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                    初中数学教师认识和课堂实施存在的问题探析

                    时间:2019-03-20 来源:名师在线 作者:黄洋年 本文字数:2520字

                      摘    要:星云棋牌官网下载 随着新课程改革的深入实施,教师不仅需要注重知识的讲授,还需要注重对学生能力的培养。因此,在教学中,教师要实现意识上的转变,避免在课堂中出现“无效”教学的行为。同时,教师应为学生提供展示自己的时间与空间,引导其进行自主交流与讨论,使学生在领会知识的同时掌握技能,进而培养学生的综合素养。

                      关键词: 星云棋牌官网下载初中数学; “无效”教学行为; 综合素质;

                      引言

                      KETANGJIAOXUESHIJIAOSHISHISHIJIAOXUEHUODONGDEZHUZHENDI。ZAIDANGQIANXUESHENGDEKEYEFUDANYUELAIYUECHENZHONGDEQINGKUANGXIA,RUHEXIAOCHUKETANGZHONGDE“WUXIAO”JIAOXUEXINGWEI,DAZAOGAOXIAOKETANG,CHENGWEIYIXIANJIAOSHIZHUIQIUDEMUBIAO。BIZHERENWEI,ZAOCHENGCHUZHONGSHUXUEKETANGJIAOXUE“WUXIAO”DEYUANYINZHUYAOYOULIANGFANGMIAN:YISHIJIAOSHIRENSHICENGMIANDEWENTI,BAOKUOMEIYOUCHITOUJIAOCAI、XUEQINGBAWOBUDAOWEI、JIAOXUEMUBIAODINGWEIBUZHUNQUEDENG;ERSHIKETANGSHISHIDEDIXIAOYUNZUO,JIJIAOSHIQUEFAJIAYUKETANGJIAOXUEDENENGLI,RU“YUSHEWEI”GUOZHONG,HUSHILEXUESHENGCAISHIXUEXIDEZHUTI,HUOZHEYIQIEYIXUESHENGWEIZHONG,BUZHIBUJUEPIANLILEJIAOXUEDENEIRONG、MUBIAODENG[1]。

                      一、教师认识层面上的问题

                      (一)对教材的理解不到位

                      BUFENJIAOSHIDUIJIAOCAIDEFENXI、LIJIEBUDAOWEI。WOMENYIZHICHANGDAO“SHENRUQIANCHU”,“SHENRU”SHI“QIANCHU”DEQIANTI,JIAOSHIBAJIAOCAIZUANYANDEYUESHEN,KESHANGQILAIJIUYUEJIANDAN、YUEDEXINYINGSHOU。MINGSHICHANGBAFUZADENEIRONGJIAODEHENJIANDAN,ERPINGYONGDEJIAOSHIQUEHUIBAJIANDANDEKESHANGDEFUZA,YUANYINJIUZAIZHEILI。JIAOSHIZHIYOUZHENZHENGBAWOJIAOCAIDEBIANXIEYITU、CHITOUJIAOCAIDEJINGSHEN,CAINENGSHIXIANDUIJIAOCAIDEBIYAOCHAOYUE,YOUXIAOJIAOXUECAIBUHUICHENGWEIWUBENZHIMU[2]。

                      (二)对学生的把握不到位

                    星云棋牌官网下载   KEQIANZHUNBEIJIEDUAN,WOMENCHANGSHUOYAOBEIJIAOCAI,QISHIHAIDEBEIXUESHENG。JIEDUXUESHENG,“BAWOXUESHENGYUANYOUDESHENGHUOJINGYANHEZHISHIBEIJING”,ZHEIYIDIANHENDUOJIAOSHIDOUNENGZHUYIDAO。DANYOUYUXUESHENGDEXUEXIJICHUHELIJIENENGLIBUTONG,DUISUOYOUXUESHENGSHEDINGTONGYIGEJIAOXUEMUBIAO,XIANRANWUFAMANZUMEIGEXUESHENGDEXUQIU,YINCI,JIAOSHIKEQIANYAOCHONGFENLEJIEXUESHENGDEXUEXIQINGKUANG,ZHEIYANGWOMENDEKETANGCAINENGYOUDEFANGSHI,KETANGJIAOXUECAINENGYOUXIAOKAIZHAN。

                      (三)对目标的定位不准确

                      我们说教学目标要兼顾知识技能、方法、情感态度等不同方面[3]。如果说情感态度、价值观是虚无缥缈的,好像并不能在一节课中完全一下子体现出来,那么对于量化的知识技能目标,笔者认为它的制订必须具体、确实可行。在课堂教学过程中,教师要心中有目标,时时以预设的目标为指针或参照物,观照目标的真实达成度,并对教学做出有针对性的调控,不断引导课堂向着预期的目标行进。
                     

                    初中数学教师认识和课堂实施存在的问题探析
                     

                      二、课堂实施中存在的问题

                      (一)教学常规管理不到位

                    星云棋牌官网下载   YOUYUBUFENJIAOSHISHUYUDUIXUESHENGJINXINGCHANGGUIXINGGUANLI,BUFENXUESHENGZAIKETANGSHANGPAZAIZHUOSHANGSHUIJUE、HETONGZHUOLIAOTIAN、BUJIJICANYUJIAOXUEHUODONGDENGXIANXIANGSHIYOUFASHENG。

                      (二)教学情境创设不当,课前导课效率低下

                      BUSHAOJIAOSHIWEILEQINGJINGERQINGJING,GUOYUZHUZHONGJIAOXUEDEQINGJINGHUA,SHENZHISHI“KUSIMINGXIANG”“CHUANGZAOXINGDISHIYONGJIAOCAI”。YUZHIXIANGFAN,HAIYOUBUFENJIAOSHIMEIYOUJINGXINCHUANGSHEJIAOXUEQINGJING,ZAOCHENGQINGJINGZHONGSUOYINHANDEFEISHUXUEWENTIDUISHUXUEWENTICHANSHENGGANRAO,YINGXIANGLEXUESHENGDEXUEXIXINGQU。HAIYOUBUFENJIAOSHISHEJIDEKEQIANDAORUHUANJIETAIFANSUO,ZHANYONGDESHIJIANGUOZHANG,MEIYOUZAIXUESHENGZHUYILIJIZHONGDEHUANGJINSHIJIANBAZHUYAOXUEXINEIRONGZHANXIANCHULAI,DAOZHIKETANGJIAOXUERUTONGZUOFANYIYANGCHENGLE“JIASHENGKE”。

                      (三)课堂提问缺乏艺术,无效发问太多

                      HAODETIWENYINGDANGSHIZHUNQUE、TONGSUYIDONGDE,BUNENGHANHUBUQING、MOLENGLIANGKE,FOUZEXUESHENGJIUHUICHUXIANDAFEISUOWENDEQINGKUANG。TONGSHI,HAODETIWENYINGSHINANYISHIDUDE,YAOYOUCENGCIXING,FOUZE,XUESHENGHUIJUEDEGAOBUKEPAN,ZHIHUIWANGERQUEBU,CHUXIANLENGCHANG[4]。WOMENYAOJIANGYIGENANDEWENTI,FENJIECHENGRUOGANGEJIANDANDEWENTI,XUNXUJIANJIN,ZUIZHONGDADAOGUASHUDILUO、SHUIDAOQUCHENGDEMUDE。TONGSHI,TIWENDEFANGSHIYEHENZHONGYAO,WOMENYAOBAWOHAOTIWENDESHIJI,ZAIXUESHENGQINGXUGAOZHANGDESHIHOUWEN,ZAIXUESHENGYUDAOSIWEINANCHUDESHIHOUWEN,ZHEIYANGCAINENGDIAODONGXUESHENGCANYUDEREQING,JIFAXUESHENGSIKAODEYUWANG,JIERSHIXIANYUSHEDEMUBIAO。

                      (四)教学内容呈现不合理,教学内容与学习形式不能和谐统一

                    星云棋牌官网下载   RUHEPEIHEJIAOXUENEIRONGTEDIANANPAIYUZHIXIANGSHIYINGDEJIAOXUEXINGSHI,SHIJIAOSHIXUYAOSIKAODEWENTI。ZAITINGKEZHONG,WOMENKANDAO,JIAOXUENEIRONGYUXUESHENGDEXUEXIFANGSHIBUXIEDIAODEQINGKUANGBIBIJIESHI。LIRU,GAINIANXINGJIAOXUEXUYAOJIAOSHIJINXINGJINGDAODEJIANGJIE,DUIYUGAINIANZHONGGUANJIANXINGDECIYUHEYUJUZEYAOQIUJIAOSHIZUZHIXUESHENGJINXINGTAOLUNYUTANSUO,ZHEIYANGCAINENGSHIDEJIAOXUEDADAOGAOXIAODEMUDE。RANERWOMENKANDAO,BUSHAOJIAOSHIZAIZHEIYILEIJIAOXUEZHONG,ZUZHIXUESHENGDUISUOXUEGAINIANJINXINGQUANCHENGDETANSUOYUYANJIU,ZHEIQIZHONGJIAOSHIBINGMEIYOUJINXINGJINGDAODEJIANGJIE。YOUCIWOMENFAXIAN,XUESHENGDUIYUSUOXUEGAINIANDELIJIEZHITINGLIUZAIBIAOMIAN,MEIYOULIJIEBINGZHANGWOQISHENCENGDEHANYI,ZHEIJIUZAOCHENGLEXUESHENGZAIGAINIANLIJIEFANGMIANDEQIANQUE,CONGERYINGXIANGLEJIAOSHIDUIXUESHENGJINENGDEPEIYANGYUTIGAO。

                      (五)没有精心选择与设计学生练习内容

                      ZAISHIJIJIAOXUEZHONG,BUFENJIAOSHIWEILIANXIERLIANXI,SHEJIDELIANXINEIRONGMEIYOUXUANZEXING、ZHENDUIXING、CENGCIXING,GENGMEIYOUSHIYONGJUYOUDAIBIAOXINGDELIANXITIMUJINXINGFANKUI。GENGZHONGYAODESHI,JIAOSHIBUNENGZONGGUANSHUXUEJIAOXUEDESIWEIJIAOXUE,WUFATISHENGXUESHENGDESIWEINENGLI。

                      (六)没有考虑到学生的整体水平

                      ZHENDUICHUZHONGJIEDUANDEXUESHENGLAIJIANG,TAMENXUEXISHUXUEYIJINGYOUYIDUANSHIJIAN,XUESHENGYUXUESHENGZHIJIANDESHUIPINGYEYOUSUOCHAYI。ERJIAOSHIZAIJIAOXUEZHONG,WANGWANGHUIHUSHIXUESHENGZHIJIANCUNZAIDECHAYI,ZHIGENJUZISHENGUYOURENZHISHEJIJIAOXUENEIRONG,YIZHIZAIKETANGJIAOXUEZHONG,BUNENGSHIMEIGEXUESHENGDOUCHONGFENCANYU,ZHEIYESHIJIAOSHIDEJIAOXUEXINGWEIXIANGDUI“WUXIAO”。

                      (七)没有站在学生的角度思考

                    星云棋牌官网下载   SHOUCHUANTONGJIAOYULINIANDEYINGXIANG,JIAOSHIZAIJIAOXUEZHONGZHANGQICHUYUZHUDAODIWEI,HENSHAOGUANZHUXUESHENGDEXIANGFAHEGUANDIAN,ZHEIJIUDAOZHIXUESHENGZAIXUEXIZHONGZHANGQICHUYUBEIDONGDIWEI,ZAIYIWEIGUANSHUJIAOXUEMOSHIDEYINGXIANGXIA,SHENZHIHUIDUISHUXUEXUEXICHANSHENGDICHUQINGXU,DAOZHIJIAOSHIDEJIAOXUECHUXIAN“WUXIAO”。YINCI,ZAIJIAOXUEGUOCHENGZHONG,JIAOSHIYINGGAIZHUZHONGHEXUESHENGZHIJIANDEHUDONG,JIAQIANGDUIXUESHENGDEYINDAO,SHIXUESHENGJIJICANYUDAOZHENGGEKETANGXUEXIZHONG,BINGZAIJIAOLIU、TANJIUZHONG,ZENGQIANGDUIZHISHIDEZHANGWOCHENGDU,TONGSHIYESHIXUESHENGDEXUEXINENGLIDEDAOCHONGFENDUANLIAN,SHIXIANZONGHESUYANGDETISHENG。

                      结语

                      ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,“WUXIAO”DEKETANGJIAOXUEXINGWEIYANZHONGJIANGDILESHUXUEJIAOXUEDEXIAOLV,DUIXUESHENGNENGLIDEPEIYANG、SUZHIDETIGAOZAOCHENGLEJIDADEWEIHAI。YINCI,WOMENYINGGAIXUEHUIJINGXING、XUEHUISIKAO、XUEHUIFAXIANZISHENDEBUZU,ZHONGXINSHENSHIWOMENDEKETANGJIAOXUE,ZHONGXINMIANDUIWOMENDEXUESHENG。DAWENXUEJIAHANYUSHUO:“SHIZHE,SUOYICHUANDAOSHOUYEJIEHUOYE。”ZHEIJUHUADAOCHULEJIAOSHIDEZHIZE。ZAIJIAOXUEZHONG,JIAOSHIRUODOUNENGDADAO“CHUANDAO”DEJINGJIE,BIZHERENWEI,CHUZHONGSHUXUEKETANGJIAOXUEBIJIANGSHI“BAIHUAQIFANG、BAIJIAZHENGMING”DEXINXINXIANGRONGDEFANRONGJUMIAN。

                      参考文献

                      [1] 杨莹利.新课程背景下初中数学教学中教与学行为的转变策略[J].新课程·中旬,2016(05):336-338.
                      [2] 罗炳禄.浅谈初中数学教学中如何发挥学生的主体作用[J].读与写,2019,16(13):140.
                      [3] 董维.浅谈中学数学课堂的落实策略[J].新课程·中学,2019(03):145.
                      [4] 周军.浅谈初中数学课改“五部曲”[J].人文之友,2018,9(09):234.

                      黄洋年.浅谈初中数学课堂教学中的“无效”教学行为[J].名师在线,2020(09):10-11.
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