUIFANHEQUNTIRENTONG”67。

                              DANGRAN,HUYUYANJIUHEIRENGONGTONGTIBINGFEISHIYAODIHUIJIECHURENWUDEGONGXIAN,ERSHIYAORENSHIDAO,LIJIEDADUOSHUHEIRENLINGXIUSUODANSHENGYUQIZHONGDEHEIRENDAZHONGDEJINGLIGENGWEIZHONGYAO。NANBEIZHANZHENGZHIQIAN,BINGFEISHIDAOGELASIDELILIANGWEIXILEHEIRENGONGTONGTI,ERSHIHEIRENGONGTONGTIDELILIANGSUZAOZHICHILEDAOGELASI。1895NIAN,WEILIANMU·MOLUO·TERUOTE(William Monroe Trotter)SHIDIYIGEBIYEYUHAFODE、QUANMEIYOUDENGSHENGXIEHUIHUIYUANDEHEIREN。ZHIDAOZHEIGEJIECHURENWUSHIZHONGYAODE,DANSHI,TONGYANGZHONGYAODESHI,YEYAOZHIDAODANGSHIMEIGUO40%~50%DEHEIRENSHISHIZUDEWENMANG,70%DEHEIRENSHISHIZHISHANGDEWENMANG。RUGUOSHUOXUDUOHEIRENLINGXIUDEZHIYESHUOMINGLEMEIGUOSHENHUA,PUTONGMEIGUOHEIRENMINZHONGDEJINGLIZE,BIAOMINGLEMEIGUOZHIDUDESHIBAI68。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YOUSHI,ZHEIZHONGDUIHEIRENGONGTONGTIJIQIWENHUADEDIAOCHA,JULIEDIGAIBIANLEHEIRENSHIHEMEIGUOSHIDEXIEZUO。SHOUXIAN,XINHEIRENSHIKAISHIZIJIJINCHENGDETANJIULUXIAN。NIANQINGDEHEIRENLISHIXUEJIAMEN,BUZAIBAMEIGUOHEIRENDEGUOQUSHEXIANGWEIBUKEZUDANGDECHAOXIANGZIYOUHEPINGDENGDEGUOCHENG,BUZAIQIANGDIAOHEIRENDUIYUMEIGUOLISHIZHULIUJINCHENGDEGONGXIAN,YEBUGONGKAIGUANZHUHEIRENHEBAIRENDEGUANXI。TAMENDEXINFANGFATONGGUOGOULENULINEIBUSHENGHUODEJIESHICELVEHEJIQIAO,TICHULE“YIGEDUTEDEMEIGUOHEIRENWENHUADEFAZHAN”65,NULISHIBEIHUSHIDEHEIRENBUJINKANDEJIAN,ERQIEHAIYAOSHIZHENSHIDE、YOURENXINGDE,NENGGOUZAISHIJIESHANGCAIQUXINGDONG69。QICI,ZHEIGEGONGTONGTIDEJINGLI,JIUXIANGFUNV、YINDIANRENYIJIQITASHAOSHUZUYIYIYANG,BIAODALEYIZHONGBUHUIBEIMEIGUOYINGXIONGSHIJISUOKEFUHUOYANMEIDEDUTEXING,BUJINYUZHANGQIYILAIDEMEIGUOSHENHUACHANSHENGCHONGTU,SHIDIANXINGDE“FEIMEIGUORENDE”,ERQIE,MEIGUODARONGLUDEGUANNIAN———ZAIQIZHONG,BUTONGLEIXINGZHIRENRONGZHUCHENGYIZHONGLIXIANGLEIXING———YESHIQULEZUOWEIJIANSHIQIGUOQUDEJIAZHI。SUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYI,MEIGUOSHIDESHUXIEJIANGBUDEBUCHEDIGAIGUAN。

                              三、新黑人史、社会运动与美国史的重构

                            星云棋牌官网下载   EER·E.SUOPUZHICHU:“YINWEIGUOQUHUIZHIMINGHENDUOWEILAIDEFANGXIANG,MEIYIDAIRENDOUBIXUZUOZIJIDELISHIYANJIU。”7020SHIJI60NIANDAIYIHOUXIN“HEIRENSHI”DEZHUTI,YIGESHIHEIRENGONGTONGTIJIQIWENHUA,LINGYIGESHIJILIEDEQIANZEMEIGUOGUOQUDEZUIE。ZHEILIANGDAZHUTI,LIANTONGGENGGUANGFANYIYISHANG“XINZUOPAI”LISHIXUEJIA、XINXINGDEFUNVSHIXUEJIADENGBIANYUANQUNTIDUIMEIGUOLISHIDEFANSI,HUIHEDAOYIQI,GONGTONGWAJIELECHUANTONGMEIGUOSHIDEHEFAXING,MEIGUOSHENHUAHEMEIGUOMENGBUFUCUNZAI,CHAOXIANG“SUIPIANHUA”DE“XINMEIGUOLISHI”。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   HUIGUDANGSHI,1964NIANHE1965NIANTONGGUODEQIANGYOULIDEMINQUANFAAN,JIBENSHANGXIAOCHULEBAIRENXINZHONGYINFALVSHANGDEZHONGZUGELIHEBODUOHEIRENXUANJUQUANERMIANLINDEDAODEKUNJING,DANZHONGZUWENTIYIRANCUNZAI。MINQUANYUNDONGSHITUZHUANXIANGJIEJUEJINGJIBUPINGDENGWENTI,YAOQIUZHENGFUCAIQUGENGDUODEXINGDONG。1965NIAN6YUE,YUEHANXUNZONGTONGZAIHUOHUADEDAXUEFABIAOYANJIANG,HUYUZHENGFUJIERU。TARENSHIDAO,HEIRENPINKUNYUBAIRENPINKUNCONGGENBENSHANGSHIBUTONGDE,YINWEIHEIRENPINKUNDEGENYUANZAIYU“GUOQUDEBUZHENGYIHEMUQIANDEPIANJIAN”,YINCI,JIANGJINGJIZIYOUJINJINDINGYIWEIJIHUIJUNDENGSHIYUANYUANBUGOUDE71。TAFADONGLEYICHANGZIXINZHENGYILAIYINGXIANGZUISHENYUANHEFANWEIZUIGUANGFANDEGUONEIGAIGEYUNDONG,SHITUCHAOYUE“ZIYOU”,DONGYUANLIANBANGGUOJIADEQUANLI,SHIHEIRENZOUXIANGTIAOJIANPINGDENG。DANSHI,ZHEIGEJIHUASUOHUAFEIDEJINETAIDI,BUNENGSHIXIANWANQUANXIAOMIEPINKUNDESHEXIANGHUOWANCHENGGAIZAOPINKUNDOUSHISHEQUSHENGHUOTIAOJIANZHEIYANGGENGWEIXIANSHIJINPODERENWU。SHUBAIWANFEIYIMEIGUORENRENGRANCHUYUPINKUNZHIZHONG。ERQIE,1967NIANZHIHOU,SUIZHEMEIGUOZAIYUEZHANJUANRUDESHENGJI,“XIANGPINKUNXUANZHAN”XIANGMUDESHISHIXIANRULETINGDUN。

                              SUIZHI,MEIGUOHEIRENDUIYUZHENGFUJIANGSHUQIANYIMEIYUANTOURUDAOYUENANZHANCHANG,ERZAIGUONEIGAIJINXUEXIAO、PINMINKUJIANSHEDENGFANGMIANQUELIANGSHOUKONGKONG,YUELAIYUEBUMAN。BAIRENZIYOUZHUYIZHEHEHEIRENHUODONGRENSHIZHIJIANYIZHICUNZAIDEJINZHANGGUANXI,YEJINYIBUJIASHEN,BIANCHENGLEYINYUDEYUANHENHECHANGCHANGGONGKAIDEDIYI。HALUODE·KELUSIDE《HEIRENZHISHIFENZIDEWEIJI》(1967)YIJINGCHUBAN,JIUYINQIJIDAZHENDONG。TARENWEI,MEIGUOXUEXIAOLISHIJIAOKESHUSHANGSUOSHUODE“MEIGUOSHIYIGERONGLU”,XIANRANBUSHIZHENSHIDE;MEIGUODEXIANSHISHIJIANLIZAIXIANGHUJINGZHENGDE、DATISHANGMEIYOUTONGHUADEZHONGZUJITUANZHISHANG;MEIGUOZHISUOYI“SIXIANGHEXINGDONGJIUFANGFOTASHIYIGEBAIRENANGGELU-SAKEXUNXINJIAOTUDEGUOJIA”,ZHENGSHIYINWEIZHEIGEJITUANKONGZHILEMEIGUODEWENHUAGONGJU(JIXUANCHUANGONGJU、BIAOYANDEYISHUDENGDENG),WAIQULEFEIYIMEIGUORENDELISHI,BINGDUIDANGDAIHEIRENDESHENGHUOCHANSHENGLESHENSHENDESHUFU;YINCI“DUIMEIGUOSHEHUILAISHUO,MUQIANZUIYOUJUEDINGXINGDEXUYAOSHIQUANGUOWENHUAFENGQIDEWANQUANMINZHUHUA”。TAHAOZHAOFEIYIMEIGUORENZHISHIFENZITINGZHISHIYONGBAIZHONGMEIGUORENJIQIOUZHOUTONGXINGDESIXIANG,FANGQI(WENHUASHANGDE)RONGRUZHUYI,CONGHEIRENDESHIJIAO,YIYUANCHUANGXINGDELISHIJIESHI,JIANLIYIZHONGYOUZIZHUQUANDEWENHUASHENFEN,FOUZEHAIJIANGZAOSHOULISHISHANGDEMINGYUN72。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   NEISHI,XINYIDAIHEIRENLINGXIUHEZHISHIFENZIYIJINGRENSHIDAO:SUIRANHEIRENJINBAINIANLAIZAOBEIRONGXUZOU“ZIYOU”FENDOUXIANGSHANGPADEDAOLU,XUDUORENZHEIYANGDICHANGSHIGUO,DANXIANGDUIDISHUO,HEIRENDECHUJINGQIAQIATONGTAMENZAINANBEIZHANZHENGJIESHUSHIWANQUANXIANGTONG,JICHUYUSHEHUIDEDICENG72;HEIRENZHIYOUZUOWEIYIGEJITUANZAIZHENGZHISHANGHEYIDAOMEIGUOSHEHUIZHONGQU,CAINENGTIGONGRENHEZHENZHENGDEXIWANG72。WEICI,BIXUPOCHUNANBEIZHANZHENGYILAIMEIGUOZHULIULISHISHUXIEYIZHIGUANSHUJIHEIRENDEHUANXIANG,XINHEIRENSHIGUANBIXUZHONGSHIHEIRENGONGTONGTIDEJIANGOU。ZAIXIANGDANGCHENGDUSHANG,ZHEISHIDUIHALUODE·KELUSISUOYISHIDAODEHEIRENWENHUASHENFENZHONGGOUZHONGYAOXINGDEHUIYING。

                              DEQUE,ZIYOUZHUYIMINZHUZHENGZHILILUNZHONGDEGETIZHUQUANYUANZE,QIANGDIAOGETIZHIBEIZIJIDEYIZHISUOZHIPEI,“GERENZHUYI”ZAIHEXINDEZIYOUZHUYIYISHIXINGTAIZHONGBIAOXIANWEIMEIGUOXIANFAZHONGDEJIHUIPINGDENG、ZHENGZHIPINGDENG、GERENQUANLI、ZIYOUDENG。YIFANGMIAN,TAKEYISHIBUMANDERENMENZHONGZHISHAOYOUYIXIEYOUXIUDEGEREN,NENGGOUXIANGSHANGPAERBAITUOTAMENSHENGHUODEKUNAN,CONGERYIZHISHEHUIDONGDANGHEFENLIXINGDEHEIRENMINZUZHUYI;LINGYIFANGMIAN,TAFANDUIJITIHUOJIEJIYISHIDEZENGZHANG,FANGZHIRENMENDUIBOXUEDESHEHUIXINGYOUSUOJUEXING。ZAIMEIGUO,CIZHONGGERENZHUYIDEZHULIULISHISHUXIEYEJIUQIZHEANQUANFADEZUOYONG。DANSHI,MEIGUOHEIRENZHANGQISHOUYAPOHEGELIDEJIEGUO,BIJINGGOUCHENGLEYIZHONGDUTEDEYAWENHUABEIJING,ZAIQIZHONG,TAMENYIGEZHONGXINGSHIFANKANG、JUCHIBAIRENDETONGZHI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIHEIRENMINQUAN-QUANLIYUNDONGZHONG,MINQUANZUZHIJINQISUONENGZAIQICHENGYUANZHONGZENGJIADUIHEIRENSHIDELEJIE。XUDUOTUANTI,LIRUZHONGZUPINGDENGDAHUI,ZAIQIDIFANGFENHUINEIKAISHELEYOUGUANHEIRENSHIDEKECHENG,BINGDUNCUQICHENGYUANHEQITAYOUGUANRENSHICANJIA。TONGSHI,FAXINGLIANGJUDADE《WUMU》(Ebony)YUEKANYEZAIPUJIHEIRENSHI,YOUQISHIGAOJIBIANJIXIAOLAILUONEI·BANNITE(Lerone Bennett,Jr.)DEZUOPIN,JICHENGQIANSHANGWANDEDUZHELIUXIALESHENKEDEYINXIANG。ZHEIXIEBUJINJIDADIZENGJINLEHEIRENDOUSHIMENDUIGAIXUEKEZHISHIDELEJIE,ERQIERENSHIDAOJIANGCIZHONGLEJIEKUOZHANDAOZHONGXUEHEDAXUEDENIANQINGRENDEZHONGYAOXING。FANGUOLAI,ZHEIXIEHUODONGYOUJIAQIANGLEDAXUESHENGDEJUEXIN,CUSHITAMENZAISUOJIUDUDEJIGOUZHONGKAISHEHEIRENSHIKECHENG73。JIJINDEHEIRENXUESHENGJIANDINGDIJUJUEJINGYINGSHIDEZIYOURONGRUZHUYI———“RUGUORONGHEHUOBEIJIENAYIWEIZHEWOMENYAOFANGQIXINJINZHENSHIDEHEIRENMINZUXINGHUOPAOQIWOMENDEXIONGDI,NEIME,BUYAOYEBA”;QIANGLIEYAOQIUZENGJIAHEIRENJIAOSHI、XUESHENGRENSHU;SHELIHEIRENYANJIUXIANGMUHEJIHUA;ZHONGXINQUEDINGKECHENGNEIRONG,TEBIESHINEIXIESHEJIRENYUSHEHUIYIJIWENHUABENZHIDEYANJIU,DOUYAOCONGHEIRENDESHIJIAOJINXINGPINGGU;SHENKEFANSHENGXIFANGZIBENZHUYICHENGGONGFAZHANGUSHIZHONGDEHEIRENHEQITAFEIBAIRENDETONGKU74。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YINCI,HEIRENSHIRUHEXUSHIBUJINJINSHISHUYUWENHUADELINGYU,YEYUZHENGZHIQINGXIANGMIQIEXIANGGUAN。WENSENTE·HADINGZAIYIBENXIAOCEZI《HUNLUANZHIWAI》ZHONG,JIUCENGYONG“CONGHEIGUISHIDAOHEIRENSHI”DEBIANHUALAIDUIYINGZHENGZHIFANGMIAN“ZIYOURONGRUZHUYIDAOHEIRENQUANLIDEZHUANBIAN”。HADINGRENWEI,“HEIGUISHISHITUTONGGUOQIANGDIAOZHANZHENGZHONGDEHEIRENYINGXIONGZHUYIJIESHIHEIRENDUIMEIGUOYINGXIONGSHIJIDE‘GONGXIAN’;HUYUZHONGZUZIHAOGANHEWEIJINRUMEIGUOSHENGHUOZHULIUERCHIXUBUDUANDEDOUZHENG;TASHENGCHENGZHUYAODUIKEGUANZHENLIGANXINGQU,RANERQUESHITONGGUOYANLEISHUXIELISHI”。CONGZHEIGEJIAODULAIKAN,HEIGUISHIMEIYOUTIAOZHANBAIRENTONGZHIDEMEIGUOSHEHUIDEJIBENJIAZHIHEYUSHE。XIANGBIZHIXIA,XINHEIRENSHIBINGMEIYOUKEWANGWEIXIANCUNDEMEIGUOXUSHIZUOCHUGONGXIAN;XIANGFAN,TAQIANGDIAOPUGUANG、QIANZE、ZHONGXINJIEDUZHENGGEMEIGUOLISHI。ZHEIZHONGZHONGXINJIESHIBUJINJINSHIYIZHONGXUESHUHUODONG,ERQIESHIJISHANGYESHIZHENGZHIXINGDE,YINWEI“TACHENGRENRENMINDESUOYOULISHIDOUCANYUZHENGZHI,BINGSHOUDAOZHENGZHIHEYISHIXINGTAIGUANDIANDEYINGXIANG”75。SITAJIZAIYIPIANWENZHANGZHONGSHUO:“HEIGUISHI(Negro history)DESHIDAIYIJINGJIESHU。ZHEIYIQIANTIZAIZHIYEJUNDUIKAIJINWOCIHEDITELVBINGPINGXILEJUEWANGDEPANLUANSHITURANDEDAOSHIXIAN。DANGHEIRENDAZHONGBUZAIXINRENMEIGUODESHIHOU……NIANQINGDEHEIRENZHISHIFENZIHEYISHUJIADUIYUTAMENDEGUOJIA‘ZHENGZAIQUDEDEJINBU’ZAIYEMEIYOUXINGQULE。WULUNZHEIYANGDEJINBUYOUSHENMENEIRONG,TAMENDOUBUZAIDUISUOWEIDEAIGUOZHUYIGANDAOXINGQU。”76BAIRENZIYOUPAISHIWEIMOFANDEHEIRENLISHIXUEJIAFULANKELINYEZAODAOPIPING,BEIKANCHENGSHI“AOLIAOJIAXINBINGGAN”,JIWAIBIAOSHIHEIDE,NEILISHIBAIDE。HADINGXIEDAO,FULANKELINJINEIYIDAIDEQITAHEIRENLISHIXUEJIAYIJINGBEI“MEIGUOJIQI‘CHENGNUO’SUONEIHUA,XIANG‘HAOXINDE’BAIRENBAOYIXINREN”。HEIGUILISHIXUEBIXUYOUHEIRENLISHIXUE(Black history)77LAIQUDAI:“DUIYUMEIGUOSHEHUIDERENCIHEWEIDA,HEIGUILISHIXUEJIHUCONGBUBIAOSHIHUAIYI。TAZHUZHANGZHEIZHONGSHEHUIYOUGAISHANDENEIZAIQIANLI(CHUFEIWOMENQUDUYIDULINGYIZHONGHEIGUISHIDEZHEZUO),XIANGFAN,HEIRENSHIZECHIWANQUANBUTONGDEKANFA……HEIRENSHIJIAODAOWOMEN,BUYAOBAXIWANGJITUOZAIBAIRENJIUXINGDESHENSHANG。TAJIANCHIRENWEI,WOMENHEIRENYIJINGCHENGZHANGQILAILE,YIJINGCHENGSHULE。ZONGDESHUOLAI,WOMENQIANBEIMENXIEDEHEIGUISHIBIAOMINGTAYIRANSHENGHUOZAIYIWEIBAIRENSHICIYUZHEDESHIDAI,WOMENDECHENGSHUYIJIWOMENDESHIXIANDOUYAOQIUWOMENPOCHUZHEIZHONGXINYANG。”78WEICI,TACHENGLILEHEIRENSHIJIEYANJIUSUO,ZHILIYUQINGCHUXIANDAIHUAGUOCHENGZHONGXIFANGHUAHEMEIGUOHUADEYINGXIANG,“NULIQINGCHUXIFANGZHISHIZHEZUOZHONGDEGERENZHUYI,ERPEIYUDUIBEIYAPORENMINXINGCHENGCHUANGZAOXINGHUOLISUOBIYAODEGONGTONGTIYISHI(HUOJITIGUANNIAN)”79。

                              DANGRAN,ZAIHEIRENLISHIXUEJIAZHONG,CHULEHADING、SITAJIDENGBIAOXIANCHUHENQIANGDEMINZUZHUYIQINGXIANGZHIWAI,QITAGENGDUORENCHUYUZHIYEYUANZE,CHANGCHANGZIJUEYUZHENGZHIBAOCHIJULI,WEINENGZAIMINZUZHUYIDEFANGXIANGSHANGJIXUTANSUO,ERSHIXUANZERONGRUZHULIU。DAO20SHIJI70NIANDAIMO,JIENUOWEISICENGDUIZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGJINXINGLEJIANRUIDEPIPING。ZAIDUILABOTUO(Raboteau)HEWEIBO(Webber)ZHEZUODEPINGLUNZHONG,TAZHICHU:“BUXINGDESHI,LABOTUOHEWEIBOYIYIZHONGTAMENBUYINGGAIDEFANGSHIZHUISUIDANGQIANDEQUSHI。HENMINGXIAN,NULILISHIYIQIFENGFUHEDUTEDEWENHUAYICHANDEMIAOSHU,DUIZHENGZHIWENTI———TEBIESHIHEIRENMINZUZHUYIWENTI———YOUHENDADEQIFA。YINCI,RENMENKENENGQIWANGXIEZHEIDUANLISHIDERENHUILVXINGTAMENDEZEREN,ZUOCHUJINGGUOSHENSISHULVDEZHENGZHIPINGJIA……RANER,NEIXIEYIJINGCHAJUEDAOHEIRENWENHUAFAZHANJUYOUGUANGFANDEZIZHIQUANDEREN,XIANGLABOTUO、WEIBOYIYANG,TONGCHANGDUITAMENFAXIANDEZHENGZHIHANYIBAOCHICHENMO,ERNEIZHONGFAXIANXIANRANZHICHILEHEIRENMINZUZHUYIZHEDEYIXIEZHUYAOGUANDIAN。ZHEIZHONGCHENMODUIRENHERENDOUMEIYOUHAOCHU,ERQIEWOMENXIWANGTAHENKUAIJIUHUIBEIDAPO。”DANSHI,HENSHAOYOUYANJIUNULISHEHUIDELISHIXUEJIAXIANGJIENUOWEISINEIYANG。JINIANHOU,TAMENGLIEPENGJIGUTEMANHETADECHONGBAIZHEMEN,SHUOTAMENWEINENG“ZHUYIDAOTAMENDESHEHUILISHIWEIHEIRENMINZUZHUYIZHEDUIHEIRENJINGLIDEJIESHITIGONGLEZHICHI。YOUQILINGRENYIHANDESHI,GUTEMANHUSHILESITELIN·SITAJI、WENSENTE·HADING、AMIRUI·BALAKAHEQITAHEIRENXUEZHEDEZUOPIN,ZHEIXIEHEIRENXUEZHEDUIHEIRENWENHUASHIDEYANJIUPOSHISUOYOUYANJIUHEIRENLISHIDERENZHENGSHIZHEIGEGUOJIAWENTI”80。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   BUGUO,JINGUANXUDUOHEIRENLISHIXUEJIAZIJUEYUANLIHEIRENSHIDEMINZUZHUYIQINGXIANGHEGONGJUXINGCHANSHI,JIANCHILISHIDEXUESHUXINGBUNENGYUZHENGZHIXUANCHUANJIUCHANDAOYIQI,DANTAMENYIJIUJIANXIN:ZHENSHIDEHEIRENSHIZAIGAIBIANMEIGUOLISHIYANJIUHEMEIGUOSHEHUIFANGMIANNENGGOUFAHUIZHONGYAOZUOYONG。TAMENDEXINHEIRENSHIXIEZUO,FENGGELENGJING,XIUCIKEZHI,JIFANDUICHUANTONGMEIGUOSHIXIEZUOZHONGPAICHIHEIRENMINZHONG、XUANYANGBAIRENZHISHANG,YEQUXIANGYUPIPINGMEIGUOZHENGZHIHEJINGJITIZHI,YINWEIQIJIEGOUXINGQUEXIANDAOZHIZHONGZUZHUYIHEJIEJIYAPODECUNZAIHEFANRONG。KEYISHUO,ZHEIZHONGDUIBAIRENZHONGZUYOUYUELUNHEZIYOUZIBENZHUYITIZHIDEJIELU,ZAIJIANJIESHANGWAJIELECHUANTONGZHULIUMEIGUOSHIXUSHUDEHEFAXING。BULAXINJIAMURENWEI,“HEIRENXUEZHEBIXUTIAOZHANMEIGUOSHIDANGZHONGDEQIANZAIDEBAIRENYOUYUEYUANZE”;NEISEN·HAJINSI(Nathan Huggins)RENWEI,“DANGWOMENLEJIEHEIRENSHISHI,WOMENJIANGDONGDEMEIGUOMENGBENSHENDESHIBAI”80。MALI·F.BORUI(Mary F.Berry)HEA.LAIEN·HAIGENBOHAIMU(A.Leon Higginbotham)ZHANSHILEMEIGUOFALVTIZHIYOUYISHIDIRUMAHEIREN;XIAOLIOUEN·BENNITE(Lerone Bennett Jr.)XITONGHUADITANJIULEMEIGUOGUOJIAXINGCHENGGUOCHENGZHONGHEIRENPINGDENGDEJIEGOUXINGHEGONGNENGXINGZHANGAI81。SHENZHIXUDUOHEIRENLISHIXUEJIAXINFUSITELIN·SITAJIDEJINGGAO,JIXUYAODIAOCHADESHITIZHIBENSHEN,“HEIRENSHIYINGDANGCHENGWEIJIANYANMEIGUOANYEDETANZHAODENG,JIELUNEIXIEYINZANGDEZUIE”82。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YUCITONGSHI,MEIGUOZAIGUONEIHEGUOJISHANGFANXIADEHUOBAOHUDEFEIRENDAOZHUYIZUIXING,YINFALEGONGZHONGYOUQISHIQINGNIAN、FUNV、YINDIANREN、XIBANYAYI、TONGXINGLIANHEQITAQUNTIDEFENNUFANKANG。ZHENGRUZHONGXINSIKAOHEIRENSHIYIYANG,XUDUOMEIGUOLISHIXUEJIAYEKAISHIRENZHENYANJIUFUNV、YIMIN、NANNVTONGXINGLIAN、GONGREN、ERTONGDENGQUNTIDELISHI,YIGENGJIABAORONGHEKAIFANGDEXINTAI,RENZHENSOUXUNGEQUNTIDEYUANSHIWENXIAN,RENZHENQINGTINGJINKENENGGUANGFANDESHENGYIN。TAMENTOUGUOGEQUNTIWENHUADELENGJING,SHENSHIMEIGUODEGUOQU,ZHUJIANJIESHOULEYOUTAIJIZHEXUEJIAOSHOUHUOLESI·M.KALUN1915NIANZAI《MINZHUYURONGLU》ZHONGTICHUDEJIANJIE,JIZUIHAOBUYAOBAMEIGUOLIJIECHENGYIGEDARONGLUDETONGYICHANWU,ERYINGGAIBATALIJIECHENGGENGFUZADE“SUOYOUMINZUJIANDEMINZHU”,ERBUSHIMOUYIMINZUDUIQITAMINZUDEJUEDUITONGZHI83。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DUICI,BAOSHOUCHUANTONGZHUYIZHELIKEFACHUJINGSHI。TUOMASI·A.BEILI(Thomas A.Bailey)ZAI1968NIANDEMEIGUOLISHIXUEJIAZUZHI(OAH)ZHUXIYANJIANGZHONGSHENGCHENG:“LISHIXUEJIAYINGGAIJINGTIHEIRENYAOQIU‘LISHICHENGREN’DEHUSHENGYUELAIYUEGAO,YINWEINEIXIEBUXINGDEFEIYIMEIGUORENZAINULIZHISHIQIJIBENSHANGSHIZAIJIANYULI;WOMENDANGRANBUHUIYIYIGEGUOJIADEJIANYURENQUNLAISHUXIEZHEIGEGUOJIADEGUSHI。”84RANER,ERSHIDUONIANHOU,JINGGAOBIANCHENGLEXIANSHI:“ZHANTONGZHIDIWEIDEMINZU、TONGZHIJINGYING、MINZUGUOJIAYIJIGENSHENDIGUDEFALV、JINGJIHEJIAOYUZHIDUBIANDEBEIBI。XINTIAOHEPUBIANZHUYILIXIANGSHIYISHIXINGTAIDEXIANJING。LISHIXUEJIABUZAIYANJIUZIYOUHEZHENGYIDEJICHU,ERGENGGANXINGQUDESHIZHANSHITONGZHIQUANDEBUKEBIMIANXING。”85CHUANTONGMEIGUOSHISHUXIEZHONGCENGJINGDE“MEIGUOLIWAILUN”ZHUJIANBENGKUI,PUBIANZIYOUHEMEIGUOMENGDESHENHUAKAISHIWAJIE。

                              XINDELISHISHUXIEZHONG,MEIGUOGUOJIAHENSHAOZAIYIYANYUANDESHENFENCHUXIAN,JINGUANTARENGJIUSHIYIGEJUDADEWUTAI,DANCHENGQIANSHANGWANRENZAIQIZHONGYINCHANGZHEGEZIDELISHI。HAIEMUGUANCHADAO:“CHULEZAIBIERENDEGUSHIZHONGBANYANFANPAIJIAOSEWAI,ZUOWEIYANYUANDEMEIGUOGUOJIABIANDEHENNANZHAOLE,YINCI,ZAIZUIJUYINGXIANGLIDELISHIYANJIUZHONG,MEIGUOSHENHUA,ZHEIPIANCHONGMANXIWANGDETUDI,YAOMEDANCHURENMENDESHIXIAN,YAOMEJIXUZUOWEIPIPINGDEDUIXIANGCUNZAI。”86MEIGUOLISHISHUXIEDEXINFANSHITONGGUOJIELUGEZHONGLEIXINGDERUOSHIQUNTIBEIYANMEIDEJINGLI,QIANGDIAOXIAOGONGTONGTIDEZHENSHIXING,ERBUSHIRENHEDAGONGTONGTIDEDUTEXING。QIARUBIDE·NUOWEIKESUOYAN:“MEIGERENQUNDOUSHIZIJIDELISHIXUEJIA。”87LAOLUNSI·WEISAI(Laurence Veysey)ZAI1979NIANDUANYAN:SHEHUILISHIXUEJIAXIANZAIRENWEI,RENHEYIGEMINZUGUOJIADEJUMINDOUBUSHIYIGEMINZU,ERSHIYIGEFUZADEMASAIKE,QIZHONGDEMEIGEYUANSU“YINCIBIXUYOUWANQUANBUTONGDELISHI”;MEIYOUSHENMEDONGLIQUBAZHEIXIELISHIPINCOUCHENGYIGEZHENGTI,YINWEIBUFENBEISHIWEIXIANSHI,ZHENGTIBEISHIWEIYIZHONGRENWEIDEGOUJIAN88。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   DUICIXIANXIANGHEFAZHANQUSHI,MEIGUOLISHIXUEJIANEIBUDEZHENGCHAORIQUJILIE。YIXIERENDASHENGJIHU,“TIANYAOTAXIALAILE,RENHEPIANLIDARONGLUZHENGTONGLILUNDEXINGWEI,DOUYIWEIZHEWOMENSUOZHIDEGONGHEGUODEZHONGJIE”;LINGYIXIERENZESHENGCHENG,“SHEHUIHEMINZUFENLIEBUSHIXINSHIXUEDEJIEGUO;XIANGFAN,XINSHIXUEZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGSHIDUIMEIGUOCHIXUFENLIEDEYIZHONGHUIYING,ZHEIZHONGFENLIEDAOZHIXUDUOXUEZHEDUIJIUDEGONGSHIHEJIESHITICHUZHIYIHEFANSI,BINGGENGMIQIEDIGUANCHAZUCHENGMEIGUODEGEGEQUNTI”,XIWANG“BAOCHIDUIMEIGUOLISHIDELIJIESHIKAIFANGDE、DONGTAIDE、JIJIDE,BUSHOUGUDINGDEFUHAO、JIANGHUADEJIAOTIAOHEWUYONGDEYINYINGDESHUFU”89。ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIZHONGSIKAO、TAOLUNHEZHENGCHAODANGZHONG,CHUANTONGMEIGUOSHIKUANGJIAHEXUSHIDEZHISHIQUANWEI,SHOUXIANZAIZHUANYELISHIXUEJIETANTALE。1988NIAN,MEIGUOYANJIUXIEHUISHOUCIJIANG“XINGBIE、ZHONGZU、MINZUHEJIEJIDEWENHUA”ZUOWEIQINIANDUHUIYIDEZHUTI。CONGNEIYIHOU,MEIGUOGEDIDEYANJIUXIANGMUYUELAIYUEDUODIBAZIJIZHONGXINSHEJICHENGDUOYUANWENHUALIANMENG90。

                              四、新美国史教科书与多元文化主义教育

                              ZHANGQIYILAI,MEIGUOLISHIBIANZUANXUEZHUYAOSHIZONGHEDEXUEWEN,TABEIXIANGLICHADE·HUOFUSHITATE、CHAERSI·BIERDE,HUOZHEZAIWANGQIANYIXIESHIHOUDEFULIDELIKE·JIEKEXUN·TENAHEQIAOZHI·BANKELUOFUTENEIYANGDEXUEZHEMENSUOZHANGKONG。TAMENJIANSHIMEIGUOGUOQUDEWEIDAQIGAI,BINGYONGYIZHONGDANYIDE、CHONGMANNINGJULIDEJINBUGUSHILAIJIESHITADEXINGCHENG。CIZHONGGUANYUMEIGUOGUOJIAJIANSHEDEGUSHI,JINGGUOJIANHUAHESHANGAIZHIHOU,BEICHUANBODAOGEJIXUEXIAODANGZHONG,YIZHISHI“MEIGUOHUA”ZHUOYOUCHENGXIAODEGONGJUZHIYI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   20SHIJI60NIANDAIMOMINQUANYUNDONGZOUXIANGHEIRENQUANLIYUNDONGSHI,JIJINDEHEIRENXUESHENGREQIEDIYAOQIUXUEXIAODANGJUXIUGAIMEIGUOSHIJIAOKESHU,KAISHEHEIRENSHIKECHENG,ZENGJIAHEIRENSHIXIANGMU。SUIHOU,QITASHAOSHUQUNTIDEZUZHIRUYUHOUCHUNSUNBANXINGQI,CONG“FANFEIBANGLIANMENG”(The Anti-Defamation League,ADL)DAOXINCHENGLIDEKUAZHONGZUERTONGSHUJIWEIYUANHUI(The Council on Interracial Books for Children,CIBC),SHIJIGEZUZHIDOUZAIYANJIUDAIYOUZHONGZU、MINZUHEZONGJIAOPIANJIANDEKEBEN,BINGWEISHUXIEXINKEBENTICHUJIANYI。YIKAISHISHIZHENDUIGEBIESHUJIDEYIXILIEDULIKANGYI,HOULAIBIANCHENGYIGEPUBIANMINGTI:YUANLAISUOYOUDEKEBENDOUBAMEIGUODANGZUOYIGEBAIRENZHONGCHANJIEJISHEHUI,ERSHIJISHANGTASHIYIGEDUOZHONGZU、DUOWENHUADESHEHUI91。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIJIEXIALAIDEJINIANLI,GEZHOUJUMINTONGGUOLEFALVHUOJUEYI,YAOQIUYANJIUMEIGUOSHAOSHUMINZU,BAOKUOLAMEIYI、YAYI、YINDIANRENYIJIFEIYIMEIGUOREN。JIAOYUGAIGEJIAMENTICHU,TONGGUOZAIKECHENGHEZHENGGEJIAOYUHUANJIEZHONGZHURUDUI“ZHONGZUDUOYANGXING”DECHENGRENHEZUNZHONG,SHISHAOSHUMINZUGENGRONGYIJIESHOUHEZHICHIJIAOYU。SUIHOU,JIAOKESHUKAISHIDUIHEIRENHEQITASHAOSHUMINZUJIYUGENGDUODEGUANZHUHEGENGZHUNQUEDEXINXI92。70NIANDAIKAISHIDEJIAOYUGAIGEYUNDONGBEICHENGWEIDUOMINZUJIAOYU,HUODUOYUANWENHUAJIAOYU。BUGUO,SUIRAN“SHUBAIBENHUSHIHUODIHUISHAOSHUMINZUDEJIAOKESHUXIANZAIDOUBAOHANLEYOUGUANTAMENDEZHUNQUEERFUYOUTONGQINGXINDECAILIAO”,QIANGDIAOZHENGZHISHIHESHEHUISHI,ZENGQIANGLEBAORONGXINGHEDUOYANGXING,DANLISHIJIAOKESHUDEYUANYOUZHUXIAN,JI“YOUGUANHEPING、ZHENGYIHEZIYOUDEJIUGUSHI,BUYUNXUGAIBIAN”93。

                              ZHIDAO20SHIJI80NIANDAI,QUANGUOGEDIDAXUEJIAOSHILICAIZUIXIANFASHENGLEJUDADE、SHIZHIXINGDEBIANHUA,GONGSHILISHIDEJIAOKESHU———HEPING、ZHENGYI、ZIYOUHEMEIGUOFANGSHIDESHENGLIGUSHI———YEZHUJIANRANGWEIYU“XINLISHI”。1979NIAN,HUOHUADE·JINENDEZHEZUO《MEIGUORENMINDELISHI:1492NIANZHIJIN》CHUBAN,CHENGWEIDIYIGEZAIMEIGUODAXUEXIAOYUANDEDAOGUANGFANCAIYONGHESHIYONGDECILEIWENBEN。ZAITACHUBANERSHIZHOUNIANZHIJI,JUMAIKEER·KAXIN(Michael Kazin)SHUO,《WOMENRENMINDELISHI》“YIJINGCHULEWUBAN,DUOCIYINSHUA,BEIFENPEIDAOSHUMENDAXUEKECHENGZHONG,XIAOLIANGCHAOGUO100WANCE,RANGZUOZHECHENGLEMINGREN”94。JINENSHUOTAXIERENMINDELISHI,SHIYINWEI“WOZIJIDESHENGHUOHUANJINGYAOQIUWOZHEIYANGZUO。WOSHITUCHUANGZAOYIZHONGXINDELISHI……YIZHONGBUTONGYUWOZAIDAXUEHEYANJIUSHENGYUANSUOXUEDAODELISHI,YIZHONGBUTONGYUWOZAIQUANGUOGEDIJIXUESHENGDELISHIKEBENZHONGSUOKANDAODELISHI。”JINENXIEDAO:“WOZIJIDEZHANZHENGJINGLI,YIJIMEIGUOCANYUDESUOYOUNEIXIEJUNSHIGANYUDELISHI,RANGWOZAITINGDAOZHENGJIEGAOCENGRENSHIYONG‘GUOJIALIYI’HUO‘GUOJIAANQUAN’LAIWEITAMENDEZHENGCEBIANHUSHI,CHANSHENGLEHUAIYI。”YINCI,JINENBINGMEIYOUDASUANZHONGSHUMEIGUOZUOWEIHEPING、FANRONGHEZIYOUDEGUOJIDENGTAERBUKEZUDANGDIZOUXIANGWEIDADEGULAOGUSHI,ERSHI“XIWANGHUANXINGRENMENDUIJIEJICHONGTU、ZHONGZUBUPINGDENG、XINGBIEBUPINGDENGHEMINZUZIDADEYISHI”。TADUIMEIGUOLISHIDEKANFASHI“CHIXUDEKONGBU:BAOLI、ZHANZHENG、DUIYILEIDEPIANJIAN……ZHENGZHIQUANLIZHANGWOZAIPIANZIHESHARENFANSHOUZHONG”95。《MEIGUORENMINDELISHI》YONGDALIANGSHISHIWUQINGDIJIELULEMEIGUOTONGZHIJIEJIDEHUANGYAN,PIPANLEJINGJIHEZHENGZHIJINGYINGMENSUOGOUJIANDEYOUGUANMEIGUONEIWAIZHENGCEDEZHONGZHONGSHENHUA。GUANYUGUOJIAGONGTONGTIDEGUANNIAN,JINENRENWEI,RENHEYIGEGUOJIADOUBUSHIYIGEGONGTONGTI,ERQIECONGLAIJIUMEIYOUGUOZHEIYANGDEGONGTONGTI。SHISHISHANG,MEIYIGEGUOJIADELISHI,DOUSHITONGZHIZHEYUBEITONGZHIZHEZHIJIAN、NULIZHUYUNULIZHIJIAN、ZIBENJIAYUGONGRENZHIJIAN、ZHONGZUHEXINGBIEYAPOZHEYUBEIYAPOZHEZHIJIANLIYICHONGTUDELISHI。ZHANZAITONGZHIZHEYIBIAN,RENMENMANYANQUANSHIHUIHUANG、JINBU、ZIYOUHEFANRONG;ERZHANZAIBEITONGZHIZHEYIBIAN,RENMENKANDAODEZESHIQINLVE、BAOLI、NUYIHEPINQIONG。JINENMINGQUEBIAOSHI,ZIJIGENGYUANYIZHANZAIRUOZHEYIBIAN,JIJINKENENGXIANGRENMENJIANGSHUALAWAKERENYANZHONGDEMEIZHOUFAXIANSHI、NULIYANZHONGDEXIANFA、AIERLANYINIUYUERENYANZHONGDEMEI

                              GUONEIZHAN、NVGONGYANZHONGDEGONGYEZHIDUDEXINGQI、GUBARENYANZHONGDEMEIXIZHANZHENG、MEIGUONANBUNONGMINYANZHONGDE“DUJINSHIDAI”、SHEHUIZHUYIZHEYANZHONGDEDIYICISHIJIEDAZHAN、HEPINGZHUYIZHEYANZHONGDEDIERCISHIJIEDAZHAN、HALAIMUHEIRENYANZHONGDELUOSIFUXINZHENG,DENGDENG。JINENZHICHU,QIONGRENDEKUSUBINGBUYIDINGZONGSHIZHENGQUEDE,DANRUGUOTINGBUDAOTAMENDEKUSU,NIJIUYONGYUANBUZHIDAOGONGPINGSHISHENME96。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   NEISHI,“KENDINGXINGXINGDONGJIHUA”TUIDONGZHIXIADEMEIGUODAXUEXIAOYUANFUSEYIJINGYOULEHENDABIANHUA。1960NIANMEIGUODAXUEBIYESHENGZHONGDESHAOSHUMINZUCHENGYUANJINZHANZONGSHUDE6%,DAO1988NIAN,SHAOSHUMINZUDEBILISHANGSHENGZHI20%。TONGQIDENVXINGDAXUEBIYESHENGZAIZONGRENSHUZHONGDEBILIYOU35%SHANGSHENGDAO54%。TONGQINVXINGBOSHIXUEWEIHUODEZHEDERENSHUYOU1112(10%)SHANGSHENGZHI14538(37%)。TONGYANG,GAODENGJIAOYUJIGOUZHONGMINZUGOUCHENG、XINGBIEGOUCHENGBILIFANGMIAN,YEFASHENGLEXIANZHEBIANHUA,DAO1985NIAN,27%DEJIAOSHISHINVXING,CHAOGUO10%SHIYOUSERENZHONG97。ZAIZHEIZHONGGAOXIAODUOYUANHUAFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONG,YIGE“YOUNVQUANZHUYIZHE、HEIRENXUEZHE、NANNVTONGXINGLIANXUEZHE、JIAOYUJINBURENSHIHEWENHUAJIJINFENZISONGSANZUCHENGDE‘ZUOPAI’,XIWANGWEIRAODUICHAYIDEHEXINRENZHI———YOUQISHIZHONGZU、XINGBIE、JIEJIHEXINGQUXIANGDERENZHI———ZHONGXINGOUJIANKECHENG,BINGSHIDAXUEXIANGGENGMINZHUDEJUECEFANGXIANGJINYIBUKAIFANG”98。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   SUIZHI,XIFANGWENMINGKECHENGZAIMEIGUOGAODENGJIAOYUJIGOUZHONGDEDIWEIYILUOQIANZHANG。SITANFUDAXUEJI1969NIANQUXIAOXIFANGWENMINGKECHENGZUOWEIBIXIUKEZHIHOU,ZAI1988NIAN,YIOUZHOUJINGDIANZHEZUOJIAZHEZUOWEIHEXINDEBIXIUKE“XIFANGWENHUA”YOUBEI“WENHUA-GUANNIAN-JIAZHI”SUOQUDAI。GELUNBIYADAXUE、ZHIJIAGEDAXUEDEKECHENGNEIRONGSHOUDAOLEISIDEZHIYI。HUOLIAOKESHANNVZIXUEYUANJUEDING,XUESHENGKEYIMIANXIUXIFANGWENHUAKE,DANBIXUXUANXIUYIMENYOUGUANDISANSHIJIEWENHUADEKECHENG;WEISIKANGXINGDAXUEDEXUESHENGYIXUXUANXIUZHONGZUYANJIUDEKEMU,DANFANGQIXIFANGWENHUA(SHENZHIBAOKUOMEIGUOLISHI)DEKEMU。DATEMAOSIXUEYUANDEXUESHENGBUXIUYIMENFEIXIFANGWENHUADEKECHENGGENBENWUFABIYE。KELIFULANDAXUEZEYAOQIUQIXUESHENGZHISHAOYAOXUANXIULIANGMENMEIJIFEIZHOURENWENHUAYIJIYIMENOUZHOUYIWAIDIQUWENHUADEKECHENG99。

                              20SHIJI80、90NIANDAI,MEIGUOGAODENGJIAOYUDANGZHONGCHANGDAODEDUOYUANWENHUAKECHENG,ZHUJIANJINRUDAOFEICHUZHONGZUGELIDEGONGLIXUEXIAOTIXI,ZHONGXUELISHIJIAOKESHUHELISHIJIAOYUYUELAIYUECHENGWEIDUOYUANWENHUAJIAOYUZHONGZHONGYAODEYIHUAN,TONGSHI,YECHENGWEIHEIRENZHENGQUJITISHENFENRENTONGHEQUNTIFUQUANNULIDEYIBUFEN100。BUGUO,XINMEIGUOLISHIDESHUXIEFANGFAHEDUOYUANWENHUAZHUYIDELISHIJIAOYUYEJIQILEYUELAIYUEQIANGLIEDEFANDUI。《NIUYUESHIBAO》JIZHELICHADE·BOENSITANDUIYUDUOYUANWENHUAZHUYIYOUMIQIELIANXIDEXINMEIGUOSHIXUEJILIEPIPAN,SHENGCHENGDANGQIANDEMEIGUOLISHIJIANGDEDOUSHIYAPOYUTONGKU,RANGRENRENWEIMEIGUOLISHIJIUSHIYIBU“CHUBAIRENZHIWAIDESUOYOUQITARENDOUSHIZHONGZAISHOUKUSHOUNANDELISHI”,ZHEIZHONGZHISHIFANGFAWUYIYU“KEYIDEXUANCHUANGUDONG”97。LISHIXUEJIAXIAOASE·M.SHILAIXINGEERDE《MEIGUODEFENLIE:DUOYUANWENHUASHEHUIDEFANYING》(1991)GENGSHIZHIJIEZHICHIDUOYUANWENHUAJIAOYUFENLIELEGUOJIA。TARENWEI,CONGZUQUNJIAODUJIESHIMEIGUOLISHI,YIWEIZHEXINDEZUQUNYOULINGJUJUEKELEIFUKEERDE“BUTONGGUOJIADEGETIRONGHECHENGYIGEXINZHONGZU”DEGUANDIAN,CONGERDIANFULELISHISHANGDEMEIGUOSHILILUN———NEIZHONGYIZHIYILAIZHILIYUJIANGMEIGUORENBAOCHIWEIYIGEZHENGTIDELILUN101。DUICI,TIANPUDAXUEDEFEIYIMEIGUORENYANJIUXIZHURENMOLAIFEI·KETE·ASANGTEMINGQUEFANBO。TASHENGCHENG:FEIZHOUZHONGXINLUNZHEBINGFEISHIYAOFOURENMEIGUORENDEGONGMINSHENFEN;WOMENXIANGYAOBAOWEISUOYOUWENHUABIAODADEQUANLI,ERFEIJINJINSHIXILA-LUOMA-XIBOLAI-DEYIZHI-WEIJINGRENDEWENHUA;MEIGUOGUOJIADETONGYIJIANLIZAIGONGTONGLIXIANG、JITISHIMINGGAN、GONGTONGMUBIAOHEXIANGHUZUNZHONGDEJICHUZHISHANG,BINGFEISHILISHIJINGYANHUOWENHUABEIJINGDETONGYI,WOMENMEIGERENDOUYINGGAINENGGOUJIANGSHUTONGYIGUSHIDEBUTONGBANBEN102。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   1994NIAN《MEIGUOLISHIKEGUOJIAKECHENGBIAOZHUN》GONGBUZHIHOU,ZHENGLUNGENGQUJIHUA,SHENZHIHENDUORENJIANGQICHENGWEI“WENHUAZHANZHENG”103。SANGDELA·SITUOCIJIFENXILE20SHIJI90NIANDAICHUBANDESINIANJIHELIUNIANJISHIYONGDE12ZHONGKEBENYIHOUZONGJIESHUO,“YOUGUANGUOJIADEBIAOZHIHEGEQUDENEIRONGJIHUQUANWU”,KEBENDEZHONGDIANZHUANXIANGLEZHONGZUWENTI,“ZUOWEIYIGEZHENGTIDEMEIGUOWENHUAXIAOSHILE”104。BAOSHOURENSHISHENGCHENG:ZAIDUOYUANWENHUAZHUYIDEQUDONGXIA,DUOYUANSHIJIAORIYIYUANLITONGYIDEGUOJIAGUSHI,LISHIJIAOXUEZHENGZAIPIANLILIANGGEZUIZHUYAODEMUBIAO:TIGONGGUANJIANRENWUHESHIJIANDEJIBENZHISHI,FANFUJIAODAOXUESHENGZUNZHONGZHICHIMINZUGUOJIADEGONGTONGWENHUAYICHAN……FEIZHOUZHONGXINZHUYIZHEHEQITADUOYUANWENHUAZHUYIZHESUOYAOQIUDELISHIJIAOXUEKENENGHUISHIMEIGUOZOUSHANGNANSILAFUNEIYANGDEFENLIEDAOLU105。

                              ZAIXIANDAIMINZUGUOJIADEFANCHOUNEI,GUOSHISHUXIEZUOWEIMINZUWENHUAYICHANHEJITIJIYIDEZHONGYAOZAITI,YUAIGUOZHUYI、GONGMINPINXINGXIUYANGHEWENHUASHENFENRENTONGXUYUBUKEFENLI。ZAIZHEIFANGMIAN,CHUANTONGMEIGUOSHISHUXIEZHONGBAOHANDEZHULIUJIAZHIGUAN,JI“MEIGUOXINTIAO”QIANGDIAOPUBIANJIAZHI,JIFUSHENGMINGLIHEBAORONGLI,NENGGOUZHENGHEBUTONGZUYIQUNTIDEWENHUARENTONG,SHIZHIGUIYUQIANGYOULIDETONGYIDEGUOJIAXUSHIDANGZHONG。DANSHI,QILISHIHUAGUOCHENGZHONGSUOCHONGCHIDEANGGELU-SAKEXUNZHONGZUYOUYUEHEBAIRENWENHUAZHISHANGDEGUANNIAN,BIRANHUIYINFADIZHIHECHONGTU。ERQIE,ZAIQUANQIUHUAHEDUOYUANWENHUAGONGCUNDESHIDAI,JIANDANZHIXIANFAZHANDEMINZUGUOJIAXUSHISUIRANYOULIYUJITIJIYIHEAIGUOZHUYIJINGSHENDEGOUJIAN、QIANGHUAHECHUANBO,DANQINANYIZHANXIANLISHIFAZHANDEDUOYUANXING、FUZAXINGHEQUZHEXING,QIENANYIRONGRENHEFAZHANZHIYITANJIUJINGSHEN,BIBUZUYIJIEJUEMEIGUODEZHONGZU、WENHUAHEZHENGZHICHONGTU。

                              TONGSHI,HEIRENSHIJIHUCONGCHANSHENGQI,JIUCHENGWEILISHISHUXIEZHEHENEIXIESHILISHIYANJIUWEITISHENGMEIGUOHEIRENSHENGHUOSHUIPINGGONGJUDECHANGDAOZHEDELIANHESHIYE106。20SHIJIHEIRENSHISHUXIEDEFANSHENGGENGYUZHEIYIDIANMIQIEXIANGGUAN。CONGDUBOYISITICHUHEIRENSHUANGZHONGYISHIKAISHI,JINGGUOLIANGCISHIJIEDAZHAN,CONGXIANGCUNDAOCHENGSHIQIANXIGUOCHENGZHONGDEGEZHONGBIANHUA,SUIRANCHANGCHANGBANYOUSHULIGAN,DANSHIHEIRENSHISHUXIEDUIYURONGRUZHULIUSHEHUIDEXIWANGGENGWEIQIANGJING,BIAOXIANWEIZAICHUANTONGMEIGUOSHIZIYOUZHUYIFANSHIDEKUANGJIANEI,QIANGDIAOHEIRENDEGONGXIAN、DOUZHENGHEQUNTISHIYING,JIXIUZHENGMEIGUOSHIZHONGDEZHONGZUZHUYI、BAIRENZHISHANGQINGXIANG,YOUFANYINGCHUNEIGESHIQIHEIRENQUDEDEYIXIEJINBU,WEIYI“CHENGWEIBAIREN”DEFANGSHIJINRUZHULIUSHEHUITICHULEZIJIDELISHIHEFAXING。RANER,20SHIJI60NIANDAIQIANHOU,GUOJISHANGDISANSHIJIEGUOJIABAITUOZHIMINZHUYI、FANKANGXINZHIMINZHUYIGUOCHENGZHONGDEDULIHEMINZUJUEXING,CIJILEMEIGUOHEIRENDEZIWORENSHI,CUSHITAMENCONGSHOUYAPOZHEDEZIBEIQINGJIEZHONGJIEFANGCHULAI,LITUCHENGWEIYOUZIZUNDEHEIREN;TONGSHI,ZAIYUENANZHANZHENGKUODAHEBAOSHOUSHILIKUOZHANGDEFENWEIXIA,MEIGUOZHENGFUZAIZIYOUZHUYITIZHIFANWEINEIXIAOCHUHEIRENDAGUIMOPINKUNDENULIZHUJIANXIAOSHENGNIJI,GEZHONGXIANQIANDERONGHECUOSHIYEBINGWEIHUODESHIZHIXINGJINZHAN,HEIRENJIJINFENZIRIJIANZHUANXIANGMINZUZHUYI,RENSHIDAOXINHEIRENSHISHUXIEZHONGHEIRENGONGTONGTIJIQIWENHUAZHUTIDEZHONGYAOXING,RENWEITADUIYUNINGJUHEIRENZUQUNDELILIANGYIQIUZHENGTIJINBUJUYOUZHONGYAOYIYI。YOUSHI,20SHIJI60NIANDAICHENGWEIMEIGUOHEIRENSHISHUXIEDEFENSHUILING,QIGONGJUXINGHEZHENGZHIXINGXIANZHEZENGQIANG。JIJINDEHEIRENDOUSHIMENHESHENSHOUMINZUZHUYIQINGXIANGYINGXIANGDEHEIRENLISHIXUEJIA,RIYIQIANGDIAOCONGZISHENDESHIJIAOLIJIEMEIGUOLISHIYUXIANZHUANG,TONGGUOXINHEIRENSHIJIAQIANGZIWOYISHI、ZIZUNHEZUQUNNINGJULI,XUNQIUZUOWEIYIGEJITUANZAIZHENGZHISHANGHEYIDAOMEIGUOSHEHUIZHONGQUDEJIHUI。WEICI,SHENZHICHANGSHITUPOCHUANTONGMEIGUOSHIZHONGGERENZHUYI、ZIYOUZHUYIDEHEXINJIAZHIGUAN。

                              YUCITONGSHI,ZHUANYELISHIXUEJIE、TEBIESHIXINZUOPAILISHIXUEJIA,ZAIDICENGSHIXUE、SHEHUISHIXUE、JILIANGSHIXUE、KOUSHUSHIXUEDENGXINYANJIUFANGFAYINGXIANGXIADEYANJIUHEFANSI,BUYIYUXINHEIRENSHIDEZHUTISHUTUTONGGUI,GONGTONGQIANGDIAOLEHEIRENSHIJIAO、HEIRENGONGTONGTIJIQIWENHUA,ERQIEHAIYUSUIHOUXINGQIDEQITABIANYUANQUNTISHENGYINHUIHEDAOYIQI,GONGTONGQIANZEMEIGUOSHEHUI,JIELUMEIGUOGUOQUSUOFANXIADEZUIE。ZHEIXIEHELIZUIZHONGDAPOLEMEIGUOMENGHEMEIGUOSHENHUA,JIEGOULECHUANTONGMEIGUOSHIDEHEFAXING,ZHONGGOULE“SUIPIANHUA”DE“XINMEIGUOSHI”。

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                              注释

                              1安东尼·史密斯着,叶江译:《民族主义---理论·意识形态·历史》,上海:上海人民出版社2006年版,第87页。
                              2美国学界中关于黑人史的研究很多。学术史方面的代表性着作如:奥格斯特·迈耶和埃立特·路德维克的《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),厄巴纳:伊利诺伊大学出版社1986年版;代表性文章如:小罗伯特·L.哈瑞斯的《时代的来临:非裔美国人历史编纂学的转型》(Robert L.Harris,Jr.,“Coming of Age:The Transformation of Afro-American Historiography”),《黑人史杂志》(The Journal of Negro History)第67卷第2期(1982年夏),第107~121页;约翰·霍普·富兰克林的《非裔美国人历史的学术发展》(John Hope Franklin,“On the Evolution of Scholarship in Afro-American History”),达琳·克拉克·海恩编:《非裔美国人历史:过去、现在和未来》(Darlene Clark Hine eds.,The State of Afro-America History:Past,Present,and Future),巴吞鲁日:路易斯安纳州立大学出版社1986年版,等。关于黑人史在美国史教育中的变化及引发的争议,代表性的着作如:约瑟夫·莫罗的《教科书中的国家:内战至今美国史教科书中的冲突》(Joseph Moreau,Schoolbook Nation:Conflicts over American History Textbooksf rom the Civil War to the Present),安娜堡:密歇根大学出版社2003年版;克瑞斯汀·E.斯里特编:《通过多元文化教育赋权》(Christine E.Sleeter,eds.,Empowerment through Multicultural Education),阿尔巴尼:SNUY出版社1991年版;布鲁斯·万斯利德怀特的《民族国家叙事、历史知识与学校历史教育》(Bruce VanSledright,“Narratives of Nation-State,Historical Knowledge,and School History Education”),《教育研究评论》(Review of Research in Education)第32卷(2008年2月),第109~146页,等。关于此选题的中文研究,我的硕士研究生赵欢欢曾从史学史角度做过一些梳理(《美国黑人史学的演变及其影响》(硕士学位论文),河北师范大学2012年。不过,她的论文并未注意到新黑人史的问题,更未从文化政治史视角深入分析黑人史代际传承的相关因素和复杂影响。其他相关研究还有:李剑鸣的《种族问题与美国史学》(《克罗齐命题的当代回响:中美两国美国史研究的趋向》,北京:北京大学出版社2016年版,第84~95页)、谢国荣的《“漫长的运动”叙事模式及其超越》(《历史研究》2014年第6期,第47~52页)、于展的《近50年来我国的美国黑人史研究》(《史学月刊》2002年第9期,第109~118页)、王希的《何谓美国史---围绕〈全国历史教学标准〉引起的辩论》(《美国研究》1998年第4期,第7~40页)和《多元文化主义的起源、实践与局限性》(《美国研究》2000年第2期,第44~80页)等。
                              3乔伊斯·阿普尔比、林恩·亨特、玛格丽特·雅各布着,刘北成、薛绚译:《历史的真相》,上海:上海人民出版社2011年版,第254页。
                              4约翰·霍普·富兰克林:《新黑人史》(John Hope Franklin,“The New Negro History”),《黑人史杂志》(The Journal of Negro History)第42卷第2期(1957年4月),第91页。
                              5威·艾·伯·杜波伊斯着,维群译:《黑人的灵魂》,北京:人民文学出版社1959年版,第3~4页。
                              6小罗伯特·L.哈瑞斯:《时代的来临:非裔美国人历史编纂学的转型》(Robert L.Harris,Jr.,“Coming of Age:The Transformation of Afro-American Historiography”),《黑人史杂志》(The Journal of Negro History)第67卷第2期(1982年夏),第110页。
                              7约翰·霍普·富兰克林:《非裔美国人传记:乔治·华盛顿·威廉姆斯》(John Hope Franklin,“Afro-American Biography:The Case of George Washington Williams”),《美国哲学学会会刊》(Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society)第123卷第3期(1979年6月18日),第657~672页。
                              8(5)文森特·哈丁:《力量来自人民:黑人史当代复兴的源泉》(Vincent Harding,“Power From Our People:The Sources of the Modern Revival of Black History),《黑人学者》(The Black Scholar)第18卷第1期(1987年1-2月),第43页。
                              9约翰·霍普·富兰克林:《非裔美国人历史的学术发展》(John Hope Franklin,“On the Evolution of Scholarship in Afro-A-merican History”),达琳·克拉克·海恩编:《非裔美国人历史:过去、现在和未来》(Darlene Clark Hine eds.,The State of Afro-America History:Past,Present,and Future),第14页。
                              10威·艾·伯·杜波伊斯:《黑人的重建》(W.E.B.DuBois,Black Reconstruction)纽约:1935年版,第711~715页。
                              11奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第9页。
                              12内尔·R.麦克米伦(Neil R.McMillen)认为:奥格斯特·迈耶和埃立特·路德维克把伍德森描述为“企业家”似的历史学家和社会活动家;作为黑人史的主要推动者和市场营销者,他“几乎是单枪匹马”开启了作为研究领域的黑人史,并激发了一群人数虽少,却极为忠诚、富有成效、才华横溢的黑人学者。这些学者都把这一领域视为“社会运动”。参见内尔·R.麦克米伦:《评论:从吉姆·克劳中奋起---黑人史进入学术主流》(Neil R.McMillen,“Review:Up from Jim Crow:Black History Enters the Profession’s Mainstream”),《美国历史书评》(Reviews in American History)第15卷第4期(1987年12月),第545页。
                              13到1940年之前,获得历史学、历史教育博士学位的14位黑人,8位在伍德森圈子中。这些拥有博士学位的黑人学者中,到1930年代末,其中9位已经有重要的作品问世,伍德森圈子之外的三位是杜波伊斯、霍勒斯·曼·邦德(Horce Mann Bond)和约瑟夫·C.卡罗(Joseph C.Carroll),圈子之内的6位是伍德森(woodson)、韦斯利(Wesley)、泰勒(Taylor)、萨维奇(Savage)、杰克逊(Jackson)和瑞福德·W.劳根(Rayford W.Logan)。另外,伍德森圈子中的格林尼(Greene)在20世纪30年代写了一本书,但是,他的博士论文直到40年代才完成。奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克着:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第74、94页。
                              14(4)小罗伯特·L.哈瑞斯:《时代的来临:非裔美国人历史编纂学的转型》(Robert L.Harris,Jr.,“Coming of Age:The Transformation of Afro-American Historiography”),《黑人史杂志》(The Journal of Negro History)第67卷第2期(1982年夏,第111页)。
                              15奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第93页。
                              16詹姆斯·奥利沃·霍顿:《黑人史研究的新方向》(James Oliver Horton,“New Directions for Research in Black History”),《黑人学者》(The Black Scholar)第7卷第6期(1976年3月),第36页。
                              17劳伦斯·D.瑞迪克:《黑人史的一种新解释》(Lawrence D.Reddick,“A New Interpretation for Negro History”),《黑人史杂志》(The Journal of Negro History)第22卷第1期(1937年1月),第17~28页。
                              18约翰·霍普·富兰克林:《书评:“非裔美国人历史:当前的状况”》(John Hope Franklin,“Review:Afro-American History:State of the Art”),《美国史杂志》(The Journal of American History)第75卷第1期(1988年6月),第166页。
                              19文森特·哈丁:《力量来自人民:黑人史当代复兴的源泉》(Vincent Harding,“Power From Our People:The Sources of the Modern Revival of Black History),《黑人学者》第18卷第1期(1987年1-2月),第44页。
                              20菲利普斯(U.B.Phillips)白人种族主义立场的两部着作《美国黑人奴隶制:种植园制度下关于黑人劳动力供给、使用和控制的调查》(1918)和《旧南方的生活和劳动》(1929)影响很大。通过对种植园主阶级言行记录的考察,菲利普斯描绘了作为家长制式的奴隶制。他承认奴隶制度的强制性,但认为该制度作为向“落后的非洲人”引入西方文化成果的一种机制,具有正当性。两战之间,只有菲利普斯对黑奴制度进行了综合研究,其观点在这一领域中占据了主导地位。彼得·诺维克着,杨豫译:《那高尚的梦想:“客观性问题”与美国历史学界》,北京:生活·读书·新知三联书店2009年版,第312页。另见黄颂康的《美国奴隶制史学的发展》(《世界历史》1980年第2期,第76~82页)、(美)菲利普·S·丰纳的《美国史学家论美国南部黑奴制度》(《东北师大学报》1981年第5期,第72~82页)等。
                              21彼得·诺维克:《那高尚的梦想:“客观性问题”与美国历史学界》,第305~326页。
                              22理查德·霍夫斯塔特:《U.B.菲利普斯与种植园神话》(Richard Hofstadter,“U.B.Phillips and The Plantation Legend Author”),《黑人史杂志》(The Journal of Negro History)第29卷第2期(1944年4月),第109~124页。
                              23托马斯·C.霍尔特:《非裔美国人史》,埃里克·方纳等着,齐文颖、林江等译:《新美国历史》,北京:北京师范大学出版社1998年版,第1页。
                              24埃里克·方纳着,王希译:《给我自由:一部美国的历史》(下卷),北京:商务印书馆2010年版,第1133页。
                              25彼得·诺维克:《那高尚的梦想:“客观性问题”与美国历史学界》,第476页。
                              26约翰·霍普·富兰克林:《非裔美国人历史的学术发展》(John Hope Franklin,“On the Evolution of Scholarship in Afro-A-merican History”),达琳·克拉克·海恩编:《非裔美国人历史:过去、现在和未来》(The State of Afro-America History:Past,Present,and Future),第16页。
                              27(8)奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第159、158页。
                              28V.P.富兰克林:《介绍:探索约翰·霍普·富兰克林博士的遗产》(V.P.Franklin,“Introduction:Exploring the Legacy of Dr.John Hope Franklin”),《非裔美国人历史杂志》(The Journal of African American History)第94卷第3期(2009年夏),第317~322页。
                              29约翰·霍普·富兰克林着,张姿冰译:《美国黑人史·初版序言》,北京:商务印书馆1988年版,第1~2页。
                              30(3)约翰·霍普·富兰克林:《非裔美国人历史的学术发展》(John Hope Franklin,“On the Evolution of Scholarship in Afro-A-merican History”,达琳·克拉克·海恩编:《非裔美国人历史:过去、现在和未来》(Darlene Clark Hine eds.,The State of Afro-America History:Past,Present,and Future),第21、17页。
                              31埃里克·方纳在《奴隶制、内战和重建》一文中提到,到20世纪60年代末,关于重建的旧的解释已经得到彻底的修正。埃里克·方纳等着:《新美国历史》,第197~199页。
                              32二战后美国的经济繁荣和政治压制,导致黑人史运动在黑人社区中的发展一度减弱。20世纪50年代,黑人历史周在北部和西部主要是黑人的学校中,常常受到忽视;黑人生活和历史研究会的会议,只有很少的人参加;黑人大学的学生们选修黑人史课程的人数太少,以至于到20世纪50年代中期,富兰克林的《从奴隶制到自由》一书的销售几乎为零。奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第176页。
                              33文森特·哈丁:《力量来自人民:黑人史当代复兴的源泉》(Vincent Harding,“Power From Our People:The Sources of the Modern Revival of Black History”),《黑人学者》(The Black Scholar)第18卷第1期(1987年1-2月),第45~48页。
                              34约翰·霍普·富兰克林:《非裔美国人历史和高等教育中的政治》(John Hope Franklin,“Afro-American History and the Politics of Higher Education”),《美国艺术与科学学术公报》(Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences)第40卷第2期(1986年11月),第27页。
                              35(4)小罗伯特·L.哈瑞斯:《时代的来临:非裔美国人历史编纂学的转型》(Robert L.Harris,Jr.,“Coming of Age:The Transformation of Afro-American Historiography”),《黑人史杂志》(The Journal of Negro History)第67卷第2期(1982年夏),第107~108、108页。
                              36作为一门学术学科,“黑人研究”是1960年代学生运动和社会斗争的政治要求的结果。随着黑人意识运动和黑人权力运动的出现,黑人大学生一直要求开设更多有关非洲和非裔美国人历史、文学和政治思想的课程。许多教育学家认为,在一个一体化的社会中,这不是政治上的权宜之计。他们还强调,这将增进白人对黑人经历的理解,对黑人的社会和心理发展至关重要。到70年代初,建立了黑人研究专业的大学和学院多达500多所。乔纳森·利文斯顿、哈里特·帕斯·麦卡杜、凯瑟琳·J.米尔斯:《作为自尊预测因素的黑人研究和政治意识形态:对新方向的呼唤》(Jonathan Livingston,Harriette Pipes McAdoo and Catherine J.Mills,“Black Studies and Political Ideology as Predictors of Self-Esteem:A Call for a New Direction”),《黑人研究杂志》(Journal of Black Studies)第40卷第4期(2010年3月),第726~744页。关于“黑人研究”专业与黑人史研究之关系及影响,拟另文阐释。
                              37于展:《超越黑人民族主义---马尔科姆·X晚期思想探析》,《浙江学刊》2007年第6期,第88页。
                              38大卫·W.沙泽:《冈纳·默达尔和黑白种族关系:〈美国的困境〉的使用和滥用,1944-1969》(David W.Southern,Gunnar Myrdal and Black-White Relations:The Use and Abuse of An American Dilemma,1944-1969),巴吞鲁日:路易斯安那州立大学出版社1987年版,第263页。
                              39谢国荣:《1960年代中后期的美国“黑人权力”运动及其影响》,《世界历史》2010年第1期,第40~52页。
                              40早在1941年,人类学家赫斯科维茨(Herskovits)在《黑人过去的神话》(Myth of the Negro Past)中,就表达了美国黑人中存在非洲文化遗存的论点。黑人语言学家洛伦佐·特纳(Lorenzo Turner)的《古拉方言中的非洲主义》(Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect,1949)一书也表达了类似的看法。但是之后的二十多年里,除了黑人舞蹈和音乐中的一些元素、海岛上的古拉方言,以及南方下层社会中巫术的微弱回声之外,非洲人的文化幸存在黑人学者中是被忽视的。因为那种文化被认为是妨碍黑人融入美国主流社会。大多数白人知识分子对赫斯科维茨的研究成果,也表现为漠不关心,有的甚至是怀有敌意。直到20世纪60年代末的舆论氛围挽救了赫斯科维茨研究的声誉。奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第274~275页。
                              41托马斯·C.霍尔特:《非裔美国人史》,埃里克·方纳等着:《新美国历史》,第1~2页。
                              42奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克着:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第252页。
                              43圣·克莱尔·德雷克:《美国黑人的社会与经济地位》(St.Clair Drake,“The Social and Economic Status of the Negro in the United States”),《代达罗斯》(Daedalus)第94卷(1965年秋),第771~814页。
                              44皮洛·噶格罗·达格博维:《历史作为非裔美国人研究的一个核心学科领域:20世纪60-80年代自学并自称的非裔美国人历史学家》(Pero Gaglo Dagbovie,“History as a Core Subject Area of African American Studies:Self-Taught and Self-Proclaimed African American Historians,1960s-1980s”),《黑人研究杂志》(Journal of Black Studies)第37卷第5期(2007年5月)第615页。
                              45阿布阿姆·卡迪那、里奈尔·奥维斯:《压迫的印记:美国黑人的心理学研究》(Abram Kardiner,Lionel Ovesey,The Mark of Oppression:A Psychosocial Study of the American Negro)纽约:诺顿1951年版,第384~387页。
                              46斯坦利·M.埃尔金斯:《奴隶制:美国制度和知识生活中的一个问题》(Stanley M.Elkins,Slavery:A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life),芝加哥:芝加哥大学1959年版,第1~26、81~139页。
                              47黑人心理学家肯尼斯·B.克拉克(Kenneth B Clark)的《偏见和你的孩子》(Prejudice and Your Child,1963)、《黑暗贫民窟:社会权力的困境》(Dark Ghetto:Dilemmas of Social Power,1965),深刻展现了种族隔离对黑人儿童性格和哈莱姆贫民窟生活的有害影响,对黑人在白人种族主义压力下的病态行为模式做出了有影响力的贡献。他的作品和埃尔金斯的《奴隶制》,推动查尔斯·西尔伯曼(Charles Silberman)的《黑人与白人的危机》(Crisis in Black and White,1964)和丹尼尔·莫伊尼汉(Daniel Moynihan)的《黑人家庭:国家行动理由》(The Negro Family:The Case for National Action,1965)出现并被广泛阅读。这些着作和报告推广了埃尔金斯的受害者模式。
                              48彼得·诺维克:《那高尚的梦想:“客观性问题”与美国历史学界》,第660页。
                              49爱德华·D.班菲尔德:《并非天堂:我们城市危机的本质和未来》(Edward D.Banfield,The Unheavenly City:The Nature and Future of Our Urban Crisis),波士顿:小布朗恩出版社1970年版,第73、245~248页。
                              50小罗伯特·L.哈瑞斯:《时代的来临:非裔美国人历史编纂学的转型》(Robert L.Harris,Jr.,“Coming of Age:The Transformation of Afro-American Historiography”),《黑人史杂志》(The Journal of Negro History)第67卷第2期(1982年夏),第109页。
                              51肯尼斯·斯坦普:《奇特的制度:南北战争前南方的奴隶制》(Kenneth Stampp,The Peculiar Institution:Slavery in the AnteBellum South)纽约:1956年版,第vii页。
                              52彼得·诺维克:《那高尚的梦想:“客观性问题”与美国历史学界》,第643~671页。
                              53黑人历史学家与白人盟友之间就黑人史书写和教授资格之争从20世纪60年代末开始激化,大约到劳伦斯·列文1977年出版《黑人文化和黑人意识》出现转折。劳伦斯·列文用作品证实了白人也能恰当地思考黑人的精神和灵魂,因此成为黑人、白人历史学家之间争论的转折点。彼得·诺维克:《那高尚的梦想:“客观性问题”与美国历史学界》,第646~654页;奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第287~297页。
                              54大卫·W.沙泽:《冈纳·默达尔和黑白种族关系:〈美国的困境〉的使用和滥用,1944-1969》(David W.Southern,Gunnar Myrdal and Black-White Relations:The Use and Abuse of An American Dilemma,1944-1969),第264页。
                              55奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第257页。
                              56斯特林·斯塔基:《透过民俗的棱镜:奴隶制时期的黑人精神》(Sterling Stuckey,“Through the Prism of Folklore:The Black Ethos in Slavery”),《马萨诸塞评论》(The Massachusetts Review)第9卷第3期(1968年夏),第417~437页。
                              57C.范·伍德沃德:《带着灵魂的克里奥》(C.Vann Woodward,“Clio With the Soul”),《美国历史杂志》(The Journal of American History)第56卷(1969年),第5~20页。
                              58(4)奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第268~270、254页。
                              59乔·W.特若特:《非裔美国人历史:起源、发展与当前的状况》(Joe W.Trotter,“African-American History:Origins,Development,and Current State of the Field”),《美国历史学家组织历史杂志》(OAH Magazine of History)第7卷第4期(1993年夏),第15页。
                              60托马斯·C.霍尔特:《非裔美国人史》,埃里克·方纳等着:《新美国历史》,第9页。
                              61这些黑人研究部门因资源和人事方面的原因,虽然有很多停止运作,但在最重要的大学中得以保留和发展,例如哈佛、耶鲁、加州大学伯克利分校,天普、麻省大学阿默斯特分校等。目前还有一些大学可以授予黑人研究的博士学位。
                              62达琳·克拉克·海恩:《黑人研究运动:下一阶段非洲中心的-传统主义的-女性主义的范式》(Darlene Clark Hine,“The Black Studies Movement:Afrocentric-Traditionalist-Feminist Paradigms for the Next Stage”),《黑人学者》(The Black Scholar)第22卷第3期(1992年夏),第16页。
                              63(4)达琳·克拉克·海恩:《黑人研究运动:下一阶段非洲中心的-传统主义的-女性主义的范式》(Darlene Clark Hine,“The Black Studies Movement:Afrocentric-Traditionalist-Feminist Paradigms for the Next Stage”),《黑人学者》(The Black Scholar)第22卷第3期(1992年夏),第16、14页。
                              64马丁·伯纳尔:《黑色雅典娜:古典文明的亚非源泉》(Martin Bernal,Black Athena:The Afroasiastic Root of Classical Civilization)第一卷,新布朗斯维克:罗格斯大学出版社1987年版,第73页。
                              65(8)乔·W.特若特:《非裔美国人历史:起源、发展与当前的状况》(Joe W.Trotter,“African-American History:Origins,Development,and Current State of the Field”),《美国历史学家组织历史杂志》(OAH Magazine of History)第7卷第4期(1993年夏),第16、14页。
                              66托马斯·C.霍尔特:《非裔美国人史》,埃里克·方纳等着:《新美国历史》,第2页。
                              67彼得·诺维克:《那高尚的梦想:“客观性问题”与美国历史学界》,第666页。
                              68詹姆斯·奥利沃·霍顿:《黑人史研究的新方向》(James Oliver Horton,“New Directions for Research in Black History”),《黑人学者》(The Black Scholar)第7卷第6期(1976年3月),第36~37页。
                              69托马斯·C.霍尔特:《介绍:现在去哪里,为什么去?》,(Thomas C.Holt,“Introduction:Whither Now and Why?”,达琳·克拉克·海恩编:《非裔美国人历史:过去、现在和未来》(Darlene Clark Hine eds.,The State of Afro-America History:Past,Present,and Future),第2页。
                              70厄尔·E.索普:《历史的哲学:来源、真相和局限性》(Earl E.Thorpe,“Philosophy of History:Sources,Truths and Limitations”),《黑人高等教育的季度评论》(Quarterly Review of Higher Education among Negroes)第25卷第3期(1957年7月),第183页。
                              71埃里克·方纳着,王希译:《美国自由的故事》,北京:商务印书馆2002年版,第397~401页。
                              72(5)(6)罗伯特·L.艾伦着,上海市五·七干校六连翻译组译:《美国黑人在觉醒中》,上海:上海人民出版社1976年版,第183~187、62、53页。
                              73约翰·霍普·富兰克林:《非裔美国人历史和高等教育中的政治》(John Hope Franklin,“Afro-American History and the Politics of Higher Education”),《美国艺术与科学学术公报》(Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences)第40卷第2期(1986年11月),第26~42页。
                              74文森特·哈丁:《黑人学生与不可能的革命》(Vincent Harding,“Black Students and the Impossible Revolution”),《黑人研究杂志》(Journal of Black Studies)第1卷第1期(1970年9月),第75~100页。
                              75德瑞克·E.怀特:《黑人世界观:黑人世界研究所提倡务实的民族主义(1969-1974)》(Derrick E.White,“Black World View:The Institute of the Black World’s Promotion of Pragmatic Nationalism,1969-1974”),《非裔美国人历史杂志》(The Journal of African American History)第95卷第3-4期(2010年夏、秋),第378~379页。
                              76彼得·诺维克:《那高尚的梦想:“客观性问题”与美国历史学界》,第650页。
                              77关于美国黑人史的英文名称,曾经有几次变化,从“Negro History in America”到“American Negro History”“American Black History”,再到“Afro-American history”或“African American history”。大体上,这些名称的变化过程表明了黑人从种族到民族的演化趋势(拟另文详述)。本文为简要起见,除强调区别时使用附有英文的名称,此外统一称为美国黑人史。“美国黑人”与“美国黑人史”的使用原则相同。
                              78彼得·诺维克:《那高尚的梦想:“客观性问题”与美国历史学界》,第650~651页。
                              79潘尼尔·E.约瑟夫:《花衬衫与民主:黑人研究、学生行动主义与黑人权力运动》(Peniel E.Joseph,“Dashikis and Democracy:Black Studies,Student Activism,and the Black Power Movement”),《非裔美国人历史杂志》(The Journal of African American History)第88卷第2期(2003年春),第194页。
                              80(4)奥格斯特·迈耶、埃立特·路德维克:《黑人史与历史学界》(August Meier,Elliot Rudwick,Black History and the Historical Profession),第273~274、286页。
                              81小罗伯特·L.哈瑞斯:《时代的来临:非裔美国人历史编纂学的转型》(Robert L.Harris,Jr.,“Coming of Age:The Transformation of Afro-American Historiography”),《黑人史杂志》(The Journal of Negro History)第67卷第2期(1982年夏),第116页。
                              82约翰·霍普·富兰克林:《书评:“非裔美国人历史:当前的状况”》(John Hope Franklin,“Review:Afro-American History:State of the Art”),《美国史杂志》(The Journal of American History)第75卷第1期(1988年6月),第167页。
                              83王希:《多元文化主义的起源、实践与局限性》,《美国研究》2000年第2期,第54页。
                              84托马斯A.贝利:《美国史神话》(Thomas A.Bailey,“The Myths of American Histoty”),《美国历史杂志》(Journal of American History)第55卷(1968年6月),第7~8页。
                              85约翰·帕特里克·迪金斯:《语言与历史》(John Patrick Diggins,“Language and History”),《美国史书评》(Reviews in American History)第17卷(1989年3月),第1~9页。
                              86约翰·海厄姆:《美国历史的未来》(John Higham,“The Future of American History”),卡尔·J.瓜纳瑞编:《在一起:美国文化的统一和多样性》(Carl J.Guarneri,Eds.,Hanging Together:Unity and Diversity in American Culture),纽黑文:耶鲁大学出版社2001年版,第250页。
                              87彼得·诺维克:《那高尚的梦想:“客观性问题”与美国历史学界》,第643页。
                              88劳伦斯·韦赛:《美国历史书写背景下的“新社会史”》(Laurence Veysey,“The‘New’Social History in the Context of American Historical Writing”),《美国史书评》(Reviews in American History)第7卷第1期(1979年3月),第1~12页。
                              89劳伦斯·W.列文:《克里奥、经典和文化》(Lawrence W.Levine,“Clio,Canons,and Culture”),《美国历史杂志》(The Journal of American History)1993年12月,第849~867页。
                              90琳达·科伯:《多样性与美国研究的转变》(Linda Kerber,“Diversity and the Transformation of American Studies”),《美国季刊》(American Quarterly)第41卷(1989年9月),第415~431页。
                              91弗朗西丝·菲茨杰拉德:《修正美国:二十世纪历史教科书》(Frances FitzGerald,America Revised:History Schoolbooks in the Twentieth Century),纽约:经典图书1980年版,第39页。
                              92乔纳森·齐默尔曼:《谁的美国?公立学校的文化战争》(Jonathan Zimmerman,Whose America?Culture Wars in the Public Schools),剑桥:哈佛大学出版社2002年版,第126页。
                              93杰夫·瑞根巴奇:《为何美国史并非如其所说:对修正主义的介绍》(Jeff Riggenbach,Why American History is not What They Say:An Introduction to Revisionism),阿拉巴马:路德维希·冯·米塞斯研究所2009年版,第184页。
                              94迈克尔·卡辛:《霍华德·津恩的历史教训》(Michael Kazin,“Howard Zinn’s History Lessons”),《重新思考》(Reconsiderations)第29卷第5期(2004年1月),第81页。
                              95霍华德·津恩:《美国人民史:1492年至今》(Howard Zinn,A People’s History of the United States,1492-Present)二十年纪念版,纽约:哈珀柯林斯(HarperCollins)出版社1999年版,第658~660页。
                              96蒲国良:《霍华德·津恩与美国人民的历史》,《江西师范大学学报》第47卷第3期,2014年6月,第139~144页。
                              97(6)王希:《多元文化主义的起源、实践与局限性》,《美国研究》2000年第2期,第65~66、70页。
                              98保罗·劳特:《经典与语境·序言》(Paul Lauter,“Preface”,Canons and Contexts),牛津:牛津大学出版社1991年版,第9页。
                              99沈宗美:《对美国主流文化的挑战》,《太平洋学报》1995年第2期,第68页。
                              100理查德·M.米尔曼:《黑人史与文化赋权:一个研究个案》(Richard M.Merelman,“Black History and Cultural Empowerment:A Case Study”),《美国教育杂志》(American Journal of Education)第101卷第4期(1993年8月),第334~336页。
                              101小阿瑟·M.施莱辛格尔:《美国的分裂》(Arthur M.Schlesinger,Jr.,“The Disuniting of America”),《世界与我》(The World&I)(1992年4月),第212~219页。
                              102莫莱菲·柯特·阿桑特:《欧洲中心主义的痛苦消亡》(Molefi Kete Asante,“The Painful Demise of Eurocentrism”)《世界与我》(The World&I)(1992年4月),第219~224页。
                              103关于课程标准公布后引起的争论,参见王希:《何谓美国史---围绕〈全国历史教学标准〉引起的辩论》,《美国研究》1998年第4期,第7~40页。
                              104塞缪尔·亨廷顿着,程克雄译:《谁是美国人?美国国民特性面临的挑战》,北京:新华出版社2010年,第128页。
                              105约瑟夫·莫罗:《教科书中的国家:内战至今美国史教科书中的冲突》(Joseph Moreau,Schoolbook Nation:Conflicts over A-merican History Textbooks from the Civil War to the Present),第1~6页。
                              106约翰·霍普·富兰克林:《书评:“非裔美国人历史:当前的状况”》(John Hope Franklin,“Review:Afro-American History:State of the Art”),《美国历史杂志》(The Journal of American History)第75卷第1期(1988年6月),第163页。
                              107理查德·M.米尔曼:《黑人史与文化赋权:一个研究个案》(Richard M.Merelman,“Black History and Cultural Empowerment:A Case Study”),《美国教育杂志》(American Journal of Education)第101卷第4期(1993年8月),第336页。
                            星云棋牌官网下载   108布鲁斯·万斯利德怀特:《民族国家叙事、历史知识与学校历史教育》(Bruce VanSledright“Narratives of Nation-State,Historical Knowledge,and School History Education”),《教育史研究评论》(Review Of Research In Education)第32卷(2008年2月),第109页。

                              刘雅军.20世纪美国的黑人史书写及其对美国史的影响[J].史学月刊,2019(11):95-116.
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