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                            尼采的历史观及其共同体模式

                            时间:2018-12-23 来源:西南民族大学学报(人文社科版), 作者:黄璐 本文字数:10836字

                              摘    要: 欲把握尼采的历史哲学,须以准确理解其对于历史(Geschichte)与历史学(Historie)这对概念的辨析为前提。在尼采那里,历史哲学以历史(Geschichte)为基准,展开与历史学(Historie)之间的较量。这一辨析能纠正学界的一个通识——在后现代思想语境中,福柯的历史观点通常被认为是继承了尼采的历史观念。与此同时,随着历史主义在现代化进程中愈演愈烈,尼采的历史哲学以神话(Mythus)与历史(Geschichte)为两翼,有效地思考了在时空框架中回溯原历史(Urgeschichte)的可能性。事实上,这一回溯并非意在表达尼采关于古希腊的民族认同,而是以神话-历史的模式反思现代国家。所谓模式,在此意味着从历史追问中所能获得的建构姿态,并以之展开对于具有奠基性、构造性以及敞开性力量的预示。神话-历史的模式,作为现代性“畜群”自治的对立面,揭示出历史哲学面向某种共同体的孕育能力。

                              关键词 历史哲学; 历史; 历史学; 神话; 共同体;

                              RUHEMIANDUILISHI?LISHIDEYIYIJIUJINGHEZAI?ZHEISHILISHIZHEXUESUOGUANXINDEWENTI。NICAICENGYAN:“CHULETONGGUODUILISHI(Geschichte)HEZHEXUEDELIYONGZHIWAI,RENMENZAIYEBUNENGTONGGUORENHEBIEDEDONGXILAISHIZIJICHAOYUEDANGQIANDESHIDAI。”[1](P.444)NICAIJIANGLISHIYUZHEXUEBINGZHIZAITONGYICENGMIAN,DUIYULISHIYOUZHESHENKEDESIKAO。ZHENGRUHAIDENG·HUAITE(Hayden White)SUOYAN:“ZAILISHISIXIANGZHONG,ZHENGRUZAI19SHIJIWENHUAHUODONGDEJIHUGEGEFANGMIANYIYANG,FULIDELIXI·NICAIBIAOZHIZHEYIGEZHUANZHEDIAN……TADEDADUOSHUZHEXUEZHEZUODOUSHIYIDUILISHIXUEWENTIDESIKAOWEIJICHUDE,DADUOSHUZAIFANGFASHANGSHENZHIKEYIBEIRENWEISHISHUYULISHIDE。”[2](P.451)HUAITEZAIQIANGDIAOLISHIZHEXUEYUZHENGTONGSHIXUEZHIJIANBINGWUSHIZHIQUBIEDETONGSHI,JIANGNICAIDELISHISIXIANGYUMAKESI、HEIGEERYIJIKELUOQIDESIXIANGYITONGSHIWEILISHIZHEXUEDEDAIBIAO。DANTAZUIZHONGDECHUJIELUN:“ZAINICAIDELISHIGAINIANZHONG,WULUNSHENMEYANGDEGONGTONGTIDEQIANTUDOUZAODAOLEJIANJUEDIZHI。ZAINICAINEILI,MEIYOUSHENMELISHIYIJUSHIWEILEGOUJIANRENHETEDINGDEZHENGZHIZITAIERCUNZAI,CHUFEISHIFANZHENGZHIDEZITAIBENSHEN。”[2](P.510)BENWENDEXIEZUOCHUZHONGZHENGSHIDUIYUHUAITEZHEIYIJIELUNDEFANSI。BIZHEYUBIAOMING,NICAIDELISHIZHEXUERUHEYIJIJIDEJIANGOUZITAIBAOHANZHEDUIYUGONGTONGTIDESIKAO。ZAINICAIDESIXIANGYUJINGZHONG,CONGGUXILADAOXIANSHIDAIDELUNSHUKESHIWEIDUIYUYIBUTUIHUASHIDECHENGXIAN,ZHEIZHONGCHENGXIANBINGFEIBIAOMINGQIZHONGDIANGUANZHUSHUAILUO,ERSHIDUIYULISHIZHIKENENGXINGDEYOUXIAOSIKAO。GUCI,YUQISHUOTUIHUASHISHISHUAILUODEBIAOXIAN,WUNINGSHUOTAYIZAIXUNQIUSHENGMINGFAZHANYIJISHENGCHANDEKENENGXING。

                              一、概念的辨析:历史与历史学之辨

                              TIJINICAIDELISHISIXIANG,RENMENXIANGDAODEWANGWANGSHI《LISHIXUEDUIYUSHENGMINGDELIBI》ZHEIPIANTAXIEYUZAONIANDEDUANWEN。ZAIZHEIPIANDUANWENZHONG,LISHIWENTIDIYICIDEDAOLEJIAOWEIXITONGHUADELUNSHU。LISHISHOUCIBEISHIWEIYIZHONGDIANXINGDESHUAIBAIJIXIANG——NICAICHENGZHIWEI“LISHIXUEREBING(historischen Fieber)”[1](P.246)——DEDAOLEZHENDUAN。TAJIANXIN,RENYAOCONGLISHIBINGZHONGKANGFUJIUBIXUJUJUELISHIZHUYI,HUOZHISHAOBIAOMINGLISHIZHUYIBINGFEIQUANBUZHENLI。YOUCI,LISHIZHEXUECHIZELIUSUYIYISHANGDELISHIXUEYIJILISHIZHUYI。NICAIZAIHOUQIZHEZUOZHONGGENGGUANGFANDITICHUKEFULISHIZHUYIDEJIANJIE,YINWEILISHIZHUYISHIRENLEIZAIGANQINGSHANGYUBENYUANCHANSHENGLEGEMO,TAXISHENGSHENGMINGBENSHENERJINJINGUANZHURENGONGZHIPIN。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,HEIGEERJIANG“LISHIZHIZHONGJIE”RONGRUJUEDUIJINGSHEN,YUZHIXIANGYING,LISHIZAINICAIZHEILIBIXUYUSHENGMINGZHENGHEZAIYIQI,YINWEISHENGMINGBINGBUCHAOYUEYULISHIZHIWAI。HEIGEERYUNICAIZHISHAOZAIYIXIAZHEIYIDIANSHANGDACHENGLEYIZHI:TAMENMEIYOUKENDINGRENLEIKEYISUIXINSUOYUDISUZAOPINGMIANHUADEXIANDAIHUANXIANG。1

                              在尼采看来,历史学之所以是一种病,正是由于历史的退化。基于此,要正确对待历史,就须在尼采本人的特殊语境中区分历史(Geschichte)与历史学(Historie)。无论是其所谓的“历史学热病(historischen Fieber)”还是“历史学教育(historische Bildung)”,以历史学(Historie)这一概念为基石的说法均表明现代性的鲜明特征,而历史(Geschichte)指向的是反对现代教养的原初维度。历史学与其说是对于历史的研究,毋宁说是对于历史的反叛。尼采说的很清楚,区分历史学与历史的重要标准在于生命本身。在这种区分中,历史携带着永恒性自觉归队于生命,而历史学意欲成为现代科学的仆从。于是,历史学与科学之间的关系显然不能和历史与生命之间的关系相提并论。面对历史主义用历史学(Historie)消解生命,历史哲学须自觉回到对历史(Geschichte)的追问与理解中。
                             

                            尼采的历史观及其共同体模式
                             

                              LISHIXUE(Historie)ZUOWEIJIBINGZHISHAOYOULIANGGEZHENGZHUANG:DIYIGEZHENGZHUANGSHIMANGMUXING。JILISHIXUEMANGMUDIFUCONGYURENZHIZHUTIXING。ZHENDUICIQINGKUANG,LISHIZHEXUEMINGQUEDIYAOQIUWOMENYUANLIZHUGUANXIANGXIANG(ZHEIZHONGXIANGXIANGRENWEIRENKEYIZHANGKONGSHIJIEDEYIQIE),ZHEIQIZHONGJIUBAOKUOYUANLIYOUGUANRENLEISUIXINSUOYUDIJIANGOULISHIDEYIXIANG。NICAIDEZHEIYIPIPANZAISHITELAOSI(Leo Strauss)NEILIDEDAOLEHUIYING,SHITELAOSIYIRENWEI:“LISHIZHUYIZHEMEN……RENDINGYOULISHIYANJIUSUODAILAIDEDUIRENDEKANFACAISHIZHIGUANZHONGYAODE,ZHEIZHONGKANFASUOTEBIEDIHESHOUYAODIGUANZHUDE,BUSHIYONGHENGDEHEPUBIANDEDONGXI,ERSHIBIANYIDEHEDUTEDEDONGXI。……YOUYUSUOYOUDERENLEISIXIANGDOUSHUYUTEDINGDELISHIQINGXING,SUOYOUDERENLEISIXIANGJIUDOUZHUDINGLEYAOSUIZHETASUOSHUYUDELISHIQINGXINGERSHUAILUO,BEIXINDE、BUKEYULIAODESIXIANGSUOQUDAI。”[3](P.20)ZONGZHI,LISHIXUEZHISUOYIZAODAOJUCHI,JIEYINTASUOYUNNUODESHIXINGXINGSESEDEGERENZIYOU,ERBUZAISHIDUIYUZHIXUYUJIEGOUDEZHUIXUN。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   LISHIXUEZUOWEIJIBINGDEDIERGEZHENGZHUANGSHISHUAITUIXING。LISHIXUESHILISHIZHISHUAITUIDEBIAOXIAN。XINGXIANGDISHUO,ZHEIJIURUTONGYIJUJIANKANGDESHENTITUIHUAWEIHUANBINGDESHENTIYIBAN。JIANKANGDELISHI(Geschichte)FUWUYUSHENGMING,ERHUANBINGDELISHIXUE(Historie)JINFUWUYUXIANDAIKEXUE,QISHIZHIJIUSHI,LISHIXUESHIQULELISHIBENYINGYOUDEJIYANGTAISHI。“XIANDAILISHIZHISHIZHUIQIUJIANGSI、BEIDONG,WEILISHIZHISHIBENSHENERZHUIQIULISHIZHISHI。”[4](P.34)LISHIXUESHIDUIYUSHENGMINGZHIYANHUAN、PINGXIYIJIZUAIDELILIANG。YOUCI,DUIYULISHIDEYANJIUBIANCHENGLENICAISUOPIPANDE“YIXILIEXIEDEYINRENRUSHENGERYOUTONGSUYITONGDEZHEZUO”[1](P.178),TONGSUXINGWUYISHIDUIYUSHENGMINGDEMIPING。NICAIQIANGDIAODESHI,SHENGMINGBUSHIQIANSHUIERSHIANLIU。ZHEIBIAOMING,LISHIBUYINGJUJIAOYUDUIGUOQUDEBIANZUANYIJIDUIXIANDAIXINGDEMIAOMO,ERXUBAOHANYONGHENGDEDONGNENG。

                              DANGLISHIXUEZHEYANYUYONGSUERMIAOXIAODESHIWUSHI,TABIANZHINENGKEHUAXIZHIMOJIE,ZHEIJIUSHINICAIKOUZHUBIFADE“XIAOXIANGSHISHIXUE”。DAOLE《SHANEDEBIAN》DENGHOUQIZHEZUOZHONG,ZUOWEILISHIZHEXUEJIADENICAIGENGSHIANSHICHU“LISHIZHISI”ZHEIYIGUANDIAN,ZHEIYUQIANQIDUIYU“XIAOXIANGSHISHIXUE”DEPIPANXIANGBI,QIDUIYULISHIXUEDEPIPANCHENGDUWUYIGENGSHEN。LISHIZHEXUEDEYIYIZHENGZAIYUJUCHIWEILISHI(LISHIXUE)DUIYULISHIDEJIUZHANQUECHAO。ZONGZHI,CONGLISHIZHONGHUODEDEYINGGAISHICHUANGZAOXINGCHONGDONG,ERBUSHIQIEYI、MAMUYIJIDUIYUPINGHUANDEMANZU。LISHIZHEXUEXUYONGYUJIANGGERENHESHIDAITOURUCHANGSHIZHIZHONG,BINGJIANGLISHI(Geschichte)SHIZUOYIZHONGZHIDEZHUISUIDEWEIDAKAIMO,ERBUSHIQINGYIDIJIESHOULISHIXUE(Historie)DEMABIYUQIPIAN。

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                              二、一个思考:尼采历史观与福柯历史观之辨

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                              ZAI《NICAI·PUXIXUE·LISHIXUE》ZHEIYIJINGDIANWENBENZHONG,FUKEDUIZAINICAIWENBENZHONGZHANJUZHONGYAODIWEIDEGAINIAN“BENYUAN(Ursprung)”HE“LAIYUAN(Herkunft)”ZUOLEQUFEN。FUKERENWEI,DUIYUBENYUAN(Ursprung)DEZHUISUSHIZHEXUESHIJIADEGONGZUO,ERDUIYULAIYUAN(Herkunft)DEGUANZHUZEZHIXIANGPUXIXUEJIADEGONGZUO。YIDUIYUZHUIGENSUYUANDEFOUDINGWEIQIANTI,FUKEKENDINGLEPUXIXUEDESIXIANGZHIQU。ZHENGSHIZAICIGUOCHENGZHONG,TADIGULEBENYUANDUIYUNICAISIXIANGDEZHONGYAOYIYI。DUIYUNICAIERYAN,ZUOWEIYUANYI(Ur-Einen)DESHENGMINGZHIYUAN(Ursprung)JIANJIYUTASUOTONGSHEDEZHENGTI,ERBUSHIFUKELIJIEDEJINJINYIZAICHENGQINGYUFUYUAN。

                              JINYIBUSHUO,FUKEZAIBENYUAN(Ursprung)HELAIYUAN(Herkunft)ZHIJIANSUOZUODEQUFENJIUJINGSHIFOUSHIYONGYUNICAIBENRENDUIYUPUXIXUEDEJIANGOU?BIZHECHIHUAIYITAIDU。ZHENGRUYOUXUEZHEZHICHU:“FUKEBINGMEIYOUWANZHENGDIYUEDUHUOFANYI《DAODEDEPUXI》DEQIANYAN,TASHICONGQIANYANDEDIERDUANKAISHIDE。”[5](P.257)ERNICAIZAIQIANYANDEYIKAISHIJIUMINGQUEBIAOMINGQITAIDU,TARENWEIWOMENYOUCHONGFENLIYOUXIANGXIN,SUOWEIDE“YOUZHISHIDERENLEI”SHIJISHANGDUIYUZISHENBINGBUZHIXIAO,YINWEIWOMENCONGWEIXUNZHAOGUOZIJI。NICAIZAIZHIYIRENNENGGOUWANQUANRENSHIZISHENDETONGSHIANSHICHUYIZHONGYUANSHIMOHUXING,ZHEIYIWEIZHE,TADEMUDEBINGBUZAIYUZHUIQIUSUOWEIDEKEGUANZHENXIANG,DAOSHIYAOZUNZHONGRENSHIDE“XUANZHIXING”。ZAI《SHANEDEBIAN》DI289TIAO,ZHERENZAITANJIUZHEXUEGENJISHIZUIZHONG“TINGXIA、HUIGU、HUANGU,BUZAISHENWAERSHIFANGXIALETADECHANZI,TADEJUDONGSUIYIERZHIDEHUAIYI”[6](P.229)。CHANZIZUOWEIRENWEIDEGONGJUSHIDUIYUSHENGMINGDESIYIPOHUAI,XIANGJIAOYUCHANZI,NICAIGENGXIHUANDIAOGOU,CHUIDIAOSHIGUIYUSHENGMINGDEHEFAJUDONG。ZAIQIYINYUXITONGZHONG,NICAISUOYIYUBUZHUODEYUQUNQIANZANGZAISHENGMINGYUANQUANZHIZHONG。MIANDUISHENGMING,CHUIDIAOZHEBIXUBAOCHIXINGQU、REQINGYIJIJINSHENDETANCENENGLI,ERBUSHIRUDIXIAGONGZUOZHEBANDEMANHENGZHILI。

                              TONGGUAN《NICAI·PUXIXUE·LISHIXUE》YIWEN,FUKEJIEZAIQIANGDIAOOURAN、BUQUEDING、YIZHIYIJIFENLIE。FUKERENWEI,ZAILISHIKAIDUANFAXIANDEBINGBUSHIDUIYUQIYUANDEJUEDUIRENTONG,ERSHICHONGTU。YUZHIBUTONG,DUIYUSHENGMINGZHIQIYUANDESIKAOSHIZHONGSHINICAIBUNENGTIAOGUODEGENBENWENTI。SHOUXIANYAOMINGQUEYIDIAN,NICAIQUESHIMEIYOUCONGMUDELUNDEQIYUANLAIJIESHISHENGMING,DANZHEIBINGBUDAIBIAOTAMEIYOUDUIYUQIYUANDEZHUIXUN。HUANYANZHI,TADUIYUQIYUANDESIKAOZHIXIANGDEBUSHIMUDELUN,ERSHISHENGMINGBENSHEN。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,DIAONISUOSI——ZUOWEIXINGQIYUANDEYINYU——YIHUOMINGHUOANDEFANGSHIGUANCHUANYUNICAIDABUFENZHEZUO3。ZAIHENDUODIFANG,NICAIDUIYUQIYUANDEGONGJISHIDUIYURENLEISIYIWANGWEIZHIJUDEGONGJI,YINWEIYOURENLEISHEZHIDEQIYUANWUYISHIDUIYUSHENGMINGDEJIANYUE。ZAI《DAODEDEPUXI》ZHONGCHUXIANLEHAOJIZHONGQIYUAN:RENLEIXUEQIYUAN,SHENGLIXUE—XINLIXUEQIYUAN、JINGJIQIYUAN、FALVQIYUANDENG,DANSHIZHEIXIEDOUBUSHIGENBENQIYUAN(JIZUOWEIQIYUANDESHENGMINGBENSHEN)。QISHI,“DUIYUCHUNZHENQIYUANDEZHUIQIU,GUANYUDANSHENGSHIKEDEXUNZHAO,YIZHICUNZAIYUNICAIDESIXIANGZHONG”。[4](P.416)YUZHIXIANGDUI,FUKEDUIQIPUXIXUEDEYIGEBENZHIGUIDINGZESHI“PUXIXUEYAOQIUNAIXINHELEJIEXIJIE……TAFANDUIXUNQIU‘QIYUAN'”。[7](P.190),GUCITAQIANGDIAODESHISHIWUDEOURAN、BIANYIYIJIBUQUEDINGXING;ERZAINICAIZHEILI,RENHEFANZHIYIJISHENGCHANHUODONGJUNBUNENGYIHULVEQIYUANWEICHENGLITIAOJIAN。SHIJISHANG,NICAIMIANXIANGQIYUANDESIKAOQIAQIASHIFUKESIXIANGZHONGDEKONGBAIQUYU。

                              BUNANKANCHU,FUKEDUIYUPUXIXUEDEJIEDINGZHANGXIANCHUHOUXIANDAISIXIANGDEQUWEI,RANERNICAIDEPUXIXUEBINGFEIRUCI。YOUYIZHONGPUBIANWEIZHONGRENSUOJIESHOUDEGUANDIANSHI——NICAIDUIYUDAODEPUXIXUEDETANTAOYUSHILEFUKEZHISHIKAOGUXUEYIJIPUXIXUEDEPIPANFANGSHI。BIZHERENWEIZHEILICUNZAIZHEHUNXIAO。JUTIERYAN,FUKEDESIKAOZHILIYUBIANYUANLINGYU(HUIANDIDAI),ERNICAIMIANXIANGDESHIZUOWEIZHENGTIDESHENGMING(ZHEISHIDAODEYULISHISUOYIFUDEGENBENLILIANG)。FUKERENWEIPUXIXUEDEBENZHIZAIYU——ZAIDAODE、JINYUZHUYIHUOCHENGFADEQIYUANCHUJINXINGYANJIU,CONGERPOCHUTONGYIXING;DANYANGESHUOLAI,NICAIDUIYUQIYUANDESIKAOBUSHUYUCIFANWEI,QIPUXIXUEBUSHIFOUDING,ERSHIJIAOZHENGYIJIKENDING。ZAI《DAODEDEPUXI》ZHONG,DUIYUSHANYUE、HAOYUHUAI、ZUIQIAN、LIANGZHIQIANZEDENGDEKAOCHABINGFEIJINJINYIWEIZHEFOUDING,GENGBUSHIFUKEPUXIXUESUOQIANGDIAODEDUIYUJIANDUAN、CHAYIYIJIBAOPOLIDECHENGSONG。SHISHISHANG,NICAIGUANYUDAODEPUXIXUEDETANTAOYOUZHEGENGWEIGENBENDEDONGJI,FUKEDUIYUDUOYUANXINGYIJICHAYIXINGDEQIANGDIAOHUIJIDADIYANGAINICAIDEGONGZUO。NICAIDESHIMINGZAIYU,TONGGUODAODEWENTIJIESHISHENGMINGDEGENJI(JINGUANTAYOUSHIHUIJIANGZHIYINYUWEI“SHENYUAN”)。ZHEIYISHIMINGZUYIBIAOMING,TASUOZHANKAIDEGONGZUOBUYINGJINYIFUKEDEFANGSHIJIXUXIAQU。HUANYANZHI,HOUXIANDAIZHUYIKUOSANSHI、DUANLIESHIDETANJIUFANGFAZHISHIYIGEFANGMIANERYI,ERNICAISUOQIANGDIAODEQIAQIASHIRONGGUANSHIDETANJIUFANGSHI,ZHEIZHONGTANJIUFANGSHIJUYOUGUANGFANDEBAORONGXINGYIJIYUNYUNENGLI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   NICAIBINGFEIRUFUKEXIANGXIANGDENEIYANGBUQUEDING。ZAIQIPUXIXUEZHONG,NICAIGONGJIRENHEXINGSHIDERENWEIDAODE,DANZHEIZHONGGONGJIBUSHIWEILEJIECHUDUIYURENLEIDEXIANDING,ERSHIWEILEYIZHENGYIDEYUANZEZUOYONGYURENLEI。QIFOUDINGDEMUDEZUIZHONGHAISHIWEILEKENDING。ZHEIZHONGKENDINGJIUSHITAZAI《CHALATUSITELARUSHISHUO》ZHONGSHENGZANDE“KUIZENGDEDAODE”,ZHEIYIDAODEZHIZHICHAOCHUGERENCHIDUZHISHANGDEZHENGYI,ZHENGYIKEBEILIJIEWEI——DUIYUPUXIXUESUOKENDINGDEDUOYUANHUAYIJIBUQUEDINGDEMOUZHONGSHENCENGZHIYIN。YUCITONGSHI,RUGUOLISHISHIQULEZHEIZHONGZHIYIN,NEIMELISHIYEJIUBUNENGCHENGQIWEILISHI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   YIPUXIXUEWEIZHOU,FUKERENWEITAZUNXUNZHENICAIDELUXIANQIANGDIAOLISHIDEJIJIYIYI,DANSHITADUIYULISHIDELIJIESHIFOUYUNICAIDELIJIEBAOCHIYIZHI?BIZHETONGYANGCHIHUAIYITAIDU。FUKERENWEI,“ZHENZHENGDELISHIGANRENDINGDESHI,WOMENCUNZAIYUWUSHUYISHIDESHIJIANDUIZHONG,MEIYOULICHENGBEI,YEMEIYOUYIGEYUANCHUDEZUOBIAO。”[7](P.204)ZAICIJICHUSHANG,“LISHIXUEHAIJIAODAOWOMENRUHECHAOXIAOQIYUANDEZHUANGYANXING。”[7](P.193)ERZAINICAIZHEILI,LISHIBUJINBUNENGSIYIXINONGQIYUAN,FANERBIXUWEISHIJIESHANGSUOYOUDESHIWUXUNGEN,YIJIZHILIAOZIJIDEXIANDAIJIBING。YINCI,FUKEJIANGOUDEPUXIXUEBINGMEIYOUJICHENGNICAIDUIYULISHIDEBENZHENTAIDU,FANERHULVEDIAOLENICAISIXIANGDEHEXIN——NEIZHONGFUCONGYUSHENGMINGZHIYONGHENGDELISHITAISHI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   ZAIDUILISHIXUEZUOCHUFOUDINGZHIHOU,NICAIBINGMEIYOUYIWEIDIQIANZELISHI,TASHUODEHENQINGCHU:“WOMENXUYAOLISHI,YINWEIGUOQUJIXULANGSHUITAOTAODIZAIWOMENZHONGJIANLIUDONG;SHENZHIWOMENZIJIYEBUGUOSHIWOMENMEIYISHIKECONGZHEIZHONGJIXULIUDONGZHONGGANJUEDAODEDONGXI。”[8](P.318)LISHIXUE——ZUOWEIXIANDAIZHISHIDECHANWU——GENBENBUZHIDAOGUDAIDUIYUWOMENYIWEIZHESHENME。ZHENGRUYOUXUEZHESUOYAN:“WOMENXIANDAIRENYONGYOULISHIZHISHI,DANQUEWANQUANBUZHIDAORUHEJIANGZHEIZHONGZHISHINARUWOMENSHENGHUODEZHENGTI,BUZHIDAOGUDAIDUIWOMENDAODIYIWEIZHESHENME。”[4](P.39)ZAICIJICHUSHANG,DUIYULISHIDETAIDUSHIXUQIAOJITA,ERBUSHIJINBALISHISHIWEICHAQU、XIZHIMOJIEYIJIOUFADESHIJIAN。ZAIMOUXIEQINGKUANGXIA,NICAIYICHAOFENGDEKOUQIBADUIYUSHIWUDEFENLIE(Zersplittern)YUFENJIE(Zerfasern)XICHENGWEI“LISHIHUA”,ERZHEIYILISHIHUAZHENGSHIFUKEDEZHEYANDIAN——DUIYUXIZHIMOJIEYIJIOUFASHIJIANDEGUANZHU。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   NICAIWEIWOMENZHANSHILELISHIZUOWEIYUANTOUSUONENGJIYURENLEIDEPEIYUYIJIZIYANG。DUIYUTAERYAN,LISHIJIANGWUYIYIYUYOUYIYI,CANKUYURENCIYIBEILUNDEFANGSHIJIEHEZAIYIQI。ZHIYOUZHEIYANG,LISHICAIBUHUIDIAORUXUWUZHUYIDENIZHAOYIJIJIANGGEWEIOURANSHIJIAN。YUQISHUOLISHISHIBUWENDINGXINGDEDUANCENGYULIEFENG(ZHEISHIFUKEDUIYULISHIDEKANFA),WUNINGSHUOTASHIDUIYUZUOWEIYUANSHISHI(Ur-Faktum)DESHENGMINGDEXIANGYING,LISHIZHONGDESHENGMIELIUBIANZHENGSHIDUIYUSHENGMINGZHICHUANGZAOXINGYUHUIMIEXINGDEJIANZHENG。YUZHIXIANGDUI,NEIZHONGFOUDINGQIYUANDEPUXIXUEZAIFOURENLISHIYOUYIGEYUANCHUQIYUANDETONGSHI,YITICHUDIAOLELISHIDEGENBENYIYI。FUKEDUIYULISHIZHIQIYUANJIQILIANXUXINGDEPIPINGBIAOMING,TACHANGDAODESHICHAYI、DUANLIE、OURANDELISHIGUAN,YOUCITACUOSHILENICAIYIYISHANGDELISHIZUIWEIHEXINDEZUOYONG——WEISHENGMINGFUWU。ZONGZHI,NICAIDEGONGZUOSHIZHONGSHI——YIDUANZHENGDETAIDU(ERFEIXIANDAIXINGDESHOUDUAN)HELINGHUOXINGDATONGXIANZAIYUGUOQU(ERBUSHIJIASHENDUANLIE)。

                              三、共同体的建构:历史与神话之衡

                              SUIZHELISHITUIHUAWEILISHIXUE,LISHI(XUE)ZHISHENGXIALIEQIHEJIAZHUANGWUSUOBUZHI。RUGUOSHUOZAINICAIDUILISHIXUEDEFANSIZHONGYINZANGZHESIXIANGDEZHENZHENGZHIQU,NEIMEQISIXIANGJIUJINGZHIXIANGHECHU?SUIZHE《LISHIXUEDUIYUSHENGMINGDELIBI》ZUIHOUYIJIEZHONGSUOCHENGXIANCHUDEGUANYU“FEILISHIDE”(unhistorisch)YIJI“CHAOLISHIDE”(überhistorisch)DESIKAO,WOMENXUBUDUANDIHUISUZHEIPIANDUANWENZHONGQIANZANGDEYIYI。BIZHERENWEI,ZHEILIYOULIANGGEGUANJIANDIFANGBURONGHUSHI,QIYISHINICAIZAIDIQIJIEDUIYU“YIZHONGNEIZAIDEJIANSHECHONGDONG”(ein innerer Bautrieb)[1](P.296)DEKENDING,QIERSHITAZAIDIYIJIEJIULVXIANTICHUDEDUIYU“SUZAOLI”(plastische Kraft)[1](P.251)DEMIAOSHU,SUZAOLIZHIXIANGDEBUJINSHIGEREN,ERQIESHIMINZUYUWENHUA。ZHEIZHONGSUZAOLICONGGENBENERYANZHIXIANGLISHICHENGZAIDEJIANGOUYIYI。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   NICAIRENWEI,19SHIJIDEXIANDAIGUOJIASHIYOUZHISHIYIJIJISHUZUCHENGDE“CHUQUN”ZIZHIQUAN。CONGXIANGDANGCHENGDUERYAN,ZHEIGEZIZHIQUANDEJISUKUOZHANGYULISHIDETUIHUAYOUGUAN,ERLISHICONGQIBENSHENTUIHUAWEILISHIXUEYOUYUGENBENLILIANGDEYUNLUOYOUGUAN。ZAICI,GENBENLILIANGDEYUNLUOZHIZHISHENHUA(Mythus)DESHUAIWEI。NICAICONG《BEIJUDEDANSHENG》JIUKAISHISIKAOSHENHUADEZHONGYAOXING,BINGYIZAIZAIZHEZUOZHONGTANJISHENHUA,ZHIDAOWANQIZHEZUO《OUXIANGDEHUANGHUN》YIDUIYUDIAONISUOSISHENHUADECHENGSONGJIEWEI。ZHEIWEILISHIZHEXUEJIASHIZHONGKENDINGDESHIYUSHENGMINGBENSHENJINMIXIANGGUANDESHENHUA。ANZHAOWOGELIN(Eric Voegelin)DESHUOFA——“LISHIZHEXUEBIXUSHIYIZHONGDUIRENLEILISHISHANGDEQUANWEIJIEGOUDEPIPANXINGYANJIU”[9](P.71)。NEIMEZAINICAIZHEILI,ZHEIZHONGZHIXIANGWENHUAZHONGSHENGDEQUANWEIJIEGOUBIANBUNENGQUESHAOSHENHUA,YINWEIWEIYOUSHENHUACAIHUIJIWENHUADAILAIJIANKANGDE、CHUANGZAOXINGDEZIRANLILIANG,BINGJIZHENGGEWENHUADAILAITONGYIXING。DANGLISHITUIHUAWEILISHIXUE(LISHIZHISHI)SHI,LISHIXUEWANCHENGLEDUIYUWENHUADEMOUSHA。NICAISHUODAO:“LISHIZHISHICHONGDONG:TADEMUDESHILIJIERENLEIDEFAZHANGUOCHENG,BINGBARENHEFEIFANDEDONGXICONGZHEIYIGUOCHENGZHONGQINGCHUCHUQU。ZHEIZHONGCHONGDONGJIECHULEWENHUACHONGDONGDEZUIWEIDADELILIANG。”[10](P.58)GUCI,LISHIZHEXUEZAISHENKEDEWEIJIYISHIZHONGQILINGYUSHENHUA,BINGHUISUDAOYOUYUANLISHI(Urgeschichte)TONGSHEDEQUANWEIJIEGOUZHONG。

                            星云棋牌官网下载   XIANDAIXINGJIAOYANGZAISHISHIDEGUOCHENGZHONGHUIBEILIYUANLISHI,CONGERSHIDEXIANDAIGEMINGLUNWEIXIANGPUBIAN、TONGZHIYIJISHISUYIYIDEJINJUN。ZHEIYANG,GEMINGDADAODEJIEGUOFANERYOUKENENGBIANWEIJUCHIZIRANDEBAOLI。WEILEFANGZHIGEMINGLUNWEIBAOLI,YINGYIXIEHEDEFANGSHICHULI。DANGLISHIZHUYIYIQIXIANXINGJINBUJUCHISHENHUASHI,LISHIZHEXUEXUZHONGJIANRENLEIYUYUANCHUZIRAN(ursprüngliche Natur)ZHIJIANDEGUANLIAN。HADABU(Lawrence J.Hatab)DUICISHUODAO:“SHISHISHANG,NICAIJIANGPAICHIZHUANBIANWEIJIAOGAN(a sense of crossing),YOUCIBUZAISHIBICIZHIJIANDEXIAOCHU,ERSHIXINGCHENGYIZHONGHUHUISHIDELIANXI。”[11](PP.13-14)JINERYANZHI,LISHIZHEXUEHUITONGYIYIXIASHUOFA:“RENLEIYAOZUODEBUSHINULIHUIDAODONGWUZHUANGTAI,TAOBIGUANYUGUOQUDEZHISHI,ERSHIYAOXUEHUIJIEHELISHIXINGHEFEILISHIXING,JINENGWANGJIYENENGJIYI。”[4](P.35)。YOUCI,NICAITICHULEYIZHONGXIEHEDEMOSHI,CIMOSHIBIANSHILISHIYUSHENHUAZHIJIANDEPINGHENG,CONGMOUZHONGJIAODULAIKAN,CIMOSHISHIDUIYUGURENPINGHENGLISHIXINGHEFEILISHIXINGNENGLIDEXIAOFANG。

                              JUCILISHIZHEXUEZHIXIANGJIJUZHANGLIDEKENENGXING,ZHEIZHONGKENENGXINGJIUSHIZUOWEIYUANLISHI(Urgeschichte)DESHENGMINGDEYUNZUOMOSHI。ZHENGRUYOUXUEZHESUOYAN:“XIANGFAN,WOMENZAILISHIZHONGDEWEIZHISHIWOMENNENGGOUBINGKEWANGFAXIANNEIXIEDUIWOMENDEZUIJIANENGLIERYANDEZHENSHISHIWU,WOMENYINGGAIZAIGUOQUZHONGXUNZHAODEZHENGSHIZHEIXIEDONGXI。RUGUOZHEIZHONGXUNZHAOZHONGJIUHAIKENENGWANCHENG,NEIME,NENGWANCHENGZHEIZHONGXUNZHAODEZHENGSHIZHEIYANGDEREN:TAYUANYIZAIXIANGXIANGZHONGWANQUANJINRUGUOQUDESHENGHUO,TONGSHIJINKENENGSHAODIXIEDAIXIANDAIDEJINGSHENJIAJU。WOMENKEYIZAIGUOQUFAXIANWENHUAHEWENMINGDEYUNZUOMOSHI,ERZHEIXIEMOSHIZAIWOMENJINXINGSHIYANDEGUOCHENGZHONG,KENENGDUIWOMENYOUJIAZHI。LISHIXUESHUYANJIUDEZHUYAOJIAZHIZAIYU,TAKEYIWEINEIXIENENGYOUYIDISHIYONGZHEIXIEMOSHIDERENTIGONGZHEIXIEMOSHI。NICAIBENRENJIUSHIZHEIYANGYIWEISHIYONGJIA。”[12](PP.21-22)ZHENGSHIZAIZHEIZHONGMOSHIDEYUNZUOZHONG,SHENHUACAIYOUKENENGZHANKAIQIZIYOUHUADONG,BINGDICHUDIAOFUZHEZAILISHIZHISHANGDEGONGLIZHUYIYIJIDANGANXINGZHI。

                              XUEJIEDUINICAIDEYINXIANGWANGWANGSHI,QISIXIANGZAIWANGYANGZISIBANDEBIAODAZHONGXINGCHENGDUIYUCHUANTONGCUIKULAXIUBANDECHONGJI。BIZHEYUBIAOMING,LISHIZHEXUEDEJIANGOUMOSHIHEYINENGGOUYUNICAIDESHENWEILIANXIZAIYIQI。CONGLISHIYULISHIXUEZHIBIANDAOLISHIYUSHENHUADEGONGTONGCHOUHUA,LISHIZHEXUESIKAODEBINGFEILISHIZHEIYIDANYIHUAYU,YINWEILISHISHIYIGECHONGMANZHANGLIDELICHANG(a tensional force-field)。DANGNICAIDECHALATUSITELAYIKUANGUANGDESHIYEFUKANXIANDAIXINGZHIDAODE、WENHUA、ZHENGZHIDENGZHUZHONGGUANDIANSHI,TATONGSHIWANCHENGLEDUIYUXIANDAIXINGZHIWEILISHI(JIAZHUANGWUSUOBUZHIYIJIWUSUOBUNENG)DEFANFENG,BINGANSHILEWOMENRENLEISUONENGTONGXIANGDEWEIDADEKENENGXING。DUICIXUJINYIBUYANJIU,NEIYINHANZAINICAISIXIANGZHONGDONGTAIDE、SHIDEBUTONGLILIANGZHIJIANGONGCUNDEJIEGOUSHIRUHEYUNZUODE。JIEYONGBENYAMINGDEHUASHUOJIUSHI,“MEIYOURENHECHENGFENKEYIHAOWUGUANLIANDITUOLIYICONGGENBENSHANGGANSHOUDAODESHIJIEZHIXUDELILIANG”。[13](P.9)ZHENGRU《LISHIXUEDUIYUSHENGMINGDELIBI》ZHONGQIANGDIAODENEIYANG,FEILISHIDEDONGXIHELISHIDEDONGXI、YIWANGHEJIYI,DUIYUYIGERENNAIZHIYIGEMINZUTONGYANGZHONGYAO。

                              YUZHIXIANGDUI,XIANDAIGUOJIAXIAOCHULEZHEIZHONGCHONGMANZHANGLIDEMOSHI。NICAIJIANGGUOJIASHIWEIJUYOUTEDINGZHILIJISHUDERENZAOWU。XIANDAIGUOJIAGUANZHUDESHIQUYUXINGDEZIWOLIYI,TAHULVELESHENHUA,ERJINJINCONGLISHIXUEFANGMIANBAWOZIJI,YUZHIXIANGLIANXIDESHIDUIYUWENHUADEPOHUAI,SHIQUEDINGDESHISUHUA,SHIBIAOMIANHUADEQIANGJINGYUQIANCENGDEBUDUANFARE。SUOYI“NICAIJIANGXIANDAISHEHUIZHONGSHENHUADESUIPIANHUAMIAOSHUWEIYIZHONG‘XUWUZHUYI'DEZHUANGTAI”[14](P.2)。ZAINEIGEBEIXICHENGWEIHUABANMUNIUZHENDEJISHISHANG,WUHEZHIZHONGJUJIZAIYIQI,DANTAMENBUSHIYIGEYOUJIDETUANTI。DUICINICAIRENWEI,ZHEXUEJIAYINGGAIJIAOREN“SHUYUAN”。ZAIDUIYU“JULIDEJIQING”(das Pathos der Distanz)DECHUANGZAOZHONG,TAJIANXINXIAOZHENGZHIDESHIDAIYIJINGJIESHU。XIAOZHENGZHI——YIGUOJIAWEIDANWEIDEQUYUXINGZHILI——POHUAILELISHIDESHENGCHANNENGLIHESHIWUZHIJIANDEYOUJILIANXI。YONGHENGLUNHUIZUOWEI“CHAOYUERENLEIHESHIJIANLIUQIANYINGCHI”DESIXIANGBIAOMING,CHALATUSITELADESHIJIAN-KONGJIAN-YOUXI4ZUOWEIWEIDADEZHENGZHISHICHAOYUEGUOJIADEZHENGZHI。

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                              参考文献

                              [1]Friedrich Nietzsche.Kritische Studienausgabe,Band 1,hrsg.von G.Colli und M.Montinari,München,Berlin/New York:Walter de Gruyter,1994.
                              [2][美]海登·怀特.元史学:十九世纪欧洲的历史想象[M].陈新译.南京:译林出版社,2004.
                              [3][美]列奥·施特劳斯.自然权利与历史[M].彭刚译.北京:三联书店,2016.
                              [4][美]保罗·彼肖普编.尼采与古代——尼采对古典传统的反应和回答[M].田立年译.上海:华东师范大学出版社,2011.
                              [5]汪民安、陈永国编.尼采的幽灵:西方后现代语境中的尼采[M].北京:社会科学文献出版社,2001.
                              [6]Friedrich Nietzsche.Beyond Good and Evil,Walter Kaufmann trans.,Vintage Books,1966.
                              [7] 刘小枫选编.尼采在西方[M].上海:华东师范大学出版社,2014.
                              [8] [德]尼采.人性的,太人性的——一本献给自由精灵的书[M].杨恒达译.北京:中国人民大学出版社,2011.
                              [9] [美]埃里克·沃格林.城邦的世界[M].陈周旺译.南京:译林出版社,2008.
                              [10][德]尼采.哲学与真理[M].田立年译.上海:上海社会科学院出版社,1993.
                              [11]Lawrence J.Hatab.Nietzsche's Life Sentence,by Routledge,Londen and New York,2005.
                              [12] [美]奥弗洛赫蒂等编.尼采与古典传统[M].田立年译.上海:华东师范大学出版社,2007.
                              [13][德]本雅明.经验与贫乏[M].王炳钧,杨劲译.天津:百花文艺出版社,1999.
                              [14]Julian Young.Individual and Community in Nietzsche's Philosophy,Cambridge university Press,2015.
                            星云棋牌官网下载   [15]Eugen Fink.Nietzsche's Philosophy,Translated by Goetz Richter,Continuum,Londen and New York,2003.

                              注释

                              1值得一提的是,很多学者将尼采对于历史的态度看做是对于黑格尔历史主义的批判,他们认为黑格尔在“历史终结”这一思想中安置了尼采所批判的“畜群的自治”,但必须指出黑格尔并没有这么做,“历史的终结”在黑格尔这里体现的并非是现代性胜利的欢庆,而是精神在自我创造中所遵循的必然逻辑。跳过学界将黑格尔思想放置在尼采对立面时所产出的俗常说法,细致探究这两位哲人对于历史思考的相通之处是一个重要而必要的课题。
                              2在《历史哲学论纲》中,本雅明借助于对保罗·科利(Paul Klee)的画作《新天使》(Angelus Novus)的描述而提出“历史的天使”,“历史的天使”这一形象指向对进步史观的质疑与批判。
                              3狄奥尼索斯在《悲剧的诞生》中作为性起源的标志隐喻自然;在《人性的、太人性的》第638条,尼采以一个谜一般的面容形容狄奥尼索斯,它如此纯洁、宁静,并为变形之光所倾注;在《查拉图斯特拉如是说》第三卷的结尾、《善恶的彼岸》结尾以及《偶像的黄昏》结尾,狄奥尼索斯再次返回;在《权力意志》的扉页上有言:“我是哲学家狄奥尼索斯的弟子”;在其思想生涯的晚期,尼采在《瞧这个人》中再次回忆起他的狄奥尼索斯,并将之视为十字架上的耶稣的对头。
                            星云棋牌官网下载   4美国学者阿尔蒂泽在评价尼采的永恒轮回思想时说道:“请注意建立实在或存在之新意义的那些意象的排列:Red(‘车轮'、‘循环'),Jahr(‘年'),Haus(‘房子'、‘家'、‘家庭'、‘种族')和Ring(‘线圈'、‘圆圈'、‘循环')。意象本身就是循环式的、围绕圆圈意象和概念来回转动,首先是一个时间的循环意象(Jahr),然后是一个空间的循环意象(gleich Haus)。”([德]洛维特、沃格林等《墙上的书写——尼采与基督教》,田立年等译,北京:华夏出版社2004年版,p194)

                              黄璐.尼采的历史哲学与共同体构想[J].西南民族大学学报(人文社科版),2019,40(11):107-113.
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